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Home > Anti-aging Research > C-Reactive Protein

C-reactive protein

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  • Vitamin D 3 Reduces Risk of Cardiovascular and Liver Diseases by Lowering Homocysteine Levels: Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Br J Nutr 2020 Jun 1 - "Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the placebo (n = 50) and the vitamin D (n = 50) which received 50,000 IU vitamin D3 per week for 2 months ... the tHcy, CRP, AST, ALT, and eGFR levels after the second month of vitamin D3 intervention were significantly (p < 0.001) decreased and the 25(OH)D, urea, and creatinine levels were significantly (p < 0.001) increased in the treatment group. In the placebo group, no significant changes were identified throughout the follow up period. In conclusion, vitamin D3 intervention with a treatment dose of 50,000 IU per week for at least 2 months may help in lowering homocysteine and CRP levels and may improve liver function tests, which in turn might help in minimizing the risk of CVD and liver diseases among overweight women but negatively affect kidney function" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Tackling Inflammation to Fight Age-Related Ailments - NYT, 12/23/19 - "Specialists in the biology of aging have identified a rarely recognized yet universal condition that is a major contributor to a wide range of common health-robbing ailments, from heart disease, diabetes and cancer to arthritis, depression and Alzheimer’s disease. That condition is chronic inflammation, a kind of low-grade irritant that can undermine the well-being of virtually every bodily system ... recent studies have identified measures potentially available to everyone that can minimize the potency of chronic inflammation and stymie — and possibly even reverse — its progression. The measures will come as no surprise to people familiar with the healthful advice that has been offered in this column for many years: Adopt a wholesome diet (details to follow), get regular exercise, avoid or reduce excess weight, get adequate quality sleep, minimize stress and don’t smoke ... As people age, their immune responses become less well regulated, resulting in elevated blood levels of inflammatory substances like C-reactive protein and chemokines, and allowing inflammatory agents like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-alpha) to persist in body tissues ... The drug metformin, commonly used to treat Type 2 diabetes, is known to have an anti-inflammatory effect and will be tested for its ability to delay the development of age-related diseases in a forthcoming trial called TAME, the acronym for Targeting Aging with Metformin ... Another consequence of aging is the accumulation of so-called senescent cells, normal cells that stop dividing, contribute to tissue aging and secrete substances like cytokines that induce inflammation. Elimination of senescent cells can counter chronic inflammation, said Steven N. Austad, director of aging studies at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. A combination of two drugs, dasatinib and quercetin, was shown in a Mayo Clinic study in obese mice to remove senescent cells and permit cell growth to resume in the brain ... Dr. Hu recommends frequent consumption of foods known to have an anti-inflammatory effect. They include green leafy vegetables like spinach, kale and collards; fatty fish like salmon, mackerel, tuna and sardines; fruits like strawberries, blueberries, apples, grapes, oranges and cherries; nuts like almonds and walnuts; and olive oil. The recommended plant foods contain natural antioxidants and polyphenols, and the fish are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, all of which counter inflammation ... get regular dental cleanings to control periodontal disease, which can be a source of chronic inflammation ... be judicious in the use of antibiotics, antacids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that can disrupt the normally healthy population of microorganisms in the gut and result in “a leaky gut that lets bacteria into circulation and is very pro-inflammatory" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of omega-3 and vitamin E on oxidative stress and inflammation: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Aug 23:1-1 - "The present meta-analysis found that omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation significantly decreased hs-CRP and increased NO and TAC" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com and vitamin E products at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of curcumin supplementation on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum adiponectin, and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Phytother Res. 2019 Mar 12 - "Curcumin, which is a natural polyphenol found in turmeric, can be used in treatment of diabetes complications for its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties ... Patients consumed either 1,500-mg curcumin or placebo daily for 10 weeks ... The mean serum level of TG decreased in curcumin group compared with baseline (109 ± 36 vs. 124 ± 36; p < 0.05). At the end of study, the mean concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased in the curcumin group compared to the control (2.9 ± 2.9 vs. 3.4 ± 4.2; p < 0.05). The mean serum concentration of adiponectin increased (64 ± 3 vs. 63 ± 4; p < 0.05) in the treatment group compared with the placebo at the end of the study. The results of the current study indicate that curcumin consumption may reduce diabetes complications through decreasing TG level as well as indicators of inflammation" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Aged garlic extract suppresses inflammation in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Jul 20 - "The anti-atherosclerotic effect of AGE involves the suppression of inflammation by reducing the serum level of CRP and TXB2 , and the protein level of TNF-α and IRAK4, and increasing AMPK activity in liver" - See aged garlic at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of supplementation with quercetin on plasma C-reactive protein concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 24 - "The meta-analysis of seven RCTs (10 treatment arms) showed a significant reduction of circulating CRP levels (WMD: -0.33 mg/l; 95% CI: -0.50 to -0.15; P<0.001) following quercetin supplementation" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.  Note:  Remember when CRP was the cover story on Time Magazine.  Now everyone seems to have forgotten about it.
  • Normalization of cardiovascular risk factors in peri-menopausal women with Pycnogenol® - Minerva Ginecol. 2017 Feb;69(1):29-34 - "Pycnogenol®, 100mg/day, was used as a supplement for 8 weeks by a group of 35 women. A comparable group of 35 women with identical cardiovascular risk factors was included as the control group ... Plasma free radicals dropped significantly by 22% (P<0.05). Homocysteine and CRP levels decreased sharply by 43% and 60%, respectively ... Almost all menopausal symptoms, scored by The Menopausal Symptoms Questionnaire 34, improved significantly following supplementation with Pycnogenol®" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.  Some say grape seed extract is similar without the patent markup.  See Best Naturals Grape Seed Extract 400 mg Veggie Capsule, 120 Count.
  • The Effect of Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation on Pro-Inflammatory Factors and Adiponectin in Mildly Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2015;85(3-4):156-64 - "Sixty mildly hypertensive patients were randomly divided into two groups: placebo (PG, n = 30) and coenzyme Q10 (QG, n = 30). The QG was given 1 capsule containing 100 mg Q10 per day ... The mean enhancement in adiponectin of QG was significantly higher than PG (from 21.1 ± 14.5 to 24.2 ± 15.5 ng/ml, P = 0.04). Significant declines in the median of IL6 (from 23 to 16 pg/ml, P = 0.001) and in the mean of hs-CRP were also observed in QG after intervention (from 3.53 ± 3.36 to 2.62 ± 2.51 mg/L, P = 0.03)" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcuminoid-piperine combination in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial and an updated meta-analysis - Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan 7 - "Supplementation with curcuminoid-piperine combination significantly improved serum SOD activities (p < 0.001) and reduced MDA (p < 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.001) concentrations compared with placebo. Quantitative data synthesis revealed a significant effect of curcuminoids vs. placebo in reducing circulating CRP concentrations (weighed mean difference: -2.20 mg/L; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.96, -0.44; p = 0.01). This effect was robust in sensitivity analysis" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com and piperine extract at Amazon.com.
  • Combined lowering of low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome patients treated with Ginkgo biloba - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Oct 18 - "In a clinical pilot study with eleven metabolic syndrome patients, a simultaneous decrease in hs-CRP from 8.85 ± 4.09 to 4.92 ± 2.51 mg/L (-44.4%) (p < 0.0436) and HOMA-IR from 3.07 ± 0.63 to 2.60 ± 0.51mU/L × mg/dL (-15.3%) (p < 0.0120) as well as a beneficial change of arteriosclerotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were detected after 2-month treatment with Ginkgo biloba. Furthermore, both IL-6 (-12.9%, p < 0.0407) and nanoplaque formation (-14.3%, p < 0.0077) were additionally reduced" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium Intake and CVD Risks in Older Patients With T2DM - Medscape, 10/20/14 - "Our data indicated that 60.9% and 87.3% of our patients were Ca and Mg intakes below RDA, respectively. Patients whose Ca intake was high or low (81.2%) had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) than those whose Ca intake was moderate (p = 0.043). Furthermore, patients whose Mg intake was low (87.3%) had significantly higher CRP than that of those who took adequate Mg (p = 0.025). The dietary Ca:Mg intake ratios were highly correlated with CRP, platelet counts, and red blood cell distribution (p < 0.05). A dietary Ca:Mg intake ratio of 2.0–2.5 was significantly correlated to lower CRP levels (p = 0.013)" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Associations Between Glucosamine and Chondroitin Supplement Use and Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammation - J Altern Complement Med. 2014 Apr 16 - "high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ... urinary prostaglandin E2-metabolite (PGE-M) ... High users (14 or more pills/week) of chondroitin had 36% lower hsCRP (ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.04; p for trend=.03) and 27% lower PGE-M (ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.5-0.98; p for trend=.07) than nonusers. Compared with nonusers, high users of glucosamine had 28% lower hsCRP (ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.47-1.08; p for trend=.09) and 24% lower PGE-M (ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.59-0.97; p for trend=0.10)" - See chondroitin sulfate at Amazon.com and glucosamine products at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels: meta-analysis and systematic review - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb 12 - "This meta-analysis and systematic review indicates that dietary Mg intake is significantly and inversely associated with serum CRP levels. The potential beneficial effect of Mg intake on chronic diseases may be, at least in part, explained by inhibiting inflammation" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Associations of Dietary Fiber Intake With Long-Term Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk and C-Reactive Protein Levels (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data [2005-2010]) - Am J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 3 - "A total of 11,113 subjects, aged 20 to 79 years with no history of CVD, from the 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the present study to examine associations of dietary fiber intake with predicted lifetime CVD risk and C-reactive protein levels. Dietary fiber intake showed a significant gradient association with the likelihood of having a low or an intermediate predicted lifetime CVD risk among young and middle-age adults. In fully adjusted multinomial logistic models, dietary fiber intake was related to a low lifetime CVD risk with an odds ratio of 2.71 (95% confidence interval 2.05 to 3.59) in the young adults and 2.13 (95% confidence interval 1.42 to 3.20) in the middle-age adults and was related to an intermediate lifetime risk of 2.65 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 3.92) in the young and 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 2.98) in the middle-age adults compared with a high lifetime risk. A significant inverse linear association was seen between dietary fiber intake and log-transformed C-reactive protein levels with a regression coefficient +/- standard error of -0.18 +/- 0.04 in the highest quartile of fiber intake compared with the lowest fiber intake" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.
