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  • Not all dietary fibers are equal - Science Daily, 4/28/22 - "the physiological, microbial, and molecular effects of individual fibers differ substantially ... High-fiber diets reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. They act by lowering cholesterol and promoting a healthier lipid profile for people eating a Westernized diet. Dietary fibers are carbohydrates that are selectively metabolized by gut microbes but are otherwise indigestible by humans ... they investigated the physiological effects of dietary supplementation with two common and structurally distinct soluble fibers: arabinoxylan (AX), which is common in whole grains, and long-chain inulin (LCI), which is found in onions, chicory root, and Jerusalem artichokes ... On average, AX consumption was associated with a significant reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), known as the bad cholesterol, and an increase in bile acids, which may be contributing to the cholesterol reduction. Yet individual responses varied, and some participants saw little to no change in cholesterol levels ... Meanwhile, LCI was associated with a modest decrease in inflammation markers and an increase in the abundance of Bifidobacterium -- a generally beneficial type of gut microbe known to produce healthy short-chain fatty acids. But at the highest dose, there was an increase in inflammation and levels of a liver enzyme called alanine aminotransferase, suggesting that too much of this fiber may be harmful"
  • Not all dietary fiber is created equal: cereal fiber but not fruit or vegetable fibers are linked with lower inflammation - Science Daily, 4/6/22 - "we are now learning that one particular type of dietary fiber -- cereal fiber -- but not fruit or vegetable fiber was associated with lower inflammation ... why cereal fiber but not vegetable or fruit fiber is associated with lower inflammation is not clear and warrants further investigation ... it is not clear whether cereal fiber per se or other nutrients in foods rich in cereal fiber are driving the observed relationships ... inflammation had only a modest role in mediating the observed inverse association between cereal fiber and CVD ... This suggests that factors other than inflammation may play a larger role in the cereal fiber-associated reduction in CVD and will need to be tested in future interventions of specific populations"
  • Dietary Fiber Tied to Lower Dementia Risk - Medscape, 3/7/22 - "Investigators administered a dietary survey to 3700 healthy adults at midlife and then followed them for up to 20 years. They found that participants who consumed the most fiber had approximately a 25% lower risk of developing dementia in later life ... This study showed that people with a high intake of dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber, have a lower risk of dementia ... Brain-gut interaction has recently received attention for its potential involvement in the development of dementia ... A diet high in soluble fiber attenuates neuroinflammation in mouse models. Other animal studies have suggested that insoluble fiber might also have a beneficial effect on the microbiome"
    • Nutrition and healthy eating - Mayo Clinic - "Soluble fiber. This type of fiber dissolves in water to form a gel-like material. It can help lower blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Soluble fiber is found in oats, peas, beans, apples, citrus fruits, carrots, barley and psyllium ... Insoluble fiber. This type of fiber promotes the movement of material through your digestive system and increases stool bulk, so it can be of benefit to those who struggle with constipation or irregular stools. Whole-wheat flour, wheat bran, nuts, beans and vegetables, such as cauliflower, green beans and potatoes, are good sources of insoluble fiber."
