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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 1/23/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Female mice exposed to BPA by mothers show unexpected characteristics - Science Daily, 1/24/13 - "Female mice exposed to Bisphenol A through their mother's diet during gestation and lactation were found to be hyperactive, exhibit spontaneous activity and had leaner body mass than those not exposed to the chemical"

Low vitamin D levels linked to high risk of premenopausal breast cancer - Science Daily, 1/14/13 - "women whose serum vitamin D level was low during the three-month period just before diagnosis had approximately three times the risk of breast cancer as women in the highest vitamin D group ... this new study points to the possibility of a relevant window of time for cancer prevention in the last three months preceding tumor diagnosis -a time physiologically critical to the growth of the tumor ... this is likely to be the point at which the tumor may be most actively recruiting blood vessels required for tumor growth ... Based on these data, further investigation of the role of vitamin D in reducing incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, particularly during the late phases of its development, is warranted ... A 2011 meta-analysis by Garland and colleagues estimated that a serum level of 50 ng/ml is associated with 50 percent lower risk of breast cancer. While there are some variations in absorption, those who consume 4000 IU per day of vitamin D from food or a supplement normally would reach a serum level of 50 ng/ml" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Consider Cannabis as Cause of Stroke in Younger Patients - Medscape, 1/22/13 - "because most cannabis smokers are young, patients under 45 years of age presenting with symptoms of stroke should be asked about cannabis use and have their urine tested for cannabinoids ... The authors note that 59 case reports of cannabis-related stroke (mean age, 33 years) have been described. Most cases were in men, with a male-to-female ratio of 4.9:1 ... although only these few cases of stroke associated with cannabis use have been documented, this is probably just the tip of the iceberg ... Nobody is looking for it, and if you don't look you won't find it. Neurologists are not thinking about cannabis as a possible cause of stroke so they don't ask patients about it ... cannabis appears to be associated with multifocal intracerebral stenosis, which can cause a stroke ... The stenoses are caused by shrinkage of the blood vessels and can occur in several different areas of the brain. It appears that cannabis may cause the arteries to constrict"

Regular aspirin use linked to increased risk of age-related macular degeneration - Science Daily, 1/21/13 - "age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which is a leading cause of blindness in older people ... The cumulative incidence of neovascular AMD among nonregular aspirin users was 0.8 percent at five years, 1.6 percent at 10 years, and 3.7 percent at 15 years; among regular aspirin users, the cumulative incidence was 1.9 percent at five years, 7 percent at 10 years and 9.3 percent at 15 years, respectively ... Regular aspirin use was significantly associated with an increased incidence of neovascular AMD" - Note:  This study was in Australia.  The following was in Wisconsin:

Vitamin D and Rheumatoid Arthritis - Medscape, 1/21/13 - "It appears that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with RA, and that vitamin D deficiency may be linked to disease severity in RA. As vitamin D deficiency has been linked to diffuse musculoskeletal pain, these results have therapeutic implications. Vitamin D supplementation may be needed both for the prevention of osteoporosis as well as for pain relief in patients with RA" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Carbs at night can help you lose weight - Today Health, 1/20/13 - "In the study, researchers split 78 Israeli police officers into two groups and placed them on nearly identical 6-month-long low-calorie diets (1,300 to 1,500 calories a day) eating equal amount of carbs, protein, and fat throughout the day. The only difference: Half of the officers ate the majority of their carbs at night while the other half ate them throughout the day. At the start and end of the study, researchers analyzed blood hormone levels while the cops recorded their hunger levels ... Nighttime carb eaters lost 27 percent more body fat than people on the standard diet. Surprisingly, they also felt 13.7 percent fuller at the end of the study than the beginning, while regular dieters were hungrier. What's more, the level of inflammatory hormones -- which can lead to heart disease and cancer -- in the nighttime group's blood decreased by 27.8 percent compared to only 5.8 percent in the standard dieters" - Note:  So maybe carbs at night and eggs in the morning might be a strategy:

  • Eggs at Breakfast May Delay Hunger - WebMD, 5/11/12 - "researchers tracked 20 overweight or obese people, giving them either a breakfast containing eggs or cold cereal for one week. Although the breakfasts offered different protein foods, the meals themselves were equally matched in terms of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat ... people who had eggs in the morning felt fuller before lunch, and they also ate less food from the buffet compared to those who had cereal. Egg eaters also had lower levels of ghrelin and higher amounts of PYY3-36 during the three hours between breakfast and lunch. This suggests they felt less hungry and more satisfied between meals ... Long-term weight loss trials to compare the manipulation of protein quality without increasing protein quantity should be explored"

As colorectal cancer gets more aggressive, treatment with grape seed extract is even more effective, study shows - Science Daily, 1/16/13 - "the more GSE inhibits their growth and survival. On the other end of the disease spectrum, GSE leaves healthy cells alone entirely ... We've known for quite a while that the bioactive compounds in grape seed extract selectively target many types of cancer cells. This study shows that many of the same mutations that allow colorectal cancer cells to metastasize and survive traditional therapies make them especially sensitive to treatment with GSE ... 60 percent of patients diagnosed have already reached the advanced stage of the disease" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.

Semen quality of young men in south-east Spain down by 38 percent in the last decade - Science Daily, 1/18/13 - "Another relevant result is that "40% of those university students analysed in Murcia suffered from alterations in at least one semen parameter (morphology, mobility). Furthermore, all sperm indicators are below the norm in 15% of the sample," ... these data are worrying because "it has been verified in recognised studies that a concentration lower than 40 million/ml makes conception more difficult. If the rate of loss we have outlines continues, with an average decline in quality of 2% per year, the sperm of young men could reach this danger level of 40 million/ml in a very short space of time.""

Which nutritional factors help preserve muscle mass, strength and performance in seniors? - Science Daily, 1/18/13 - "Sarcopenia, or the gradual loss of muscle mass, is a common consequence of aging ... The authors propose an intake of 1.0-1.2 g/kg of body weight per day as optimal for skeletal muscle and bone health in elderly people without severely impaired renal function ... adequate vitamin D should be ensured through exposure to sunlight and/or supplementation if required. Vitamin D supplementation in seniors, and especially in institutionalized elderly, is recommended for optimal musculoskeletal health ... Excess intake of acid-producing nutrients (meat and cereal grains) in combination with low intake of alkalizing fruits and vegetables may have negative effects on musculoskeletal health. Modifying the diet to include more fruits and vegetables is likely to benefit both bones and muscles ... Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin B12 and/or folic acid play a role in improving muscle function and strength" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com, folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.

Chicago Top City for Bed Bugs - ABC News, 1/18/13 - "Here are the top 50 U.S. cities, ranked in order of the number of bed bug treatments. The number in parenthesis is the shift in ranking compared to January to December 2011: 1. Chicago (+1) ... 2. Detroit (+1) ... 3. Los Angeles (+2) ... 4. Denver ... 5. Cincinnati (-4) ... 6. Columbus, Ohio ... 7. Washington, D.C. (+1) ... 8. Cleveland/Akron/Canton (+5) ... 9. Dallas/Ft. Worth (-2) ... 10. New York (-1)"

Honey as a Cough Suppressant in Children: Does It Work? - Medscape, 1/18/13 - "Honey has many potential medicinal benefits, including antioxidant activity. Histograms created by the investigators show that the postintervention scores were lower for every group, suggesting a potential benefit of just being in the study, or a temporal improvement of symptoms. However, improvement was universally much greater for the honey extracts, by as much as 20%, compared with the placebo extract. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not recommend honey for patients younger than 1 year of age because of the potential risk for botulism. The AAP has produced a handout that can be shared with families, and that details several safe alternatives for alleviating cold symptoms in children, including honey. When considering the relatively low cost of honey (compared with OTC cough and cold medications) and concerns over the vasoactive agents in OTC cough and cold preparations, honey sure seems to be an attractive option"

Big Xylitol Trial Finds Scant Benefits in Adult Caries - Medscape, 1/16/13 - "In the X-ACT trial, 691 participants aged 21 through 80 years consumed five 1-g xylitol or placebo lozenges a day for 33 months. Researchers counted the decayed and filled surfaces of their teeth, where decay penetrated the enamel (D<2FS), at baseline and at 12, 24, and 33 months ... the crude annualized D<2FS increment in the xylitol group was 2.69 compared with 2.98 in the placebo group, a 10% lower increment. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance ... other research has led him to believe a larger dose (6 - 10 g/day, in 2 - 3 applications) is more efficacious, at least in children ... Xylitol is not a magic bullet, but that doesn't mean it doesn't work at all ... In addition, xylitol chewing gum may have a mechanical effect of scrubbing plaque from teeth or might stimulate saliva flow more that lozenges ... One reason the researchers chose lozenges in their adult population is that chewing gum is less socially acceptable among adults ... A few patients seem to get caries no matter what you do ... You have to throw everything you have at them" - Note:  I've always felt that people were wasting their time with the lozenges because it's not getting the xylitol to where it needs to be in an effective way.  The study should have been done with the gum.  I'll bet that 85% of the xylitol from lozenges goes down your throat without even touching most of the teeth.  If you're going to pay the bucks for the study, do it right.

Choline supplementation during pregnancy presents a new approach to schizophrenia prevention - Science Daily, 1/15/13 - "Choline, an essential nutrient similar to the B vitamin and found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts and eggs, when given as a dietary supplement in the last two trimesters of pregnancy and in early infancy, is showing a lower rate of physiological schizophrenic risk factors in infants 33 days old ... Choline is also being studied for potential benefits in liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and certain types of seizures ... Half the healthy pregnant women in this study took 3,600 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine each morning and 2,700 milligrams each evening; the other half took placebo. After delivery, their infants received 100 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine per day or placebo. Eighty-six percent of infants exposed to pre- and postnatal choline supplementation, compared to 43% of unexposed infants, inhibited the response to repeated sounds, as measured with EEG sensors placed on the baby's head during sleep" - [Abstract] - See phosphatidylcholine at Amazon.com.

Hidden dangers in fragrances - Fox News Video, 1/15/13 - It's a five minute video on the hidden dangers of fragrances in things like laundry soap.  It's something that's been one of my pet peeves for a long time.  I just bought some Costco dishwater soap and not only does it make the kitchen stink for the next 24 hours but it gives me a headache yet Costco thinks they are doing you a favor with that cheap smell.  Maybe I can get a grassroots movement going against so called "fragrances" by publishing this.

Optimism Linked to Higher Antioxidant Levels - Medscape, 1/15/13 - "for every standard deviation increase in optimism, there was an increase in carotenoid concentrations of 3% to 13% in age-adjusted models ... Antioxidants are good examples of positive functioning because they help to inhibit other molecules from producing free radicals that damage cells and contribute to disease ... Although optimism was associated with an increase in carotenoids, they also found a link to increased levels of vitamin E ... we can't conclusively determine whether optimism leads to healthier levels of antioxidants or vice versa" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

The efficacy and safety of alpha-1 blockers for benign prostatic hyperplasia: an overview of 15 systematic reviews - Curr Med Res Opin. 2013 Jan 16 - "Doxazosin could significantly reduce urinary symptom scores compared with tamsulosin (MD -1.60, 95%CI -1.80--1.40) and alfuzosin (MD1.7, 95%CI 0.76-1.64). Indirect evidence suggested that the urinary symptom score and PUF at end point in men treated with naftopidil were similar to those treated with other α1-blockers. α1-blockers generally lead to more adverse effects compared with placebo, and those caused by terazosin were more frequent than others. Conclusions: α1-blockers are more effective than placebo for BPH, doxazosin and tamsulosin seem to be more effective than other α1-blockers. The adverse effects caused by α1-blockers are generally mild and well tolerated"

Atorvastatin improves erectile dysfunction in patients initially irresponsive to Sildenafil by the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase - Int J Impot Res. 2013 Jan 17 - "This study aimed at comparing the effects of atorvastatin and vitamin E on erectile dysfunction in patients initially irresponsive to sildenafil, with investigation into the underlying possible mechanisms. Sixty patients were randomly divided into three groups: the atorvastatin group received 80 mg daily, the vitamin E group received 400 IU daily and the control group received placebo capsules ... glutathione peroxidase (GPO) ... nitric oxide (NO) ... Both atorvastatin and vitamin E showed a statistically significant GPO increase (P<0.05) and a statistically significant IL-6 decrease (P<0.05). Only atorvastatin showed a statistically significant increase in NO (15.19%, P<0.05), eNOS (20.58%, P<0.01), IIEF-5 score (53.1%, P<0.001) and Rigiscan rigidity parameters (P<0.01), in addition to a statistically significant decrease in CRP (57.9%, P<0.01). However, SOD showed a statistically significant increase only after vitamin E intake (23.1%, P<0.05). Both atorvatstain and vitamin E had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Although activating eNOS by atorvastatin was the real difference, and expected to be the main mechanism for NO increase and for improving erectile dysfunction" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.

Alterations in the Intestinal Assimilation of Oxidized PUFAs Are Ameliorated by a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Seed Extract in an In Vitro Model and CACO-2 Cells - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 16 - "The (n-3) PUFAs, 20:5 (n-3) EPA and 22:6 (n-3) DHA, are thought to benefit human health. The presence of prooxidant compounds in foods, however, renders them susceptible to oxidation during both storage and digestion ... We found that during digestion, the development of oxidation products occurs in the stomach compartment, and increased amounts of oxidation products became bioaccessible in the jejunal and ileal compartments. Inclusion of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) during the digestion decreased the amounts of oxidation products in the stomach compartment and intestinal dialysates (P < 0.05). In Caco-2 intestinal cells, the uptake of oxidized (n-3) PUFA was ~10% of the uptake of unoxidized PUFAs (P < 0.05) and addition of GSE or epigallocatechin gallate protected against the development of oxidation products, resulting in increased uptake of PUFAs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that addition of polyphenols during active digestion can limit the development of (n-3) PUFA oxidation products in the small intestine lumen and thereby promote intestinal uptake of the beneficial, unoxidized, (n-3) PUFAs" - See Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.

