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Home > Anti-aging Research > Magnesium


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News & Research:

  • Why you need to go with a supplement with the right calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper ratio such as Body Wise Essential Calcium
    • Magnesium--A Forgotten Mineral - Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, 9/97 - "Excess calcium and phosphate also interfere with magnesium absorption. (Thus, taking calcium supplements without adding magnesium could result in magnesium deficiency.)"
    • Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in magnesium absorption in man - J Am Coll Nutr. 1994 Oct;13(5):479-84 - "the overall effect of the high Zn intake of the three groups combined, regardless of the Ca intake, was a highly significant decrease of Mg absorption and of the Mg balance"
    • Zinc -- The Immune System's Missing Link? - Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs, 12/97 - "Supplementing with zinc is quite safe--its only significant side effect is lowered copper levels in the body tissues, since the two minerals compete for absorption. Considering zinc's safety, people should consider taking zinc supplements, especially as they age--being sure to include copper in the proper balance. Most practitioners who supplement their patients' diets with zinc also recommend taking copper at a ratio of 10 mg to 15 mg zinc for each milligram of copper."
    • Calcium, Keep What You Take - Life Extension Magazine, 3/99 - "The final study was a two-year, placebo controlled trial on 225 postmenopausal women. One group received calcium supplements only, the second group zinc, manganese and copper, the third group received calcium plus zinc, manganese and copper, while the fourth group received a placebo. After two years, the only group who experienced an improvement in bone mineral density was the group taking calcium plus zinc, manganese and copper" - [Abstract]
    • Magnesium: The Multi-Purpose Mineral - Think Muscle Newsletter - "If you take high amounts of calcium daily, you may have a magnesium deficiency. Most experts suggest that your calcium: magnesium ration should be 2:1. In other words, if you take 1500 mg of calcium daily through diet and supplementation, you should try to consume at least 750 mg of magnesium daily as well"
  • 9 Signs of Magnesium Deficiency You Should Know - YouTube - Doctor claims that low magnesium can contribute to AFib.
  • Dietary Magnesium and Migraine in Adults - Medscape, 3/22/21 - "Magnesium consumption in the highest quartile (Q) was associated with lower odds of migraine than in the lowest Q for both dietary (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.63, 0.92, p = 0.006) and total (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.99, p = 0.042) magnesium intake in adjusted models ... These results suggest inadequate consumption of magnesium intake is associated with migraine in U.S. adults ages 20–50. Further prospective investigations are warranted to evaluate the role of dietary magnesium intake on migraine" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium: Why you need this mineral for better sleep, mood and more - CNET, 7/20/20 - "Magnesium is important for so many aspects of health. The mineral is involved in more than 300 enzymatic reactions in the body. It's important for bone health, helping to keep your blood sugar levels stable, helping your muscles and nerves to properly function, and keeping your blood pressure at healthy levels ... Magnesium levels also affect your brain and your mood, which is why low levels of magnesium are associated with mood disorders ... Magnesium L-threonate: "This is a specific type of magnesium that's been proven to have cognitive benefits. It was discovered by MIT researchers, and you can get it in supplement form. Research suggests that it may help improve brain plasticity, which may have positive effects on memory, learning and cognition,"" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Study shows magnesium optimizes vitamin D status - Science Daily, 12/14/18 - "magnesium optimizes vitamin D status, raising it in people with deficient levels and lowering it in people with high levels ... Magnesium deficiency shuts down the vitamin D synthesis and metabolism pathway ... magnesium deficiency is an under-recognized issue. Up to 80 percent of people do not consume enough magnesium in a day to meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) based on those national estimates"
  • Association of Serum Magnesium With All-Cause Mortality in Patients With and Without Chronic Kidney Disease in the Dallas Heart Study - Medscape, 8/28/18 - "In a fully adjusted model, every 0.2 mg/dL decrease in SMg was associated with ~20–40% increased hazard for all-cause death in both CKD and non-CKD subgroups. In CKD participants, the lowest SMg tertile was also independently associated with all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.31; 95% confidence interval 1.23–4.36 versus 1.15; 0.55–2.41; for low versus high tertile, respectively) ... Low SMg levels (1.4–1.9 mg/dL; 0.58–0.78 mM) were independently associated with all-cause death in patients with prevalent CKD in the DHS cohort"
  • Low magnesium levels make vitamin D ineffective - Science Daily, 2/26/18 - "Vitamin D can't be metabolized without sufficient magnesium levels, meaning Vitamin D remains stored and inactive for as many as 50 percent of Americans ... consumption of Vitamin D supplements can increase a person's calcium and phosphate levels even if they remain Vitamin D deficient. The problem is people may suffer from vascular calcification if their magnesium levels aren't high enough to prevent the complication ... While the recommended daily allowance for magnesium is 420 mg for males and 320 mg for females, the standard diet in the United States contains only about 50 percent of that amount. As much as half of the total population is estimated to be consuming a magnesium-deficient diet"
  • The top ingredients for cognition, focus and mood - Nutra USA, 7/14/17 - "omega-3 ... Phosphatidylserine (PS) ... B-vitamins ... Vitamin E ... Lutein ... Citicoline ... Magnesium ... L-theanine ... Curcumin ... Resveratrol ... Blueberry anthocyanins ... Inositol-stabilized arginine silicate ... Spearmint extract ... Ashwaganda ... Bacopa ... Teacrine"
  • High, Low Magnesium Levels Linked to Dementia Risk - Medscape, 9/20/17 - "those with low magnesium levels (defined as 0.79 mmol/L or less) and those with high levels (0.90 mmol/L or greater) had significantly increased risk for dementia at an 8-year follow-up assessment ... As serum magnesium levels are not routinely measured in daily clinical practice, our take-away message is to consider measuring these levels in patients at risk of hypomagnesemia ... This includes those who are taking proton-pump inhibitors or diuretics and those with a diet lacking in green vegetables, nuts, and whole grains — "as these foods are rich in magnesium.""
  • With health care cuts looming, low-cost magnesium a welcome option for treating depression - Science Daily, 6/27/17 - "Critical to such body functions as heart rhythm, blood pressure and bone strength, the mineral magnesium plays a role in combating inflammation in the body and has been proven to have an association with depression ... the University of Vermont's Clinical Research Center, and colleagues conducted a clinical trial of over-the-counter oral magnesium tablets for mild-to-moderate depression. Their results showed that magnesium is safe and effective and comparable to prescription SSRI treatments in effectiveness ... Participants in the active arm of the study received 248 milligrams of elemental magnesium per day over six weeks ... positive effects were shown quickly, at two weeks" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium could prevent fractures, say researchers - Science Daily, 4/12/17 - "Bone fractures are one of the leading causes of disability and ill health especially among the aging population and this increases the burden on the health care system. It is well-known that calcium and vitamin D play an important role in bone health. Magnesium is an essential nutrient and is an important component of the bone ... The risk of having a fracture was reduced by 44 per cent in men with higher blood levels of magnesium. None of the 22 men who had very high magnesium levels (> 2.3 mg/dl) in the study population experienced a fracture during the follow-up period" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.  I take two with each meal.
  • There’s no magic bullet for fitness, but magnesium comes close - NYT, 11/17/16 - "Ensuring my son has healthy levels of this mineral is not going to secure his spot on the eighth-grade basketball team, but it will help him sleep well, boost his mood and lower his stress; make it less likely that his muscles cramp; and more likely that he is flexible and energetic. These are good outcomes any week of the year"
  • High Dietary Magnesium Intake Tied to Less Stroke, Diabetes, Heart Failure - Medscape, 12/9/16 - "the highest magnesium intake is associated with a 10% lower risk of CHD (relative risk [RR] 0.90; 95% CI 0.80–0.99) ... They found a significant inverse correlation between the highest and lowest levels of magnesium and risk of stroke (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82–0.95). For each 100-mg/day increase in magnesium intake, risk of stroke decreased by 7% ... They found the pooled relative risk for type 2 diabetes to be 0.74 (95% CI 0.69–0.80), with every 100-mg/day magnesium increase yielding a relative risk of 0.81 (95% CI 0.77–0.86) ... For all-cause mortality, although the association with dietary magnesium was not statistically significant, for each 100-mg/day increase in dietary magnesium intake yielded a 10% lower risk (RR 0.90"
  • Magnesium and Prediabetes -Medscape, 2/9/16 - "Magnesium intake in clinical studies has been around 400 mg/day, which is the recommended dietary allowance of magnesium for men. For women, 300-310 mg/day is the recommended dietary allowance.[8] Only about 50% of Americans aged 1 year or older receive the recommended amount of dietary magnesium.[9] Thus, it may be reasonable to advise patients who are at risk for diabetes to increase magnesium intake"
  • Magnesium intake may be beneficial in preventing pancreatic cancer - Science Daily, 12/18/15 - "The study found that every 100-milligrams-per-day decrease in magnesium intake was associated with a 24 percent increase in the occurrence of pancreatic cancer. The study also found that the effects of magnesium on pancreatic cancer did not appear to be modified by age, gender, body mass index or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, but was limited to those taking magnesium supplements either from a multivitamin or individual supplement ... For those at a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, adding a magnesium supplement to their diet may prove beneficial in preventing this disease" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors and Hypomagnesemia in the General Population - Medscape, 12/14/15 - "PPI use was associated with increased risk of hypomagnesemia (n = 36; OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.36–2.93) compared to no use"
  • Should We Target Magnesium Levels in Patients With CKD? - Medscape, 8/14/15 - "Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist; both human and animal studies have shown that low circulating levels of magnesium are associated with enhanced vascular calcification. In vitro and animal studies have suggested that magnesium plays a protective role through multiple molecular mechanisms ... In summary, a growing evidentiary base suggests that magnesium may be beneficial with respect to vascular calcification and survival in patients with CKD and ESRD. These potential benefits include delay of arterial calcification or reduction in carotid artery intima/media thickness. Observational studies complement these findings, demonstrating that low serum magnesium levels may be an independent risk factor for premature death in patients with CKD, and that patients with mildly elevated serum magnesium levels have lower mortality rates related to noncardiovascular causes" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium Deficiency: The Real Emperor of All Maladies? - Medscape, 5/11/15 - "Magnesium deficiency has been blamed for various arrhythmias, hypertension, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, seizures, leg cramps, restless legs syndrome, kidney stones, myocardial infarction, headaches, premenstrual syndrome, fibromyalgia, chest pain, osteoporosis, altitude sickness, diabetes, fatigue, weakness, and other maladies ... Whoaaa. Really? That is almost everything. Can that be true? Because of the vital nature of magnesium in so many cellular functions, it actually could be true. We simply do not know" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium Intake and Depression in Adults - Medscape, 5/4/15 - "We found a significant association between very low magnesium intake and depression, especially in younger adults"