  • Are Curcuminoids Effective C-Reactive Protein-Lowering Agents in Clinical Practice? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis - Phytother Res. 2013 Aug 7 - "Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, C-reactive protein (CRP) has been identified as a strong predictor and independent risk factor of CVD. Curcuminoids are multifunctional natural product with promising cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties ... PubMed/MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched ... Compared with placebo, supplementation with curcuminoids was associated with a significant reduction in circulating CRP levels (weighed mean difference: -6.44 mg/L; 95% CI: -10.77 - -2.11; p = 0.004). This significant effect was maintained in subgroups of trials that used bioavailability-improved preparations of curcuminoids and had supplementation duration of ≥4 weeks, but not in the subgroups without these characteristics ... effect appears to depend on the bioavailability of curcuminoids preparations and also duration of supplementation" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Habitual Dietary Isoflavone Intake Is Associated with Decreased C-Reactive Protein Concentrations among Healthy Premenopausal Women - J Nutr. 2013 Apr 24 - "Between 2005 and 2007, 259 healthy, regularly menstruating women were enrolled in the BioCycle Study, and followed for up to 2 menstrual cycles ... Diet was assessed up to 4 times per cycle by using 24-h recalls ... Compared with the lowest quartile of total isoflavone intake, women in the highest quartile had, on average, 27% lower serum CRP concentrations"
  • Lutein supplementation reduces plasma lipid peroxidation and C-reactive protein in healthy nonsmokers - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Jan 29 - "117 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive 10 or 20 mg/d of lutein or placebo for 12 weeks ... total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) ... A significant reduction was found in malondialdehyde in the 20 mg lutein group. CRP concentration decreased in a dose-dependent manner for lutein supplementation, and there was a significant between-group difference in CRP between the 20 mg lutein and the placebo group. Serum CRP was directly related to the change in plasma lutein and TAOC for both active treatment groups" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Association Between use of Specialty Dietary Supplements and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations - Medscape, 12/28/12 - "In summary, this study adds support to laboratory research and to some human studies which suggest that glucosamine, chondroitin, and fish oil may reduce systemic inflammation. In doing so, this study adds biologic plausibility to previous studies which have shown beneficial effects of these supplements on chronic diseases. Given the number of diseases with which inflammation is associated, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, there is a need to find safe and effective ways to reduce inflammation. Research suggests that these 3 supplements have excellent safety profiles, [88–92] supporting their potential role in disease prevention" - See glucosamine products at Amazon.com, chondroitin sulfate at Amazon.com, Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Glucosamine, Chondroitin, Fish Oil May Reduce Inflammation - Medscape, 11/27/12 - "Inflammation is now recognized as a factor in cancer and cardiovascular disease as well as many rheumatoid diseases ... the researchers found hs-CRP reductions of 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7% - 26%) with glucosamine, 22% (95% CI, 8% - 33%) with chondroitin, and 16% (95% CI, 0.3% - 29%) with fish oil compared with participants who did not take the supplements"
  • One-Year Consumption of a Grape Nutraceutical Containing Resveratrol Improves the Inflammatory and Fibrinolytic Status of Patients in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Apr 19 - "In contrast to placebo and conventional grape supplement, the resveratrol-rich grape supplement significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-26%, p = 0.03), tumor necrosis factor-α (-19.8%, p = 0.01), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (-16.8%, p = 0.03), and interleukin-6/interleukin-10 ratio (-24%, p = 0.04) and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (19.8%, p = 0.00). Adiponectin (6.5%, p = 0.07) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (-5.7%, p = 0.06) tended to increase and decrease, respectively. No adverse effects were observed in any patient. In conclusion, 1-year consumption of a resveratrol-rich grape supplement improved the inflammatory and fibrinolytic status in patients who were on statins for primary prevention of CVD and at high CVD risk (i.e., with diabetes or hypercholesterolemia plus ≥1 other CV risk factor). Our results show for the first time that a dietary intervention with grape resveratrol could complement the gold standard therapy in the primary prevention of CVD" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Supplement Alters Markers of Inflammatory and Nutritional Status in Colorectal Cancer Patients - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Feb 1 - "The supplemented group (SG) consumed 2 g of fish oil containing 600 milligrams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 9 wk ... Patients supplemented with fish oil (SG) showed a clinically relevant decrease in the C-reactive protein/albumin relation (P = 0.005). Low doses of fish oil supplement can positively modulate the nutritional status and the C-reative protein/albumin ratio" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • A diet rich in slowly digested carbs reduces markers of inflammation in overweight and obese adults - Science Daily, 1/11/12 - "Among overweight and obese adults, a diet rich in slowly digested carbohydrates, such as whole grains, legumes and other high-fiber foods, significantly reduces markers of inflammation associated with chronic disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet reduced a biomarker of inflammation called C-reactive protein by about 22 percent ... C-reactive protein is associated with an increased risk for many cancers as well as cardiovascular disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin. This hormone plays a key role in protecting against several cancers, including breast cancer, as well as metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hardening of the arteries"
  • Omega-3 again linked to lower inflammation: Study - Nutra USA, 11/28/11 - "the researchers analyzed blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids, CRP, as well as methylmercury levels in the hair of Finnish men aged between 42 and 60 ... Results showed that as omega-3 levels increased, CRP levels decreased, with “statistically significant inverse associations were also observed with the total serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration and with the individual long-chain n-3 PUFAs docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, but not with eicosapentaenoic acid or with the intermediate-chain n-3 PUFA alpha-linolenic acid” ... the anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 may be linked to the compounds' unsaturated double bonds" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid, Ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 Intake, Inflammation, and Survival in Long-term Hemodialysis Patients - Am J Kidney Dis. 2011 Jun 7 - "each 1-unit higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 intake was associated with a 0.55-mg/L increase in serum CRP level (P = 0.03). In the fully adjusted model, death HRs for the first (1.7-<7.6), second (7.6-<9.3), third (9.3-<11.3), and fourth (11.3-17.4) quartiles of dietary omega-6 to omega-3 ratio were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.14-1.18), 0.30 (95% CI, 0.09-0.99), 0.67 (95% CI, 0.25-1.79), and 1.00 (reference), respectively (P for trend = 0.06) ... Higher dietary omega-6 to omega-3 ratio appears to be associated with both worsening inflammation over time and a trend toward higher death risk in hemodialysis patients"
  • Anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-atherosclerotic effects of quercetin in human in vitro and in vivo models - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 5 - "In cultured human endothelial cells, quercetin protected against H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the cytokine-induced cell-surface expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. Quercetin also reduced the transcriptional activity of NFκB in human hepatocytes. In human CRP transgenic mice (quercetin plasma concentration: 12.9+/-1.3μM), quercetin quenched IL1β-induced CRP expression, as did sodium salicylate. In ApoE*3Leiden mice, quercetin (plasma concentration: 19.3+/-8.3μM) significantly attenuated atherosclerosis by 40% (sodium salicylate by 86%). Quercetin did not affect atherogenic plasma lipids or lipoproteins but it significantly lowered the circulating inflammatory risk factors SAA and fibrinogen. Combined histological and microarray analysis of aortas revealed that quercetin affected vascular cell proliferation thereby reducing atherosclerotic lesion growth. Quercetin also reduced the gene expression of specific factors implicated in local vascular inflammation including IL-1R, Ccl8, IKK, and STAT3 ...Quercetin reduces the expression of human CRP and cardiovascular risk factors (SAA, fibrinogen) in mice in vivo. These systemic effects together with local anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects in the aorta may contribute to the attenuation of atherosclerosis" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Supplementation of Grape Skin Extract Improves Glycemia and Inflammation in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a Western High Fat Diet - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 9 - "Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Whole Grains Are Associated with Serum Concentrations of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein among Premenopausal Women - J Nutr. 2010 Jul 28 - "Whole grain intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP concentrations after adjusting for age, race, BMI, illness, and antiinflammatory drug use. Consumers of between 0 and 1 serving/d of whole grains had, on average, 11.5% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) and consumers of >/=1 serving/d had 12.3% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) compared with nonconsumers"
  • Brushing Teeth May Keep Away Heart Disease - WebMD, 5/27/10 - "people who admitted to brushing their teeth less frequently had a 70% extra risk of heart disease ... People who reported poor oral hygiene also tested positive for bloodstream inflammatory markers such as fibrinogen and C-reactive protein"
  • Zinc decreases C-reactive protein, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of zinc as an atheroprotective agent - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr 28 - "One group was given an oral dose of 45 mg zinc/d as a gluconate for 6 mo ... These findings suggest that zinc may have a protective effect in atherosclerosis because of its antiinflammatory and antioxidant functions" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com (zinc decreases copper).