Effects of Soy Isoflavone and Endogenous Oestrogen on Breast Cancer in MMTV-erbB2 Transgenic Mice - J Int Med Res. 2012;40(6):2073-82 - "Five-week-old mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV)-erbB2 female transgenic mice (n = 180) were divided into three equal groups: low-, normal- and high-oestrogen groups. Each group was then subdivided into an experimental group (given soybean feed) and a control group (given control feed) ... In the high-oestrogen environment, breast cancer incidence was significantly lower in the experimental versus the control group, whereas in the low-oestrogen environment, breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in the experimental versus the control group"

Vitamin D supplementation in elderly or postmenopausal women: A 2013 update of the 2008 recommendations from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) - Curr Med Res Opin. 2013 Jan 15 - "Vitamin D insufficiency has deleterious consequences on health outcomes. In elderly or postmenopausal women, it may exacerbate osteoporosis ... Patients with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) levels <50 nmol/L have increased bone turnover, bone loss, and possibly mineralization defects compared with patients with levels >50 nmol/L. Similar relationships have been reported for frailty, nonvertebral and hip fracture, and all-cause mortality, with poorer outcomes at <50 nmol/L. Conclusion The ESCEO recommends that 50 nmol/L (i.e. 20 ng/mL) should be the minimal serum 25-(OH)D concentration at the population level and in patients with osteoporosis to ensure optimal bone health. Below this threshold, supplementation is recommended at 800 to 1000 IU/day. Vitamin D supplementation is safe up to 10 000 IU day (upper limit of safety) (resulting in an upper limit of adequacy of 125 nmol/L 25-(OH)D). Daily consumption of calcium- and vitamin D-fortified food products (e.g. yoghurt or milk) can help improve vitamin D intake. Above the threshold of 50 nmol/L, there is no clear evidence for additional benefits of supplementation. On the other hand, in fragile elderly subjects who are at elevated risk for falls and fracture, the ESCEO recommends a minimal serum 25-(OH)D level of 75 nmol/L (i.e. 30 ng/mL), for the greatest impact on fracture" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Coffee polyphenols protect human plasma from postprandial carbonyl modifications - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 - "The antioxidant capability of coffee polyphenols to inhibit red-meat lipid peroxidation in stomach medium and absorption into blood of malondialdehyde (MDA) in humans was studied. Roasted-ground coffee polyphenols that were found to inhibit lipid peroxidation in stomach medium are 2- to 5-fold more efficient antioxidant than those found in instant coffee. Human plasma from ten volunteers analyzed after a meal of red-meat cutlets (250 g) revealed a rapid accumulation of MDA. The accumulation of MDA in human plasma modified low-density lipoprotein is known to trigger atherogenesis. Consumption of 200 mL roasted coffee by ten volunteers during a meal of red-meat cutlets, resulted after 2 and 4 h in the inhibition by 80 and 50%, respectively, of postprandial plasma MDA absorption"

High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women - Circulation. 2013 Jan 15 - "We followed up 93 600 women 25 to 42 years of age from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and the risk of MI. Intake of flavonoid subclasses was calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires ... An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.96; P=0.03, highest versus lowest quintiles) after multivariate adjustment ... Combined intake of 2 anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries, tended to be associated with a decreased risk of MI (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.08) in a comparison of those consuming >3 servings a week and those with lower intake. Intakes of other flavonoid subclasses were not significantly associated with MI risk" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level - Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec 28 - "In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study ... HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively)" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.

Relationship of lycopene intake and consumption of tomato products to incident CVD - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jan 15:1-7 - "To address this potential misclassification, we used repeated measures of intake obtained over 10 years to characterise the relationship between lycopene intake and the incidence of CVD (n 314), CHD (n 171) and stroke (n 99) in the Framingham Offspring Study ... Using an average of three intake measures with a 9-year follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CVD incidence (HR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.70, 0.98). Using an average of two intake measures and 11 years of follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CHD incidence (HR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.58, 0.94). Lycopene intake was unrelated to stroke incidence" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.

Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A meta-analysis of observational studies - Int J Cancer. 2013 Jan 15 - "computer searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual review of references ... A total of 32 studies involving 10,037 cases of ESCC were included in this meta-analysis. The SRRs for the highest vs. lowest intake were 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.69) for vegetable intake and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.44-0.64) for fruit intake (P(heterogeneity) <0.001 for both). Similar results were observed in a linear dose-response analysis. There was evidence of non-linear associations for intakes of fruit (P(non-linearity) <0.001) and vegetables (P(nonlinearity) =0.041)"

Dietary fat increases quercetin bioavailability in overweight adults - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Jan 15 - "Epidemiologic evidence supports that dietary quercetin reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but its oral bioavailability is paradoxically low. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary fat would improve quercetin bioavailability in adults at high risk for CVD and to assess lipid-mediated micellarization of quercetin in vitro ... In a randomized, cross-over study, overweight/obese men and postmenopausal women (n = 4 M/5 F; 55.9 +/- 2.1 years; 30.8 +/- 1.4 kg/m(2) ) ingested 1095 mg of quercetin aglycone with a standardized breakfast that was fat-free (<0.5 g), low-fat (4.0 g), or high-fat (15.4 g) ... Compared to the fat-free trial, plasma quercetin maximum concentration (C(max) ), and area under curve (AUC(0-24 h) ) increased (p < 0.05) by 45 and 32%, respectively, during the high-fat trial"

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's" (2013 Garmins):

Health Focus (Coffee/Caffeine):