  • Higher Dietary Fiber Tied to Lower Depression Risk in Young Women - Medscape, 1/28/21 - "the estimated mean dietary fiber intake was significantly higher in women without depression, compared with those with depression (14.07 ± .11 g/1000 kcal/d [95% CI, 13.85 - 14.29] vs 12.67 ± .45 g/1000 kcal/d [11.79 - 13.55]; P = .003) ... Although the relationship remained significant in premenopausal women, it lost significance in postmenopausal women ... The inverse relationship between dietary fiber intake and depression could be explained by the gut-brain interactions"
  • Poor gut health connected to severe COVID-19, new review shows - Science Daily, 1/12/21 - "The "western diet" that's common in these countries is low in fiber, and "a fiber-deficient diet is one of the main causes of altered gut microbiomes," he said, "and such gut microbiome dysbiosis leads to chronic diseases." ... The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still not fully understood. If future studies do show that gut health affects COVID-19 prognosis, Kim argued, then clinicians and researchers should exploit that connection for better strategies aimed at preventing and managing the disease. Eating more fiber, he said, may lower a person's risk of serious disease. And fecal microbiota transplantation might be a treatment worth considering for patients with the worst cases of COVID-19" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Link between dietary fiber and depression partially explained by gut-brain interactions - Science Daily, 1/6/21 - "The study confirmed an inverse association between dietary-fiber intake and depression in premenopausal women after adjusting for other variables, but no significant difference was documented in postmenopausal women. Research has suggested that estrogen depletion may play a role in explaining why postmenopausal women don't benefit as much from increased dietary fiber, because estrogen affects the balance of gut microorganisms found in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. The link between dietary fiber and depression may be partially explained by gut-brain interactions, because it is theorized that changes in gut-microbiota composition may affect neurotransmission. Fiber improves the richness and diversity of gut microbiota." - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • High-Fiber Foods Linked to Lower Breast Cancer Risk - NYT, 4/6/20 - "Compared with women with the lowest overall fiber intake, those with the highest had an 8 percent reduced risk for breast cancer ... The researchers also found that it was only soluble fiber, the kind that predominates in foods like oatmeal, nuts, beans, peas and lentils, that had a statistically significant association with reduced breast cancer incidence. There was a suggestion that insoluble fiber — the kind found in whole grains and that adds bulk to stool — also reduced the risk, but the effect was not statistically significant. (Both soluble and insoluble fiber are found in varying proportions in most fiber-containing foods.)"
  • A gut check for heart failure patients - Science Daily, 5/26/19 - "Heart failure patients had lower biodiversity of intestinal microbes than healthy controls, with differences in the two main phyla of bacteria present in the human gut. Patients with heart failure had a lower ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) compared to controls, and this difference was even more pronounced when the cause of heart failure was non-ischaemic ... Dietary and outcome analyses were performed in heart failure patients. Patients who had a heart transplant or died had lower biodiversity and a lower F/B ratio than controls. Regarding diet, bacterial diversity and Firmicutes levels were positively associated with fibre intake ... Our findings suggest that the altered microbiota composition found in patients with chronic heart failure might be connected to low fibre intake"
  • High-Fiber Diet May Help Your Gut Battle Melanoma - WebMD. 2/27/19 - "New research suggests that a diet that's full of fiber appears to lead to more diverse intestinal bacteria (microbiome). In turn, a thriving gut microbiome is linked to a stronger response to an immune therapy for the aggressive skin cancer ... We found that patients eating a high-fiber diet at the start of therapy were about five times more likely to respond to the anti-PD-1 immunotherapy"
  • High Fiber, Whole Grains Linked to CVD, Diabetes, Cancer Risk - Medscape, 1/15/29 - "For every 8 g increase in dietary fiber consumed daily, total deaths and incidents of CHD, type 2 diabetes, and colorectal cancer decreased by 5% to 17% ... The greatest benefits in fiber consumption were observed in individuals consuming 25 g to 29 g per day (improvement in six of seven critical outcomes), which was higher than in individuals consuming 15 g to 19 g per day (improvement in three of the seven critical outcomes), or 20 g to 24 g per day (improvement in four of seven critical outcomes)"
  • Dietary fiber reduces brain inflammation during aging - Science Daily, 9/14/18 - "Dietary fiber promotes the growth of good bacteria in the gut. When these bacteria digest fiber, they produce short-chain-fatty-acids (SCFAs), including butyrate, as byproducts ... Butyrate is of interest because it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties on microglia and improve memory in mice when administered pharmacologically"