  • Kidney flow and function in hypertension: protective effects of pycnogenol in hypertensive participants--a controlled study - J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Mar;15(1):41-6 - "evaluated the effects of Pycnogenol as an adjunct to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor ramipril treatment of hypertensive patients presenting with early signs of renal function problems. One group of 26 patients was medicated with 10 mg ramipril per day only; a second group of 29 patients took Pycnogenol in addition to the ACE inhibitor over a period of 6 months ... In both groups, CRP levels decreased from 2.1 to 1.8 with ramipril and from 2.2 to 1.1 with the ramipril-Pycnogenol combination; the latter reached statistical significance" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Serum vitamin C concentration and hs-CRP level in middle-aged Japanese men and women - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Aug 7 - "Inverse associations between serum vitamin C concentrations and hs-CRP levels were established for both men and women. Multivariable-adjusted mean values of hs-CRP for the lowest to highest quintiles of vitamin C levels were 0.75, 0.65, 0.61, 0.61 and 0.47mg/L (P for trend <0.001) for men, and 0.56, 0.51, 0.49, 0.41 and 0.41mg/L (P for trend <0.001) for women. The inverse association between vitamin C and hs-CRP was stronger for non-smoking men and women, non-overweight women and postmenopausal women ... Serum vitamin C concentrations were found to be inversely associated with hs-CRP levels in both men and women, primarily among non-smokers, non-overweight women and postmenopausal women"
  • Omega-3 fatty acid supplements improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity - Acta Cardiol. 2009 Jun;64(3):321-7 - "were given 1 gram of fish oil as a single capsule, containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid daily for 6 months. Control subjects did not receive any supplementation over the same period. RESULTS: The study was completed by 47 subjects in the intervention group and 42 subjects in the control group. Treatment with omega 3 supplements was associated with a significant fall in body weight (P < 0.05), systolic blood pressures (P < 0.05), serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.05), and total cholesterol (P < 0.05), triglycerides (P < 0.05), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (P < 0.01), and Hsp27 antibody titres (P < 0.05). No significant changes were observed in the control group. CONCLUSION: It appears that omega 3 improves the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, having effects on weight, systolic blood pressure, lipid profile and markers of inflammation and autoimmunity" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • An inverse relationship between plasma n-3 fatty acids and C-reactive protein in healthy individuals - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr 8 - "The highest hs-CRP tertile (>3.0 mg/l) had significantly lower concentrations of total n-3 fatty acids, EPA and DPA, when compared with the other tertiles (P<0.05). This study provides evidence that in healthy individuals, plasma n-3 fatty acid concentration is inversely related to hs-CRP concentration, a surrogate marker of CVD risk" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 DHA boost for heart health in high-risk men: Study - Nutra USA, 3/6/09 - "supplementation with DHA for 45 days resulted in decreased levels of the number of circulating white blood cells (neutrophils) by 11.7 per cent, and these reductions were maintained until the end of the 90-day study (10.5 per cent reduction) ... levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) had decreased by 15 per cent, and IL-6 had decreased by 23 per cent ... Furthermore, levels of the anti-inflammatory matrix metalloproteinase-2 rose by 7 per cent ... In conclusion, DHA may lessen the inflammatory response by altering blood lipids and their fatty acid composition" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • DHA Supplementation Decreases Serum C-Reactive Protein and Other Markers of Inflammation in Hypertriglyceridemic Men - J Nutr. 2009 Jan 21 - "DHA supplementation for 45 and 91 d decreased the number of circulating neutrophils by 11.7 and 10.5%, respectively (P < 0.05). It did not alter the circulating concentrations of other inflammatory markers tested within 45 d, but at 91 d it reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) by 15%, interleukin-6 by 23%, and granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor by 21% and DHA increased the concentration of antiinflammatory matrix metalloproteinase-2 by 7%. The number of circulating neutrophils was positively associated with the weight percent (wt %) of 20:4(n-6) in RBC lipids, and negatively to the wt % of 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3). Concentrations of CRP and serum amyloid A were positively associated with the sum of SFA and negatively with the wt % of 18:1(n-9) and 17:0 in RBC lipids; CRP was also positively associated with the wt % of 20:2(n-6). The mean size of VLDL particles was positively associated with plasma concentrations of neutrophils and CRP. In conclusion, DHA may lessen the inflammatory response by altering blood lipids and their fatty acid composition" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Inflamed Gums Linked To Heart Disease - Science Daily, 12/20/08 - "a protein associated with inflammation (called CRP) is elevated in people who are at risk for heart disease. But where's the inflammation coming from? ... infected gums may be one place ... something as simple as taking good care of your teeth and gums can greatly reduce your risk of developing serious diseases"
  • Pine bark extract may help joints and hearts: Study - Nutra USA, 12/11/08 - "The decrease of systemic inflammatory markers, particularly CRP, suggests Pycnogenol properties may be potent enough to arrest the spread of inflammation from osteoarthritic joints to the whole organisms ... subjects received either two daily doses of 50 mg Pycnogenol or placebo for three months ... people receiving the pine bark extract experienced significant reductions in CRP levels from an average of 3.9 mg/L at the start of the study to 1.1 mg/L after three months. This is equivalent to a 71 per cent reduction ... Moreover, a reduction in the blood levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of 30 per cent was recorded" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C Lowers Levels Of Inflammation Biomarker Considered Predictor Of Heart Disease - Science Daily, 11/14/08 - "for people with elevated CRP levels, the amount of CRP reduction achieved by taking vitamin C supplements in this study is comparable to that in many other studies of cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins. They noted that several larger statin trials lowered CRP levels by about 0.2 milligrams per liter; in this latest study, vitamin C lowered CRP by 0.25 milligrams per liter" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C-lipid metabolites: Uptake and retention and effect on plasma C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL levels in healthy volunteers - Med Sci Monit. 2008 Nov;14(11):CR547-551 - "ascorbic acid (AA), calcium ascorbate (CaA) ... PureWay-C(R) supplementation leads to the highest absolute serum vitamin C levels when compared to AA, CaA and Ester-C(R). PureWay-C(R) provides a statistically significant greater serum level than calcium ascorbate at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post oral supplementation whereas Ester-C(R) shows a less but slightly statistically significant increase at only 1 and 4 hours. Oral supplementation with PureWay-C(R) also led to a greater reduction in plasma C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL levels compared to the other vitamin C formulations. Conclusions: PureWay-C(R) is more rapidly absorbed and leads to higher serum vitamin C levels and greater reduction of plasma levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers than other forms of vitamin C, including Ester-C(R)" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant sterols in hyperlipidemic individuals - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Sep 27 - "The combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduced several inflammatory markers. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was reduced by 39% (P=0.009), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by 10% (P=0.02), interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 10.7% (P=0.009), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 29.5% (P=0.01) and adiponectin was increased by 29.5% (P=0.05). Overall cardiovascular risk was reduced by 22.6% (P=0.006) in the combination group. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated, for the first time that dietary intervention with n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduces systemic inflammation in hyperlipidemic individuals. Furthermore, our results suggest that reducing inflammation provides a potential mechanism by which the combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols are cardioprotective" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • What Else May Probiotics Do In Adults? - Science Daily, 5/20/08 - "It was found that probiotics have an anti-inflammatory potential seen as a decrease in serum CRP levels and as a reduction in bacteria-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells"
  • Whole Grains Shrink Belly Fat? - Dr. Weil, 3/31/08 - "the whole grains may have helped by stabilizing the dieters' blood sugar, which in turn may have had a beneficial effect on CRP levels"
  • Serum C-reactive protein concentrations are inversely associated with dietary flavonoid intake in u.s. Adults - J Nutr. 2008 Apr;138(4):753-60 - "Among the flavonoid compounds investigated, quercetin, kaempferol, malvidin, peonidin, daidzein, and genistein had inverse associations with serum CRP concentration"
  • Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is inversely associated with CRP levels, especially among male smokers - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Mar 14 - "Sufficient dietary intake of n-3PUFA may attenuate inflammatory reaction and this effect is more evident among high-risk populations such as male smokers although the small numbers of female ex-smokers and nonsmokers limited statistical power to draw strong conclusions about these groups" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):424-30 - "Compared with the lowest tertile of choline intake (<250 mg/d), participants who consumed >310 mg/d had, on average, 22% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05), 26% lower concentrations of interleukin-6 (P < 0.05), and 6% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of a whole grain enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome - J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):79-90 - "Both hypocaloric diets were effective means of improving CVD risk factors with moderate weight loss. There were significantly (P < 0.05) greater decreases in CRP and percentage body fat in the abdominal region in participants consuming whole grains than in those consuming refined grains"
  • More support for whole grains for healthy hearts - Nutra USA< 1/7/08 - "25 women and 25 men (average age 46, average BMI 35.8 kg per sq. m) were assigned to consume a reduced calorie diet (reduced by 500 kcal/d) with half of the subjects then randomly assigned to obtain all of their grain servings from whole grains or to avoid wholegrain foods for 12 weeks ... CRP levels fell by 38 per cent in the whole-grain"