  • Eight nutrients to protect the aging brain - Science Daily, 4/15/15 - "Magnesium supplements are often recommended for those who experienced serious concussions. Magnesium-rich foods include avocado, soy beans, bananas and dark chocolate"
  • Magnesium, the invisible deficiency that hurts health - CNN.com, 12/31/14 - "Magnesium is involved in over 300 biochemical reactions in your body. It affects everything from your heartbeat to your muscles to your hormones ... only about 25% of U.S. adults are at or above the recommended daily amount of 310 to 320 milligrams for women and 400 to 420 for men ... at least half of the U.S. population had inadequate intakes of magnesium ... a magnesium deficiency may eventually cause noticeable problems with your muscle and nerve function such as tingling, cramping, numbness and contractions (like that annoying eye twitch you just can't shake). In its worst stages, magnesium deficiency could even cause seizures, personality changes, or abnormal heart rhythms ... Since only 1% of magnesium is found in your blood (most is in your bones or organs), a simple needle prick often won't help determine your levels"
  • Calcium Intake and CVD Risks in Older Patients With T2DM - Medscape, 10/20/14 - "Our data indicated that 60.9% and 87.3% of our patients were Ca and Mg intakes below RDA, respectively. Patients whose Ca intake was high or low (81.2%) had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) than those whose Ca intake was moderate (p = 0.043). Furthermore, patients whose Mg intake was low (87.3%) had significantly higher CRP than that of those who took adequate Mg (p = 0.025). The dietary Ca:Mg intake ratios were highly correlated with CRP, platelet counts, and red blood cell distribution (p < 0.05). A dietary Ca:Mg intake ratio of 2.0–2.5 was significantly correlated to lower CRP levels (p = 0.013)"
  • PPI and Diuretic Up Risk for Hypomagnesemia Hospitalization - Medscape, 9/30/14 - "Elderly patients taking proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) were at a 43% increased risk of being hospitalized with hypomagnesemia ... When the investigators stratified patients according to diuretic use, they found that those patients receiving both a PPI and a diuretic had a 73% increased risk for hospitalization (95% CI, 1.11 - 2.70) compared with those receiving neither drug"
  • Magnesium levels vital to brain health as population ages - Science Daily,  11/4/13 - "the human brain begins shrinking after age 25. Structural changes and loss of brain synapses lead to rapid decline in cognitive health ... magnesium deficiency in adults may play a more important role in CI, and more seriously, Alzheimer's Disease (AD), than previously thought ... elevation of brain magnesium through dietary intake of magnesium threonate exerts substantial positive effects on brain synapes in a mouse model of AD, actually restoring aging brains to their youthful conditions ... the 'gold standard' of science, demonstrates that dietary supplementation of Magtein, patented magnesium threonate, can significantly enhance human cognitive functions and decrease symptoms of cognitive impairments ... We know that as we age our bodies naturally lose magnesium. For example, drinking coffee or caffeinated products increases the loss"
  • New brain magnesium research and its role in reversing effects of Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA free download, 9/24/13 - "Magtein is the only magnesium compound that has been shown to effectively raise the brain’s magnesium levels, which leads to enhanced learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in both young and aged animals. In four published preclinical studies, Magtein was found to improve memory, alleviate anxiety and help prevent the decline and reverse the symptoms of Alzheimer’s ... Here, we show that increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed magnesium compound (magnesium-L-threonate, Magtein) leads to the enhancement of learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in rats"
    • Elevation of brain magnesium prevents and reverses cognitive deficits and synaptic loss in Alzheimer's disease mouse model - J Neurosci. 2013 May 8;33(19):8423-41 - "Here, we investigated whether elevation of brain magnesium by the use of a recently developed compound, magnesium-l-threonate (MgT), can ameliorate the AD-like pathologies and cognitive deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD. MgT treatment reduced Aβ plaque and prevented synapse loss and memory decline in the Tg mice. Strikingly, MgT treatment was effective even when given to the mice at the end stage of their AD-like pathological progression ... Our results suggest that elevation of brain magnesium exerts substantial synaptoprotective effects in a mouse model of AD and may have therapeutic potential for treating AD in humans"
  • Hypomagnesemia and Non-recovery of Renal Function in AKI - Medscape, 5/9/13 - "acute kidney injury (AKI) ... Hypomagnesemia was an independent risk factor for non-recovery of renal function in a cohort of critically ill AKI patients"
  • Magnesium may be as important to kids' bone health as calcium - Science Daily, 5/5/13 - "Lots of nutrients are key for children to have healthy bones. One of these appears to be magnesium ... Results showed that the amounts of magnesium consumed and absorbed were key predictors of how much bone children had. Dietary calcium intake, however, was not significantly associated with total bone mineral content or density"
  • CKD and Low Magnesium: Pay Attention - Medscape, 2/6/13 - "When adjusted for differences in age and sex among quartiles, the lowest magnesium group had the highest incidence of new atrial fibrillation events (9.4 episodes per 1000 person-years). The rates for the other 3 quartiles were quite similar (6.9, 7.1, and 6.3 events per 1000 person-years for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively). In multivariable models controlled for the multiple potential differences including glomerular filtration rate, those with the lowest levels of magnesium continued to be at highest risk for the development of atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.02- 2.14; P = .04)"
  • Hypomagnesemia Induced by Proton Pump Inhibition - Medscape, 8/29/12 - "PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia (PPIH) ... Proper identification and treatment of PPIH therefore mainly rests on three pillars: First, serum magnesium monitoring on a regular basis. In event of existing hypomagnesaemia discontinuation of PPIs should result in a rapid normalisation, which may be supported by additional magnesium and calcium supplementation.[60] This step is crucial to exclude other causes of hypomagnesaemia. Second, regular determination of serum magnesium (and concomitant other electrolytes) should be done to monitor the course of recovery. This should be accompanied by urinary magnesium measurements to assure renal magnesium retention. Third, patients with PPIH have the chance to escape hypomagnesaemia by alternative acid suppressants. Therefore, switching to H2RA should be attempted.[45] In cases of insufficient relief from acid related complains under H2RA, tapered or intermittent regimes including PPIs might be helpful. Also here, urinary magnesium monitoring is of benefit as it declines prior to the serum magnesium as an early indication.[61] In most cases reviewed here, supplementation with electrolytes could be stopped after normal serum magnesium was obtained"
  • Magnesium lowers blood pressure, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/13/12 - "In the trials, the magnesium supplementation doses ranged from 120 to 973 mg with between 3 to 24 weeks of follow-up. Although not all individual trials showed significance in blood pressure reduction, by combining the trials, the overall data indicated that magnesium supplementation reduced both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. With the best results observed at the higher dosages"
  • Magnesium linked to better blood pressure: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 2/13/12 - "data pooled from seven prospective studies revealed that, for every 100 mg per day increase in magnesium intake, the risk of stroke was reduced by about 9% ... magnesium supplementation was associated with a 3 to 4 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure and a 2-3 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, with the best results observed for doses over 370 milligrams per day"
  • Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium Intakes and Stroke Risk (printer-friendly) - Medscape, 8/2/11 - "In conclusion, findings from this prospective cohort study of women suggest that potassium and magnesium intakes are inversely associated with risk of cerebral infarction among women with hypertension. We observed no protective effect of calcium intake on stroke risk"
  • Citrate key in bone's nanostructure - Science Daily, 6/8/11 - "At this point, we feel that citrate probably also has a role in the biomineralization of the apatite ... It's also been noted in the literature that as an organism ages, the nanocrystal thickness increases and the citrate concentration goes down ... "and there's also support from clinical studies that citrate is good for bones," adding that one of the leading supplements for bone strength contains calcium citrate ... While calcium loss is a major symptom in osteoporosis, the decline of citrate concentration may also contribute to bone brittleness" - Note:  I read a long time ago that the citrate form of most minerals was absorbed better and have been using that form for some time.  For example, see the magnesium citrate in magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium supplements may ease hot flashes for breast cancer patients - Nutra USA, 6/6/11 - "400 mg per day of magnesium oxide for 4 weeks was associated with a 41.4 percent reduction in the frequency of hot flashes ... The intensity of the hot flashes was also reduced as a result of magnesium supplementation by about 50 percent" - [Abstract]
  • Magnesium deficiency: Not always a nutritional problem - Science Daily, 3/15/11
  • Long-Term PPI Use Associated With Low Magnesium - Medscape, 3/2/11 - "Long-term use of prescription proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) can be associated with hypomagnesemia, which can in turn cause serious muscle spasms (tetany), arrhythmias, and seizures, but may instead be asymptomatic ... In about 25% of cases reported to and reviewed by the FDA, magnesium supplementation alone was insufficient for correcting hypomagnesemia ... The drugs in question include esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium, AstraZeneca), dexlansoprazole (Dexilant, Takeda), omeprazole (Prilosec, Astra-Zeneca; also available OTC), omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zergerid, AstraZeneca; also available OTC), lansoprazole (Prevacid, Novartis; also available OTC) pantoprazole soidum (Protonix, Wyeth/Pfizer; and generics) rabeprazole sodium (AcipHex, Eisai and Ortho-MacNeil), and esomeprazole magnesium/naproxen (Vimovo, AstraZeneca)"
  • Magnesium sulfate may offer protection from cerebral palsy - Science Daily, 2/10/11 - "The study concluded that Mg treatment significantly reduced evidence of neonatal brain injury associated with maternal LPS. These studies suggest that maternal Mg therapy may be most effective in human preterm deliveries associated with maternal/fetal inflammation"