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Caffeinated coffee may reduce the risk of oral cancers - Science Daily, 12/10/12 - "Cancer Prevention Study II, a prospective U.S. cohort study begun in 1982 by the American Cancer Society ... 26 years of follow-up ... consuming more than four cups of caffeinated coffee per day was associated with a 49 percent lower risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer death relative to no/occasional coffee intake (RR 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-0.64). A dose-related decline in relative risk was observed with each single cup per day consumed ... Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, and contains a variety of antioxidants, polyphenols, and other biologically active compounds that may help to protect against development or progression of cancers"
  • Moderate coffee consumption may reduce risk of diabetes by up to 25 percent - Science Daily, 12/4/12 - "Drinking three to four cups of coffee per day may help to prevent type 2 diabetes according to research highlighted in a session report published by the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee (ISIC), a not-for-profit organization devoted to the study and disclosure of science related to coffee and health ... The report outlines the epidemiological evidence linking coffee consumption to diabetes prevention, highlighting research that shows three to four cups of coffee per day is associated with an approximate 25 per cent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, compared to consuming none or less than two cups per day1. Another study also found an inverse dose dependent response effect with each additional cup of coffee reducing the relative risk by 7-8 per cent"
  • Caffeine may block inflammation linked to mild cognitive impairment - Science Daily, 10/8/12 - "Freund's team examined the effects of caffeine on memory formation in two groups of mice -- one group given caffeine, the other receiving none. The two groups were then exposed to hypoxia, simulating what happens in the brain during an interruption of breathing or blood flow, and then allowed to recover ... The caffeine-treated mice recovered their ability to form a new memory 33 percent faster than the non-caffeine-treated mice. In fact, caffeine had the same anti-inflammatory effect as blocking IL-1 signaling. IL-1 is a critical player in the inflammation associated with many neurodegenerative diseases ... caffeine blocks all the activity of adenosine and inhibits caspase-1 and the inflammation that comes with it, limiting damage to the brain and protecting it from further injury"
  • Drinking coffee may reduce risk of most common form of skin cancer - Science Daily, 7/2/12 - "Our data indicate that the more caffeinated coffee you consume, the lower your risk of developing basal cell carcinoma ... Basal cell carcinoma is the form of skin cancer most commonly diagnosed in the United States. Even though it is slow-growing, it causes considerable morbidity and places a burden on health care systems ... Of the 112,897 participants included in the analyses, 22,786 developed basal cell carcinoma during the more than 20 years of follow-up in the two studies. An inverse association was observed between all coffee consumption and risk of basal cell carcinoma. Similarly, an inverse association was seen between intake of caffeine from all dietary sources (coffee, tea, cola and chocolate) and risk of basal cell carcinoma. However, consumption of decaffeinated coffee was not associated with a decreased risk of basal cell carcinoma ... In contrast to the findings for basal cell carcinoma, neither coffee consumption nor caffeine intake were inversely associated with the two other forms of skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, the most deadly form of the disease"
  • Caffeine boosts power for elderly muscles - Science Daily, 6/29/12 - "For adults in their prime, caffeine helps muscles to produce more force ... With the importance of maintaining a physically active lifestyle to preserve health and functional capacity, the performance-enhancing benefit of caffeine could prove beneficial in the aging population"
  • High blood caffeine levels in older adults linked to avoidance of Alzheimer’s disease - Science Daily, 6/4/12 - "The collaborative study involved 124 people, ages 65 to 88, in Tampa and Miami ... These intriguing results suggest that older adults with mild memory impairment who drink moderate levels of coffee -- about 3 cups a day -- will not convert to Alzheimer's disease -- or at least will experience a substantial delay before converting to Alzheimer's ... The results from this study, along with our earlier studies in Alzheimer's mice, are very consistent in indicating that moderate daily caffeine/coffee intake throughout adulthood should appreciably protect against Alzheimer's disease later in life ... We found that 100 percent of the MCI patients with plasma caffeine levels above the critical level experienced no conversion to Alzheimer's disease during the two-to-four year follow-up period ... In addition to Alzheimer's disease, moderate caffeine/coffee intake appears to reduce the risk of several other diseases of aging, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, Type II diabetes, and breast cancer"
  • Coffee May Be Part of the Recipe for a Longer Life - WebMD, 5/16/12 - "The study, described as the largest of its kind, found that coffee drinkers had a lower risk of death from heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, accidents and injuries, diabetes, and infections, but not from cancer ... Compared to people who drank no coffee, coffee drinkers who downed three or more cups a day had about a 10% lower risk of death overall and a lower risk of dying from each of a variety of leading killers. Cancer was the only exception .. Among women, coffee drinkers and non-drinkers were equally likely to die of cancer. Among men, there was only a slight connection between heavier coffee drinking and increased risk of dying from cancer ... Although their study can't prove that coffee itself lowers drinkers' risk of dying, Freedman and his colleagues speculate about how it might. Caffeine probably is not a factor, he says, because death rates linked to decaf, preferred by a third of the coffee drinkers, were similar to those associated with caffeinated. But other compounds in coffee, such as antioxidants, might be important, the researchers write"
  • Coffee Bean Extract Linked to Weight Loss - ABC News, 3/27/12 - "Researchers gave up to 1,050 milligrams of green coffee bean extract to 16 overweight adults in their 20s and monitored their diet, exercise regimen, weight, heart rate and blood pressure for 22 weeks. Without changing their diet or exercise, study subjects lost roughly 10.5 percent — an average of 17 pounds – in overall body weight. No harmful side effects were noted ... How green coffee bean extract contributes to weight loss is unclear. But Vinson theorizes a chemical in the unroasted bean called chlorogenic acid could be responsible" - See green coffee bean extract at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee poses no threat to hearts, may reduce diabetes risk: EPIC data - Nutra USA, 3/19/12 - "There was no link between coffee consumption and the incidence of heart disease, nor the risk of cancer" - [Abstract]
  • Exercise and caffeine change your DNA in the same way, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/6/12 - "when healthy but inactive men and women exercise for a matter of minutes, it produces a rather immediate change to their DNA. Perhaps even more tantalizing, the study suggests that the caffeine in your morning coffee might also influence muscle in essentially the same way ... for those who can't exercise, the new findings might point the way to medicines (caffeinated ones, perhaps?) with similar benefits"
  • Why Coffee May Reduce Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 1/13/12 - "The Chinese researchers looked at three major active compounds in coffee and their effect on stopping the toxic accumulation of the protein: ... Caffeine ... Caffeic acid or CA ... Chlorogenic acid or CGA ... All three had an effect. However, caffeic acid was best" - Note:  I've always thought that artichoke extract which is 6% chlorogenic acid would do the same thing:
    • Chlorogenic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Chlorogenic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, a member of a family of naturally occurring organic compounds. These are esters of polyphenolic caffeic acid and cyclitol (-)-quinic acid"
  • Caffeine study shows sport performance increase - Science Daily, 12/14/11 - "Mayur Ranchordas, a senior lecturer and performance nutritionist at Sheffield Hallam University, carried out studies on footballers using caffeine and carbohydrates combined in a drink ... There is already plenty of research that shows that caffeine and carbohydrate improve endurance, but this study shows that there is also a positive effect on skill and performance ... We found that the combination of carbohydrate and caffeine allowed players to sustain higher work intensity for the sprints, as well as improving shooting accuracy and dribbling during simulated soccer activity"
  • Coffee consumption associated with decreased risk for basal cell carcinoma - Science Daily, 10/24/11 - "Data were taken from the Nurses' Health Study (Brigham and Women's Hospital) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study ... women who consumed more than three cups of coffee per day had a 20 percent reduction in risk for BCC, and men who consumed more than three cups per day had a nine percent risk reduction compared with people who consumed less than one cup per month"
  • Increased caffeinated coffee consumption associated with decreased risk of depression in women, study finds - Science Daily, 9/26/11 - "During the 10-year follow-up period from 1996 to 2006, researchers identified 2,607 incident (new-onset) cases of depression. When compared with women who consumed one cup of caffeinated coffee or less per week, those who consumed two to three cups per day had a 15 percent decrease in relative risk for depression, and those consuming four cups or more per day had a 20 percent decrease in relative risk. Compared with women in the lowest (less than 100 milligrams [mg] per day) categories of caffeine consumption, those in the highest category (550 mg per day or more) had a 20 percent decrease in relative risk of depression. No association was found between intake of decaffeinated coffee and depression risk"
  • Harvard study supports coffee’s anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 9/21/11 - "Five cups of coffee per day for two months were associated with significant metabolic benefits and live function ... the metabolic benefits were more pronounced in caffeinated coffee, a result that supports the hypothesis that caffeine is responsible for some of the apparent benefits ... Coffee is also a rich source of polyphenols ... one cup of the stuff could provide 350 milligrams of phenolics ... Of these, the most abundant compounds in coffee are chlorogenic acids, making up to 12 per cent of the green coffee bean. The most abundant of these compounds is caffeic acid ... recruited 45 healthy, overweight coffee drinking 40 year olds ... volunteers were asked to drink five cups of coffee per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water for eight weeks ... coffee consumption was associated with a 60% reduction in blood levels of a compound called interleukin-6, which can promote inflammation, compared with the water group ... In addition, levels of adiponectin – a hormone released from fat cells that plays an important role in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and energy – also decreased in the caffeinated, but not decaffeinated group" - [Abstract]
  • Caffeine consumption linked to female infertility, study suggests - Science Daily, 7/20/11 - "By studying tubes from mice, Ward and his team discovered that caffeine stops the actions of specialized pacemaker cells in the wall of the tubes. These cells coordinate tube contractions so that when they are inhibited, eggs can't move down the tubes. In fact these muscle contractions play a bigger role than the beating cilia in moving the egg towards the womb ... This provides an intriguing explanation as to why women with high caffeine consumption often take longer to conceive than women who do not consume caffeine"
  • The Body Odd - Coffee buzz protects brain from Alzheimer's - MSNBC, 6/29/11 - "the equivalent of four to five cups of caffeinated coffee every few days led to much improved memories in the Alzheimer’s mice ... Earlier research by Arendash and his colleagues showed that caffeine could at least partially block the production of beta amyloid, the sticky protein that clogs the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. They also found that a substance called granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, or GCSF, sparked the production of new axons, the communication cables that link nerve cells together, as well as new nerve cells themselves"
  • Mystery ingredient in coffee boosts protection against Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 6/21/11 - "A yet unidentified component of coffee interacts with the beverage's caffeine, which could be a surprising reason why daily coffee intake protects against Alzheimer's disease. A new Alzheimer's mouse study by researchers at the University of South Florida found that this interaction boosts blood levels of a critical growth factor that seems to fight off the Alzheimer's disease process ... The new study does not diminish the importance of caffeine to protect against Alzheimer's. Rather it shows that caffeinated coffee induces an increase in blood levels of a growth factor called GCSF (granulocyte colony stimulating factor). GCSF is a substance greatly decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease and demonstrated to improve memory in Alzheimer's mice ... The boost in GCSF levels is important, because the researchers also reported that long-term treatment with coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee) enhances memory in Alzheimer's mice. Higher blood GCSF levels due to coffee intake were associated with better memory ... First, GCSF recruits stem cells from bone marrow to enter the brain and remove the harmful beta-amyloid protein that initiates the disease. GCSF also creates new connections between brain cells and increases the birth of new neurons in the brain ... An increasing body of scientific literature indicates that moderate consumption of coffee decreases the risk of several diseases of aging, including Parkinson's disease, Type II diabetes and stroke"
  • Why caffeine can reduce fertility in women - Science Daily, 5/23/11 - "Caffeine reduces muscle activity in the fallopian tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the womb"
  • Coffee may reduce risk of lethal prostate cancer in men - Science Daily, 5/17/11 - "The researchers chose to study coffee because it contains many beneficial compounds that act as antioxidants, reduce inflammation, and regulate insulin, all of which may influence prostate cancer. Coffee has been associated in prior studies with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetes, gallstone disease, and liver cancer or cirrhosis ... Men who consumed the most coffee (six or more cups daily) had nearly a 20% lower risk of developing any form of prostate cancer ... Men who drank the most coffee had a 60% lower risk of developing lethal prostate cancer ... Even drinking one to three cups of coffee per day was associated with a 30% lower risk of lethal prostate cancer"