  • The effects of extended-release niacin on carotid intimal media thickness, endothelial function and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome - Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;61(11):1942-8 - "After 52 weeks of treatment, there was a change of carotid IMT of +0.009 +/- 0.003 mm in the placebo group and -0.005 +/- 0.002 mm in the niacin group (p = 0.021 between groups). Endothelial function improved by 22% in the group treated with niacin (p < 0.001), whereas no significant changes were seen in the placebo group. High sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased by 20% in the group treated with niacin for 52 weeks (p = 0.013). Niacin increased HDL-C (p < 0.001) and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.001) significantly, and there were no adverse effects on fasting glucose levels after 52 weeks of treatment" - See niacin at Amazon.com or niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of folic acid and vitamin B complex on serum C-reactive protein and albumin levels in stable hemodialysis patients - Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Jun 29 - "Folic acid and vitamin B complex co-administration effectively lowers tHcy and hs-CRP levels and increases albumin levels in stable hemodialysis subjects, underscoring their potential benefit to attenuate the state of inflammation and possibly improve the nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis"
  • Effect of a High-Fiber Diet vs a Fiber-Supplemented Diet on C-Reactive Protein Level - Arch Intern Med. 2007 Mar 12;167(5):502-6 - "Overall, the mean C-reactive protein (CRP) level changed from 4.4 to 3.8 mg/L (-13.7%; P = .046) in the high-fiber DASH diet group and to 3.6 mg/L (-18.1%) in the fiber-supplemented diet group ... fiber intake of about 30 g/d) from a diet naturally rich in fiber or from a supplement can reduce levels of CRP"
  • High-Fiber Diets, Fiber Supplements Reduce CRP Levels - Medscape, 3/14/07 - "The participants were then randomized to either the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), high-fiber diet (mean intake, nearly 28 g of fiber per day), or to a fiber supplement (psyllium) on top of their regular diet (mean intake, totaling 27 g/day). After 3 weeks on one diet, participants crossed over to the other fiber diet ... Overall, the mean CRP level changed from 4.4 to 3.8 mg/L (-13.7%; P = .046) in the high-fiber DASH diet group and to 3.6 mg/L (-18.1%) in the fiber-supplemented diet group (P = .02)"
  • Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids of marine origin and serum C-reactive protein concentrations are associated in a population with a diet rich in marine products - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):223-9 - "Greater intake of n-3 PUFAs derived from marine products, as measured with a self-administered questionnaire, was independently related to a lower prevalence of high CRP concentrations in this older Japanese population with a diet rich in marine products. Our findings suggest that even very high intakes of n-3 PUFAs may lower serum CRP concentrations"
  • Fiber Good, and Not Just for Your Gut - WebMD, 4/13/06 - "Compared with those who ate the least fiber, those who ate the most were 63% less likely to have high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP)"
  • Vitamin C could reduce inflammation - Nutra USA, 3/8/06 - "High blood levels of vitamin C were associated with a 45 per cent reduced risk of inflammation (with respect to CRP levels)"
  • Fish Help the Heart by Fighting Inflammation - WebMD, 7/5/05 - "compared with those who said they didn't eat fish, those who ate at least 10.5 ounces of fish per week had 33% lower C-reactive protein and 33% lower tumor necrosis factor-alpha (another indicator of inflammation) levels as well as much lower levels of other signs of inflammation"
  • Total antioxidant capacity of the diet is inversely and independently related to plasma concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in adult Italian subjects - Br J Nutr. 2005 May;93(5):619-25 - "dietary TAC is inversely and independently correlated with plasma concentrations of hs-CRP and this could be one of the mechanisms explaining the protective effects against CVD of antioxidant-rich foods such as fruits, whole cereals and red wine"
  • Study links good carbs to healthier hearts - MSNBC, 5/2/05 - "the CRP levels of women whose diets consisted primarily of refined grains were 10 percent higher than women who consumed a lot of good carbs such as fiber-rich whole grains, fruits and vegetables"
  • Exercise May Reduce Metabolic Syndrome Risks - WebMD, 11/15/04 - "physical fitness was associated with lower levels of an inflammation marker associated with heart disease, known as C-reactive protein"
  • New Research: What is Your Optimal TSH Level? - About.com, 9/30/04 - "normalizing the TSH with a target TSH level of less than 2 mIU/mL is advisable to lower CRP levels and homocysteine levels, and possibly the cholesterol levels"
  • Red Wine Beats Gin for Heart Health - WebMD, 8/13/04 - "those who drunk red wine also had lower levels of C-reactive protein and two other inflammatory markers"
  • Low plasma vitamin B-6 concentrations and modulation of coronary artery disease risk - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jun;79(6):992-8 - "Low concentrations of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), the active metabolite of vitamin B-6, are associated with high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations"
  • Vitamin C supplement to beat diabetes and heart disease - Nutra USA, 4/14/04 - "Researchers at the University of California say that participants who took about 500 milligrams of vitamin C supplements per day saw a 24 per cent drop in plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after two months" - See iHerb vitamin C products.
  • Reduction of C-reactive protein levels through use of a multivitamin - Am J Med. 2003 Dec 15;115(9):702-7 - "multivitamin use was associated with lower C-reactive protein levels"
  • Mediterranean Diet Lowers C-reactive Protein Levels - Medscape, 11/11/03 - "For each 10-point increase in diet score, there was a corresponding 0.22 mg/dL reduction in C-reactive protein levels, a 0.21 pg/ml reduction in interleukin-6, a 12.5 mg/dL decrease in fibrinogen, and a 0.87 mmol/L decrease in homocysteine levels (P < .05), he said. Also, white blood cell count decreased significantly"
  • Dietary Changes Can Reduce Cholesterol and C-Reactive Protein as Much as Medication - New Hope Natural Media, 9/18/03 - "One group was treated with a statin medication (20 mg of lovastatin per day) and another received placebo. A third group ate a modified daily diet that included an additional 2 grams of plant sterols provided in a margarine, 20 grams of insoluble fiber from psyllium, oats and barley, 43 grams of soy protein from soy milk and soy meat-substitutes, and 1 ounce of whole almonds. At the end of the study, total cholesterol levels had decreased 6% in the placebo group, 23% in the statin group and 22% in the modified-diet group. Levels of LDL-cholesterol dropped 8% in the placebo group, 31% in the statin group and 29% in the modified-diet group. CRP levels decreased 10% in the placebo group, 33% in the statin group and 28% in the modified-diet group"
  • Inflammation Syndrome a Red-Hot Topic - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 9/03 - "What are some of the key anti-inflammatory supplements? ... At the top of the list are omega-3 fish oils, gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, an omega-6 fat that behaves more like an omega-3) and vitamin E. Several studies have shown that natural vitamin E supplements lower CRP levels by 30 percent to 50 percent"
  • Weight Loss Eases Harmful Inflammation - WebMD, 2/4/02 - "They measured levels of a blood chemical called "C-reactive protein," or CRP. This chemical goes up when inflammation in the body rises. Then, 25 of the women were put on a weight-loss program ... On average, CRP levels fell by 32% after a weight loss of about 33 pounds over 14 months"
  • Diet and Exercise Alone Shown to Lower C-Reactive Protein - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/01 - "Hs-CRP, a marker of low level inflammation, has been found to be a strong predictor of myocardial infarction and stroke in men and women, as well as subsequent clinical events in patients following major cardiac events ... a structured program involving a low-fat, Mediterranean diet and a supervised, three-times weekly exercise program for three months ... Values of hs-CRP dropped 31 percent after the three months ... body fat was reduced by 5 percent ... exercise capacity improved 36 percent"
  • A Prescription for Alarm - Nutrition Science News, 9/01 - "Taking natural vitamin E supplements to reduce levels of C-reactive protein, an inflammatory compound that increases the risk of heart disease by 4.5 times.  Heart disease is increasingly viewed as a disease of blood-vessel inflammation"
  • Enzymes Can Hasten Pain Relief - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 - "Enzymes work not by stopping or blocking inflammation, but by supporting and quickening the process . . . By the third day after the operation, levels of C-reactive protein—a measure of inflammation - were threefold higher in the control group"

Other News:

  • Taming chronic inflammation may reduce illness, save lives - Science Daily, 12/5/19 - "point to inflammation-related diseases as the cause of 50 percent of all deaths worldwide ... Inflammation is a naturally occurring response by the body's immune system that helps fight illness and infection. When inflammation is chronic, however, it increases the risk of developing potentially deadly diseases ... In a perspective article, published in the journal Nature Medicine, the authors describe how persistent and severe inflammation in the body plays a key role in heart disease, cancer, diabetes, kidney disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders ... it is important to make people aware of the risk factors for chronic inflammation, which include obesity, physical inactivity, social isolation, chronic stress and inadequate or poor sleep ... Currently, just a few biomarkers are known to indicate inflammation, such as elevated levels of C-reactive protein, a protein found in blood plasma ... It's also important to recognize that inflammation is a contributor not just to physical health problems, but also mental health problems such as anxiety disorders, depression, PTSD, schizophrenia, self-harm and suicide"
  • Link found between chronic inflammation and risk for Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 10/18/18 - "ApoE4 linked with chronic inflammation dramatically increases the risk for AD. This can be detected by sequential measurements of C-reactive protein, a common clinical test which can be could be done routinely in a clinical setting ... Since many elders have chronic low-grade inflammation after suffering from common diseases like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and urinary tract infection, or after having surgeries, rigorously treating chronic systemic inflammation in ApoE4 carriers could be effective for prevention of Alzheimer's dementia" - See my inflammation page and c-reactive protein page for ways to reduce it.