  • Serum Magnesium and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Medscape, 10/19/10 - "sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... SCD was inversely associated with serum Mg (P for linear trend < .0001). Compared with the lowest quartile of Mg, the risk of SCD was 55% lower (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31–0.67) in the highest Mg quartile and 47% lower in the second highest quartile (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38–0.74)"
  • Magnesium may decrease colon cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 3/15/10 - "Intakes of the mineral of at least 327 milligrams per day were found to reduce the risk of colon cancer by 52 per cent, compared to intakes less than 238 milligrams per day, while no benefits were observed in women" - [Abstract]
  • Remember magnesium if you want to remember: Synthetic supplement improves memory and staves off age-related memory loss - Science Daily, 2/22/10 - "magnesium, a key nutrient for the functioning of memory, may be even more critical than previously thought for the neurons of children and healthy brain cells in adults ... In the study, two groups of rats ate normal diets containing a healthy amount of magnesium from natural sources. The first group was given a supplement of MgT, while the control group had only its regular diet. Behavioral tests showed that cognitive functioning improved in the rats in the first group and also demonstrated an increase of synapses in the brain -- connective nerve endings that carry memories in the form of electrical impulses from one part of the brain to the other"
  • Magnesium May Improve Memory - WebMD, 1/27/10 - "increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed compound, magnesium-L-threonate (MgT), improves learning abilities, working memory, and short- and-long-term memory in rats. The magnesium also helped older rats perform better on a battery of learning tests ... The researchers cite that only 32% of Americans get the recommended daily allowance of magnesium"
  • Most men deficient in key nutrients - MSNBC, 6/19/09 - "studies show that 77 percent of men don't take in enough magnesium, that many of us are deficient in vitamin D, and that the vitamin B12 in our diets may be undermined by a common heartburn medication. And we haven't even mentioned our problems with potassium and iodine"
  • Magnesium may benefit blood pressure in hypertensives - Nutra USA, 5/19/09 - "receive either daily supplements of 300 mg of elemental magnesium in the magnesium oxide form or placebo for 12 weeks ... At the end of the study, no significant differences were observed between the magnesium or placebo groups. However, when the researchers looked specifically at hypertensives, significant decreases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed in the magnesium group (17.1 and 3.4 mmHg, respectively), compared to placebo (6.7 and 0.8 mmHg, respectively)" - [Abstract]
  • Magnesium Supplement Reviews - ConsumerLab.com, 5/19/09 - "25% did not meet quality standards according to our magnesium tests"
  • Low magnesium levels may increase stroke risk - Nutra USA, 4/22/09 - "Blood levels of magnesium were negatively associated with the risk of stroke, they said, with levels of 1.6, 1.7, and 1.8 mEq/L linked to a 22, 30, and 25 per cent reduction in stroke, respectively, compared to 1.5 mEq/L "
  • Calcium May Only Protect Against Colorectal Cancer In Presence Of Magnesium - Science Daily, 11/16/08 - "supplementation of calcium only reduced the risk of adenoma recurrence if the ratio of calcium to magnesium was low and remained low during treatment. "The risk of colorectal cancer adenoma recurrence was reduced by 32 percent among those with baseline calcium to magnesium ratio below the median in comparison to no reduction for those above the median"
  • Magnesium linked to fewer gallstones - Nutra USA, 2/26/08 - "After adjusting the results to account for age differences, which may affect the results, Tsai and co-workers calculated that men with the highest levels of magnesium intake (454 mg/d) were 28 per cent less likely to develop gallstones, compared to men with the lowest average intake (262 mg/d)" - [Abstract]
  • Magnesium Intake May Cut Risk of Gallstones - Medscape, 2/22/08 - "Magnesium deficiency is known to cause elevated triglyceride levels and decreased HDL cholesterol levels, both of which may raise the risk of gallstones ... Compared with the lowest quintile of total magnesium intake (median 262 mg/day), the highest quintile of intake (454 mg/day) reduced the risk of gallstone disease by 33%"
  • Migraine Patients May Benefit From Magnesium or CoQ10 - Clinical Psychiatry News, 8/07 - "The most important supplement, according to Dr. Mauskop, is magnesium. “It's known that up to 50% of people with acute migraine have a magnesium deficiency. … It is much more effective to treat them with a product they're deficient in rather than using drugs,” ... Research has found that, for migraine, CoQ10 at 300 mg/day is effective, and that for Parkinson's disease 1,200 mg/day is effective"
  • Grain Fiber And Magnesium Intake Associated With Lower Risk For Diabetes - Science Daily, 5/14/07 - "those who consumed the most cereal fiber had a 33 percent lower risk of developing diabetes than those who took in the least, while those who consumed the most magnesium had a 23 percent lower risk than those who consumed the least. There was no association between fruit or vegetable fiber and diabetes risk"
  • Dietary Magnesium May Reduce Risk for Diabetes in Black Women - Medscape, 10/9/06 - "41,186 women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study ... Higher magnesium intakes in the highest vs the lowest quintile were associated with lower incidence of diabetes mellitus with an adjusted HR of 0.69"
  • Need More Magnesium? - Dr. Weil, 6/29/06 - "a diet rich in magnesium appears to protect against metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors that can lead to diabetes and heart disease"
  • Magnesium Lowers Heart, Diabetes Risks - WebMD, 3/27/06 - "people in the study who consumed the most magnesium had a 31% lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome, compared with people who ate the least"
  • Magnesium Prevents Osteoporosis - Healthwell, 2/9/06 - "a higher magnesium intake was associated with greater whole-body bone mineral density, after adjusting for calcium and vitamin D intake, level of exercise, use of estrogen medication, and other factors known to be related to bone health"
  • More support for magnesium against colon cancer - Nutra USA, 1/31/06 - "The hazard ratio, a measure of the risk, was statistically 25 per cent lower for the volunteers with the highest intake of magnesium (more than 356 mg per day)"
  • Magnesium In Your Diet Could Lead To Stronger Bones - Science Daily, 12/22/05
  • Dietary Magnesium Could Lead to Stronger Bones - Doctor's Guide, 12/21/05 - "For every 100 milligram per day increase in magnesium intake, data showed a 1% increase in bone density ... this link was only true for the older white men and women"
  • Magnesium could reduce osteoporosis risk - Nutra USA, 12/8/05 - "Higher Mg intake through diet and supplements was positively associated with total-body [bone mineral density] BMD in older white men and women. For every 100 mg per day increase in Mg, there was an approximate 2 per cent increase in whole-body BMD"
  • Magnesium Intake and Bone Mineral Density - Medscape, 11/8/05 - "The mean intakes of Mg by race-sex subgroup are listed in Table 2 . Less than 26% of the cohort met the RDA for Mg ... twenty-five percent of the cohort took a Mg-containing supplement; the mean dose was 83 mg ... RDA of 420 mg/d" - See magnesium at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium Deficiency in Obese Children May Be Linked to Insulin Resistance - Medscape, 5/9/05 - "Magnesium deficiency in obese children is associated with the development of insulin resistance"
  • Focus on Magnesium - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 3/3/05 - "Double-blind studies in people with CFS have shown magnesium supplementation significantly improved energy levels, better emotional state, and less pain"
  • MIT: Magnesium May Reverse Middle-age Memory Loss - Science Daily, 12/27/04 - "In the cover story of the Dec. 2 issue of Neuron, MIT researchers report a possible new role for magnesium: helping maintain memory function in middle age and beyond ... magnesium helps regulate a key brain receptor important for learning and memory"
  • What to take to keep diabetes at bay - Delicious Living, 12/04 - "Recent research suggests that magnesium keeps blood sugars from rising too high, thus staving off diabetes"
  • Magnesium in Hypertension Prevention and Control - Life Extension Magazine, 9/04 - "Magnesium is one of the body’s most important minerals. ... Magnesium is a major factor in relaxing the smooth muscles within the blood vessels, thereby reducing peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.11-13 In addition, magnesium reduces nerve and muscle excitability, stabilizes cardiac conductivity, and influences neurochemical transmission.11,13,14 Magnesium also affects circulating levels of norepinephrine and the synthesis of serotonin and nitric oxide"
  • Americans Need More Magnesium in Diet - WebMD, 7/23/04 - "nearly two-thirds of us may not be getting enough magnesium ... Adult men need 400-420 mg/day while adult women need 310-320 mg /day"
  • Lack Energy? Maybe It's Your Magnesium Level - Science Daily, 5/10/04 - "inadequate magnesium is associated with a need for increased oxygen during exercise. They found that during moderate activity, those with low magnesium levels in muscle are likely to use more energy—and therefore to tire more quickly—than those with adequate levels"  - See magnesium at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium may reduce risk of diabetes - MSNBC, 5/7/04 - "The conclusions of these three studies are generally supported by earlier large population studies. Laboratory studies suggest that magnesium influences the action of insulin in the body. A lack of magnesium may worsen insulin resistance, triggering the onset of diabetes" - See magnesium at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Magnesium May Help Prevent Development of Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 12/23/03 - "Magnesium-containing foods can prevent development of type 2 diabetes in both men and women ... Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of total magnesium intake ... was 0.66 ... in women and 0.67 in men"
  • Low Dietary Magnesium Changes Cardiac Rhythm - Doctor's Guide, 3/4/02 - "Low intakes of dietary magnesium may increase supraventricular ectopy ... people who live in areas with soft water, who use diuretics, or who are predisposed to magnesium loss may need to take in more dietary magnesium than others ... Magnesium is central to a variety of cellular mechanisms that control activity of muscle and nerve cells. Cardiac muscle seems to have been more sensitive to this intake than was skeletal muscle ... They point out some women may habitually eat a diet similar to the one in this study and for long periods of time"
  • Got Magnesium? Those With Heart Disease Should - WebMD, 11/9/00 - "Similar magnesium supplements are available over-the-counter in the U.S., but they might not provide similar benefits. "The product we used is from Germany, where supplements of this kind are regulated and quality is monitored," Merz says. "Because that is not the case in the U.S., it is impossible to know what you are getting in a supplement, or even whether it contains any magnesium at all.""
  • More Than Half of All Women Report: 'We're Stressed!', Experts Say Diet, Supplements May Be the Answer - WebMD, 6/2/00 - ""Stress affects nutrient needs by reducing absorption, increasing excretion, [and] altering how the body uses -- or increasing the daily requirements for -- certain nutrients," she says. For example, the body releases stress hormones, such as cortisol, during stressful times, and these stress hormones deplete your body's supply of magnesium -- an element that plays a role the body's use of energy."