  • Coffee reduces breast cancer risk, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/10/11 - "Researchers from Sweden compared lifestyle factors and coffee consumption between women with breast cancer and age-matched women without. They found that coffee drinkers had a lower incidence of breast cancer than women who rarely drank coffee. However they also found that several lifestyle factors affected breast cancer rates, such as age at menopause, exercise, weight, education, and a family history of breast cancer. Once they had adjusted their data to account for these other factors they found that the protective effect of coffee on breast cancer was only measurable for ER-negative breast cancer"
  • New evidence that caffeine is a healthful antioxidant in coffee - Science Daily, 5/4/11 - "caffeine in coffee, tea, and other foods seems to protect against conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and heart disease on the most fundamental levels ... coffee is one of the richest sources of healthful antioxidants in the average person's diet. Some of the newest research points to caffeine (also present in tea, cocoa, and other foods) as the source of powerful antioxidant effects that may help protect people from Alzheimer's and other diseases ... In an effort to bolster scientific knowledge about caffeine, they present detailed theoretical calculations on caffeine's interactions with free radicals. Their theoretical conclusions show "excellent" consistency with the results that other scientists have report from animal and other experiments, bolstering the likelihood that caffeine is, indeed, a source of healthful antioxidant activity in coffee"
  • Coffee doesn't increase high blood pressure risk - MSNBC, 4/21/11 - "followed them for up to 33 years ... But the chance of being diagnosed with the condition was no different between people who said they chugged more than five cups of coffee per day and those who drank very little"
  • Espresso makers: Coffee in capsules contains more furan than the rest - Science Daily, 4/13/11 - "Coffee made in espresso makers, above all that made from capsules, contains more furan -- a toxic, carcinogenic compound -- than that made in traditional drip coffee makers, although the levels are still within safe health limits ... The reason for these higher levels is due to the fact that hermetically-sealed capsules prevent furan, which is highly volatile, from being released, while the coffee makers used to brew this coffee use hot water at higher pressures"
  • Got a craving for fast food? Skip the coffee, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/1/11 - "a healthy person's blood sugar levels spike after eating a high-fat meal, but that the spike doubles after having both a fatty meal and caffeinated coffee -- jumping to levels similar to those of people at risk for diabetes ... saturated fat interferes with the body's ability to clear sugars from the blood and, when combined with caffeinated coffee, the impact can be even worse"
  • Coffee drinking linked to reduced stroke risk in women - Science Daily, 3/10/11 - "Drinking more than a cup of coffee a day was associated with a 22 percent to 25 percent lower risk of stroke, compared with those who drank less ... The food frequency questionnaire made no distinction between regular and decaffeinated coffee but decaffeinated coffee consumption in the Swedish population is low ... Potential ways that coffee drinking might reduce the risk of stroke include weakening subclinical inflammation, reducing oxidative stress and improving insulin sensitivity"
  • Why coffee protects against diabetes - Science Daily, 1/12/11 - "A protein called sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) regulates the biological activity of the body's sex hormones, testosterone and estrogen, which have long been thought to play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. And coffee consumption, it turns out, increases plasma levels of SHBG"
  • Coffee consumption and the risk of heart failure in Finnish men and women - Heart. 2010 Oct 27 - "Coffee consumption does not increase the risk of HF in Finnish men and women. In women, an inverse association was observed between low to moderate coffee consumption and the risk of HF"
  • Coffee Drinking Associated With Reduced Oral Cancer Risk - Medscape, 10/19/10 - "Drinking coffee is associated with a 36% reduction in the risk for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx"
  • Coffee may protect against DNA damage: Study - Nutra USA, 9/7/10 - "coffee is one of the richest sources of polyphenols in the Western diet, with one cup of the stuff providing 350 milligrams of phenolics. Of these, the most abundant compounds coffee are chlorogenic acids, making up to 12 per cent of the green coffee bean. The most abundant of these compounds is caffeic acid ... The subjects were assigned to drink either 800 ml coffee or water daily for five days. Various measures of DNA damage were used ... At the end of the study, a reduction in DNA damage, as measured by a reduction in the formation of oxidised purines of 12.3 percent was observed in the coffee drinkers" -  [Abstract]
  • Olympic gold? A new effect of caffeine boosts performance - Science Daily, 6/29/10 - "high doses of caffeine directly increase muscle power and endurance during relatively low-intensity activities ... a caffeine dosage of 70 µM enhanced power output by ~6% during both types of activity. This effect in humans is likely to be very similar"
  • Coffee may protect against head and neck cancers - Science Daily, 6/22/10 - "participants who were regular coffee drinkers, that is, those who drank an estimated four or more cups a day, compared with those who were non-drinkers, had a 39 percent decreased risk of oral cavity and pharynx cancers combined"
  • Coffee cuts risk of head, neck cancers - MSNBC, 6/22/10 - "Overall, the risk of developing head and neck cancers was 12 percent lower in people who drank coffee compared with those who didn't ... And the more coffee consumed, the lower the cancer risk. In those who gulped more than four cups a day, for instance, the risk was reduced by more than a third ... Besides caffeine, coffee contains more than a thousand chemicals ... the compounds cafestol and kahweol may be protective against carcinogens that would normally damage our genes"
  • Women who choose boiled coffee run lower risk of breast cancer, Swedish study finds - Science Daily, 6/16/10 - "A major difference between boiled and filtered coffee is that the boiled version contains up to 80 times as much coffee-specific fatty acids ... Among women who drank boiled coffee more than four times a day there was a lowered risk of breast cancer compared with women who drank coffee less than once a day. Among women who drank filtered coffee there was an increased risk for early breast cancer (under 49 years old) and a decreased risk for late breast cancer (over 55 years old). Boiled-coffee drinkers, but not filtered-coffee drinkers, also had an increased risk of pancreatic cancer and lung cancer among men"
  • New evidence that drinking coffee may reduce the risk of diabetes - Science Daily, 6/9/10 - "The scientists fed either water or coffee to a group of laboratory mice commonly used to study diabetes. Coffee consumption prevented the development of high-blood sugar and also improved insulin sensitivity in the mice, thereby reducing the risk of diabetes. Coffee also caused a cascade of other beneficial changes in the fatty liver and inflammatory adipocytokines related to a reduced diabetes risk. Additional lab studies showed that caffeine may be "one of the most effective anti-diabetic compounds in coffee,""
  • Caffeine may slow Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, restore cognitive function, according to new evidence - Science Daily, 5/17/10 - "Key findings ... Multiple beneficial effects of caffeine to normalize brain function and prevent its degeneration ... Caffeine's neuroprotective profile and its ability to reduce amyloid-beta production ... Caffeine as a candidate disease-modifying agent for Alzheimer's disease ... Positive impact of caffeine on cognition and memory performance ... Identification of adenosine A2A receptors as the main target for neuroprotection afforded by caffeine consumption ... Confirmation of data through valuable meta-analyses presented ... Epidemiological studies corroborated by meta-analysis suggesting that caffeine may be protective against Parkinson's disease"
  • Couple of Coffees May Help Some Heart Patients - Medscape, 5/7/10 - "A study of 374 patients who had a heart attack or other acute coronary event found those with normal blood pressure drinking one or two coffees a day were 88% less likely than non-coffee drinkers to develop left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD)"
  • Brewing up a gentler java: Dark-roasted coffee contains stomach-friendly ingredient - Science Daily, 3/22/10
  • Coffee’s anti-diabetes benefit strengthen - Nutra USA, 3/16/10 - "coffee is one of the richest sources of polyphenols in the Western diet, with one cup of the stuff providing 350 milligrams of phenolics. Of these, the most abundant compounds coffee are chlorogenic acids, making up to 12 per cent of the green coffee bean. The most abundant of these compounds is caffeic acid ... adiponectin levels increased by 6 per cent. Adiponectin is a protein hormone linked to various metabolic processes, and levels are inversely related to body fat levels ... the impact of inflammation on the progression of diabetes may support an anti-diabetic role for the beverage"
  • Studies provide more support for health benefits of coffee - Science Daily, 3/15/10 - "Although it is sometimes referred to as "the devil's brew," coffee contains several nutrients (eg, calcium) as well as hundreds of potentially biologically active compounds (eg, polyphenols) that may promote health"
  • Caffeine Exposure and the Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies - J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Feb 24 - "When considering only the cohort studies, the RR was 0.80 (95%CI: 0.71-90; I;{2}=8.1%). The negative association was weaker when only women were considered (RR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.73-1.02; I;{2}=12.9%). A linear relation was observed between levels of exposure to caffeine and the RR estimates: RR of 0.76 (95%CI: 0.72-0.80; I;{2}= 35.1%) per 300 mg increase in caffeine intake. This study confirm an inverse association between caffeine intake and the risk of PD, which can hardly by explained by bias or uncontrolled confounding"
  • Coffee associated with reduced risk of hospitalization for heart rhythm disturbances - Science Daily, 3/2/10 - "those who reported drinking four or more cups of coffee each day had an 18 percent lower risk of hospitalization for heart rhythm disturbances. Those who reported drinking one to three cups each day had a 7 percent reduction in risk"
  • Coffee Break Boosts Memory - WebMD, 1/27/10 - "Taking a coffee break after class can actually help you retain that information you just learned"
  • Caffeine consumption associated with less severe liver fibrosis - Science Daily, 1/6/10 - "patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) who consumed more than 308 mg of caffeine daily had milder liver fibrosis. The daily amount of caffeine intake found to be beneficial is equivalent to 2.25 cups of regular coffee. Other sources of caffeine beyond coffee did not have the same therapeutic effect"
  • Coffee, Tea May Stall Diabetes - WebMD, 12/14/09 - "researchers found each additional cup of coffee drunk per day was associated with a 7% lower risk of diabetes. People who drank three to four cups per day had about a 25% lower risk than those who drank two or fewer cups per day ... The study also showed that people who drank more than three to four cups of decaffeinated coffee per day had about a one-third lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who didn’t drink any ... Tea drinkers who drank more than three to four cups of tea per day had about a one-fifth lower risk of diabetes than those who didn’t drink tea" - [Science Daily]
  • Coffee May Cut Risk of Prostate Cancer - WebMD, 12/7/09 - "men who drank the most coffee were nearly 60% less likely to develop advanced prostate cancer than non-coffee drinkers ... men who drank decaffeinated coffee also had a similar reduction in aggressive prostate cancer risk ... coffee also contains many other potentially beneficial compounds such as antioxidants and minerals that may play a role in preventing prostate cancer ... Coffee has effects on insulin and glucose metabolism as well as sex hormone levels, all of which play a role in prostate cancer"
  • Coffee consumption associated with reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer - Science Daily, 12/7/09
  • Coffee Break: Compound Brewing New Research In Colon, Breast Cancer - Science Daily, 11/12/09
  • Drinking Coffee Daily Linked to Lower Progression of Chronic Hepatitis C - Medscape, 11/2/09 - "Drinking 3 or more cups of coffee per day is linked to a lower risk for progression of chronic hepatitis C"
  • Coffee lovers don’t face higher risk of heart ills - MSNBC, 10/28/09 - "Researchers found that among more than 37,000 middle-aged and older Swedish men, those who regularly drank coffee were no more likely to develop heart failure than those who infrequently, if ever, drank the beverage"
  • Drinking Coffee Slows Progression Of Liver Disease In Chronic Hepatitis C Sufferers, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 10/24/09 - "Patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced liver disease who drink three or more cups of coffee per day have a 53% lower risk of liver disease progression than non-coffee drinkers"
  • Bad News For Coffee Drinkers Who Get Headaches - Science Daily, 8/14/09
  • Caffeine Reverses Memory Impairment In Mice With Alzheimer's Symptoms - Science Daily, 7/6/09 - "Coffee drinkers may have another reason to pour that extra cup. When aged mice bred to develop symptoms of Alzheimer's disease were given caffeine – the equivalent of five cups of coffee a day – their memory impairment was reversed"
  • Caffeine Shown As Effective At Reducing Exercise-induced Asthma Symptoms As An Albuterol Inhaler - Science Daily, 5/31/09
  • It May Not Be Caffeine Keeping You Awake - NYTimes.com, 5/11/09
  • Caffeine Appears To Be Beneficial In Males, But Not Females, With Lou Gehrig's Disease - Science Daily, 4/17/09
  • Caffeine Reduces Pain During Exercise, Study Shows - Science Daily, 3/30/09 - "What's interesting ... is that when we found that caffeine tolerance doesn't matter ... caffeine reduces pain reliably, consistently during cycling, across different intensities, across different people, different characteristics"
  • Coffee Cuts Stroke Risk in Women - WebMD, 2/16/09 - "women who drank four or more cups of coffee a day had a 20% reduced risk of stroke compared to women who had less than one cup per month. Drinking two to three cups per day reduced risk by 19%. Drinking a cup five to seven times a week reduced risk by 12%"
  • Coffee lovers face lower dementia risk - MSNBC, 2/3/09 - "among 1,400 Finnish adults followed for 20 years, those who drank three to five cups of coffee per day in middle-age were two-thirds less likely than non-drinkers to develop dementia, including Alzheimer's disease"
  • Midlife Coffee And Tea Drinking May Protect Against Late-life Dementia - Science Daily, 1/14/09 - "coffee drinkers at midlife had lower risk for dementia and AD later in life compared to those drinking no or only little coffee. The lowest risk (65% decreased) was found among moderate coffee drinkers (drinking 3-5 cups of coffee/day). Adjustments for various confounders did not change the results. Tea drinking was relatively uncommon and was not associated with dementia/AD"