  • A high-fiber diet protects mice against the flu virus - Science Daily, 5/15/18 - "A high-fiber diet blunts harmful, excessive immune responses in the lungs while boosting antiviral immunity by activating T cells. These dual benefits were mediated by changes in the composition of gut bacteria, leading to an increase in the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) through the microbial fermentation of dietary fiber ... Taken together with past studies, the new findings suggest that the modern Western diet consisting of food high in sugar and fat and low in fiber could increase susceptibility to inflammatory diseases while decreasing protection against infections"
  • Can Muesli help against arthritis? - Science Daily, 1/12/18 - 'We were able to show that a bacteria-friendly diet has an anti-inflammatory effect, as well as a positive effect on bone density' explains Dr. Mario Zaiss, who is leading the team behind the study. 'Our findings offer a promising approach for developing innovative therapies for inflammatory joint diseases as well as for treating osteoporosis, which is often suffered by women after the menopause. We are not able to give any specific recommendations for a bacteria-friendly diet at the moment, but eating muesli every morning as well as enough fruit and vegetables throughout the day helps to maintain a rich variety of bacterial species.' - See muesli at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Fiber-rich diet linked to lowered risk of painful knee osteoarthritis - Science Daily, 5/23/17 - "eating more fibre was associated with a lower risk of painful knee osteoarthritis. Compared with the lowest intake (bottom 25 per cent of participants), the highest intake (top 25 per cent) was associated with a 30 per cent lower risk in the OAI and a 61 per cent lower risk in the Framingham study"
  • High fiber diets may alleviate inflammation caused by gout - Science Daily, 1/4/17 - "diets high in fiber trigger microorganisms in the gut to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which induce neutrophil apoptosis and the resolution of inflammation. These findings have important implications for the treatment of gout, and possibly for the treatment of arthritis"
  • Dietary fiber intake tied to successful aging, research reveals - Science Daily, 6/1/16 - "those who had the highest intake of fiber or total fiber actually had an almost 80 percent greater likelihood of living a long and healthy life over a 10-year follow-up. That is, they were less likely to suffer from hypertension, diabetes, dementia, depression, and functional disability"
  • Increasing dietary fiber reduces risk of developing diabetes - Science Daily, 5/26/15 - "participants with the highest total fiber intake (more than 26 g/day) had an 18% lower risk of developing diabetes compared to those with the lowest total fiber intake (less than 19g/day) ... those with the highest levels of cereal and vegetable fiber consumption had a 19% and 16% lower risk of developing diabetes respectively, compared with those with the lowest consumption of these types of fiber. Again, these associations disappeared when the results were adjusted for BMI. By contrast, fruit fiber was not associated with a reduction in diabetes risk ... potential mechanisms could include feeling physically full for longer, prolonged release of hormonal signals, slowed down nutrient absorption, or altered fermentation in the large intestine. All these mechanisms could lead to a lower BMI and reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes"
  • Shift in gut bacteria observed in fiber supplement study may offer good news for weight loss - Science Daily, 11/19/14 - "20 healthy men with an average fiber intake of 14 grams a day were given snack bars to supplement their diet. The control group received bars that contained no fiber; a second group ate bars that contained 21 grams of polydextrose, which is a common fiber food additive; and a third group received bars with 21 grams of soluble corn fiber ... though there were significant shifts in the gut bacterial populations with fiber supplements, when the supplements were stopped populations seemed to go back to where they were before. "The take-home is if people want to make changes to their diet and have a healthier gut they need to be everyday changes ... only 10 percent of Americans meet their daily fiber needs of 25 to 38 grams per day" - See fiber supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Fiber consumption and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortalities: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Nov 8 - "Medline and web of science database were searched for cohort studies ... Compared with those who consumed lowest fiber, for individuals who ate highest fiber, mortality rate was lower by 23% (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.81) for CVD, by 17% (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.74- 0.91) for cancer, by 23% (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.81) for all-cause mortality. For each 10 gram/day increase in fiber intake, the pooled HR was estimated to be 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86-0.93) for all-cause mortality, 0.80 (95% CI, 0.72-0.88) for CHD mortality, and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.40-0.92) for IHD mortality, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.94) for