  • Serum Magnesium Is Inversely Associated With Heart Failure, Atrial Fibrillation, and Microvascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes - Diabetes Care 2021 Aug - "We investigated whether serum magnesium (Mg2+) was prospectively associated with macro- or microvascular complications and mediated by glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), in type 2 diabetes (T2D) ... The average baseline serum Mg2+ concentration was 0.80 ± 0.08 mmol/L. During 6.1 years of follow-up, serum Mg2+ was inversely associated with major macrovascular, 0.87 (95% CI 0.76; 1.00); HF, 0.76 (95% CI 0.62; 0.93); and AF, 0.59 (95% CI 0.49; 0.72). Serum Mg2+ was not associated with AMI, CHD, CVA, and PAD. During 5.1 years of follow-up, serum Mg2+ was inversely associated with overall microvascular events, 0.85 (95% CI 0.78; 0.91); 0.89 (95% CI 0.82; 0.96) for CKD, 0.77 (95% CI 0.61; 0.98) for diabetic retinopathy, and 0.85 (95% CI 0.78; 0.92) for diabetic foot. HbA1c mediated the associations of serum Mg2+ with HF, overall microvascular events, diabetic retinopathy, and diabetic foot." - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Changes in Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Middle School Students: Using Data from the HEALTHY Study - J Nutr 2021 Jul 27 - "The difference in dietary magnesium intake was significantly related to changes in BMI percentile from 6th to 8th grade in intervention and in control schools ... We conclude that a multi-component intervention was associated with reduced risk in T2DM, and may be modulated, in part, by magnesium. The differences in dietary magnesium intake from 6th to 8th grade were negatively related to changes in BMI percentile among middle school students"
  • Anxiolytic effect of chronic intake of supplemental magnesium chloride in rat - Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 9 - "Evidence suggest that magnesium dietary supplementation has several health benefits including lowering blood pressure, reducing insulin resistance, and improving symptoms of depression, anxiety, and migraine ... Our results show that rats supplemented with magnesium had a statistically significant decrease in anxiety levels with not effects on locomotion and a statistically significant increase in concentration of magnesium in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. However, the anxiolytic effect of magnesium supplementation washes-out in 12 days" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Association of Serum Magnesium Levels With Risk of Intracranial Aneurysm: A Mendelian Randomization Study - Neurology 2021 Jun 22 - "Magnesium has been implicated in regulating blood pressure and vascular endothelial cell function, but its role in the pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysm is not know ... This study provides evidence to support that increased serum magnesium concentrations reduce the risk of intracranial aneurysm and associated hemorrhage" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium intake was inversely associated with hostility among American young adults - Nutr Res 2021 May;89:35-44 - "We hypothesize that high total magnesium intake is associated with lower levels of hostility because of its putative antidepressant mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, we prospectively analyzed data in 4,716 young adults aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986) from four U.S. cities over five years of follow-up using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study ... After adjustment for socio-demographic and major lifestyle factors, a significant inverse association was observed between magnesium intake and hostility level over 5 years of follow-up. Beta coefficients (95% CI) across higher quintiles of magnesium intake were 0 (reference), -1.28 (-1.92, -0.65), -1.45 (-2.09, -0.81), -1.41 (-2.08, -0.75) and -2.16 (-2.85, -1.47), respectively (Plinear-trend<.01). The inverse association was independent of socio-demographic and major lifestyle factors, supplement use, and depression status at year 5. This prospective study provides evidence that in young adults, high magnesium intake was inversely associated with hostility level independent of socio-demographic and major lifestyle factors" - [Nutra USA]
  • Magnesium Strongly Tied to Lower Risk for Intracranial Aneurysm - Medscape, 6/30/21 - "The effects may be partially mediated by magnesium's influence on systolic blood pressure ... These results suggest that raising serum magnesium levels ― through a magnesium-rich diet or magnesium supplementation ― "may play a role in the primary prevention of intracranial aneurysm and associated hemorrhage,""
  • A combination of green tea, rhodiola, magnesium and B vitamins modulates brain activity and protects against the effects of induced social stress in healthy volunteers - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 26 - "Green tea and rhodiola have been shown to modulate EEG oscillatory brain activity associated with relaxation and stress perception ... The combined treatment significantly increased EEG resting state theta (p < .02) - considered indicative of a relaxed, alert state, attenuated subjective stress, anxiety and mood disturbance, and heightened subjective and autonomic arousal ... Conclusions: Mg, B vitamins, rhodiola and green tea extracts are a promising combination of ingredients that may enhance coping capacity and offer protection from the negative effects of stress exposure" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com, rhodiola rosea at Amazon.com, Magtein at Amazon.com and B complex supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium supplementation reduces inflammation in rats with induced chronic kidney disease - Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Apr 18 - "Inflammation is a common feature in chronic kidney disease (CKD) that appears specifically associated with cardiovascular derangements in CKD patients. Observational studies have revealed a link between low Mg levels and inflammation ... Mg supplementation reduced inflammation associated with CKD, exerting a direct effect on vascular cells. These findings support a possible beneficial effect of Mg supplementation along the clinical management of CKD patients"
  • Magnesium in Aging, Health and Diseases - Nutrients 2021 Jan 30 - "Several changes of magnesium (Mg) metabolism have been reported with aging, including diminished Mg intake, impaired intestinal Mg absorption and renal Mg wasting. Mild Mg deficits are generally asymptomatic and clinical signs are usually non-specific or absent. Asthenia, sleep disorders, hyperemotionality, and cognitive disorders are common in the elderly with mild Mg deficit, and may be often confused with age-related symptoms. Chronic Mg deficits increase the production of free radicals which have been implicated in the development of several chronic age-related disorders. Numerous human diseases have been associated with Mg deficits, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and stroke, cardio-metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus, airways constrictive syndromes and asthma, depression, stress-related conditions and psychiatric disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementia syndromes, muscular diseases (muscle pain, chronic fatigue, and fibromyalgia), bone fragility, and cancer. Dietary Mg and/or Mg consumed in drinking water (generally more bioavailable than Mg contained in food) or in alternative Mg supplements should be taken into consideration in the correction of Mg deficits. Maintaining an optimal Mg balance all through life may help in the prevention of oxidative stress and chronic conditions associated with aging"
  • Magnesium intake is associated with a reduced risk of incident liver cancer, based on an analysis of the NIH-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study prospective cohort - Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Dec 16 - "Higher magnesium intake was independently associated with a lower risk of liver cancer (P-trend = 0.005), with intakes in the highest compared with lowest quartile associated with 35% lower risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.87). The dose-related inverse association was more pronounced in moderate and heavy alcohol users (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82; P-trend = 0.006), and this interaction was statistically significant ... Based on a prospective cohort analysis, we demonstrated that magnesium intake is associated with a lower risk of primary liver cancer, which was more pronounced among moderate and heavy alcohol users" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D, magnesium, calcium, and their interaction in relation to colorectal cancer recurrence and all-cause mortality - Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Mar 19 - "An inverse association between magnesium intake (HRQ3 vs. Q1: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95 and HRQ4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.35, 1.21), but not calcium intake, and all-cause mortality was observed. When investigating the interaction between 25(OH)D3 and magnesium, we observed the lowest risk of all-cause mortality in patients with sufficient vitamin D concentrations (≥50 nmol/L) and a high magnesium intake (median split) (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.89) compared with patients who were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L) and had a low magnesium intake. No interactions between calcium and vitamin D in relation to all-cause mortality were observed ... Our findings suggest that the presence of an adequate status of 25(OH)D3 in combination with an adequate magnesium intake is essential in lowering the risk of mortality in CRC patients, yet the underlying mechanism should be studied. In addition, diet and lifestyle intervention studies are needed to confirm our findings"
  • Association of Magnesium Consumption with Type 2 Diabetes and Glucose Metabolism: a Systematic Literature Review and Pooled Study with Trial Sequential Analysis - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2019 Nov 22 - "Compared to the lowest magnesium intake, the highest level was associated with a 22% lower risk for T2D; the risk was reduced by 6% for each 100 mg increment in daily magnesium intake. Additional analysis of 26 RCTs (1168 participants) was performed, revealing that magnesium supplementation significantly reduced the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level (SMD, -0.32 [95% CI, -0.59 to -0.05], 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2-h OGTT) result (SMD, -0.30 [-0.58 to -0.02]), fasting insulin level (SMD, -0.17 [-0.30 to -0.04]), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score (SMD, -0.41 [-0.71 to -0.11]), triglyceride (TG) level, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). TSA showed an inverse association, with most benefits of magnesium supplementation on glucose metabolism being stable. In conclusion, magnesium intake has an inverse dose-response association with T2D incidence, and supplementation appears to be advisable in terms of glucose parameters in T2D/high-risk individuals" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Association of low serum magnesium with diabetes and hypertension: findings from Qatar Biobank Study - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019 Oct 31 - "magnesium related dietary pattern (MRDP) ... Prediabetes was defined as HbA1c between 5.7% and 6.4%. Subclinical magnesium deficiency was defined as serum magnesium <0.85 mmol/L ... The prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes and subclinical magnesium deficiency was 18.9%, 11.5% and 59.5%, respectively. Across the quartiles of serum magnesium from high to low, the prevalence ratios (PR 95%CI) for diabetes were 1.00, 1.35, 1.88, and 2.70 (95%CI 2.38-3.05), respectively (p for trend <0.001). The presence of hypertension significantly increased the probability of diabetes along a wide range of low serum magnesium. A low intake of MRDP was also positively associated with diabetes and high HbA1c ... Subclinical magnesium deficiency is common in Qatar and associates with diabetes, prediabetes and hypertension in Qatari adults"
  • Associations between calcium and magnesium intake and the risk of incident gastric cancer, a prospective cohort analysis of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study - Int J Cancer. 2019 Aug 31 - "We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to estimate the association between calcium and magnesium intakes with risk of incident gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) overall and by anatomic location, noncardia (NCGA) and cardia (CGA). A total of 536,403 respondents (59% males, 41% females) were included for analysis, among whom 1,518 incident GAs (797 NCGA, 721 CGA) occurred. Increasing calcium intake was associated with lower risk of GA overall (p-trend = 0.05), driven primarily by the association with NCGA, where above median calcium intakes were associated with a 23% reduction in risk compared to the lowest quartile (p-trend = 0.05). This magnitude of NCGA risk reduction was greater among non-white races and Hispanics (HR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.24-1.07, p-trend = 0.04), current/former smokers (HR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.41-0.81), obese individuals (HR 0.54,95% CI: 0.31-0.96), and those with high NCGA risk scores (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.80). Among men only, increasing magnesium intake was associated with 22-27% reduced risk of NCGA (p-trend = 0.05), while for the cohort, dietary magnesium intake in the highest versus lowest quartile was associated with a 34% reduced risk of NCGA (HR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.90). These findings have important implications for risk factor modification and personalized prevention"
  • Magnesium intake and lung cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Jul 15:1-8 - "The pooled relative risk (RR) indicated a significant association between lung cancer incidence and magnesium intake (RR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.98; p = 0.018). To investigate the cause of heterogeneity of these studies (I2 = 75.8%, p < 0.001), we performed a subgroup analysis which was affected by the mean dose of magnesium intake, where doses of magnesium intake lower than 300 mg/d significantly decreased lung cancer risk (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.99; p = 0.034). Increasing magnesium intake doses to over 300 mg/d did not reduce the incidence of lung cancer (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.78 to 1.01; p = 0.076). Our meta-analysis suggests that magnesium intake of less than 300 mg/d may have protective effects in lung cancer."