  • High Caffeine Intake Linked To Hallucination Proneness - Science Daily, 1/13/09
  • Coffee may protect against oral cancers - MSNBC, 1/6/09 - "drinking coffee lowers the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity or throat ... cancer of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus .... Compared with people who did not drink coffee, those who drank one or more cups per day had half the risk of developing these cancers ... the reduction in risk included people who are at high risk for these cancers, namely, those who were current drinkers and/or smokers at the start of the study"
  • Caffeine Has Greater Effect On Men, And Starts Only Ten Minutes After Consumption - Science Daily, 12/22/08
  • Low Dose Of Caffeine When Pregnant May Damage Heart Of Offspring For A Lifetime - Science Daily, 12/16/08 - "the equivalent of one dose of caffeine (just two cups of coffee) ingested during pregnancy may be enough to affect fetal heart development and then reduce heart function over the entire lifespan of the child"
  • Caffeine Consumption Not Associated With Breast Cancer Risk In Most Women, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 10/13/08 - "Consumption of caffeine and caffeinated beverages and foods was not statistically significantly associated with overall risk of breast cancer"
  • Coffee Drinking May Help Protect Against Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 10/9/08 - "Compared with participants who reported not drinking coffee daily, those who reported drinking 4 or more cups of coffee daily had a 30% reduction in the risk for diabetes ... Compared with participants who reported not drinking black tea daily, those who reported drinking 1 or more cups of black tea daily had a suggestive 14% reduction in the risk for diabetes ... There was no apparent association with green tea"
  • Coffee consumption and the risk of cancer: An overview - Cancer Lett. 2008 Sep 30 - "Habitual coffee drinking has been associated with a reduced risk of mortality and chronic diseases, including cancer. The favourable influence of coffee is supported by several plausible mechanisms due to the presence of a variety of biological compounds such as caffeine, diterpenes, caffeic acid, polyphenols as well as volatile aroma and heterocyclic substances. Current evidence suggests that coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of liver, kidney, and to a lesser extent, premenopausal breast and colorectal cancers, while it is unrelated to prostate, pancreas and ovary cancers. Coffee drinking may still help reduce death due to liver cancer"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: A meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies - Int J Cardiol. 2008 Aug 14 - "Our findings do not support the hypothesis that coffee consumption increases the long-term risk of coronary heart disease. Habitual moderate coffee drinking was associated with a lower risk of CHD in women"
  • Caffeine Reduces Cognitive Decline in Women - Medscape, 8/9/08 - "French researchers report that women who drank more than 3 cups of coffee per day had less decline during 4 years of follow-up compared with those who drank a cup or less. However, no such effect was seen in men ... Risk for Decline on Cognitive Endpoints at 4 Years for Women Drinking More Than 3 Cups of Coffee Per Day at Baseline vs 1 or More Cups ... Verbal Retrieval ... 0.67 ... Visuospatial Memory ... 0.82"
  • Post-exercise Caffeine Helps Muscles Refuel - Science Daily, 7/1/08 - "Recipe to recover more quickly from exercise: Finish workout, eat pasta, and wash down with five or six cups of strong coffee ... Athletes who ingested caffeine with carbohydrate had 66% more glycogen in their muscles four hours after finishing intense, glycogen-depleting exercise, compared to when they consumed carbohydrate alone" - Yeah, if you want to fell like crap for the rest of the day.  I drink by caffeine before the workout then again after a power nap. - Ben
  • Could Caffeine Stop MS in Its Tracks? - WebMD, 6/30/08 - "When consumed in large amounts in a newly reported study, caffeine was found to protect against multiple sclerosis by blocking key steps in the development of the disease"
  • Higher Coffee Consumption Associated With Lower Liver Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 6/26/08 - "0-1 cup, 2-3 cups, 4-5 cups, 6-7 cups, and 8 or more cups per day ... The researchers noted a significant inverse association between coffee drinking and the risk of primary liver cancer. They found that the multivariable hazards ratio of liver cancer dropped for each group that drank more coffee. It fell from 1.00, to .66, to .44, to .38 to .32 respectively"
  • Drinking Coffee May Extend Life - WebMD, 6/16/08
  • Drinking Large Amounts Of Coffee May Actually Extend One's Lifespan, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 6/16/08 - "Women consuming two to three cups of caffeinated coffee per day had a 25 percent lower risk of death from heart disease during the follow-up period (which lasted from 1980 to 2004 and involved 84,214 women) as compared with non-consumers, and an 18 percent lower risk of death caused by something other than cancer or heart disease as compared with non-consumers during follow-up. For men, this level of consumption was associated with neither a higher nor a lower risk of death during the follow-up period"
  • Increased Coffee Consumption May Reduce Risk for Gout in Men - Medscape, 5/25/08 - "During the 12-year study, there were 757 confirmed incident cases of gout. Increasing coffee intake was inversely associated with the risk for gout, with multivariate relative risks (RRs) for incident gout of 1.00, 0.97, 0.92, 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 - 0.87), and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.19 - 0.88) for coffee consumption categories of 0, less than 1, 1 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 or more cups per day, respectively ... For decaffeinated coffee, the multivariate RRs for 0, less than 1, 1 to 3, and 4 or more cups per day were 1.00, 0.83, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.54 - 0.82), and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.46 - 1.17), respectively"
  • Coffee May Protect Against Breast Cancer, Study Shows - Science Daily, 4/24/08 - "Depending on which variant of a certain gene a woman has, a coffee consumption rate of at least two-three cups a day can either reduce the total risk of developing breast cancer or delay the onset of cancer"
  • Cup Of Coffee A Day Could Help Protect Against Alzheimer's Disease, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 4/2/08 - "Caffeine appears to block several of the disruptive effects of cholesterol that make the blood-brain barrier leaky ... High levels of cholesterol are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, perhaps by compromising the protective nature of the blood-brain barrier. For the first time we have shown that chronic ingestion of caffeine protects the BBB from cholesterol-induced leakage"
  • Caffeine Bad for Diabetes - WebMD, 1/28/08 - "On the days the patients took caffeine, their blood-sugar levels were 8% higher ... Caffeine increases blood glucose by as much as oral diabetes medications decrease it ... Lane warns against reading too much into this small, 10-patient study ... Several studies have found that coffee drinkers -- especially those who drink a lot of coffee -- have a lower risk of diabetes than do other people. So how can coffee both protect against diabetes and worsen diabetes? ... it is becoming increasingly clear it is not the caffeine that is beneficial. The picture is now evolving where we see that some other components of coffee besides caffeine may be beneficial in long-term in reduction of diabetes risk"
  • Ovarian Cancer Risk Not Affected By Alcohol And Smoking, But Reduced By Caffeine, Study Finds - Science Daily, 1/22/08 - "they observed an inverse trend of risk with total caffeine and caffeinated coffee intake, but no association with decaffeinated coffee"
  • Caffeine Is Linked To Miscarriage Risk, New Study Shows - Science Daily, 1/21/08
  • Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of breast cancer: A 22-year follow-up - Int J Cancer. 2008 - "our results suggested a weak inverse association between caffeine-containing beverages and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer"
  • Coffee vs. Skin Cancer? - WebMD, 11/2/07 - "each daily cup of caffeinated coffee was associated with a 5% drop in the women's odds of reporting nonmelanoma skin cancer"
  • Can Coffee Keep Your Mind Sharp? - Dr. Weil, 10/22/07
  • Low/Moderate Coffee Intake Increases Risk for Antihypertensive Drug Therapy - Medscape, 8/31/07
  • Drinking 4 or More Cups of Coffee a Day May Help Prevent Gout - Medscape, 8/23/07 - "the risk for developing gout decreased with increasing coffee consumption. The risk of gout was 40 percent lower for men who drank 4 to 5 cups a day and 59 percent lower for men who drank 6 or more cups a day than for men who never drank coffee"
  • Coffee Consumption May Lower Uric Acid Levels - The Precursor of Gout - Medscape, 8/23/07 - "levels of uric acid in the blood significantly decreased with increasing coffee intake, but not with tea intake"
  • Caffeine May Help Women's Memory - WebMD, 8/6/07 - "Women who reported drinking at least three cups of coffee or tea per day at the study's start showed less of a drop in their test scores during the study, compared with women who reported consuming at most one daily cup of tea or coffee ... The biggest benefit was seen in the women's verbal memory"
  • Coffee Drinking Related To Reduced Risk Of Liver Cancer - Science Daily, 8/1/07 - "hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ... The results showed a 41 percent reduction of HCC risk among coffee drinkers compared to those who never drank coffee"
  • How Coffee Raises Cholesterol - Science Daily, 6/15/07 - "Cafestol, a compound found in coffee, elevates cholesterol by hijacking a receptor in an intestinal pathway critical to its regulation ... consuming five cups of French press coffee per day (30 milligrams of cafestol) for four weeks raises cholesterol in the blood 6 to 8 percent"
  • Drinking Four Or More Cups Of Coffee A Day May Help Prevent Gout - Science Daily, 5/25/07 - "the data revealed that the risk for developing gout decreased with increasing coffee consumption. The risk of gout was 40 percent lower for men who drank 4 to 5 cups a day and 59 percent lower for men who drank 6 or more cups a day than for men who never drank coffee"
  • Coffee's Health Perks Get Attention - WebMD, 4/30/07
  • Moderate Coffee Drinking Reduces Many Risks, Panel Says - Science Daily, 4/30/07 - "Some research in neuropharamacology suggests that one cup of coffee can halve the risk of Parkinson's disease. Other studies have found it reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease, kidney stones, gallstones, depression and even suicide ... persons who were heavy coffee consumers had a lower risk of type 2 diabetes"
  • Coffee: Aroma, Taste And Dietary Fiber - Science Daily, 2/26/07 - "soluble dietary fiber (SDF) ...brewed coffee contains a significant amount of SDF — 02.5 percent to 20.0 percent by weight of powdered coffee bean"
  • Coffee May Protect Against Diabetes - WebMD, 2/23/07
  • Is Coffee Good for You? - Dr. Weil, 2/19/07 - "Those who drank coffee had lower rates of age-related cognitive decline than those who didn't, with maximum protection seen in men who drank three cups of coffee a day ... both coffee and decaf can raise your blood pressure temporarily, but we still don't know whether this can lead to hypertension ... Coffee may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes ... coffee may protect against Parkinson's disease"
  • Get the diet scoop: 6 promising supplements, 6 to avoid - CNN, 2/16/07 - "promising ... Caffeine ... EGCG ... Chromium ... Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) ... 5-HTP ... L-dopa or L-tyrosine"
  • Caffeinated drinks may protect elderly against heart disease - Nutra USA, 2/9/07 - "Over-65s who drink four or more caffeinated beverages every day may reduce their risk of heart disease by a whopping 53 per cent"
  • Coffee helps douse workout pain - MSNBC, 1/10/06 - "Those who consumed caffeine one hour before the maximum force test had a 48 percent reduction in pain compared with the placebo group"
  • A cup of confusion: Is coffee healthy or not? - MSNBC, 11/24/06
  • Can caffeine protect against Alzheimer's? - USA Today, 11/5/06 - "Lesko and others are betting on research suggesting that caffeine will offer protection not just against Alzheimer's, but also against Parkinson's ... Alzheimer-stricken mice that had guzzled caffeine could easily find their way through a maze. Mice that got just water had more signs of brain disease and got confused in the maze"
  • Coffee May Protect Against Diabetes - WebMD, 10/25/06 - "After adjusting for other known diabetes risk factors, the researchers concluded that both past and current drinkers of caffeinated coffee had about a 60% reduction in diabetes risk, compared with study participants who never drank coffee ... A similar reduction in risk was seen among the roughly one-third of study participants with impaired glucose tolerance"
  • Decaf Coffee Isn't Caffeine-Free - WebMD, 10/11/06
  • Is Coffee or Tea Good for Your Liver? - Medscape, 10/2/06 - "The consumption of coffee and tea is associated with a reduced risk of CLD"
  • Coffee could slow mental decline in old men - Nutra USA, 8/17/06 - "men who had regular consumption of coffee had a lower rate of decline over the ten-year period than men who did not drink coffee (declines of 1.2 versus 2.6 points for drinkers and non-drinkers, respectively)"
  • Coffee as a Health Drink? Studies Find Some Benefits - New York Times, 8/14/06
  • Caffeine could protect against memory loss - Nutra USA, 7/12/06 - "caffeine concentrations in the brain resulting from a few cups of coffee could significantly increase gamma rhythm strength, which is likely to contribute to the cognitive beneficial effects"
  • Coffee Might Curb Alcoholic Cirrhosis - WebMD, 6/12/06 - "For every daily cup of coffee that participants reported drinking, they were 22% less likely to have been diagnosed with alcoholic cirrhosis during the study ... Coffee drinkers were also less likely to have high blood levels of liver enzymes"
  • Coffee May Help Postmenopausal Heart - WebMD, 5/30/06 - "Women who reported drinking one to three daily cups of coffee at the study's start were 24% less likely to die of heart disease during the study"
  • Heavy Coffee Drinking Doesn't Hurt the Heart - Intelihealth, 4/24/06 - "Data on more than 120,000 participants in two U.S. studies that followed people for as long as two decades found no link between heart disease and a daily intake of six or more cups of coffee"
  • Coffee May Not Up Heart Disease Risk - WebMD, 4/24/06
  • Coffee May Up Heart Risks for Some - WebMD, 3/7/06
  • More evidence of null link between coffee and colorectal cancer - Nutra USA, 2/7/06
  • Coffee May Decrease Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes in Women - Medscape, 2/6/06 - "The RR of type 2 diabetes was 0.87 for 1 cup per day, 0.58 for 2 to 3 cups per day, and 0.53 for 4 or more cups per day vs no coffee consumption"
  • Caffeine: Sex Potion for Females? - WebMD, 1/13/06