  • Chronic inflammation causing loss of muscle mass - Science Daily, 1/11/18 - "Their findings show that CRP affects muscle cells' protein synthesis, that is, the generation of new proteins taking place in all living cells ... Muscles are our main protein depots. We saw that CRP interferes with the protein synthesis in the muscle cells, hence contributing to the loss of muscle mass ... A mechanism which explains the connection is of great significance for both preventive measures and drug development. What is interesting is that inflammaging is a process quietly at work. If we can tackle inflammaging in time, are we then able to postpone the development of a number of chronic diseases"
  • High CRP Linked to Late-Onset Schizophrenia - Medscape, 5/22/13 - "CRP has previously been linked to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, and more recently, in a study by these same researchers, with risk for depression ... We had up to 19 years of follow-up, and after adjusting for all the other factors that would also increase CRP ... we still saw significantly increased risk of schizophrenia; for those who had even very small elevations of CRP, they still have a 6-times increased risk for schizophrenia"
  • C-Reactive Protein, Lipid-soluble Micronutrients, and Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 May 15 - "A positive association with overall risk of death was observed for CRP (HR for highest vs. lowest quintile: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.07-3.04; Ptrend=0.01) whereas, inverse associations were generally observed for retinol and carotenoids (HRs for overall risk of death for the highest quintile ranging from 0.5-0.8) ... These observations are consistent with a direct relationship between circulating CRP and overall survival among colorectal cancer patients ... These results, if reproduced, suggest that reduction of inflammation should be explored as a potential complementary treatment strategy"
  • Elevated CRP Linked to Depression, Psychological Distress - Medscape, 12/27/12 - "those who had the highest levels of CRP were more than twice as likely to have psychological distress and depression than those with normal levels of CRP ... more research is now needed "to establish the direction of the association between CRP and depression" — especially because these studies were primarily cross-sectional ... evaluated data from 73,131 adults between the ages of 20 and 100 years from the Copenhagen General Population study and the Copenhagen City Heart study ... the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.11 when CRP levels were between 1.01 and 3.00 mg/L compared with the lowest levels of 0.01 to 1.00 mg/L. The ORs increased to 1.80 for CRP levels of 3.01 to 10.00 mg/L and to 2.61 for levels greater than 10.00 mg/L"
  • C-reactive protein levels predict breast cancer survival rates, study finds - Science Daily, 6/1/11 - "The five-year survival decreased from 90% for low CRP to 74% for high levels of CRP, disease-free survival reduced from 87% to 74%, and deaths from breast cancer increased from 11% to 20% ... The five-year survival decreased from 90% for low CRP to 74% for high levels of CRP, disease-free survival reduced from 87% to 74%, and deaths from breast cancer increased from 11% to 20% ... While measuring CRP levels gives a general indication of health and longevity, measuring CRP levels for breast cancer patients seems to be an easy way to predict the severity of the patient's disease. This may allow clinicians to alter their treatment tactics and improve cancer survival rates"
  • Study links inflammation in brain to some memory decline - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "adults with measureable levels of C reactive protein recalled fewer words and had smaller medial temporal lobes ... Scientists don't know if the inflammation indicated by the C reactive protein is the cause of the memory loss, if it reflects a response to some other disease process or if the two factors are unrelated. But if inflammation causes the cognitive decline, relatively simple treatments could help"
  • Inflammation behind heart valve disease, research suggests - Science Daily, 3/15/11 - "immune cells and a group of inflammatory substances called leukotrienes can be found in calcified heart valves. The most significant inflammation was seen in patients with the narrowest valves on ultrasound examination. The researchers have also shown in cell cultures that leukotrienes stimulate the calcification of heart valve cells ... There are similarities between atherosclerosis (calcification of the arteries) and aortic stenosis. However, lipid-lowering medicines known as statins which are capable of preventing atherosclerosis have proved ineffective in preventing calcification of the aortic valve ... anti-inflammatory medication could be a future treatment for aortic stenosis, and it would mean a lot to these patients, most of whom are elderly, if we could slow the disease to the extent that they do not need surgery" - See the "Alternative News" sections of my Inflammation page and my C-Reactive Protein page for ways to reduce it.
  • SHBG, Sex Hormones, and Inflammatory Markers in Older Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan 14 - "In premenopausal and older women, high testosterone and estradiol (E2) and low SHBG levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, conditions characterized by low-grade inflammation ... SHBG was negatively associated with CRP (P = 0.007), IL-6 (P = 0.008), and sIL-6r (P = 0.02). In addition, testosterone was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.006), IL-6 (P = 0.001), and TNF-α (P = 0.0002). The negative relationship between testosterone and sIL-6r in an age-adjusted model (P = 0.02) was no longer significant in a fully adjusted model (P = 0.12). E2 was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.002) but not with IL-6 in fully adjusted models. In a final model including E2, testosterone, and SHBG, and all the confounders previously considered, SHBG (0.23 +/- 0.08; P = 0.006) and E2 (0.21 +/- 0.08; P = 0.007), but not testosterone (P = 0.21), were still significantly associated with CRP. Conclusion: In late postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, SHBG and E2 are, respectively, negative and positive, independent and significant correlates of a proinflammatory state"
  • More 'good' cholesterol is not always good for your health - Science Daily, 5/25/10 - "Patients in the high-risk subgroup were characterized as having high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a well-known marker of inflammation, in addition to high HDL cholesterol. Study authors believe genetics and environmental factors, particularly inflammation, influence whether high levels of HDL cholesterol are protective or if they increase cardiovascular risk in individual patients. Given an inflammatory environment, an individual's unique set of genes helps determine whether HDL cholesterol transforms from a good actor to a bad actor in the heart disease process"
  • Elevated CRP Level Linked to Decline in Executive Function and Frontal Lobe Damage - Medscape, 4/1/10 - "They found that higher levels of hs-CRP were associated with worse performance on tests of executive function, even after adjustment for age, sex, education, and cardiovascular risk factors. "It's not like these people are really cognitively impaired," Dr. Wersching emphasized, "but it's just they do worse than people who have a lower CRP.""
  • Fat redistribution preferentially reflects the anti-inflammatory benefits of pioglitazone treatment - Metabolism. 2010 Jan 19 - "high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ... Pioglitazone treatment for 12 weeks decreased serum hsCRP levels (0.83 [1.14] to 0.52 [0.82] mg/L, P < .001) and improved glycemic control (fasting glucose, P < .001; glycosylated hemoglobin, P < .001) and lipid profiles (triglyceride, P = .016; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, P < .001). Between responders and nonresponders to the hsCRP-lowering effect of pioglitazone, there were significant differences in baseline hsCRP levels and changes in the postprandial glucose and the ratio of visceral fat thickness (VFT) to subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) (P = .004, .011, and .001, respectively). The percentage change in hsCRP levels after treatment was inversely correlated with baseline hsCRP levels (r = -0.497, P < .001) and directly correlated with the change in postprandial glucose (r = 0.251, P = .021), VFT (r = 0.246, P = .030), and VFT/SFT ratio (r = 0.276, P = .015). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the hsCRP-lowering effect of pioglitazone was affected by baseline hsCRP levels (odds ratio [OR] = 7.929, P = .007) as well as changes in postprandial 2-hour glucose (OR = 0.716, P = .025) and VFT/SFT ratio (OR = 0.055, P = .009). In conclusion, treatment with pioglitazone produced an anti-inflammatory effect, decreasing serum hsCRP levels; and a decrease in the VFT/SFT ratio was independently and most strongly associated with the hsCRP-decreasing effect. These results suggest that abdominal fat redistribution preferentially reflects the anti-inflammatory benefits of pioglitazone treatment"
  • Association of sex hormones and C-reactive protein levels in men - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Sep 21 - "A robust, inverse dose-response correlation between testosterone and SHBG levels with CRP levels provides further evidence of a potential role of androgens in inflammatory processes"
  • Obesity, coffee consumption and CRP levels in postmenopausal overweight/obese women: importance of hormone replacement therapy use - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep 16 - "Plasma CRP was positively associated with BMI (P<0.001) and negatively associated with coffee consumption (P</=0.05). In women using HRT, plasma CRP was positively associated with BMI in women consuming less than one cup of coffee per month (r (2)=0.15 (P<0.001)), one cup per day (0.14 (P=0.02)) and more than one cup per day (0.12 (P=0.03)). In women who did not use HRT, CRP was associated with BMI only in women consuming less than one cup of coffee per day (r (2)=0.16 (P<0.001)) but not in women consuming one cup per day (0.06 (P=0.10)) or more than one daily cup of coffee"
  • High Levels of Serum C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Greater Risk of All-Cause Mortality, but Not Dementia, in the Oldest-Old: Results from The 90+ Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Feb 23 - "Subjects with detectable CRP levels had significantly greater risk of mortality (HR=1.7, 95% CI=1.0-2.9), but not dementia (HR=1.2, 95% CI=0.6-2.1), 0.4 to 4.5 years later than subjects with undetectable CRP"