cancer. Dietary fiber and CVD mortality showed a strong dose-response relation" - See fiber supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fiber Intake and Total Mortality - Medscape, 9/23/14 - "Seven prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and total mortality, including 62,314 deaths among 908,135 participants, were identified. The pooled adjusted relative risk of total mortality for the highest category of dietary fiber intake versus the lowest was 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.80). In a dose-response meta-analysis, the pooled adjusted relative risk for a 10-g/day increment of dietary fiber intake was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0 92). By source of fiber, cereal and, to a lesser extent, vegetable fiber were significantly associated with lower total mortality, while fruit fiber showed no association"
  • How fiber prevents diabetes, obesity - Science Daily, 1/14/14 - "Mice fed a fat- and sugar-rich diet, but supplemented with fibers, became less fat than control mice and were also protected against the development of diabetes thanks to significantly increased sensitivity to insulin ... The researchers repeated the experiment with mice whose intestine's ability to produce glucose had been suppressed by genetic engineering. No protective effect was then observed: these mice became fat and developed diabetes like those fed a fiber-free diet. It is therefore the production of glucose by the intestine from propionate and butyrate that is behind the positive effects of fermentable fibers on the organism"
  • Dietary fibers protect against asthma, study suggests - Science Daily, 1/6/14 - "A team of researchers led by Benjamin Marsland from Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) has shown in experiments with mice that the lack of fermentable fibers in people's diet paves the way for allergic inflammatory reactions in the lungs ... His team either put mice on a standard diet with four percent fermentable fibers or gave them low-fiber food with merely 0.3 percent fermentable fibers. This low-fiber food is largely comparable to the Western diet, which contains no more than 0.6 percent fibers on average ... When the researchers exposed the mice to an extract of house dust mites, the mice with the low-fiber food developed a stronger allergic reaction with much more mucus in the lungs than the mice with the standard diet. Conversely, a comparison between mice on a standard diet and mice who received food enriched with fermentable fibers likewise showed that these dietary fibers have a protective influence"
  • Link Strengthened Between Low Fiber Intake, Increased Cardiovascular Risk - Science Daily, 10/21/13 - "shows a significant association between low dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Surveillance data from 23,168 subjects in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2010 was used to examine the role dietary fiber plays in heart health ... recommended intake levels according to age and sex: 38g per day for men aged 19-50 years, 30g per day for men 50 and over, 25g for women aged 19-50 years, and 21g per day for women over 50. Using data from NHANES 1999-2010, the study reveals that the mean dietary fiber intake was only 16.2g per day across all demographics during that time period"
  • Chronic kidney disease alters intestinal microbial flora - Science Daily, 10/9/12 - "consumption of high-fiber foods and better control of uremia -- a disease common in kidney failure -- by diet and dialysis may improve the composition of gut microbes and the well-being of patients ... They found marked differences in the abundance of some 190 types of bacteria in the gut microbiome of those with kidney disease -- and confirmed the results in a concurrent study of rats with and without chronic kidney disease ... One solution, Vaziri said, is to provide longer, more frequent dialysis treatments. This would let more potassium be removed by dialysis and allow for more potassium in the diet. Alternatively, packaged fiber foods that do not contain potassium could be used as a dietary supplement"
  • Going Gluten-Free? Don't Forget Fiber - U.S. News, 7/31/12 - "If you've recently adopted a gluten-free diet—eliminating wheat, barley, rye, and any food that contains derivatives of these ingredients—you may have inadvertently eliminated something else from your diet as well: fiber ... Choose a gluten-free fiber supplement"
  • Dietary fiber alters gut bacteria, supports gastrointestinal health - Science Daily, 6/28/12 - "dietary fiber promotes a shift in the gut toward different types of beneficial bacteria. And the microbes that live in the gut, scientists now believe, can support a healthy gastrointestinal tract as well as affect our susceptibility to conditions as varied as type 2 diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis ... This research suggests that fiber is good for more than laxation ... prebiotics, foods that promote the bacteria's growth, or probiotics, foods that contain the live microorganism"
  • Fiber may boost pancreatic health: Study - Nutra USA, 1/25/12 - "The greatest intakes of soluble fiber were linked to a 60% reduction in pancreatic cancer risk, while insoluble fiber intake was linked to a 50% reduction in risk" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Formulas, Fiber Perfect, 150 Veggie Caps at iHerb.