  • Caffeine Limits Blood Flow to Heart Muscle During Exercise - Doctor's Guide, 1/13/06 - "the blood flow measurements taken immediately after exercise were significantly lower after the participants had taken caffeine tablets ... Although caffeine is a stimulant, these results also indicate that coffee may not necessarily boost athletic performance"
  • You thought coffee was bad for you? Actually, it seems to protect against all sorts of ills, from diabetes to liver cancer - US News, 12/19/05 - "a cup of joe--or a carafe--may chase away the blues; turn you into a better athlete; and protect against diabetes, Parkinson's disease, gallstones, and some cancers ... a two-cup-a-day habit can dramatically cut the risk of chronic liver disease in those at greatest risk"
  • Coffee and Tea Can Reduce Risk of Chronic Liver Disease - Doctor's Guide, 12/2/05 - "people at high risk for liver injury may be able to reduce their risk for developing chronic liver disease significantly by drinking more than two cups of coffee or tea daily. This preventative effect was only seen in people at higher risk for liver disease due to heavy alcohol intake, being overweight or having diabetes or iron overload"
  • Caffeine Boosts Short-Term Memory - WebMD, 11/30/05
  • Decaf Coffee May Raise Heart Risks - WebMD, 11/16/05
  • No Link Found Between Caffeine Intake and Development of Hypertension in Women - Doctor's Guide, 11/8/05 - "When studying individual classes of caffeinated beverages, habitual coffee consumption was not associated with increased risk of hypertension. By contrast, consumption of cola beverages was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, independent of whether it was sugared or diet cola"
  • More evidence coffee may cut risk of liver cancer - Nutra USA, 8/4/05 - "those who drink coffee occasionally reduced their risk by almost 30 per cent, while those drinking one or more cups a day had a risk of just 0.58 compared with the non-drinkers"
  • Coffee May Cut Type 2 Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 7/5/05 - "Those who drank four to six cups per day had a 28% lower risk of type 2 diabetes, compared with people who drank the least coffee"
  • Research Links Coffee to Heart Risks for Some - WebMD, 6/17/05 - "coffee drinkers had more stiffness of the major blood vessel of the body than non-coffee drinkers. Decreased elasticity of major blood vessels is a risk factor for developing heart disease like heart attack and stroke"
  • Cardiovascular Effects of Coffee: Is It a Risk Factor? - Medscape, 5/27/05 - "recent evidence suggests that moderate coffee intake does not represent a health hazard and may even be associated with beneficial effects"
  • The Stay-Alert Secret of Caffeine - WebMD, 4/21/05
  • Caffeine Tied to Blood Sugar Problems - WebMD, 3/9/05 - "caffeine reduced the men's ability to process blood sugar. It also interfered with insulin, the body's hormone that handles blood sugar ... But what about the studies that show that coffee may protect against type 2 diabetes ... Here's the catch. In the new study, caffeine came from a pill ... Coffee contains many other substances besides caffeine, such as potassium, antioxidants, and magnesium"
  • Women and coffee: How many cups a day? - MSNBC, 3/1/05
  • Studies Examine Coffee Drinking And Risk Of Liver And Colorectal Cancers - Science Daily, 2/23/05 - "People who drank coffee on a daily or almost daily basis had about half the risk of HCC [hepatocellular carcinoma] compared with those who never drank coffee"
  • Can Coffee Protect Against Common Cancers? - WebMD, 2/15/05 - "Recent studies have shown that regular coffee consumption may lower the risk of developing diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's ... people who drank coffee every day or almost daily had about half the liver cancer risk as those who never drank coffee. The more coffee people drank the lower their risk"
  • More Americans Getting a Caffeine Buzz - WebMD, 12/28/04
  • How much caffeine is too much? - MSNBC, 12/3/04 - "even two six-ounce cups of coffee a day may increase blood test values that measure inflammation ... two large American studies show no effect of coffee or caffeine on the incidence of heart disease ... caffeine increases the loss of calcium, raising the risk of osteoporosis ... two to three cups of coffee can raise blood pressure around 10 points"
  • Caffeine May Reduce the Risk of Parkinson's Disease in Some Women - Medscape, 11/10/04
  • Regular or Decaf, Coffee May Ward Off Diabetes - WebMD, 11/9/04 - "women who drank more than four cups of regular or decaffeinated coffee per day have significantly lower levels of a component of insulin than non-coffee drinkers ... This insulin component is called C-peptide"
  • Coffee May Raise Heart Disease Risk - WebMD, 10/20/04 - "Participants who said they drank more than 200 mL of coffee a day (a little more than one cup, which was defined as moderate consumption) had higher levels of inflammatory markers than those who drank no coffee"
  • Is Caffeine Withdrawal a Mental Disorder? - WebMD, 9/30/04
  • Caffeine Adversely Affects Endothelial Function In Healthy People - Doctor's Guide, 5/24/04
  • Caffeine Consumption Appears Protective Against Liver Injury in At-Risk Populations - Doctor's Guide, 5/19/04
  • Food Can Have Powerful Effect on Health - WebMD, 5/17/04 - "people who drank more than two cups of coffee a day were about half as likely to have elevated liver enzyme blood tests compared with those who consumed less than a cup a day. And when divided into five groups according to the total amount of caffeine consumed, people in the highest group had about one-third the risk of liver damage than those in the lowest group"
  • Most Use Caffeine Wrong, Study Suggests - WebMD, 5/11/04 - "it's better to take tiny amounts of caffeine -- about two ounces of coffee -- every hour, all day long"
  • Body drinks up coffee antioxidants - Nutra USA, 4/7/04
  • Increasing Daily Coffee Consumption Appears Associated with Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Doctor's Guide, 3/10/04
  • Water good, coffee bad? Ain’t necessarily so - MSNBC, 2/23/04
  • Coffee May Cut Type 2 Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 1/5/04 - "Those who drank six or more cups per day had the lowest risk of having type 2 diabetes compared with those who drank less coffee ... Caffeine may stimulate muscles to burn fat and sugar more efficiently and could trigger the breakdown of fat in other tissue as well"
  • Coffee Drinkers Have Faster Sperm - Doctor's Guide, 10/23/03
  • Should people with high cholesterol levels stop drinking coffee? - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 9/03
  • Coffee May Help Prevent Diabetes - WebMD, 6/18/03
  • Coffee May Cut Diabetes Risk - Medscape, 6/18/03 - "Men who drink six or more cups of coffee a day were less than half as likely to develop diabetes compared with nondrinkers. Drinking four to six cups helps too: Those men saw their risk cut by 29% ... Women who consume four cups or more a day also reduced their risk of developing the disease by about 30%. But in their case, six cups did not seem to be any more protective than four cups ... Decaf was associated with a "modest reduction" in risk for those who drank four cups or more a day"
  • Caffeine-Ephedra Combo Stresses Heart - WebMD, 4/11/03
  • More Migraine Relief Seen with Over-the-Counter Combination than with Sumatriptan - Doctor's Guide, 4/4/03 - "Patients are more likely to get relief from a migraine episode if they use an over-the-counter (OTC) treatment that combines acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine at the first sign of an attack than if they use 50 mg of sumatriptan (Imitrex) ... Among the OTC subjects, 87% had responded to treatment at 2 hours, compared to 75% of sumatriptan subjects (P=0.045). The differences seen 24 hours after treatment showed that 66% of the OTC subjects had sustained relief, compared to 49% of the sumatriptan group" - See drugstore.com acetaminophen productsicon.
  • Caffeine, HRT Affect Parkinson's Risk - WebMD, 3/12/03 - "caffeine reduces Parkinson's risk in women who don't take HRT -- but increases it in women who do take HRT"
  • Coffee May Lower Risk of Gallstones in Women - New Hope Natural Media, 2/27/03
  • Coffee Break Can Be Loaded With Calories - WebMD, 2/20/03 - "Depending on the kind of milk and ingredients used, a large latte can contain from 250 calories to as many as 570 calories"
  • Caffeine Keeps Teens Awake at Night - WebMD, 1/6/03
  • Coffee Packs More Than a Caffeine Buzz - WebMD, 11/18/02 - "it's not just the caffeine in coffee that gives your heart a buzz ... drinking a triple espresso, with or without caffeine, caused a blood pressure spike and an increase in nervous system activity among occasional coffee drinkers. Habitual coffee drinkers were immune to this immediate blood pressure-raising reaction, although their nervous system showed an increase in activity ... This demonstrates how little we know about the effects of one of our most popular beverages and the most abundantly consumed stimulant worldwide"
  • High Coffee Intake May Lower Type 2 Diabetes Risk - Doctor's Guide, 11/7/02
  • Java Reduces Type 2 Diabetes Risk - WebMD, 11/7/02 - "Caffeine is known to decrease the body's response to insulin. However, other ingredients found in coffee -- magnesium and chlorogenic acid -- may have beneficial effects ... researchers followed more than 17,000 Dutch adults. After several years of follow-up, those who drank seven or more cups a day were half as likely to develop type 2 diabetes compared with those who drank less than two cups a day ... The long-term effects of drinking too much caffeine are not known and other health issues could develop" - Note:  Chlorogenic acid is in artichoke extract.  If magnesium and chlorogenic acid are the reason for the 50% diabetes reduction, it would seem to be a better choice than drinking seven cups of coffee per day.  See artichoke extract at Amazon.com. - Ben
  • The Science and Policy of Performance Enhancing Supplements - Life Extension Magazine, 9/02 - "Dr. Jacobs gave Canadian Special Forces soldiers between 0.8 to 1.0 mg per kilogram (mg/kg) of ephedrine and 3 mg to 5 mg/kg of caffeine 90 to 105 minutes prior to various exercise tests. These numbers translate to approximately 60 mg to 80 mg of ephedrine and 239 mg to 398 mg of caffeine for a 175 lb man-relatively high doses of ephedrine, especially when combined with the caffeine intake ... Time to exhaustion during a high intensity cycle ergometer test (at approx 85% maximal aerobic output) increased dramatically"
  • Caffeine Said To Lower Cancer Risk - Intelihealth, 8/27/02
  • Novel Method of Enhancing Anti-Fat Effects of CLA - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "Guarana is an herb that contains a form of caffeine called guaranine, which is 2.5 times stronger than the caffeine found in coffee, tea and soft drinks ... Caffeine accelerates the effectiveness of CLA, thus making CLA a more potent fat burner" - See iHerb guarana products.
  • Ephedra-Caffeine Combo Cleared - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 7/02 - "The combination of ephedra and caffeine is safe and effective for weight loss, according to research published in the May 2002 issue of the International Journal of Obesity."
  • Caffeine May Worsen Glaucoma - Nutrition Science News, 6/27/02 - "Compared with decaffeinated coffee, regular coffee produced a statistically significant increase in IOP at both 60 and 90 minutes. The magnitude of the increase was approximately 2 to 3 mm Hg, an amount that, if sustained over the long term, could have an adverse effect on visual function" - Also see my glaucoma page.
  • Caffeine Has Significant Impact On Electroencephalogram - Doctor's Guide, 6/14/02
  • Ephedra Plus Caffeine Safely Lowers Weight in Controlled Trial - Medscape, 6/11/02
  • Ephedra Safe for Healthy Dieters - WebMD, 6/6/02 - "With just diet and exercise, patients lost about 6 pounds. When ephedra/caffeine was added, they lost about 12 pounds ... While this study didn't show a lot of adverse effects, they didn't use an off-the-shelf supplement ... There are many, many other ingredients in these supplements. It is not the same as Metabolife or others. I really don't think you can use this as a study to invoke the safety of dietary supplements. This is just not what people out there are taking"
  • Caffeine's Effect on Blood Pressure - WebMD, 5/17/02 - "Thirty minutes after the caffeine was given [250 mg of caffeine (the equivalent of 2-3 cups of coffee)], there was a big jump in the stiffness of their arteries, said Vlachopoulos. The effect peaked after 60 minutes and remained significant for at least three hours ... This led to an 11 point jump in systolic blood pressure -- the top number -- and an 8 point jump in diastolic blood pressure -- the bottom number"
  • No Bladder Cancer Risk Associated With Use of Coffee, Tea - Doctor's Guide, 5/13/02
  • Coffee Doesn't Cause High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 3/26/02
  • Coffee Drinking Plays Small Role In Development Of Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 3/26/02
  • Caffeine Can Decrease Insulin Sensitivity - Doctor's Guide, 2/21/02
  • Nothing Works Better Than a Nap - Healthscout, 2/18/02 - "With the caffeine, the likelihood of an accident dropped by 66 percent. But when the drivers took a 15-minute doze, even if they didn't really fall asleep, and then had the caffeine, the likelihood of a sleep-related accident dropped by 91 percent"
  • Caffeine Disturbs Blood Sugar Hormone - WebMD, 2/6/02 - "When insulin sensitivity goes down, this indicates that your body is less able to take blood sugar into the cells to be used for energy ... Caffeine decreased insulin sensitivity by 15%, a significant decline compared to placebo. Plus, stress hormone levels in the blood increased with caffeine. Blood pressure increased to a small degree as well"
  • Caffeine Sharpens the Mind - WebMD, 12/20/01 - "The researchers looked at 40 people over 65 and tested their memory in the morning and again in the afternoon a few days later. Each time, they drank a 12 oz. cup of coffee before going through a series of memory tests. Some drank decaffeinated coffee and some had the real thing but were not told which one they were getting ... those who drank decaffeinated coffee "showed a significant decline in memory performance from morning to afternoon," Ryan says. Those who drank the caffeine had no fall in their memory test scores"
  • Higher Caffeine Consumption Accelerates Bone Loss in Post -Menopausal Women - Doctor's Guide, 11/1/01
  • Caffeine Ingestion Decreases Glucose Disposal And Carbohydrate Storage - Doctor's Guide, 11/1/01
  • Report: Caffeine Can Help Soldiers - Intelihealth, 10/26/01
  • Framingham Study Finds No Correlations Between Coffee And Parkinson’s Disease - Doctor's Guide, 10/1/01
  • Can a Cup a Day Keep Parkinson's Away? - WebMD, 7/19/01 - "The more men drink, the lower their risk of Parkinson's; women, however, only see their risk lowered when they drink in moderation -- 1-3 cups per day ... There is some biological experimental evidence that caffeine does protect against [brain cell death]"
  • Drink Tea -- Your Skin May Thank You for It Later, Caffeine and Artificial Enzyme May Protect Against Skin Cancer - WebMD, 4/5/01 - "caffeine applied directly to the skin reversed sun-induced damage in mice ... green and black tea prevented sun-induced skin cancer when given orally to mice. The caffeine in the tea, they found, was the active component inhibiting cancer growth. Specifically, they found that caffeine increases skin cell death, suggesting injured skin cells die before cancer has a chance to develop in them ... Conney's team also found that oral caffeine increases levels of a special gene that is involved in suppressing tumor growth"