  • Rosuvastatin Nearly Cuts in Half Risk of Stroke - Doctor's Guide, 2/20/09 - "A refined analysis of a major clinical trial indicates that treating patients with the cholesterol-lowering agent rosuvastatin dramatically reduces the incidence of stroke among patients with high levels of C-reactive protein when compared with patients taking placebo ... Patients in the study were randomised to rosuvastatin 20 mg daily or placebo"
  • More May Benefit From Cholesterol Drugs - WebMD, 1/13/09 - "Eight out of 10 middle-aged and older Americans may benefit from treatment with cholesterol-lowering statin drugs ... All the participants had elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ... Over an average of two years of treatment, participants who took the statin Crestor had half as many heart attacks, strokes, and deaths from cardiovascular causes as participants randomly assigned to receive a placebo"
  • C-reactive protein levels and ageing male symptoms in hypogonadal men treated with testosterone supplementation - Andrologia. 2008 Dec;40(6):398-400 - "Aging Male Symptom (AMS) ... Testosterone administration resulted in a profound decline in CRP levels and AMS scores"
  • JUPITER hits New Orleans: Landmark study shows statins benefit healthy individuals with high CRP levels - theheart.org, 11/9/08 - "In a study of individuals with low LDL cholesterol but elevated C-reactive-protein (CRP) levels, investigators showed that rosuvastatin (Crestor, AstraZeneca) 20 mg significantly reduced the primary end point—a composite of nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, revascularization, and confirmed death from cardiovascular causes—by 44% compared with individuals treated with placebo" - Note:  They seem to be attributing this to the reduction in CRP.  At 12 months, the CRP  of the 20 mg Crestor group was 2.2.  The baseline was 4.2.  That's a (4.2 - 2.2)/4.2 = 47.6% reduction in CRP.  Another option to reduce CRP might be Periostat (low dose doxycycline for periodontal disease).  See:
    • Low-dose Periostat (Doxycycline) Shows Benefits in Patients with Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/02 - "At six-month follow-up, sub-antimicrobial dose doxycyline significantly reduced CRP levels by 45.8 percent compared to baseline values (p<0.05). The drug was also associated with a 33.5 percent reduction in interleukin-6 and a 50 percent reduction in metalloproteinase ... The findings are exciting, since research is now showing that CRP is both a key marker of inflammation leading to future acute coronary events, but also that CRP itself may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis"
  • Levels Of C-reactive Protein In The Blood Do Not Cause Diabetes - Science Daily, 8/11/08
  • Adiponectin, but not leptin or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, is associated with blood pressure independently of general and abdominal adiposity - Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):633-40 - "all three markers were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure (negative correlation for adiponectin and positive correlations for leptin and hs-CRP)"
  • Inflammatory Markers and Albuminuria Independently Predict Heart Failure - Medscape, 5/2/08 - "Interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, and macroalbuminuria are significant predictors of congestive heart failure, independent of obesity and other established risk factors" - Also see my inflammation page for ways to reduce it.
  • Low Vitamin D, High CRP Linked to Poorer Function in Heart Failure Patients - Medscape, 4/28/08 - "Lower vitamin D levels and higher C-reactive protein levels are associated with poor aerobic capacity and greater frailty in elderly patients with heart failure"
  • CRP Levels Predict Death in Patients With Chronic Heart Disease - Medscape, 1/8/08 - "Elevated baseline CRP levels raised the risk (per unit of log-transformed CRP level change) of the primary endpoint by 19%, MI by 17%, total death by 19%, and cardiac death by 28%"
  • Comparison of Effectiveness of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin on the Achievement of Combined C-Reactive Protein (<2 mg/L) and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (<70 mg/dl) Targets in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (from the ANDROMEDA Study) - Am J Cardiol. 2007 Oct 15;100(8):1245-1248 - "CRP was effectively decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving rosuvastatin or atorvastatin, whereas rosuvastatin decreased LDL cholesterol significantly more than atorvastatin"
  • Inflammation Linked to Eye Disease - WebMD, 10/8/07 - "participants with the highest CRP levels at the study's start were 40% more likely to develop early-stage AMD during the study, compared to those with the lowest initial CRP levels"
  • Human C-reactive Protein Regulates Myeloma Tumor Cell Growth And Survival - Science Daily, 9/15/07 - "CRP protects myeloma cells from apoptosis induced by chemotherapy drugs and stimulates myeloma cells to secrets more IL-6, which in turn provides additional protection to myeloma from apoptosis and stimulates liver cells to secrete more CRP. Thus, CRP could be a therapeutic target for breaking the vicious circle of myeloma to improve the therapeutic efficacy of currently available treatments"
  • The Differential Effects of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers on Microalbuminuria in Relation to Low-Grade Inflammation in Metabolic Hypertensive Patients - Am J Hypertens. 2007 May;20(5):565-72 - "There was a significant increase in high molecular weight adiponectin in the telmisartan group ... The reductions of microalbuminuria and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were significant in the telmisartan group"
  • Valsartan Cuts C-Reactive Protein Levels in Prediabetics - Doctor's Guide, 5/22/07 - "In diabetic patients with abdominal obesity, after 16 weeks of hydrochlorothiazide therapy, median hsCRP values were increased 16% (4.9 vs 3.7 mg/L at baseline, P <.05) but decreased 9% in patients on valsartan (3.7 vs 4.1 mg/L at baseline, P <.05) and 5% in patients on combination therapy"
  • A randomized trial of the effects of rosiglitazone and metformin on inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes - Am Heart J. 2007 Mar;153(3):445.e1-6 - "Metformin and rosiglitazone treatment led to similar significant improvements in glycemic control (HbA(1c) -1.08% in the rosiglitazone group and -1.18% in the metformin group, P = nonsignificant). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels decreased by an average of 68% in the rosiglitazone group (5.99 +/- 0.88 to 1.91 +/- 0.28 mg/L, P < .001), compared with a nonsignificant 4% reduction in hsCRP with metformin"
  • Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pioglitazone and/or Simvastatin in High Cardiovascular-Risk Patients With Elevated High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein: The PIOSTAT Study - Medscape, 1/9/07 - "After 12 weeks of treatment, hs-CRP levels were reduced from 3.64 +/-2.42 mg/l to 2.48 +/-1.77 mg/l with pioglitazone monotherapy and from 3.26 +/-2.02 mg/l to 2.81 +/-2.11 mg/l with simvastatin monotherapy (as illustrated in Fig. 1). Combination treatment with pioglitazone and simvastatin resulted in an additive decrease in hs-CRP levels from 3.49 +/-1.97 mg/l to 2.06 +/-1.42 mg/l after 12 weeks" - See pioglitazone and simvastatin at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Two Markers Strongly Linked To Prostate Cancer Incidence And Mortality Almost A Decade Prior To Diagnosis - Science Daily, 11/14/06 - "Increased levels of two markers of inflammation, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), are significantly associated with prostate cancer incidence and mortality almost a decade prior to diagnosis"
  • Researchers Find Added Benefit of Statins in Those at High Risk for Heart Disease, Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 9/13/06 - "found marked reductions in two pivotal biomarkers of inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6. While these markers are typically elevated in insulin resistance, a condition that precedes the development of diabetes, statin therapy reduced these levels by 36% and 44%, respectively"
  • CRP Test: Identify Heart Risk? - WebMD, 7/0/06
  • Valsartan the First Blood Pressure Medication in a Large-Scale Clinical Trial to Lower C-Reactive Protein, an Important Marker of Inflammation - Doctor's Guide, 5/26/06 - "The median change in hsCRP from baseline after six weeks in the Diovan group was -0.12 mg/L compared to +0.05 mg/L in the Diovan HCT group, representing a difference between the treatment groups of 13.3%"
  • Valsartan Lowers C-reactive Protein Levels; Combination Doesn't - Doctor's Guide, 5/19/06 - "Paradoxically, adding a diuretic to valsartan (Diovan) allows even more patients to reach blood pressure goals -- but appears to raise levels of C-reactive protein ... the monotherapy patients achieved an 8.9% reduction while the combination patients experienced a 4.4% increase"
  • Rosiglitazone reduces insulin requirement and C-reactive protein levels in type 2 diabetic patients receiving peritoneal dialysis - Am J Kidney Dis. 2005 Oct;46(4):713-9 - "the RSG group also had significantly lower CRP levels than the control group (2.21 versus 8.59 mg/L"
  • First Link Found Between Obesity, Inflammation and Vascular Disease - Doctor's Guide, 9/16/05 - "Researchers find human fat cells produce C-reactive protein ... aspirin and statin drugs, now commonly used to treat heart diseases, effectively damp down production of CRP from fat cells"
  • Study Reaffirms Importance of C-Reactive Protein Testing in Predicting Heart Attack Risk - Doctor's Guide, 8/17/05 - "women with the highest levels of total cholesterol had twice the risk of future heart disease compared to women with the lowest levels. The research also demonstrated that women with the highest levels of hs-CRP had a three-fold increase in risk ... increased hs-CRP levels are associated with the development of atherosclerosis, independent of cholesterol"
  • Diabetes Drug Actos (pioglitazone HCl) Showed Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in a Clinical Study - Doctor's Guide, 6/16/05 - "CRP decreased by 6.98 mg/L compared to 1.55 mg/L for placebo (p= 0.001). IL-6 decreased by 0.78 pg/mL compared to 0.22 pg/ml for placebo"