  • More fiber may reduce breast cancer risk: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 1/23/12 - "Every 10 gram per day increase in soluble fiber intake was associated with a 26% reduction in the risk of breast cancer, but no such effect was observed for insoluble fiber" - [Abstract]
    • Dietary Fiber: Insoluble and Soluble Fiber - WebMD - "Soluble fiber dissolves in water. Insoluble fiber does not ... Sources of soluble fiber: oatmeal, oat cereal, lentils, apples, oranges, pears, oat bran, strawberries, nuts, flaxseeds, beans, dried peas, blueberries, psyllium, cucumbers, celery, and carrots ... Sources of insoluble fiber: whole wheat, whole grains, wheat bran, corn bran, seeds, nuts, barley, couscous, brown rice, bulgur, zucchini, celery, broccoli, cabbage, onions, tomatoes, carrots, cucumbers, green beans, dark leafy vegetables, raisins, grapes, fruit, and root vegetable skins"
  • A diet rich in slowly digested carbs reduces markers of inflammation in overweight and obese adults - Science Daily, 1/11/12 - "Among overweight and obese adults, a diet rich in slowly digested carbohydrates, such as whole grains, legumes and other high-fiber foods, significantly reduces markers of inflammation associated with chronic disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet reduced a biomarker of inflammation called C-reactive protein by about 22 percent ... C-reactive protein is associated with an increased risk for many cancers as well as cardiovascular disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin. This hormone plays a key role in protecting against several cancers, including breast cancer, as well as metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hardening of the arteries"
  • High-Fiber Diet Linked to Lower Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 11/11/11 - "Total fiber intake, as well as fiber from whole grains and from cereals, was most strongly linked with a reduction in colorectal cancer risk ... The evidence was weaker for fiber from fruits, vegetables, and legumes"
  • Soluble fiber may help shed 1.5kg in 12 weeks: Roquette study - Nutra USA, 9/16/11 - "One hundred and twenty overweight men were randomly assigned to consume fruit juice supplemented with 17 grams of either Nutriose or maltodextrin (control) for 12 weeks. The participants consumed the juice twice a day to provide a daily dose of 34 grams ... men who drank the Nutriose beverage had an average body weight loss of 1.5 kg, an average body mass index (BMI) reduction of 0.5 kg/m2, and lost an average of 0.3% of their body fat percentage, compared with the control group ... In addition, men who drank the Nutriose-supplemented drink reported less hunger across the study period, compared with men in the control group" - [Abstract] - Note:  1.5 kg = 3.3 lbs - See Jarrow Formulas, Fiber Perfect, 150 Veggie Caps at iHerb (It contains the Nutriose).
  • Cooked Green Vegetables, Dried Fruit, Legumes, and Brown Rice Associated With Fewer Colon Polyps - Science Daily, 8/2/11 - "Eating legumes at least three times a week and brown rice at least once a week was linked to a reduced risk of colon polyps by 33 percent and 40 percent respectively ... Results also show that consuming cooked green vegetables once a day or more, as compared to less than five times a week, was associated with a 24 percent reduction in the risk of rectal/colon polyps. Consuming dried fruit three times a week or more, versus less than once a week, was associated with a 26 percent reduced risk"
  • Soluble fiber strikes a blow to belly fat - Science Daily, 6/27/11 - "All fat is not created equal. Unsightly as it is, subcutaneous fat, the fat right under the skin, is not as dangerous to overall health as visceral fat, the fat deep in the belly surrounding vital organs ... the way to zero in and reduce visceral fat is simple: eat more soluble fiber from vegetables, fruit and beans, and engage in moderate activity ... for every 10-gram increase in soluble fiber eaten per day, visceral fat was reduced by 3.7 percent over five years. In addition, increased moderate activity resulted in a 7.4 percent decrease in the rate of visceral fat accumulation over the same time period ... a higher rate of visceral fat is associated with high blood pressure, diabetes and fatty liver disease ... Ten grams of soluble fiber can be achieved by eating two small apples, one cup of green peas and one-half cup of pinto beans; moderate activity means exercising vigorously for 30 minutes, two to four times a week"