  • Low serum magnesium and 1-year mortality in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome - Eur J Clin Invest. 2019 Jun 19:e13152 - "Overall, 1-year mortality was significantly higher among those patients who were magnesium deficient (<0.75 mmol/L) when compared to those who were replete (> 0.75 mmol/L)"
  • The Effects of Choline and Magnesium Co-Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters, Inflammation, and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - J Am Coll Nutr. 2019 Apr 23:1-8 - "When adjusted for potential confounders, inflammation and endothelial factors (IL-6 and VCAM-1) decreased significantly in the choline-magnesium group as compared to other groups (p < 0.05). Compared to baseline values there were no significant differences in all anthropometric measurements and metabolic factors among four groups" - See citicholine at Amazon.com and Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Higher dietary magnesium intake is associated with lower body mass index, waist circumference and serum glucose in Mexican adults - Nutr J. 2018 Dec 5 - "The results suggest that magnesium intake is associated with lower BMI, WC and serum glucose in Mexican population"
  • An Oral Combination of Vitamins A, C, E, and Mg++ Improves Auditory Thresholds in Age-Related Hearing Loss - Front Neurosci. 2018 Jul 31;12:527 - "chow enriched in ACEMg ("enhanced diet," ED) ... In the oldest animals, differences in the threshold shift persisted, as well as in the amplitude of the wave II, suggesting a protective effect of ACEMg on auditory function during aging. These findings indicate that oral ACEMg may provide an effective adjuvant therapeutic intervention for the treatment of ARHL, delaying the progression of hearing impairment associated with age" - [Nutra USA]
  • The association between dietary intake of magnesium and psychiatric disorders among Iranian adults: a cross-sectional study - Br J Nutr. 2018 Aug 2:1-10 - "dietary intake of Mg was inversely associated with depression and anxiety"
  • Changes of Blood Pressure and Hemodynamic Parameters after Oral Magnesium Supplementation in Patients with Essential Hypertension-An Intervention Study - Nutrients. 2018 May 8;10(5) - "The participants were asked to consume (daily at home) 300 mg of oral magnesium-oxide supplementation product for one month and to have their blood pressure and hemodynamic parameters (thoracic fluid content, stroke volume, stroke index, cardiac output, cardiac index, acceleration index, left cardiac work index and systemic vascular resistance index, heart rate) measured in the hospital before and after the intervention. Measurements were performed with impedance cardiography. After magnesium supplementation, systolic and diastolic pressures were significantly decreased (mean &plusmn; standard deviation (SD)/mmHg/from 139.7 &plusmn; 15.0 to 130.8 &plusmn; 13.4 and from 88.0 &plusmn; 10.4 to 82.2 &plusmn; 9.0, respectively; both p < 0.001). The two significant hemodynamic changes were the decrease of systemic vascular resistance index (dyn s m²/cm⁵) and left cardiac work index (kg m/m&sup2;)/mean &plusmn; SD from 2319.3 &plusmn; 753.3 to 2083.0 &plusmn; 526.9 and from 4.8 &plusmn; 1.4 to 4.4 &plusmn; 0.9, respectively; both p < 0.05). The observed hemodynamic changes may explain lowering blood pressure after magnesium supplementation"
  • Scottsdale Magnesium Study: Absorption, Cellular Uptake, and Clinical Effectiveness of a Timed-Release Magnesium Supplement in a Standard Adult Clinical Population - J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 Feb 9:1-12 - "Suboptimal magnesium status is likely widespread in the United States and increasing evidence links it to many chronic diseases. Therapeutically addressing magnesium status can be challenging, as higher supplementation often leads to bowel intolerance. This study evaluated the absorption, cellular uptake, and clinical effectiveness of a timed-release formulation containing dimagnesium malate with vitamins B6, B12, and folate (MagSRT™) in a standard clinical population ... More than 75% of trial participants presented with suboptimal serum and RBC magnesium status at baseline, while the magnesium status questionnaire predicted 100% of participants to have suboptimal magnesium status. MagSRT™ was well tolerated by 91% of magnesium intervention participants. RBC magnesium increased 7% and 36% over 30 and 90 days, respectively, suggesting magnesium absorption and uptake into red blood cells over time. Overall symptomatology, assessed through a magnesium status questionnaire, improved 30% over 30 days and 63% over 90 days" - See MagSRT™ at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Magnesium May Be Protective for Aging of Bone and Skeletal Muscle in Middle and Younger Older Age Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Findings from the UK Biobank Cohort - Nutrients. 2017 Oct 30;9(11) - "Our study suggests that dietary magnesium may play a role in musculoskeletal health and has relevance for population prevention strategies for sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures" - [Nutra USA] - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul 19 - "Magnesium supplementation resulted in a mean reduction of 4.18 mm Hg in SBP and 2.27 mm Hg in DBP" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of magnesium supplementation on plasma C-reactive protein concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Curr Pharm Des. 2017 May 25 - "Results of the present meta-analysis indicated that magnesium supplementation reduces CRP levels among individuals with inflammation (CRP levels &amp;gt; 3 mg/dL). This finding suggests that magnesium supplements may have a beneficial role as an adjuvant for the management of low-grade chronic systemic inflammation" - [Nutra USA] - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Dose-Response Relationship between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies - Nutrients. 2016 Nov 19;8(11). pii: E739 - "Compared with the lowest magnesium consumption group in the population, the risk of T2D was reduced by 17% across all the studies; 19% in women and 16% in men. A statistically significant linear dose-response relationship was found between incremental magnesium intake and T2D risk. After adjusting for age and body mass index, the risk of T2D incidence was reduced by 8%-13% for per 100 mg/day increment in dietary magnesium intake"
  • Oral magnesium supplementation improves endothelial function and attenuates subclinical atherosclerosis in thiazide-treated hypertensive women - J Hypertens. 2016 Oct 18 - "Diuretics commonly cause hypomagneseamia ... Hypertensive women (40-65 years) on hydrochlorothiazide and mean 24-h BP at least 130/80 mmHg were divided into placebo and supplementation (magnesium chelate 600 mg/day) groups ... The magnesium group had a significant reduction in SBP (144 ± 17 vs. 134 ± 14 mmHg, P = 0.036) and DBP (88 ± 9 vs. 81 ± 8 mmHg, P = 0.005) at 6 months, without effect on plasma glucose, lipids, or arterial stiffness parameters. The placebo group showed a significant increase in carotid intima-media thickness (0.78 ± 0.13 vs. 0.89 ± 0.14 mm, P = 0.033) without change in the magnesium group (0.79 ± 0.16 vs. 0.79 ± 0.19 mm, P = 0.716) after 6 months. The magnesium group demonstrated a significant increase in variation of FMD vs. the placebo group (+3.7 ± 2.1 vs. 2.4 ± 1.2%" - See magnesium chelate at Amazon.com.  I'm sticking with the Magtein form to kill more birds with the same stone.  See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose metabolism in people with or at risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug 17 - "Compared with placebo (n=334), Mg treatment (n=336) reduced fasting plasma glucose (studies=9; SMD=-0.40; 95% CI: -0.80 to -0.00; I2=77%) in people with diabetes. In conditions in people at high risk of diabetes (Mg: 226; placebo=227 participants), Mg supplementation significantly improved plasma glucose levels after a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (three studies; SMD=-0.35; 95% CI: -0.62 to -0.07; I2=0%) and demonstrated trend level reductions in HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; five studies; SMD=-0.57; 95% CI: -1.17 to 0.03; I2=88%). Mg supplementation appears to have a beneficial role and improves glucose parameters in people with diabetes and also improves insulin-sensitivity parameters in those at high risk of diabetes" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Taurine and magnesium supplementation enhances the function of endothelial progenitor cells through antioxidation in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats - Hypertens Res. 2016 Jul 14 - "Endothelial damage is repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are pivotal in preventing cardiovascular diseases and prolonging lifespan ... Taurine and Mg supplementation increased EPC colony formation in healthy men and improved impaired EPC function in SHRs through antioxidation, indicating that the dietary intake of taurine and Mg may prolong lifespan by preventing the progression of cardiovascular diseases" - See Magtein at Amazon.com and taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Magnesium Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trials - Hypertension. 2016 Jul 11 - "Mg supplementation at a median dose of 368 mg/d for a median duration of 3 months significantly reduced systolic BP by 2.00 mm Hg"
  • Regulation of structural and functional synapse density by L-threonate through modulation of intraneuronal magnesium concentration - Neuropharmacology. 2016 Sep;108:426-39 - "Oral administration of the combination of L-threonate (threonate) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) in the form of L-Threonic acid Magnesium salt (L-TAMS) can enhance learning and memory in young rats and prevent memory decline in aging rats and in Alzheimer's disease model mice. Recent results from a human clinical trial demonstrate the efficacy of L-TAMS in restoring global cognitive abilities of older adults ... The current study provides an explanation for why threonate is an essential component of L-TAMS and supports the use of L-TAMS to promote cognitive abilities in human" - [Nutra USA]
  • Long-term magnesium supplementation improves arterial stiffness in overweight and obese adults: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr 6 - "Our data indicate that a daily magnesium supplement of 350 mg for 24 wk in overweight and obese adults reduces arterial stiffness, as estimated by a decrease in PWVc-f, suggesting a potential mechanism by which an increased dietary magnesium intake beneficially affects cardiovascular health" - [Nutra USA]
  • Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - J Alzheimers Dis. 2015 Oct 27;49(4):971-90 - "Since brain atrophy during aging is strongly associated with both cognitive decline and sleep disorder, we evaluated the efficacy of MMFS-01 in its ability to reverse cognitive impairment and improve sleep ... We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed trial in older adult subjects (age 50-70) with cognitive impairment. Subjects were treated with MMFS-01 (n = 23) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks and cognitive ability, sleep quality, and emotion were evaluated ... With MMFS-01 treatment, overall cognitive ability improved significantly relative to placebo (p = 0.003; Cohen's d = 0.91). Cognitive fluctuation was also reduced. The study population had more severe executive function deficits than age-matched controls from normative data and MMFS-01 treatment nearly restored their impaired executive function, demonstrating that MMFS-01 may be clinically significant" - [Nutra USA]
  • Serum magnesium is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification in the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) study - Nutr J. 2016 Mar 1;15(1):22 - "After full adjustment, subjects in the highest quartile of serum magnesium had 48 % lower odds of hypertension (p = 0.028), 69 % lower odds of DM2 (p = 0.003), and 42 % lower odds of CAC score > 0 (p = 0.016) compared to those with the lowest serum magnesium. The analyses also showed that a 0.17 mg/dL (1SD) increment in serum magnesium was independently associated with 16 % lower CAC" - [Nutra USA]
  • Magnesium Levels in Drinking Water and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Risk: A Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2016 Jan 2;8(1) - "drinking water magnesium level was significantly inversely associated with CHD mortality"
  • Magnesium ions show promise in slowing progression of Alzheimer's disease in mice - Science Daily, 12/1/15 - "in mouse models of the disease oral administration of magnesium-L-threonate (MgT) alleviated cognitive decline by suppressing the Aβ deposition in amyloid plaques in an APH-1α/1β-dependent manner ... The good news about this work is that if it holds up in humans, magnesium is a common element that is readily available"