  • Caffeinated and caffeine-free beverages and risk of type 2 diabetes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 14 - "observed 74,749 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1984-2008) and 39,059 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, 1986-2008) ... sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and carbonated artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs) ... caffeinated and caffeine-free SSB intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of T2D in the NHS (RR per serving: 13% for caffeinated SSB, 11% for caffeine-free SSB; P < 0.05) and in the HPFS (RR per serving: 16% for caffeinated SSB, 23% for caffeine-free SSB; P < 0.01). Only caffeine-free ASB intake in NHS participants was associated with a higher risk of T2D (RR: 6% per serving; P < 0.001). Conversely, the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee was associated with a lower risk of T2D [RR per serving: 8% for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee in the NHS (P < 0.0001) and 4% for caffeinated and 7% for decaffeinated coffee in the HPFS (P < 0.01)]. Only caffeinated tea was associated with a lower T2D risk among NHS participants"
  • The effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure and the development of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis - J Hypertens. 2012 Oct 1 - "Ovid, MEDLINE (from 1948), EMBASE (from 1988), and all of Web of Science and Scopus ... Low-quality evidence did not show any statistically significant effect of coffee consumption on BP or the risk of hypertension. Given the quality of the currently available evidence, no recommendation can be made for or against coffee consumption as it relates to BP and hypertension"
  • Coffee consumption and prostate cancer risk: further evidence for inverse relationship - Nutr J. 2012 Jun 13;11(1):42 - "We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6017 men who were enrolled in the Collaborative cohort study in the UK between 1970 and 1973 and followed up to 31st December 2007 ... Higher coffee consumption was inversely associated with risk of high grade but not with overall risk of PC. Men consuming 3 or more cups of coffee per day experienced 55% lower risk of high Gleason grade disease compared with non-coffee drinkers in aanalyses adjusted for age and social class (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23-0.90, p value for trend 0.01). This association changed a little after additional adjustment for Body Mass Index, smoking, cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, tea intake and alcohol consumption"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies - Public Health Nutr. 2012 Jun 14:1-12 - "we performed a meta-analysis based on both case-control and cohort studies ... Twenty-five case-control (15 522 cases) and sixteen cohort studies (10 443 cases) were included in the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest v. the lowest/non category of coffee consumption, the combined results from case-control studies showed a significant relationship with colorectal cancer (OR = 0.85, 95 % CI 0.75, 0.97) and colon cancer (OR = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.67, 0.95), but not rectal cancer (OR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.79, 1.15). For cohort studies, there was a slight suggestion of an inverse association with colorectal cancer (relative ratio = 0.94; 95 % CI 0.88, 1.01) and colon cancer (OR = 0.93, 95 % CI 0.86, 1.01), rather than rectal cancer (OR = 0.98, 95 % CI 0.88, 1.09). In subgroup analyses using case-control studies, significant inverse associations were found in females for colorectal cancer and in Europe for colorectal and colon cancer, while the subgroup analyses of cohort studies found that coffee drinks substantially decreased risk of colon cancer only in Asian women"
  • Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea intakes and risk of colorectal cancer in a large prospective study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun 13 - "Compared with nondrinkers, drinkers of 4-5 cups coffee/d (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.96) and ≥6 cups coffee/d (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.89; P-trend < 0.001) had a lower risk of colon cancer, particularly of proximal tumors (HR for ≥6 cups/d: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.81; P-trend < 0.0001). Results were similar to those overall for drinkers of predominantly caffeinated coffee. Although individual HRs were not significant, there was a significant P-trend for both colon and rectal cancers for people who drank predominantly decaffeinated coffee. No associations were observed for tea"
  • Association of coffee drinking with total and cause-specific mortality - N Engl J Med. 2012 May 17;366(20):1891-904 - "In age-adjusted models, the risk of death was increased among coffee drinkers. However, coffee drinkers were also more likely to smoke, and, after adjustment for tobacco-smoking status and other potential confounders, there was a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratios for death among men who drank coffee as compared with those who did not were as follows: 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.04) for drinking less than 1 cup per day, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.99) for 1 cup, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for 2 or 3 cups, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.93) for 4 or 5 cups, and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.85 to 0.96) for 6 or more cups of coffee per day (P<0.001 for trend); the respective hazard ratios among women were 1.01 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.07), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 1.01), 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92), 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.90), and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.93) (P<0.001 for trend). Inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, but not for deaths due to cancer"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of chronic disease in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb 15 - "A lower risk of T2D was associated with caffeinated (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94; P-trend 0.009) and decaffeinated (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.06; P-trend: 0.043) coffee consumption (≥4 cups/d compared with <1 cup/d), but cardiovascular disease and cancer risk were not"
  • A Prospective Cohort Study of Coffee Consumption and Risk of Endometrial Cancer over a 26-Year Follow-Up - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Nov 22 - "Coffee has been reported to lower levels of estrogen and insulin, two hormones implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis, but prospective data on the relation between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer are limited ... Fewer than 4 cups of coffee per day were not associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, women who consumed 4 or more cups of coffee had 25% lower risk of endometrial cancer than those who consumed less than 1 cup per day (multivariable RR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.57-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02). We found the similar association with caffeinated coffee consumption (RR for ≥4 vs. <1 cup/d = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.51-0.95). For decaffeinated coffee consumption, a suggestive inverse association was found among women who consumed 2 or more cups per day versus <1 cup/mo. Tea consumption was not associated with endometrial cancer risk"
  • The effect of coffee on blood pressure and cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 31 - "In 5 trials, the administration of 200-300 mg caffeine produced a mean increase of 8.1 mm Hg (95% CI: 5.7, 10.6 mm Hg) in systolic BP and of 5.7 mm Hg (95% CI: 4.1, 7.4 mm Hg) in diastolic BP. The increase in BP was observed in the first hour after caffeine intake and lasted ≥3 h. In 3 studies of the longer-term effect (2 wk) of coffee, no increase in BP was observed after coffee was compared with a caffeine-free diet or was compared with decaffeinated coffee. Last, 7 cohort studies found no evidence of an association between habitual coffee consumption and a higher risk of CVD ... In hypertensive individuals, caffeine intake produces an acute increase in BP for ≥3 h. However, current evidence does not support an association between longer-term coffee consumption and increased BP or between habitual coffee consumption and an increased risk of CVD in hypertensive subjects"
  • Coffee Consumption and Prostate Cancer Risk and Progression in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 May 17 - "Coffee contains many biologically active compounds, including caffeine and phenolic acids, that have potent antioxidant activity and can affect glucose metabolism and sex hormone levels ... The average intake of coffee in 1986 was 1.9 cups per day. Men who consumed six or more cups per day had a lower adjusted relative risk for overall prostate cancer compared with nondrinkers (RR = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68 to 0.98, P(trend) = .10). The association was stronger for lethal prostate cancer (consumers of more than six cups of coffee per day: RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.75, P(trend) = .03). Coffee consumption was not associated with the risk of nonadvanced or low-grade cancers and was only weakly inversely associated with high-grade cancer. The inverse association with lethal cancer was similar for regular and decaffeinated coffee (each one cup per day increment: RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.01, P = .08 for regular coffee and RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.00, P = .05 for decaffeinated coffee). The age-adjusted incidence rates for men who had the highest (≥6 cups per day) and lowest (no coffee) coffee consumption were 425 and 519 total prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person-years and 34 and 79 lethal prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person-years"
  • Coffee consumption and mortality in women with cardiovasculardisease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 11 - "The relative risks (RRs) of all-cause mortality across categories of cumulative coffee consumption [<1 cup (240 mL or 8 oz)/mo, 1 cup/mo to 4 cups/wk, 5-7 cups/wk, 2-3 cups/d, and ≥4 cups/d] were 1, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.27), 1.13 (0.95, 1.36), 1.01 (0.86, 1.18), and 1.18 (0.89, 1.56), respectively (P for trend = 0.91). The RRs of CVD mortality across the same categories of coffee intake were 1, 0.99 (0.75, 1.31), 1.03 (0.80, 1.35), 0.97 (0.78, 1.21), and 1.25 (0.85, 1.84), respectively (P for trend = 0.76). Similarly, caffeine intake was not associated with total or CVD mortality. Finally, we observed no association of the most recent coffee and caffeine intakes with total and CVD mortality in the subsequent 2 y ... Consumption of filtered caffeinated coffee was not associated with CVD or all-cause mortality in women with CVD"
  • Green tea and coffee consumption and its association with thyroid cancer risk: a population-based cohort study in Japan - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 May 12 - "Green tea consumption was not found to be associated with thyroid cancer risk in general. However, when women were stratified by menopausal status, the multivariable HR for ≥5 cups/day versus <1 cup/day was 1.66 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85-3.23, trend p = 0.04) in premenopausal women, and was 0.47 (95% CI = 0.23-0.96, trend p = 0.06) in postmenopausal women. We found no association between coffee consumption and thyroid cancer risk in either sex"
  • Higher Daily Coffee Intake Not Linked to Hypertension Risk - Medscape, 4/13/11 - "Habitual drinking of 3 cups/day or more of coffee is not associated with an increased risk for hypertension compared with less than 1 cup/day, but this risk was slightly elevated with light to moderate consumption of 1 to 3 cups/day"
  • Cumulative Coffee Consumption and Reduced Risk of Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Mar 31:1 - "Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and higher intake of bacon and deep-fried foods were directly related to disease; the inverse was observed to family income and salad intake. Coffee consumption and tobacco smoking were partially correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.14 among cases, 0.31 among controls). When adjusted for all covariates, a cumulative coffee consumption higher than 18.0 daily liters × year during lifetime was indicated to be protective against disease (adjusted odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.94, P = 0.037). This observation may have pharmacological implications for clinical medication of these cancers and is relevant to programs aimed at reducing the burden of disease"
  • Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 30 - "habitual coffee consumption of >3 cups/d was not associated with an increased risk of hypertension compared with <1 cup/d; however, a slightly elevated risk appeared to be associated with light-to-moderate consumption of 1 to 3 cups/d"
  • Coffee consumption and reduced risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: findings from the Singapore Chinese Health Study - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jan 22 - "High levels of coffee or caffeine consumption were associated with reduced risk of HCC (p for trend < 0.05). Compared with non-drinkers of coffee, individuals who consumed three or more cups of coffee per day experienced a statistically significant 44% reduction in risk of HCC (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.00, p = .049) after adjustment for potential confounders and tea consumption"
  • Coffee consumption is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes in Chinese - Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Jan 12 - "The prevalence of T2DM was 14.0% and 10.4% in men and women ... coffee intake was inversely associated with T2DM. Habitual coffee drinkers had 38-46% lower risk of T2DM than nondrinkers. Compared to nondrinkers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for T2DM according to subjects with habitual coffee consumption (<1,1-6, ≥ 7 times per week) were 0.77 (0.52-1.13), 0.46 (0.28-0.76) and 0.37 (0.16-0.83), respectively. The decreasing ORs indicate a dose-response effect of coffee consumption on the likelihood of having T2DM (P < 0.001). A similar relationship was also evident in newly diagnosed T2DM (P < 0.05). The adjusted mean fasting glucose levels gradually decreased as the frequency of coffee consumption increased"
  • Greater Coffee Intake in Men Is Associated With Steeper Age-Related Increases in Blood Pressure - Am J Hypertens. 2010 Nov 18 - "Greater coffee intake in men was associated with steeper age-related increases in SBP and pulse pressure, particularly beyond 70 years of age and in overweight to obese men"
  • Coffee consumption but not green tea consumption is associated with adiponectin levels in Japanese males - Eur J Nutr. 2010 Oct 16 - "We not only revealed that habitual coffee consumption is associated with higher adiponectin levels in Japanese males but also found a dose-dependent association between coffee consumption and adiponectin levels. Therefore, our study suggested that coffee components might play an important role in the elevation of adiponectin level" - See my adiponectin page.  A higher adiponectin is a good thing.
  • Coffee and cancers of the upper digestive and respiratory tracts: meta-analyses of observational studies - Ann Oncol. 2010 Oct 13 - "oral cavity/pharynx (OP) and larynx, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), comparing the highest versus the lowest categories of coffee consumption, using random-effects models ... For OP cancer, the pooled RR was 0.64 (95% CI 0.51-0.80) for highest versus lowest coffee drinking, based on a total of 2633 cases from one cohort and eight case-control studies, with no significant heterogeneity across studies. The RRs were 0.61 (95% CI 0.41-0.89) for European, 0.58 (95% CI 0.36-0.94) for American and 0.74 (95% CI 0.48-1.15) for Asian studies, where coffee consumption is lower. The corresponding RRs were 1.56 (95% CI 0.60-4.02) for laryngeal cancer (732 cases from three case-control studies), 0.87 (95% CI 0.65-1.17) for ESCC (2115 cases from one cohort and six case-control studies) and 1.18 (95% CI 0.81-1.71) for EAC (415 cases from three case-control studies)"
  • Coffee and acute ischemic stroke onset: The Stroke Onset Study - Neurology. 2010 Sep 29 - "The relative risk (RR) of stroke in the hour after consuming coffee was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.8; p < 0.001). There was no apparent increase in risk in the hour following consumption of caffeinated tea (RR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.4-2.0; p = 0.85) or cola (RR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.4-2.4; p = 0.95). The association between ischemic stroke in the hour after coffee consumption was only apparent among those consuming ≤1 cup per day but not for patients who consumed coffee more regularly (p for trend = 0.002) ... Coffee consumption transiently increases the risk of ischemic stroke onset, particularly among infrequent drinkers"
  • Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep 15 - "In this meta-analysis, we observed no important association between caffeine intake during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth for cohort and case-control studies"
  • Impact of paper filtered coffee on oxidative DNA-damage: Results of a clinical trial - Mutat Res. 2010 Aug 13 - "consumed 800ml coffee or water daily over 5 days ... The extent of DNA-migration attributable to formation of oxidised purines (formamidopyrimidine glycosylase sensitive sites) was decreased after coffee intake by 12.3%"
  • Coffee and the liver: a potential treatment for liver disease? - Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Aug 26 - "Several studies consistently show that coffee drinkers have a reduced risk of abnormal liver function tests, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is a clear dose response to this benefit"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in women: the Nurses' Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 25 - "There was an inverse association between higher coffee intake and the risk of gout. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) for incident gout according to coffee-consumption categories [ie, 0, 1-237, 238-947, and >/=948 mL coffee/d (237 mL = one 8-ounce cup)] were 1.00, 0.97, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.95), and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.61; P for trend < 0.0001), respectively. For decaffeinated coffee, the multivariate RRs according to consumption categories (0, 1-237, and >/=237 mL decaffeinated coffee/d) were 1.00, 1.02, and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.95; P for trend = 0.02), respectively. There was an inverse association between total caffeine from all sources and the risk of gout; the multivariate RR of the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.68; P for trend <0.0001)"
  • Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of incident cancer: a prospective cohort study - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 May 30 - "No associations were found for all cancer sites combined, or for prostate or colorectal cancer. For breast cancer, boiled coffee >/=4 versus <1 occasions/day was associated with a reduced risk (HR = 0.52, CI = 0.30-0.88, p (trend) = 0.247). An increased risk of premenopausal and a reduced risk of postmenopausal breast cancer were found for both total (HR(premenopausal) = 1.69, CI = 0.96-2.98, p (trend) = 0.015, HR(postmenopausal) = 0.60, CI = 0.39-0.93, p (trend) = 0.006) and filtered coffee (HR(premenopausal) = 1.76, CI = 1.04-3.00, p (trend) = 0.045, HR(postmenopausal) = 0.52, CI = 0.30-0.88, p (trend) = 0.045). Boiled coffee was positively associated with the risk of respiratory tract cancer (HR = 1.81, CI = 1.06-3.08, p (trend) = 0.084), a finding limited to men. Main results for less common cancer types included total coffee in renal cell cancer (HR = 0.30, CI = 0.11-0.79, p (trend) = 0.009) and boiled coffee in pancreas cancer (HR = 2.51 CI = 1.15-5.50, p (trend) = 0.006)"
  • Coffee and tea consumption and endometrial cancer risk in a population-based study in New Jersey - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 May 14 - "There was a moderate inverse association with coffee consumption, with an adjusted OR of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.36-1.17) for women who reported more than two cups/day of coffee compared to none. Tea consumption appeared to increase risk (OR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.08-3.45), but after including the variables sugar/honey and cream/milk added to tea in the model, the risk estimate was attenuated and no longer statistically significant (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 0.96-3.28 for those consuming more than one cup/day of tea compared to nonusers). There was a suggestion of a decreased risk associated with green tea, but the confidence interval included one (adjusted OR for one or more cups/week vs. none: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.48-1.18). We found an association with adding sugar/honey to tea, with those adding two or more teaspoons/cup having an OR of 2.66 (95% CI: 1.42-4.98; p for trend <0.01) after adjusting for relevant confounders. For sugar/honey added to coffee the corresponding OR was 1.43 (95% CI: 0.81-2.55). Our results indicate that sugars and milk/cream added to coffee and tea should be considered in future studies evaluating coffee and tea and endometrial cancer risk"