  • ‘Level 1’ evidence that probiotics boost ‘transit time’: Danisco & Fonterra - Nutra USA 6/22/11 - "the benefits were “at least equivalent to that of dietary fiber” ... The researchers recruited 100 healthy people with an average age of 44 and randomly assigned them to receive high or low daily doses of B. lactis HN019, or placebo for 14 days. High dose was defined as 17.2 billion colony forming units (CFU), while the low dose was 1.8 billion CFU ... At the end of the study results showed an improvement in transit time in the high dose group of 33 percent, and 25 percent in the low dose group. There was no change in the placebo group, added the researchers" - [Abstract] - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials - Obes Rev. 2011 Jun 16 - "For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, β-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay"
  • Fiber may keep you healthier for longer: NIH study - Nutra USA, 6/15/11 - "The highest intakes of fiber – equivalent to about 30 grams per day for men and 25 grams for women – were associated with a reduction in the risk of dying from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases of up to 60 percent ... The anti-inflammatory properties of dietary fiber could explain, in part, significant inverse associations of dietary fiber intake with infectious and respiratory diseases as well as with CVD death ... people with the highest average intakes – between 25 and 30 grams of fiber per day – had a 22 percent lower risk of death from all the causes ... For men, the highest intakes were associated with a reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases ranging from 34 to 59 percent in women and 24 to 56 percent in men" - [Abstract]
  • Load up on fiber now, avoid heart disease later - Science Daily, 3/22/11 - "adults between 20 and 59 years old with the highest fiber intake had a significantly lower estimated lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease compared to those with the lowest fiber intake ... It's long been known that high-fiber diets can help people lose weight, lower cholesterol and improve hypertension ... In adults 60 to 79 years, dietary fiber intake was not significantly associated with a reduction in lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. It's possible that the beneficial effect of dietary fiber may require a long period of time to achieve, and older adults may have already developed significant risk for heart disease before starting a high-fiber diet"
  • Eat fiber, live longer - MSNBC, 2/14/11 - "Most Americans aren't getting enough roughage in their diets. The average American eats only about 15 grams of fiber each day, much less than the current daily recommendation of 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men, or 14 grams per 1,000 calories. For example, a slice of whole wheat bread contains 2 to 4 grams of fiber ... In the new study, the people who met the guidelines were less likely to die during a nine-year follow-up period ... The men and women who ate the highest amount of fiber were 22 percent less likely to die from any cause compared to those who ate the lowest amount"
  • Bran Reduces Heart Disease Deaths - WebMD, 5/10/10 - "women who ate the most bran had a 35% lower risk of death from heart disease and a 28% lower risk of death from all causes than women who ate the least"
  • Apple fibres may boost immune health: Study - Nutra USA, 3/3/10 - "fed low-fat diets supplemented with either soluble (pectin, 10 per cent of the diet) or insoluble fibre (cellulose, 5 or 10 per cent of the diet) for six weeks. At the end of this period the mice were challenged with an endotoxin to induce sickness ... Two hours after [entotoxin] injection, the mice fed soluble fibre were only half as sick as the other group, and they recovered 50 per cent sooner. And the differences between the groups continued to be pronounced all the way out to 24 hours" - [Abstract] [Science Daily] - See pectin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • An apple a day? Study shows soluble fiber boosts immune system - Science Daily, 3/2/10
  • Dietary Fiber May Help Prevent Body Weight, Waist Circumference Gain - Medscape, 1/6/10 - "There was an inverse association of total fiber intake with subsequent change in weight and in waist circumference. For each 10-g/day increase in total fiber intake, the pooled estimate was –39 g/year (95% confidence interval [CI], –71 to –7 g/year) for weight change and –0.08 cm/year (95% CI, –0.11 to –0.05 cm/year) for waist circumference change ... For each 10-g/day increase in fiber intake from cereals, there was a weight change of –77 g/year (95% CI, –127 to –26 g/year) and change in waist circumference of –0.10 cm/year (95% CI, –0.18 to –0.02 cm/year). Fruit and vegetable fiber was not associated with weight change. However, the association of fruit and vegetable fiber intake with change in waist circumference was similar to that seen for intake of total dietary fiber and cereal fiber"