  • Magnesium status and the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Nutrition, 2015 Oct 22 - "higher consumption of Mg is associated with lower risk of MetS (OR=0. 73, CI: 0.62, 0.86, P<0.001); we also could find a significant but heterogeneous association between serum Mg and MetS (Mean difference (MD): -0.19" - [Nutra USA] - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low serum magnesium is associated with coronary artery calcification in a Korean population at low risk for cardiovascular disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Aug 13 - "low < 1.9 mg/dL (n = 931), normal = 1.9-2.3 mg/dL (n = 32,341), and high > 2.3 mg/dL ... The odds ratio for CAC in the low serum magnesium group compared to the normal group was 2.10 (1.40-3.15, P < 0.001) ... CONCLUSION: Low serum magnesium level is associated with CAC in a Korean population at low risk for cardiovascular disease. Further studies are needed to generalize this finding and to verify the causal relationship between low serum magnesium and CAC"
  • Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy - Nutrients. 2015 Sep 23 - "Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status-primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia-might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium's many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)"
  • Association between magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women - Cancer Causes Control. 2015 Sep 21 - "After adjustment for potential confounding variables, an inverse association was observed in the highest quintile of total magnesium intake compared to the lowest quintile for risk of CRC (HR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.67, 0.94, p trend < 0.0001) and colon cancer (HR 0.80" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Magnesium Is Positively Associated with Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association Between Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Muscle Mass in Women - J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Aug 19 - "Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength are risk factors for sarcopenia, osteoporosis, falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Dietary magnesium (Mg) could play a role in prevention of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, power and strength directly through physiological mechanisms or indirectly through an impact on chronic low-grade inflammation, itself a risk factor for loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength ... Our results suggest that dietary magnesium may aid conservation of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and power in women of all ages"
  • Dietary intake of calcium and magnesium and the metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) 2001-2010 data - Br J Nutr. 2015 Aug 11:1-12 - "Higher dietary intakes of Mg and Ca, individually, have been associated with a decreased risk for the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) ... We found an inverse association between the highest (>355 mg/d) v. the lowest (<197 mg/d) quartile of Mg and MetSyn (OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·86). Women who met the RDA for both Mg (310-320 mg/d) and Ca (1000-1200 mg/d) had the greatest reduced odds of MetSyn (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·76). In men, meeting the RDA for Mg (400-420 mg/d) and Ca (1000-1200 mg/d), individually or in combination, was not associated with MetSyn; however, men with intakes in the highest quartile for Mg (≥386 mg/d) and Ca (≥1224 mg/d) had a lower odds of MetSyn (OR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·93). Our results suggest that women who meet the RDA for Mg and Ca have a reduced odds of MetSyn but men may require Ca levels higher than the RDA to be protected against MetSyn" - [Nutra USA]
  • Oral magnesium supplementation improves glycaemic status in subjects with prediabetes and hypomagnesaemia: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial - Diabetes Metab. 2015 Jun;41(3):202-7 - "At baseline, there were no significant statistical differences in terms of anthropometric and biochemical variables between individuals in the supplement and placebo groups. At the end of follow-up, fasting (86.9±7.9 and 98.3±4.6mg/dL, respectively; P=0.004) and post-load glucose (124.7±33.4 and 136.7±23.9mg/dL, respectively; P=0.03) levels, HOMA-IR indices (2.85±1.0 and 4.1±2.7, respectively; P=0.04) and triglycerides (166.4±90.6 and 227.0±89.7, respectively; P=0.009) were significantly decreased, whereas HDL cholesterol (45.6±10.9 and 46.8±9.2mg/dL, respectively; P=0.04) and serum magnesium (1.96±0.27 and 1.60±0.26mg/dL, respectively; P=0.005) levels were significantly increased" - [Nutra USA] - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Association between intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium and risk of stroke: 2 cohorts of US women and updated meta-analyses - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 6 - "Pooled multivariate RRs of total stroke for women in highest compared with lowest quintiles were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.97) for total magnesium, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) for total potassium, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.09) for total calcium intake. Pooled RRs for women in highest compared with lowest quintiles of a combined mineral diet score were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.81) for total stroke, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.92) for ischemic stroke, and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.04) for hemorrhagic stroke. In the updated meta-analyses of all prospective studies to date, the combined RR of total stroke was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.92) for a 100-mg/d increase of magnesium intake, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.94) for a 1000-mg/d increase of potassium intake, and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.02) for a 300-mg/d increase of calcium intake"
  • Prevalence of Prehypertension in Mexico and Its Association With Hypomagnesemia - Am J Hypertens. 2015 Jan 23 - "The prevalence of preHTN in the Mexican population is 37.5%, and hypomagnesemia is strongly associated with preHTN"
  • Dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population: dose-response meta-analysis and meta-regression - Nutrients. 2014 Dec 22 - "Based on eight cross-sectional studies and two prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risks of metabolic syndrome per 150 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93; I2 = 36.3%). The meta-regression model showed a generally linear, inverse relationship between magnesium intake (mg/day) and metabolic syndrome. This dose-response meta-analysis indicates that dietary magnesium intake is significantly and inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome"
  • Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet Med. 2014 Nov;31(11):1301-9 - "reviewed the relevant literature in PubMed and EMBASE ... A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17%" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Low dietary intake of magnesium is associated with increased externalising behaviours in adolescents - Public Health Nutr. 2014 Nov 6:1-7 - "Adequate Zn and Mg intakes may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ... using a validated FFQ ... Higher dietary intake of Mg (per sd increase) was significantly associated with reduced externalising behaviours (β=-1.45; 95 % CI -2.40, -0.50; P=0.003). There was a trend towards reduced externalising behaviours with higher Zn intake (per sd increase; β=-0.73" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com and Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma Magnesium and Risk of Ischemic Stroke Among Women - Stroke. 2014 Aug 12 - "Conditional on matching factors, women in the lowest magnesium quintile had a relative risk of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-2.10; P trend=0.13) for total ischemic stroke compared with women in the highest quintile. Additional adjustment for risk factors and confounders did not substantially alter the risk estimates for total ischemic stroke. Women with magnesium levels <0.82 mmol/L had significantly greater risk of total ischemic stroke (multivariable relative risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.27; P=0.01) and thrombotic stroke (multivariable relative risk, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.65; P=0.03) compared with women with magnesium levels ≥0.82 mmol/L" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Serum magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium are associated with risk of incident heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul 16 - "A total of 14,709 African Americans (27%) and whites from the ARIC cohort [aged 45-64 y at baseline (1987-1989)] were observed through 2009 ... A total of 2250 incident HF events accrued over a median follow-up of 20.6 y. Participants in the lowest (≤1.4 mEq/L) compared with the highest (≥1.8 mEq/L) category of magnesium were at greater HF risk (HR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.46, 1.99). For phosphorus, there appeared to be a threshold whereby only those in the highest quintile were at greater HF risk [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.34; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.54]. Higher concentrations of calcium were also associated with greater risk of HF [HR(Q5 vs Q1): 1.24; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.43] ... Low serum magnesium and high serum phosphorus and calcium were independently associated with greater risk of incident HF in this population-based cohort"
  • Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on physical performance in healthy elderly women involved in a weekly exercise program: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jul 9 - "139 healthy women (mean ± SD age: 71.5 ± 5.2 y) attending a mild fitness program were randomly allocated to a treatment group (300 mg Mg/d; n = 62) or a control group ... Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) ... After 12 wk, the treated group had a significantly better total SPPB score (Δ = 0.41 ± 0.24 points; P = 0.03), chair stand times (Δ = -1.31 ± 0.33 s; P < 0.0001), and 4-m walking speeds (Δ = 0.14 ± 0.03 m/s; P = 0.006) than did the control group. These findings were more evident in participants with a magnesium dietary intake lower than the Recommended Dietary Allowance"
  • Dietary magnesium intake and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet Med. 2014 Jun 26 - "A weighted inverse association was found between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.59, 0.81) comparing the highest with the lowest group. For every 100-mg/day increment in magnesium intake, the overall risk of having metabolic syndrome was lowered by 17%"
  • Dietary Magnesium Intake and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Jun 9;:1-9 - "When all studies were pooled, the relative risk (RR) of overall cancer for the highest level of dietary magnesium intake was 0.801 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.664-0.966) compared with the lowest level of dietary magnesium intake. In subgroup meta-analyses by study design, there was a significant inverse association between dietary magnesium and the risk of cancer in case-control studies (RR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.475-0.925), whereas there was no significant association in prospective cohort studies (RR = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.745-1.060). Furthermore, there was a significant preventive effect of dietary magnesium for colorectal cancer (RR = 0.775, 95% CI: 0.655-0.919), but not for other cancer"
  • Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels: meta-analysis and systematic review - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Feb 12 - "This meta-analysis and systematic review indicates that dietary Mg intake is significantly and inversely associated with serum CRP levels. The potential beneficial effect of Mg intake on chronic diseases may be, at least in part, explained by inhibiting inflammation"
  • Intakes of Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium and Risk of Stroke - Stroke. 2014 Feb 11 - "36 094 participants aged 21 to 70 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire ... 12 years of follow-up ... magnesium intake was associated with reduced stroke risk (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per 100 mg/d, 0.80 [0.67-0.97] dietary magnesium; 0.78 [0.65-0.93] total magnesium). Potassium and calcium intakes were not associated with stroke"
  • Hypomagnesaemia in patients hospitalised in internal medicine is associated with increased mortality - Int J Clin Pract. 2014 Jan;68(1):111-6 - "Magnesium is the major intracellular divalent cation. Hypomagnesaemia is common among critically ill patients; it's prevalence is not known in patients admitted to general internal medicine ... Retrospective chart review. Hypomagnesaemic patients admitted from 1 October 2010 through 18 November 2010 compared with normomagnesaemic patients ... There was a significant difference in mortality between the normomagnesaemic group (7.2%) and the hypomagnesaemic group (17.2%)"