  • Coffee Consumption and Mortality Due to All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer in Japanese Women - J Nutr. 2010 Mar 24 - "In women, the multivariate hazard ratios (HR) (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in participants who drank coffee never, occasionally, 1-2 cups (150-300 mL)/d, and >/=3 cups/d were 1.00, 0.88 (0.73-1.06), 0.82 (0.66-1.02), and 0.75 (0.53-1.05), respectively (P-trend = 0.04). For CVD mortality in women, the multivariate HR (95% CI) were 1.00, 0.56 (0.36-0.86), 0.48 (0.29-0.80), and 0.45 (0.20-1.03), respectively (P-trend = 0.006). Of the specific CVD diseases, there was a strong inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) in women (P-trend = 0.02) but not in men. Death due to cancer was not associated with coffee consumption in either men or women, except for colorectal cancer in women. Our results suggest that coffee may have favorable effects on morality due to all causes and to CVD, especially CHD, in women"
  • Caffeine Intake is Associated with a Lower Risk of Cognitive Decline: A Cohort Study from Portugal - J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Feb 24 - "Caffeine intake (> 62 mg/day [3rd third] vs. < 22 mg/day [1st third]) was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline in women (RR=0.49, 95%CI 0.24-0.97), but not significantly in men (RR=0.65, 95%CI 0.27-1.54)" - Note:  I don't know how they determine that 0.65 isn't significant.
  • Caffeine as a Protective Factor in Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease - J Alzheimers Dis. 2010 Feb 24 - "In the CAIDE study, coffee drinking of 3-5 cups per day at midlife was associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD by about 65% at late-life. In conclusion, coffee drinking may be associated with a decreased risk of dementia/AD. This may be mediated by caffeine and/or other mechanisms like antioxidant capacity and increased insulin sensitivity. This finding might open possibilities for prevention or postponing the onset of dementia/AD"
  • Effects of coffee consumption on subclinical inflammation and other risk factors for type 2 diabetes: a clinical trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb 24 - "Significant changes were also observed for serum concentrations of interleukin-18, 8-isoprostane, and adiponectin (medians: -8%, -16%, and 6%, respectively; consumption of 8 compared with 0 cups coffee/d). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein A-I increased significantly by 12%, 7%, and 4%, respectively, whereas the ratios of LDL to HDL cholesterol and of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A-I decreased significantly by 8% and 9%, respectively (8 compared with 0 cups coffee/d)"
  • Coffee consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in men and women with normal glucose tolerance: The Strong Heart Study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Feb 17 - "Compared to those who did not drink coffee, participants who drank 12 or more cups of coffee daily had 67% less risk of developing diabetes during the follow-up (hazard ratio: 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.13, 0.81)"
  • Influence of coffee and caffeine consumption on atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Feb 16 - "Coffee and caffeine consumption influence spontaneous conversion of atrial fibrillation. Normotensive non-habitual coffee consumers are more likely to convert arrhythmia within 48h from the onset of symptoms. Hypertensive patients showed a U-shaped relationship between coffee consumption and spontaneous conversion of AF, moderate coffee consumers were less likely to show spontaneous conversion of arrhythmia. Patients with left ventricular hypertrophy showed a reduced rate of spontaneous conversion of arrhythmia"
  • Acute effects of coffee on endothelial function in healthy subjects - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Feb - "caffeinated (CC) and one cup of decaffeinated (DC) Italian espresso coffee ... Subjects ingested one cup of caffeinated (CC) and one cup of decaffeinated (DC) Italian espresso coffee in random order at 5- to 7-day intervals.Results:Following CC ingestion, FMD decreased progressively and significantly (mean+/-s.e.m.: 0 min, 7.7+/-0.6; 30 min, 6.3+/-0.7; 60 min, 6.0+/-0.8%; ANOVA (analysis of variance), P<0.05), but it did not significantly increase after DC ingestion (0 min, 6.9+/-0.6; 30 min, 8.1+/-0.9; 60 min, 8.5+/-0.9%; P=0.115). Similarly, CC significantly increased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure; this effect was not observed after DC ingestion. Blood glucose concentrations remained unchanged after ingestion of both CC and DC, but insulin (0 min, 15.8+/-0.9; 60 min, 15.0+/-0.8 muU/ml; P<0.05) and C-peptide (0 min, 1.25+/-0.09; 60 min, 1.18+/-0.09 ng/ml; P<0.01) blood concentrations decreased significantly only after CC ingestion.Conclusions:CC acutely induced unfavorable cardiovascular effects, especially on endothelial function. In the fasting state, insulin secretion is also likely reduced after CC ingestion"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of heart failure in men: an analysis from the Cohort of Swedish Men - Am Heart J. 2009 Oct;158(4):667-72 - "Compared to men who drank <or=1 cup of coffee per day (unadjusted rate 29.9 HF events/10,000 person-years), RR were 0.87 (95% CI 0.69-1.11, unadjusted rate 29.2/10,000 person-years) for 2 cups/d, 0.89 (95% CI 0.70-1.14, unadjusted rate 25.1/10,000 person-years) for 3 cups/d, 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.15, unadjusted rate 25.0/10,000 person-years) for 4 cups/d, and 0.89 (95% CI 0.69-1.15, unadjusted rate 18.1/10,000 person-years) for >or=5 cups/d (P for trend in RR = .61) ... This study did not support the hypothesis that high coffee consumption is associated with increased rates of HF hospitalization or mortality"
  • Obesity, coffee consumption and CRP levels in postmenopausal overweight/obese women: importance of hormone replacement therapy use - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Sep 16 - "Plasma CRP was positively associated with BMI (P<0.001) and negatively associated with coffee consumption (P</=0.05). In women using HRT, plasma CRP was positively associated with BMI in women consuming less than one cup of coffee per month (r (2)=0.15 (P<0.001)), one cup per day (0.14 (P=0.02)) and more than one cup per day (0.12 (P=0.03)). In women who did not use HRT, CRP was associated with BMI only in women consuming less than one cup of coffee per day (r (2)=0.16 (P<0.001)) but not in women consuming one cup per day (0.06 (P=0.10)) or more than one daily cup of coffee"
  • Coffee and tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes - Diabetologia. 2009 Sep 1 - "After adjustment for potential confounders, coffee and tea consumption were both inversely associated with type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.95) for 4.1-6.0 cups of coffee per day (p for trend = 0.033) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.47-0.86) for >5.0 cups of tea per day (p for trend = 0.002). Total daily consumption of at least three cups of coffee and/or tea reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by approximately 42%"
  • Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of first acute myocardial infarction; a nested case/referent study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Aug 18 - "Consumption of filtered coffee was positively associated with the risk of a first MI in men. A similar tendency was observed for boiled coffee in women, but the result was not statistically significant in multivariate analysis"
  • Coffee drinking and risk of endometrial cancer-A population-based cohort study - Int J Cancer. 2009 Apr 27 - "Each additional cup (200 g) of coffee per day was associated with a rate ratio (RR) of 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-0.97]. In women drinking 4 or more cups of coffee a day, the RR for the risk reduction of endometrial cancer was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.58-0.97) when compared with those who drank 1 cup or less"
  • Effect of Coffee and Green Tea Consumption on the Risk of Liver Cancer: Cohort Analysis by Hepatitis Virus Infection Status - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Jun;18(6):1746-1753 - "Compared with almost never drinkers, increased coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer in all subjects (hazard ratio for <1, 1-2, and >/=3 cups/d; P(trend) = 0.67, 0.49, 0.54, and 0.025). A similar risk tendency was observed in those with either or both HCV and HBV infection. In contrast, no association was observed between green tea consumption and the risk of liver cancer in all subjects"
  • Coffee, black tea and risk of gastric cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 May 12 - "Our investigation, based on a uniquely large dataset, provides convincing evidence that coffee and black tea consumption is unlikely to be strongly associated with gastric cancer risk"
  • Coffee consumption and mortality after acute myocardial infarction: The Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program - Am Heart J. 2009 Mar;157(3):495-501 - "Self-reported coffee consumption at the time of hospitalization for myocardial infarction was inversely associated with subsequent postinfarction mortality in this population with broad coffee intake"
  • Acute Effects Of Decaffeinated Coffee And The Major Coffee Components Chlorogenic Acid And Trigonelline On Glucose Tolerance - Diabetes Care. 2009 Mar 26 - "Coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance ... Randomized cross-over trial of the effects of 12 g decaffeinated coffee, 1 g chlorogenic acid, 500 mg trigonelline, and placebo (1 g mannitol) on glucose and insulin concentrations during a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in fifteen overweight men ... Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline ingestion significantly reduced glucose (-0.7 mmol/L p=0.007 and -0.5 mmol/L p=0.024 respectively) and insulin (-73 pmol/L p=0.038 and -117 pmol/L p=0.007 respectively) concentrations 15 minutes following an OGTT as compared with placebo. None of the treatments affected insulin and glucose area under the curve values during the OGTT as compared with placebo ... Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline reduced early glucose and insulin responses during an OGTT"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among women with type 2 diabetes - Diabetologia. 2009 Mar 6 - "After adjustment for age, smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors, the relative risks were 0.76 (95% CI 0.50-1.14) for cardiovascular diseases (p trend = 0.09) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.55-1.14) for all-cause mortality (p trend = 0.05) for the consumption of >/=4 cups/day of caffeinated coffee compared with non-drinkers. Similarly, multivariable RRs were 0.96 (95% CI 0.66-1.38) for cardiovascular diseases (p trend = 0.84) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.54-1.07) for all-cause mortality (p trend = 0.08) for the consumption of >/=2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee compared with non-drinkers. Higher decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with lower concentrations of HbA(1c) (6.2% for >/=2 cups/day versus 6.7% for <1 cup/month; p trend = 0.02)"
  • Coffee Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and All-Cause Mortality among Men with Type 2 Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2009 Feb 19 - "These data indicate that regular coffee consumption is not associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases or mortality in diabetic men"
  • Caffeinated Coffee Consumption, Cardiovascular Disease, and Heart Valve Disease in the Elderly (from the Framingham Study) - Am J Cardiol. 2008 Dec 1;102(11):1502-8. Epub 2008 Sep 11 - "A significant negative association between caffeinated coffee consumption and CHD mortality was observed for subjects with systolic blood pressure (BP) <160 mm Hg and diastolic BP <100 mm Hg. The decrease in risk of CHD mortality for any caffeinated coffee versus none was 43% (95% confidence interval 9 to 64). This decreased risk appeared to be caused primarily by an inverse prospective relation between caffeinated coffee consumption and the development or progression of heart valve disease. The decrease in risk of heart valve disease for subjects with systolic BP <160 mm Hg and diastolic BP <100 mm Hg for any caffeinated coffee versus none was 43%"
  • Higher regular coffee and tea consumption is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2008 Oct 30 - "Compared to nondrinkers, we observed a nonsignificant negative association with endometrial cancer risk among women who reported >2 cups/d regular coffee (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.49-1.03), a significant inverse association with >2 cups/d black tea (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.90) and a significant inverse association with >4 cups/d combined coffee and tea consumption (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.28-0.80). These findings suggest coffee and tea may be important in reducing endometrial cancer risk"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: A prospective study in Japan - Int J Cancer. 2008 Aug 18 - "After adjustment for age, study area, body mass index, menopausal status, age at menopause for postmenopausal women, parity, use of exogenous female hormones, smoking status and by consumption of green vegetables, beef, pork and green tea, the multivariate HRs (95% CI) of endometrial cancer in women who drank coffee </=2 days/week, 3-4 days/week, 1-2 cups/day and >/=3 cups/day were 1.00, 0.97 (0.56-1.68), 0.61 (0.39-0.97) and 0.38 (0.16-0.91), respectively ... Coffee consumption may be associated with a decreased risk of endometrial cancer"
  • The relationship of coffee consumption with mortality - Ann Intern Med. 2008 Jun 17;148(12):904-14 - "Regular coffee consumption was not associated with an increased mortality rate in either men or women. The possibility of a modest benefit of coffee consumption on all-cause and CVD mortality needs to be further investigated"
  • Timing of Blood Pressure Measurement Related to Caffeine Consumption (January) - Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Dec 19 - "Reviews of caffeine's acute effect on blood pressure indicate changes of 3-15 mm Hg systolic and 4-13 mm Hg diastolic. Typically, blood pressure changes occur within 30 minutes, peak in 1-2 hours, and may persist for more than 4 hours"
  • Coffee, caffeine, and coronary heart disease - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007 Nov;10(6):745-51 - "Diterpenes present in unfiltered coffee and caffeine each appear to increase risk of coronary heart disease. A lower risk of coronary heart disease among moderate coffee drinkers might be due to antioxidants found in coffee"
  • Coffee consumption is associated with higher plasma adiponectin concentrations in women with and without type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study - Diabetes Care. 2007 Dec 10 - "High consumption of caffeine-containing coffee is associated with higher adiponectin and lower inflammatory marker concentrations"
  • Coffee consumption and mortality in a 14-year follow-up of an elderly northern Finnish population - Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec 6;:1-8 - "The total mortality rate was inversely related to the number of cups (average volume, 125 ml) of coffee consumed daily. After adjustment for age, sub-period of follow-up, sex, marital status, basic educational level, previous occupational group, current smoking, BMI, history of myocardial infarction, self-rated health and presence of diabetes, cognitive impairment or physical disability, the estimated relative risk reduction of total mortality per an increment of one more cup of coffee per d reported at baseline was 4 (95 % CI 0, 8) % ... The present study provides evidence for daily (caffeine-containing) coffee intake being inversely associated with mortality in the elderly"
  • Intakes of coffee, tea, milk, soda and juice and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies - Int J Cancer. 2007 Jun 21 - "Coffee consumption was associated with a modestly lower risk of renal cell cancer (pooled multivariate RR for 3 or more 8 oz (237 ml) cups/day versus less than one 8 oz (237 ml) cup/day = 0.84 ... Tea consumption was also inversely associated with renal cell cancer risk (pooled multivariate RR for 1 or more 8 oz (237 ml) cups/day versus nondrinkers = 0.85"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a population-based prospective cohort of Japanese men and women - Int J Cancer. 2007 Apr 20 - "We observed a significant inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of developing invasive colon cancer among women. Compared with those who almost never consumed coffee, women who regularly consumed 3 or more cups of coffee per day had a RR of 0.44 ... In men, no significant decrease was observed in any colorectal cancer site"
  • Coffee consumption and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus - Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(2):161-6 - "Women who reported moderate pre-pregnancy caffeinated coffee intake had a significantly reduced risk of GDM (adjusted RR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.85) compared with non-consumers. No risk reduction was associated with decaffeinated coffee intake"
  • Coffee intake and incidence of hypertension - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):718-23 - "Women who drank >6 cups/d had a lower risk than did women who drank >0-3 cups/d ... Coffee abstinence is associated with a lower hypertension risk than is low coffee consumption. An inverse U-shaped relation between coffee intake and risk of hypertension was observed in the women"
  • Effect of chronic coffee consumption on aortic stiffness and wave reflections in hypertensive patients - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Dec 13 - "Coffee consumption is associated with increased wave reflections, but not aortic stiffness in never-treated hypertensive patients"
  • Does coffee consumption reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose? - Diabetes Care. 2006 Nov;29(11):2385-90 - "Past and current coffee drinkers had a reduced risk of incident diabetes (odds ratio 0.38 [95% CI 0.17-0.87] and 0.36 ... This study confirms a striking protective effect of caffeinated coffee against incident diabetes"
  • Coffee consumption and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in healthy and diabetic women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):888-93 - "neither caffeinated nor decaffeinated filtered coffee has a detrimental effect on endothelial function. In contrast, the results suggest that coffee consumption is inversely associated with markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction"
  • Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Aug 16 - "consuming coffee reduces cognitive decline in elderly men. An inverse and J-shaped association may exist between the number of cups of coffee consumed and cognitive decline, with the least cognitive decline for men consuming three cups of coffee per day"
  • The relationship between green tea and total caffeine intake and risk for self-reported type 2 diabetes among Japanese adults - Ann Intern Med. 2006 Apr 18;144(8):554-62 - "Consumption of green tea and coffee was inversely associated with risk for diabetes after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and other risk factors. Multivariable odds ratios for diabetes among participants who frequently drank green tea and coffee (> or =6 cups of green tea per day and > or =3 cups of coffee per day) were 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47 to 0.94) and 0.58 (CI, 0.37 to 0.90), respectively, compared with those who drank less than 1 cup per week ... Total caffeine intake from these beverages was associated with a 33% reduced risk for diabetes"
  • Consumption of coffee, but not black tea, is associated with decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer - J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1):166-71 - "Among premenopausal women, consumption of regular coffee was associated with linear declines in breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.03); consumers of >/=4 cups/d experienced a 40% risk reduction"
  • Habitual caffeine intake and the risk of hypertension in women - JAMA. 2005 Nov 9;294(18):2330-5
  • Coffee--poison or medicine? - Ther Umsch. 2005 Sep;62(9):629-33 - "Recent publications suggest that moderate coffee intake does not represent a health hazard, but may even be associated with beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system and diabetes"
  • Effect of coffee intake on blood pressure in male habitual alcohol drinkers - Hypertens Res. 2005 Jun;28(6):521-7 - "coffee intake of more than 3 cups per day in hypertensive and prehypertensive men who regularly consume alcohol lowers blood pressure"
  • Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review - JAMA. 2005 Jul 6;294(1):97-104 - "This systematic review supports the hypothesis that habitual coffee consumption is associated with a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes"
  • Chronic coffee consumption has a detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1307-12 - "Chronic coffee consumption exerts a detrimental effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections, which may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease"
  • Coffee Intake and Risk of Hypertension: The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study - Archives of Internal Medicine, 3/26/02 - "After adjustment for the variables listed above, however, these associations were not statistically significant ... Conclusion  Over many years of follow-up, coffee drinking is associated with small increases in blood pressure, but appears to play a small role in the development of hypertension"