  • Comparison of the effects of ramipril versus telmisartan in reducing serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Am J Cardiol. 2005 Jun 1;95(11):1386-8 - "All regimens were associated with a significant reduction of C-reactive protein and oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol serum levels"
  • Insulin Resistance Correlates With Rises in C-Reactive Protein - Doctor's Guide, 5/23/05 - "As C-reactive protein rises, so does insulin resistance ... Increased C-reactive protein levels may also predispose to accelerated or premature atherosclerotic disease ... Maybe someday we'll have therapy to lower C-reactive protein levels"
  • Intensive Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin on Inflammation and Coagulation in Participants With Impaired Glucose Tolerance - Diabetes. 2005 May;54(5):1566-1572 - "In men, the median changes in CRP from baseline to 1 year were -33% in the lifestyle group, -7% in the metformin group, and +5% in the placebo group. In women, the changes in CRP from baseline to follow-up were -29% in the lifestyle group, -14% in the metformin group, and 0% in the placebo group"
  • Evolution of C-Reactive Protein as a Cardiac Risk Factor - Medscape, 4/20/05
  • UC Davis Researchers Discover New Link Between C-reactive Protein, And Heart Disease And Stroke - Science Daily, 3/30/05 - "The cells that line the arteries are able to produce C-reactive protein ... The good news is that reducing the concentration of C-reactive protein with targeted drugs, such as statins, has been shown to reduce cardiovascular events"
  • C-reactive protein levels and outcomes after statin therapy - N Engl J Med. 2005 Jan 6;352(1):20-8 - "Strategies to lower cardiovascular risk with statins should include monitoring CRP as well as cholesterol"
  • Statin therapy, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and coronary artery disease - N Engl J Med. 2005 Jan 6;352(1):29-38 - "For patients with coronary artery disease, the reduced rate of progression of atherosclerosis associated with intensive statin treatment, as compared with moderate statin treatment, is significantly related to greater reductions in the levels of both atherogenic lipoproteins and CRP"
  • Reduction of Both C-Reactive Protein and Cholesterol Required to Control Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 1/6/05 - "intensive therapy with atorvastatin reduced CRP levels 36 percent, while the more moderate pravastatin regimen reduced CRP by 5 percent"
  • Blood Test Could Help Prevent Heart Deaths - WebMD, 1/5/05 - "We now know that it is not just cholesterol that drives the plaque buildup in the arteries. It is also C-reactive protein"
  • Blood Test May Predict Heart Disease - WebMD, 12/15/04 - "Researchers at Harvard investigated the role of CRP in association with three other markers of inflammation and found that "the level of C-reactive protein is a significant marker of the risk of coronary heart disease," ... blood cholesterol levels were more strongly associated with an increased heart disease risk than CRP or other inflammatory markers"
  • Common Blood Test May Predict Carotid Artery Disease - Doctor's Guide, 10/14/04 - "When the researchers adjusted for other carotid stenosis risk factors, such as age, history of smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and coronary artery disease, CRP was independently associated with stenosis, while LDL was not"
  • Anger, Hostility And Depressive Symptoms Linked To High C-reactive Protein Levels - Science Daily, 9/23/04
  • Anger Linked to Heart Disease - WebMD, 9/22/04 - "healthy adults who had mild to moderate symptoms of depression, anger, or hostility had levels of CRP, a marker of inflammation in the blood, that were two to three times higher than those of their calmer counterparts. And the more negative their moods, the higher their CRP levels were"
  • High C-Reactive Protein Levels May Signal Fast-Moving Heart Disease - WebMD, 9/20/04 - "Researchers found four markers of inflammation, including C-reactive protein, neopterin, MMP-9, and sICAM, predicted rapid artery blockage ... People who had C-reactive protein levels in the middle range had three times the risk of progression than those with the lowest levels"
  • Is Lower Really Better for Cholesterol? - WebMD, 9/14/04 - "The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) reduced target LDL levels from 100 mg/dL to 70 mg/dL for those at the very highest risk of heart disease ... high-dose Lipitor decreased CRP by 38%, while high-dose Zocor reduced CRP by just 17% in the current study"
  • Study Shows Increased Levels of Blood Markers Years Before Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms - Doctor's Guide, 8/5/04 - "RA patients had consistently higher levels of CRP than the healthy controls throughout the 15 years preceding outward disease symptoms"
  • Statins May Provide Anti-Inflammatory Benefit in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis - Doctor's Guide, 7/5/04 - "C-reactive protein declined by 50%"
  • Significant Reduction in Left Ventricular Mass Index, Reactive Oxygen Species Formation and C-Reactive Protein With Valsartan Treatment - Doctor's Guide, 6/18/04 - "Despite very similar effects on BP, there was a significantly higher reduction in LVMI with valsartan compared with amlodipine ... In the valsartan group, CRP levels were significantly reduced"
  • Repeated Treatment Of Gum Disease Reduces Levels Of Inflammatory Factors Known To Increase Heart Disease Risk - Science Daily, 4/8/04 - "in people who had elevated levels of CRP at baseline, removal of dental plaque bacteria by scaling or scaling combined with topical antibiotics produced a statistically significant reduction, bringing CRP levels close to the low-risk level. Both treatments also significantly reduced levels of fibrinogen in patients with elevated fibrinogen levels"
  • CRP Test Little Help in Predicting Heart Risk - WebMD, 3/31/04 - "Now a much larger study shows that these studies overestimated the value of CRP tests .... The newer test adds little to what doctors already know about a person's heart-disease risk from blood cholesterol levels and smoking status"
  • CRP: Identifying Colon Cancer Risk - Physician's Weekly, 3/22/04 - "the likelihood of developing colorectal cancers increased progressively with higher concentrations of CRP"
  • C-Reactive Protein as Independent Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes in Women - Doctor's Guide, 3/8/04 - "Elevated plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, is an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes in females ... C-reactive protein is a sensitive and stable marker for systemic inflammation, and may be a potential target for intervention in healthy subjects"
  • High C-Reactive Protein Levels Associated with Increased Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Doctor's Guide, 2/13/04 - "CRP levels were significantly higher among individuals with intermediate and advanced stages of AMD compared with controls"
  • Link Found Between High C-Reactive Protein Levels and Subsequent Colon Cancer Development - Doctor's Guide, 2/3/04 - "Elevated plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) appear to increase the risk of developing colon cancer" - [WebMD]
  • Higher C-Reactive Protein Levels Appear Associated with Increased Risk of Incident Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 12/11/03
  • Diabetes, Are You at Risk? - Time Magazine Cover Story, 12/8/03 - "Now there are half a dozen studies confirming that if you measure markers of inflammation, and CRP in particular, you can do a good job of predicting who's going to get diabetes"
  • Elevated Systolic Blood Pressure And C-Reactive Protein Linked In Ischemic Stroke - Doctor's Guide, 12/1/03 - "increase of SBP, diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), or pulse pressure (PP) was significantly associated with an increased odds of elevated CRP level ... Moreover, for each 10 mm Hg increase in SBP, DBP, MAP, or PP, the odds of having a high CRP level increased by 72%"
  • Inflammation Adds to Blood Pressure Risks - WebMD, 11/24/03 - "when both blood pressure and CRP levels are elevated, the risk of heart attack and stroke may be as much as eight times higher"
  • Ezetimibe Plus Simvastatin Reduces C-Reactive Protein Levels - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/03
  • Can C-Reactive Protein Make You Older? - WebMD, 11/13/03 - "Every 1 mg/L increase in C-reactive protein was equivalent to the effect [on exercise duration] of being approximately two years older ... At this point, we're not sure if poor fitness level causes the increase in C-reactive protein or vice versa"
  • Zetia (Ezetimibe) Plus Simvastatin Provided More than Twice the Reduction of C-reactive protein in Patients with High Cholesterol Compared to Simvastatin Alone - Doctor's Guide, 11/13/03 - "CRP is considered an emerging risk marker for CHD ... Zetia with simvastatin reduced levels of the marker CRP by 33.3 percent compared to simvastatin administered alone (14.3 percent ... In addition, patients taking Zetia co-administered with simvastatin experienced an LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction of 45 to 60 percent across the dosage range, compared to a reduction of 31 to 44 percent in patients taking simvastatin alone"
  • Metformin Decreases Serum C-Reactive Protein in Women With Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome - Doctor's Guide, 10/28/03 - "During metformin treatment, serum CRP levels decreased significantly at 6 months overall"
  • Heart Risk Factor Shows Up in Kids - WebMD, 8/18/03 - "The factor is CRP -- C-reactive protein. In adults, high CRP levels mean a person is at high risk of serious heart disease. It's a sign that blood vessels are showing signs of inflammation ... high CRP levels were linked to being fat but not to other heart-disease risk factors"
  • Glycaemic Control Important in Controlling Cardiovascular Disease, Diabetes Risk - Doctor's Guide, 8/14/03 - "insulin resistance in the pre-diabetic state is associated with the presence of additional cardiovascular risk factors and increased incidence of CVD ... chronic sub-clinical inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) and other markers is associated with insulin resistance, increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular events ... insulin-sensitising agents such as glitazones may be useful in decreasing sub-clinical inflammation, and statin therapy may lower both cholesterol and CRP"
  • New Definition For Metabolic Syndrome Predicts Coronary Heart Disease And Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 8/11/03 - "C-reactive protein (CRP) level was significantly elevated in those with metabolic syndrome ... minor modifications of the current definition as achieved by adding CRP or lowering the glucose cut-off may enhance prediction of CHD and diabetes"