  • Dietary Magnesium Intake Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Adults at High Cardiovascular Risk - J Nutr. 2013 Nov 20 - "The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55-80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to one of two Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or advice on a low-fat control diet ... median follow-up of 4.8 y ... Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01). Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant vitamins and magnesium and the risk of hearing loss in the US general population - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 6 - "The protective effects of antioxidant vitamins on hearing loss are well established in animal studies but in few human studies. Recent animal studies suggest that magnesium intake along with antioxidants may act in synergy to prevent hearing loss ... analyzed cross-sectional data from 2592 participants aged 20-69 y from NHANES 2001-2004 ... Dietary intakes of antioxidants and magnesium are associated with lower risks of hearing loss" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com and Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Magnesium Intake Improves Insulin Resistance among Non-Diabetic Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome Participating in a Dietary Trial - Nutrients. 2013 Sep 27;5(10):3910-9 - "The dietary intervention study examined this question in 234 individuals with MetS. Magnesium intake was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 6, and 12 months ... After multivariate adjustment, magnesium intake was inversely associated with metabolic biomarkers of insulin resistance (P < 0.01). Further, the likelihood of elevated HOMA-IR (>3.6) over time was 71% lower [odds ratio (OR): 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.12, 0.72] in participants in the highest quartile of magnesium intake than those in the lowest quartile. For individuals meeting the RDA for magnesium, the multivariate-adjusted OR for high HOMA-IR over time was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.77). These findings indicate that dietary magnesium intake is inadequate among non-diabetic individuals with MetS and suggest that increasing dietary magnesium to meet the RDA has a protective effect on insulin resistance"
  • Higher magnesium intake reduces risk of impaired glucose and insulin metabolism, and progression from prediabetes to diabetes in middle-aged Americans - Diabetes Care. 2013 Oct 2 - "In 2,582 community-dwelling participants 26-81 yrs old at baseline, magnesium intake and risk of incident "metabolic impairment," defined as impaired fasting glucose (≥5.6-<7.0 mmol/L), impaired glucose tolerance (2-hr postload glucose ≥7.8-<11.1 mmol/L), IR, or hyperinsulinemia (≥90th percentile of HOMA-IR or fasting insulin, respectively), was estimated among those with normal baseline status, and risk of incident diabetes was estimated among those with baseline metabolic impairment ... compared to those with the lowest magnesium intake, those with the highest intake had 37% lower risk of incident metabolic impairment (P trend=0.02), while in those with baseline metabolic impairment, higher intake was associated with 32% lower risk of incident diabetes (P trend=0.05). In the combined population, the risk in those with the highest intake was 53% (P trend=0.0004) of those with the lowest intake"
  • Magnesium intake decreases Type 2 diabetes risk through the improvement of insulin resistance and inflammation: the Hisayama Study - Diabet Med. 2013 Jun 12 - "A total of 1999 subjects without diabetes aged 40-79 years who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were followed up prospectively for a mean of 15.6 years ... The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of Type 2 diabetes significantly decreased with increasing magnesium intake quartile levels (≤ 148.5, 148.6-171.5, 171.6-195.5 and ≥ 195.6 mg/day, P for trend = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for comprehensive risk factors and other dietary factors, the hazard ratio of Type 2 diabetes was 0.67 (95% CI 0.49-0.92; P = 0.01) in the third quartile and 0.63 (95% CI 0.44-0.90; P = 0.01) in the highest quartile compared with the first quartile"
  • Circulating and dietary magnesium and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 29 - "systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate prospective associations of circulating and dietary magnesium with incidence of CVD, IHD, and fatal IHD ... Circulating magnesium (per 0.2 mmol/L increment) was associated with a 30% lower risk of CVD"
  • Urinary and plasma magnesium and risk of ischemic heart disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 13 - "Urinary excretion of magnesium, an indicator of dietary magnesium uptake, might provide more consistent results ... examined 7664 adult participants free of known cardiovascular disease in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study-a prospective population-based cohort study ... median follow-up of 10.5 y ... urinary magnesium excretion had a nonlinear relation with IHD risk (P-curvature = 0.01). The lowest sex-specific quintile (men: <2.93 mmol/24 h; women: <2.45 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal IHD (multivariable HR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.00) compared with the upper 4 quintiles of urinary magnesium excretion. A similar increase in risk of the lowest quintile was observed for mortality related to IHD (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.61) ... Low urinary magnesium excretion was independently associated with a higher risk of IHD incidence. An increased dietary intake of magnesium, particularly in those with the lowest urinary magnesium, could reduce the risk of IHD"
  • Higher Magnesium Intake Is Associated with Lower Fasting Glucose and Insulin, with No Evidence of Interaction with Select Genetic Loci, in a Meta-Analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 23 - "Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes ... After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [β = -0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.013, -0.005), P < 0.0001] and insulin [-0.020 ln-pmol/L (95% CI: -0.024, -0.017), P < 0.0001]"
  • Low Serum Magnesium and the Development of Atrial Fibrillation in the Community: The Framingham Heart Study - Circulation. 2012 Nov 21 - "We studied 3,530 participants (mean age, 44 years; 52% women) from the Framingham Offspring Study who attended a routine examination, and were free of AF and cardiovascular disease ... 20 years of follow-up ... The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of AF was 9.4 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 6.7 to 11.9) in the lowest quartile of serum magnesium (≤1.77 mg/dl), compared with 6.3 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 8.4) in the highest quartile (≥1.99 mg/dl). In multivariable-adjusted models, individuals in the lowest quartile of serum magnesium were approximately 50% more likely to develop AF (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.52, 1.00 to 2.31; P=0.05), compared with those in the upper quartiles ... Because hypomagnesemia is common in the general population, a link with AF may have potential clinical implications"
  • Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3 - "We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of magnesium intake in relation to CRC risk ... On the basis of the findings of this meta-analysis, a higher magnesium intake seems to be associated with a modest reduction in the risk of CRC, in particular, colon cancer"
  • Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug 1 - "Dietary magnesium might be related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation ... A case-control study on colorectal adenomas (768 cases; 709 polyp-free control subjects) and a meta-analysis of colorectal adenomas (3 case-control studies) and carcinomas (6 prospective cohort studies) were conducted. Dietary magnesium was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires in the case-control study and most studies in the meta-analyses ... The case-control study showed a nonsignificant inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of colorectal adenomas (OR for every 100-mg/d increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.06). However, inverse associations were observed only in subjects with BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥25, in subjects aged ≥55 y, and for advanced adenomas. Associations did not vary by the calcium-to-magnesium intake ratio. In the meta-analysis, every 100-mg/d increase in magnesium intake was associated with 13% lower risk of colorectal adenomas (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) and 12% lower risk of colorectal cancer (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97)"
  • Oral magnesium supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis improves clinical and functional variables: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "Magnesium is one of the most important minerals in the body ... randomly assigned to receive magnesium (n = 22; 300 mg/d) or placebo (n = 22) for 8 wk with a 4-wk washout period between trials ... Shwachman-Kulczycki (SK) score ... Magnesium administration had a beneficial effect on clinical variables assessed by the SK score (change: 4.48 points after magnesium compared with -1.30 points after placebo"
  • Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: The JACC study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jan 28 - "Dietary magnesium intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered between 1988 and 1990 ... median 14.7-year follow-up ... Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men and with mortality from total and ischemic strokes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and total cardiovascular disease in women. The multivariable hazard ratio (95% CI) for the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of magnesium intake after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factor and sodium intake was 0.49 (0.26-0.95), P for trend=0.074 for hemorrhagic stroke in men, 0.68 (0.48-0.96), P for trend=0.010 for total stroke, 0.47 (0.29-0.77), P for trend<0.001 for ischemic stroke, 0.50 (0.30-0.84), P for trend=0.005 for coronary heart disease, 0.50 (0.28-0.87), P for trend=0.002 for heart failure and 0.64 (0.51-0.80), P for trend<0.001 for total cardiovascular disease in women"
  • Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 28 - "Seven prospective studies, with 6477 cases of stroke and 241,378 participants were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. We observed a modest but statistically significant inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of stroke. An intake increment of 100 mg Mg/d was associated with an 8% reduction in risk of total stroke (combined RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97), without heterogeneity among studies (P = 0.66, I(2) = 0%). Magnesium intake was inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.96) but not intracerebral hemorrhage (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.10) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.14)"
  • Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Diabetes Care. 2011 Sep;34(9):2116-2122 - "Meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies involving 536,318 participants and 24,516 cases detected a significant inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk [RR] 0.78 [95% CI 0.73-0.84]). This association was not substantially modified by geographic region, follow-up length, sex, or family history of type 2 diabetes. A significant inverse association was observed in overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) but not in normal-weight individuals (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), although test for interaction was not statistically significant (P(interaction) = 0.13). In the dose-response analysis, the summary RR of type 2 diabetes for every 100 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89)"
  • Low serum magnesium concentrations predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jun 12 - "Low serum magnesium (Mg(++)) levels are associated with future development of left ventricular hypertrophy independently of common cardiovascular risk factors, as recently demonstrated in the five-year follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). As left ventricular hypertrophy has significant prognostic implications, we hypothesized that serum Mg(++) levels are associated with cardiovascular mortality ... median duration of mortality follow-up was 10.1 years ... During the follow-up, 417 deaths occurred. Mortality in subjects with Mg(++)≤0.73mmol/l was significantly higher for all-cause deaths (10.95 death per 1000 person years), and cardiovascular deaths (3.44 deaths per 1000 person years) in comparison to higher Mg(++) concentrations (1.45 deaths from all-cause per 1000 person years, 1.53 deaths from cardiovascular cause per 1000 person years). This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including arterial hypertension, and antihypertensive therapy including diuretics (log-rank-test p=0.0001 for all-cause mortality, and p=0.0174 for cardiovascular mortality)"
  • Influence of magnesium status and magnesium intake on the blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes - Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 31 - "Magnesium status was influenced by kidney depuration and was altered in patients with type 2 diabetes, and magnesium showed to play an important role in blood glucose control"