  • Diet And Intestinal Bacteria Linked To Healthier Immune Systems - Science Daily, 10/28/09 - "Insoluble dietary fibre, or roughage, not only keeps you regular, say Australian scientists, it also plays a vital role in the immune system, keeping certain diseases at bay ... Similarly, probiotics and prebiotics, food supplements that affect the balance of gut bacteria, reduce the symptoms of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, also inflammatory diseases"
  • High Fiber Intake Linked to Reduced Risk of Breast Cancer - Science Daily, 10/2/09 - "Relative to the lowest quintile of total fiber intake, the highest quintile was associated with a 13% decreased risk of breast cancer"
  • High Dietary Fibre Intake Associated With Decreased Inflammation in Chronic and Non-Chronic Kidney Disease Patients - Doctor's Guide, 3/30/09 - "when compared with patients in the high dietary fibre intake group, those in the low intake group had significantly increased odds of inflammation in both the CKD and non-CKD subgroups ... In the low fibre intake group, CKD patients showed 51% inflammation versus 37% in the high intake group (P < .05). The non-CKD population showed 29% inflammation with low fibre intake versus 20% with high intake"
  • Diabetics On High-fiber Diets Might Need Extra Calcium - Science Daily, 3/24/09 - "Our new findings suggest that dietary fiber reduces the body's capacity to absorb calcium"
  • Breast Cancer: Diet High In Vegetables, Fruit And Fiber May Cut Risk Of Cancer Recurrence In Women Without Hot Flashes - Science Daily, 12/30/08 - "A secondary analysis of a large, multicenter clinical trial has shown that a diet loaded with fruits, vegetables and fiber and somewhat lower in fat compared to standard federal dietary recommendations cuts the risk of recurrence in a subgroup of early-stage breast cancer survivors – women who didn't have hot flashes – by approximately 31 percent. These patients typically have higher recurrence and lower survival rates than breast cancer patients who have hot flashes"
  • Dietary Fiber May Predict Stroke Severity and Outcome - Medscape, 2/29/08 - "Higher dietary-fiber intake may result in less severe stroke and improve stroke outcomes"
  • Dietary Fiber Intake Inversely Associated With Breast Cancer Risk - Medscape, 2/8/08 - "Among ever-users of postmenopausal hormones, a significant inverse association was observed between intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal products, and breast cancer risk for overall, ER+PR+, and ER-PR- tumors. The adjusted relative risk for all invasive tumors was 0.50"
  • Dietary fibre linked to better lung function - Nutra USA, 12/21/07 - "In terms of COPD risk, Han and co-workers report a 15 per cent lower risk for people with the highest versus lowest intakes of total fibre. In addition, the highest intake of cereal fibre was associated with a 17 per cent lower risk, while fruit fibre was associated with a 28 per cent lower risk" - [Abstract]
  • Meta-analysis supports fibre for uterus cancer protection - Nutra USA, 12/18/07 - "For every five grams of dietary fibre per 1000 calories, women may reduce their risk of endometrial cancer by over 20 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • A Fiber-rich Diet May Cut Pancreatic Cancer Risk - oncologystat.com, 11/23/07 - "A diet high in whole grains and fiber may reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer by as much as 40%"
  • Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas: The EPIC-EURGAST study - Int J Cancer. 2007 Jun 20 - "There was a strong inverse association for diffuse [HR 0.43, 0.22-0.86], but not intestinal type [HR 0.98, 0.54-1.80] tumors"
  • Fiber intake and risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and stomach - Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Jun 12 - "Compared to subjects in the lowest quartile of fiber intake, subjects in the highest quartile of intake showed odd ratios of 0.44 (95% CI = 0.26-0.76) for esophageal adenocarcinoma (P trend = 0.004) and 0.58 (95% CI = 0.38-0.88) for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma ... High intake of fiber was associated with significant reduced risks of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma"
  • High-Fiber Diets, Fiber Supplements Reduce CRP Levels - Medscape, 3/14/07 - "The participants were then randomized to either the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), high-fiber diet (mean intake, nearly 28 g of fiber per day), or to a fiber supplement (psyllium) on top of their regular diet (mean intake, totaling 27 g/day). After 3 weeks on one diet, participants crossed over to the other fiber diet ... Overall, the mean CRP level changed from 4.4 to 3.8 mg/L (-13.7%; P = .046) in the high-fiber DASH diet group and to 3.6 mg/L (-18.1%) in the fiber-supplemented diet group (P = .02)"
  • Coffee: Aroma, Taste And Dietary Fiber - Science Daily, 2/26/07 - "soluble dietary fiber (SDF) ...brewed coffee contains a significant amount of SDF — 02.5 percent to 20.0 percent by weight of powdered coffee bean"