  • Influence of depressive mood on the association of CRP and obesity in 3205 middle aged healthy men - Brain Behav Immun. 2003 Aug;17(4):268-75 - "Stratification of the sample into three levels of depressive mood revealed a significant association between increased CRP in the obese sample with highest level of depression in comparison to the low level obese depression group"
  • Oral but not Transdermal Estrogen Replacement Therapy may Increase CRP Levels - Doctor's Guide, 8/11/03 - "Transdermal oestrogen appears to have no effect on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after 6 months. In contrast, oral oestrogen may significantly increase CRP concentrations ... CRP is thought to promote the inflammatory component of atherosclerosis, and increased levels may be a strong predictor of cardiovascular events"
  • C-Reactive Protein Plus Established And Haematological Cardiovascular Risk Factors Substantially Linked To C-Reactive Protein And Cardiovascular Disease - Doctor's Guide, 7/10/03
  • When Diet Doesn't Lower Cholesterol - WebMD, 7/7/03 - "Study participants whose CRP levels were originally below average saw dramatic reductions in cholesterol after 12 weeks on the DASH diet. Total cholesterol dropped by almost 9% and LDL, or bad cholesterol, dropped by almost 12%. In participants with higher than average CRP levels, total and LDL cholesterol levels dropped by just 3% each ... This is the first study to suggest that inflammation impacts the response to a traditional cholesterol lowering diet ... Several recent studies have shown that people who lost weight on high-protein, relatively high-fat diets lowered their cholesterol, suggesting that weight loss alone, no matter how it is achieved, plays a significant role in lowering cholesterol"
  • Low-dose Periostat (Doxycycline) Shows Benefits in Patients with Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/02 - "At six-month follow-up, sub-antimicrobial dose doxycyline significantly reduced CRP levels by 45.8 percent compared to baseline values (p<0.05). The drug was also associated with a 33.5 percent reduction in interleukin-6 and a 50 percent reduction in metalloproteinase ... The findings are exciting, since research is now showing that CRP is both a key marker of inflammation leading to future acute coronary events, but also that CRP itself may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis"
  • Effect of metformin and sulfonylurea on C-reactive protein level in well-controlled type 2 diabetics with metabolic syndrome - Endocrine 2003 Apr;20(3):215-8 - "CRP level was significantly lower in patients using metformin for blood glucose control compared with those using glibenclamide, 5.56 and 8.3 mg/L, respectively ... The data showed that metformin decreases the level of circulating CRP, a marker of inflammation, more than glibenclamide"
  • C-reactive protein is independently associated with fasting insulin in nondiabetic women - Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003 Apr 1;23(4):650-5 - "increasing levels of CRP were associated with a stepwise gradient in odds for elevated fasting insulin among both lean and overweight women"
  • Estrogen Patch More Heart-Friendly Than Pills - WebMD, 4/15/03 - "the C-reactive protein increased to an average of almost twice their baseline levels when the women took oral estrogen replacement, but not when they were on the estrogen patch"
  • Birth Control Pill Linked to Heart Disease Protein - WebMD, 4/11/03 - "young women who took birth control pills had twice as much C-reactive protein in their blood as a similar group of women who did not use birth control pills ... It is possible that oral contraceptive use promotes inflammation"
  • C-Reactive Protein Linked to Stroke Risk - WebMD, 4/7/03
  • Ezetimibe Plus Simvastatin Reduces C-Reactive Protein in Patients with High Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 4/4/03 - "C-reactive protein is considered an emerging risk factor and risk marker for coronary heart disease ... the levels of C-reactive protein were about halved when the pooled ezetimibe plus simvastatin results were compared with simvastatin alone. The combination produced about a 34.8% reduction compared to an 18.2% reduction if the statin was used as monotherapy"
  • Statins/Beta Blockers Impact On Certain C-Reactive Protein Levels - Doctor's Guide, 1/29/03 - "Some 93% of the 89 patients who did not use beta-blockers and were in the highest CRP category and had exercise-induced ischaemia, compared with 42% among patients in the lower four categories. Similarly, 94% of the 67 patients who did not use statins and were in the highest CRP category had exercise-induced ischaemia, compared with 44% in the lower four categories"
  • New Heart Disease Blood Test Discouraged - WebMD, 1/27/03 - "hs-CRP is most useful when a doctor is "sitting on the fence" while determining the right treatment strategy for a person with intermediate risk of heart disease. In those cases -- meaning someone who, based on cholesterol, blood pressure, smoking history, and weight, is believed to have about 10% to 20% increased risk for heart attack over the next 10 years -- an elevated hs-CRP could tip the scale toward more aggressive treatment"
  • Bad Boy in the Blood: CRP - WebMD, 1/15/03 - "CRP doesn't just mark risk. It contributes to plaque formation in the blood-vessel wall. It promotes cholesterol uptake ... The most dazzling observation has been that in postmenopausal women, even those with low cholesterol levels, CRP identifies a three-fold increased risk for coronary artery disease ... When they added CRP to these cells, they saw dramatic effects. The cells began to secrete a substance called PAI-1. Increased PAI-1 secretion predicts formation of blood clots and heart disease. It also predicts diabetes and the pre-diabetes condition known as metabolic disorder ... You can lower your CRP levels by doing the same things you would do to lower your cholesterol levels: lose weight, eat fewer calories and a very low fat diet, take the cholesterol-lowering drugs known as statins, and the natural form of vitamin E"
  • Low-dose Periostat (Doxycycline) Shows Benefits in Patients with Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/02 - "At six-month follow-up, sub-antimicrobial dose doxycyline significantly reduced CRP levels by 45.8 percent compared to baseline values (p<0.05). The drug was also associated with a 33.5 percent reduction in interleukin-6 and a 50 percent reduction in metalloproteinase ... The findings are exciting, since research is now showing that CRP is both a key marker of inflammation leading to future acute coronary events, but also that CRP itself may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis"
  • Study finds alcohol may lessen inflammation - USA Today, 11/17/02 - "alcohol exerted the greatest benefit in those with the highest levels of a chemical called C-reactive protein, CRP, which builds up when arteries become inflamed. Some researchers now believe that CRP itself may be a previously unrecognized cause of heart disease ... Although LDL has long been considered the best measure of heart attack risk, about half of people who have heart attacks don't have high cholesterol ... "I think this is a fundamental shift in our thinking about (artery) disease""
  • C-Reactive Protein, IL-6 Levels Tied to Heart Disease in Postmenopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 8/28/02 - "Baseline levels of the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are independently associated with a two-fold increase in risk of healthy postmenopausal women developing coronary heart disease (CHD)"
  • Ulcer-Causing Bacteria Linked to Stroke - WebMD, 7/8/02 - "H. pylori causes ulcers in the stomach ... those who had suffered a stroke from a blocked large artery had significantly higher levels of the more potent strains of the bacteria ... The study also found that levels of a substance known as C-reactive protein (CRP) that indicates inflammation within the body were also higher in the stroke groups. But patients with the potent strains of H. pylori had the highest CRP levels ... treating patients with H. pylori infection may be an easy way to reduce the risk of stroke"
  • Avandia (Rosiglitazone) Lowers Markers for Cardiovascular Inflammation in Diabetic Patients - Doctor's Guide, 6/17/02 - "Rosiglitazone treatment also reduced plasma MCP-1 (75 percent of the basal level; p<0.05) and CRP (70 percent of basal; p<0.05)"
  • New Test Predicts Sudden Death Risk - WebMD, 4/15/02 - "those who suffered sudden cardiac death had higher levels of a substance called C-reactive protein (CRP) ... CRP is released when blood vessels are inflamed ... the findings of this study show that the levels of CRP in the blood are even more telling than once thought ... we can intervene with lifestyle counseling and drugs like statins and aspirin"
  • Combining Statin With Estrogen May Maximise Post-Menopausal Cardiovascular Benefits - Doctor's Guide, 4/5/02 - "Oral estrogen alone increased the median level of C-reactive protein from 0.27 to 0.46 mg/dL, equivalent to a 70 percent rise. On the other hand, simvastatin decreased C-reactive protein levels from 0.29 to 0.28 mg/dL. Oral estrogen combined with simvastatin increased C-reactive protein levels by 29 percent from 0.28 to 0.36 mg/dL" - Note:  Red yeast rice is a non-prescription statin.
  • Another Study Suggests Inflammation May Trigger Diabetes - WebMD, 7/17/01 - "The immune system and inflammation may be factors causing type 2 diabetes ... women who had high levels of immune system substances called C-reactive protein or interleukin-6, or both, in their blood were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes ... Both C-reactive protein, called CRP, and interleukin-6, or IL-6, are considered indicators for inflammation"
  • Cholesterol drug has wider benefit - USA Today, 6/28/01 - [in addition to lowering cholesterol] "Cholesterol-lowering drugs, called statins, apparently work by reducing levels of a chemical known as C-reactive protein. This protein causes inflammation, promotes blood clotting and weakens fat-encased blockages inside arteries, causing them to burst"
  • Blood Test Could Indicate Who Might Benefit From Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs - Intelihealth, 6/27/01 - "Half of all heart attack patients have normal cholesterol levels. A blood test can detect high levels of C-reactive protein - a sign of inflammation"