  • Magnesium supplementation, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and global genomic and proteomic profiling: a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial in overweight individuals - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 15 - "We observed that magnesium treatment significantly decreased fasting C-peptide concentrations (change: -0.4 ng/mL after magnesium treatment compared with +0.05 ng/mL after placebo treatment; P = 0.004) and appeared to decrease fasting insulin concentrations (change: -2.2 μU/mL after magnesium treatment compared with 0.0 μU/mL after placebo treatment; P = 0.25) ... Urine proteomic profiling showed significant differences in the expression amounts of several peptides and proteins after treatment" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Nov 18 - "Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some ISI compared to placebo. Blood pressure and lipid profile didn't show significant changes. The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, overweight, non-diabetic subjects emphasizing the need for an early optimisation of Mg status to prevent insulin resistance and subsequently type 2 diabetes" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low serum magnesium concentrations predict increase in left ventricular mass over 5 years independently of common cardiovascular risk factors - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Sep 21 - "Mg(2+) at baseline (0.790+/-0.003mmol/l, mean+/-SEM) inversely correlated with the difference in LVM over 5 years (p<0.0001, females: p<0.002, males: p<0.024). In the lowest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)<=0.73mmol/l), LVM (187.4+/-3.1g at baseline) increased by 14.9+/-1.2g, while in the highest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)>=0.85mmol/l) LVM (186.7+/-3.4g at baseline) decreased by -0.5+/-2.8g (p<0.0001 between quintiles). By multivariable analysis including several cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive treatment, serum Mg(2+) was associated with the increase in LVM at a statistically high significant level (p<0.0001). LVM after 5 years was significantly higher in subjects within the lower Mg(2+)-quintiles. This association remained highly significant after adjustment for several cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus"
  • Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Am Heart J. 2010 Sep;160(3):464-70 - "sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... Individuals in the highest quartile of serum Mg were at significantly lower risk of SCD in all models. This association persisted after adjustment for potential confounding variables, with an almost 40% reduced risk of SCD (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93) in quartile 4 versus 1 of serum Mg observed in the fully adjusted model ... This study suggests that low levels of serum Mg may be an important predictor of SCD"
  • Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug 31 - "During 20-year follow-up, 330 incident diabetic cases were identified. Magnesium intake was inversely associated with incidence of diabetes after adjustment for potential confounders. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of diabetes for participants in the highest quintile of magnesium intake was 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.86; P(trend)<0.01) compared with those in the lowest quintile. Consistently, magnesium intake was significantly inversely associated with hs-CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen, and HOMA-IR; and serum magnesium levels were inversely correlated with hs-CRP and HOMA-IR"
  • Magnesium Intake and Risk of Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes among Japanese - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Apr;29(2):99-106 - "Dietary intake of magnesium was inversely associated with age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted diabetes incidence in both sexes. In multivariable analysis that adjusted further for cardiovascular risk factors, the association was weakened in both sexes, but the association in total participants remained statistically significant. The odds ratios of diabetes with reference to the lowest quartile of magnesium intake were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.09) for the second quartile, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.59 to 1.07) for the third quartile, and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.44 to 0.94) for the highest quartile of magnesium intake (p for trend = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of magnesium was associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese populations"
  • Beneficial effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and serum lipid profile - Med Sci Monit. 2010 Jun 1;16(6):PI13-18 - "assigned to 600 mg of pidolate Mg2+ daily ... In the Mg2+ supplementation group the OGTT-derived IS indices of Stumvoll, Matsuda and Cedercholm in were increased between baseline baseline and study-end. In contrast, none of these parameters were changed in the control group. Reductions in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels, along with a parallel increase in HDL-cholesterol levels, were evident at study-end in the intervention group, but not in the control group"
  • High Dietary Intake of Magnesium May Decrease Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese Men - J Nutr. 2010 Feb 17 - "When adjusted for potential confounders, the hazard ratio and 95% CI in the highest quintile of magnesium intake compared with the lowest quintile in men were 0.65 (95% CI, 0.40-1.03) for CRC (P-trend = 0.04), 0.48 (95% CI, 0.26-0.89) for colon cancer (P-trend = 0.01), and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.47-2.02) for rectal cancer (P-trend = 0.93)"
  • Effects of magnesium on postprandial serum lipid responses in healthy human subjects - Br J Nutr. 2009 Nov 27:1-4 - "The present study indicated that Mg supplementation could inhibit fat absorption and improve postprandial hyperlipidaemia in healthy subjects"
  • Oral Magnesium Supplementation Reduces Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Patients With Mild Hypertension - Am J Hypertens. 2009 Jul 16 - "In the Mg(2+) supplementation group, small but significant reductions in mean 24-h systolic and diastolic BP levels were observed, in contrast to control group (-5.6 +/- 2.7 vs. -1.3 +/- 2.4 mm Hg, P < 0.001 and -2.8 +/- 1.8 vs. -1 +/- 1.2 mm Hg, P = 0.002, respectively)"
  • Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight Korean adults - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Apr 7 - "These results suggested that magnesium supplementation does not reduce BP and enhance insulin sensitivity in normo-magnesemic nondiabetic overweight people. However, it appears that magnesium supplementation may lower BP in healthy adults with higher BP"
  • The effect of lowering blood pressure by magnesium supplementation in diabetic hypertensive adults with low serum magnesium levels: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial - J Hum Hypertens. 2008 Nov 20 - "Over 4 months, subjects in the intervention group received 2.5 g of MgCl(2) (50 ml of a solution containing 50 g of MgCl(2) per 1000 ml of solution) equivalent to 450 mg of elemental magnesium, and control subjects inert placebo ... SBP (-20.4+/-15.9 versus -4.7 +/- 12.7 mm Hg, P=0.03) and DBP (-8.7+/-16.3 versus -1.2+/-12.6 mm Hg, P=0.02) showed significant decreases, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.1+/-0.6 versus -0.1+/-0.7 mmol l(-1), P=0.04) a significant increase in the magnesium group compared to the placebo group. The adjusted odds ratio between serum magnesium and BP was 2.8 (95%CI: 1.4-6.9). Oral magnesium supplementation with MgCl(2) significantly reduces SBP and DBP in diabetic hypertensive adults with hypomagnesaemia"
  • Long-term effect of magnesium consumption on the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease among men - Am J Gastroenterol. 2008 Feb;103(2):375-82 - "The age-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for men with total magnesium intake and dietary magnesium, when the highest and lowest quintiles were compared, were 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-0.77, P for trend <0.0001) and 0.67 (CI 0.59-0.76, P for trend <0.0001), respectively. After adjusting for multiple potential confounding variables, when extreme quintiles were compared, the multivariate RR of total magnesium intake (RR 0.72, CI 0.61-0.86, P for trend = 0.006) and dietary magnesium (RR 0.68, CI 0.57-0.82, P for trend = 0.0006) remained significant with a dose-response relationship ... Our findings suggest a protective role of magnesium consumption in the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease among men"
  • Long-Term Effect of Magnesium Consumption on the Risk of Symptomatic Gallstone Disease Among Men - Am J Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec 12 - "Our findings suggest a protective role of magnesium consumption in the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease among men"
  • Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis - J Intern Med. 2007 Aug;262(2):208-14 - "The overall relative risk for a 100 mg day(-1) increase in magnesium intake was 0.85"
  • Fiber and Magnesium Intake and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study and Meta-analysis - Arch Intern Med. 2007 May 14;167(9):956-65 - "Higher cereal fiber and magnesium intakes may decrease diabetes risk"
  • Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment - Med Hypotheses. 2006 Mar 14 - "Case histories are presented showing rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major depression using 125-300mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurinate) with each meal and at bedtime. Magnesium was found usually effective for treatment of depression in general use"
  • Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study - Br J Cancer. 2007 Feb 12;96(3):510-3 - "Statistically significant inverse trends in risk were observed in overweight subjects for colon and proximal colon cancer across increasing quintiles of magnesium uptake"
  • A randomized controlled study of effects of dietary magnesium oxide supplementation on bone mineral content in healthy girls - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct 3 - "Magnesium (300 mg elemental Mg per day in 2 divided doses) or placebo, given orally, for 12 months ... Significantly increased accrual (P = 0.05) in integrated hip BMC occurred in the Mg-supplemented vs. placebo group"
  • Potassium magnesium supplementation for four weeks improves small distal artery compliance and reduces blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension - Clin Exp Hypertens. 2006 Jul;28(5):489-97 - "magnesium, 70.8 mg/d; potassium, 217.2 mg/d ... On K+ and Mg2+ supplementation, systolic and diastolic BP decreased 7.83 +/- 1.87 mm Hg and 3.67 +/- 1.03 mm Hg"
  • Oral magnesium supplementation in asthmatic children: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun 21 - "Oral magnesium supplementation helped to reduce bronchial reactivity to methacholine, to diminish their allergen-induced skin responses and to provide better symptom control in pediatric patients with moderate persistent asthma treated with inhaled fluticasone"
  • Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Nov;53(11):1875-80 - "Greater magnesium intake was significantly related to higher BMD in white women and men"
  • Magnesium Intake, C-Reactive Protein, and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older U.S. Women - Diabetes Care. 2005 Jun;28(6):1438-1444 - "women in the highest quintile of magnesium intake had 27% lower risk of the metabolic syndrome ... compared with those in the lowest quintile of intake"
  • Magnesium intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in women - JAMA. 2005 Jan 5;293(1):86-9 - "a high magnesium intake may reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer in women"
  • Magnesium Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women - Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):134-140 - "Our findings suggest a significant inverse association between magnesium intake and diabetes risk. This study supports the dietary recommendation to increase consumption of major food sources of magnesium, such as whole grains, nuts, and green leafy vegetables"
  • Dietary magnesium intake and the future risk of coronary heart disease (The Honolulu Heart Program) - Am J Cardiol. 2003 Sep 15;92(6):665-9 - "When adjustments were made for age and other nutrients (singly or combined), there was a 1.7- to 2.1-fold excess in the risk of CHD in the lowest versus highest quintiles ... We conclude that the intake of dietary Mg is associated with a reduced risk of CHD"
  • Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects: A randomized double-blind controlled trial - Diabetes Care 2003 Apr;26(4):1147-52 - "At the end of the study, subjects who received magnesium supplementation showed ... fasting glucose levels (8.0 +/- 2.4 vs. 10.3 +/- 2.1 mmol/l ... Oral supplementation with MgCl(2) solution restores serum magnesium levels, improving insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients with decreased serum magnesium levels"