  • Fiber Good, and Not Just for Your Gut - WebMD, 4/13/06 - "Compared with those who ate the least fiber, those who ate the most were 63% less likely to have high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) ... the women who ate the oat fiber over the short three-day time period became significantly more sensitive to insulin"
  • How much daily fiber do we need? - MSNBC, 4/7/06 - "The current recommended amounts of dietary fiber call for 21 to 25 grams per day for adult women and 30 to 38 grams per day for men"
  • Dietary fibre and colorectal cancer – where do we stand? - Nutra USA, 2/20/06
  • Fiber Not Protective for Colon Cancer - WebMD, 12/13/05 - "even if fiber does not have a major impact on colorectal cancer, there is convincing evidence that dietary fiber helps prevent heart disease, type 2 diabetes, the colon disease diverticulitis, and other several chronic conditions"
  • High Glycemic Index or High Carbohydrate Diet May Not Increase Risk of Insulin Resistance - Medscape, 6/6/05 - "Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic index and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance ... intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance"
  • New Findings on Fiber - Life Extension Magazine, 5/05 - "Incorporating increased fiber intake into a daily plan for healthy living can help you lower your risk of heart attack and cancer, as well as prevent or manage such common conditions as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, fiber is a valuable tool in achieving optimal weight"
  • Fiber Supplements May Lower Cardiovascular Risk In Type 2 Diabetics - Science Daily, 4/30/05 - "Study participants received 10g to 15g of BiosLife 2, an over-the-counter fiber supplement ... total cholesterol had dropped from 215 mg/dL to 184 mg/dL, a 14.4 percent decrease. Triglycerides also improved, dropping from 299 mg/dL to 257 mg/dL, a 14 percent decrease ... LDL decreased from 129 mg/dL to 92 mg/dL -- a 28.7 percent improvement. HDL rose from 43 mg/dL to 55 mg/dL -- a 21.8 percent increase" [WebMD]
  • High-Fiber Diet May Fight High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 3/4/05 - "the average reduction in blood pressure was 3.12 mmHg systolic and 2.57 mmHg diastolic"
  • Fibre for prostate protection - Nutra USA, 4/15/04 - "total fibre intake only slightly reduced prostate cancer risk. However when the study examined soluble fibre only, the reduced risk was greater at 11 per cent, while vegetable fibre cut risk by 18 per cent"
  • 5 a day force, new evidence - Nutra USA, 2/11/04 - "High fiber diet – more that 34 grammes a day reduced risk of rectal cancer by a staggering 66 per cent"
  • 2 Studies Contradict Earlier Research Showing No Benefit of Fiber on Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 5/1/03 - "What's more consistent is the two newest findings, both published in the May 3 issue of The Lancet ... those eating a high-fiber diet -- upwards of 36 grams of fiber each day -- were 25% less likely to develop polyps than those eating fewer than 12 grams ... The other study, conducted on 520,000 people in 10 European countries and called the largest study ever, also initially found a 25% reduced rate in colorectal cancer in those eating high-fiber diets of about 35 grams daily compared with those eating less than 15 ... the protective effect was greatest on the left side of the colon, where most cancers originate ... Fiber is believed to help reduce risk in two ways: It keeps you regular to remove toxins from the intestines, and bacteria living in the gut feeds on it -- producing beneficial byproducts to keep the colon healthy"
  • Europe-Wide Study Finds Fibre Can Cut Colorectal Cancer Risk By Up To 40% - Doctor's Guide, 5/1/03 - "People consuming an average of 35 g fibre a day can cut their risk of colorectal cancer up to 40%, compared to people who consume an average of 15 g per day ... Protection was greatest for the left side of the colon, and least for the rectum ... foods supplying fibre also contribute many other nutrients and phytochemicals that have been linked to cancer protection, and which could account for the protective effects seen"
  • Latest Evidence Links High-Fibre Diet With Reduced Colon Cancer Risk - Doctor's Guide, 5/1/03
  • Searching for ideal diet in sea of conflicting food advice - USA Today, 4/20/03 - "Dr. Walter Willett, chairman of the nutrition department at Harvard School of Public Health ... Willett has assembled an "ideal" diet of his own that relies on healthier plant oils instead of animal fats, and whole grains and high-fiber carbohydrates (think brown rice and wheat pasta) over refined grains like white rice ... It emphasizes plenty of vegetables and fruits, and healthy protein sources — such as fish, poultry, nuts and legumes — instead of red meat and high-fat dairy products. Willett also recommends a daily multivitamin, moderate alcohol consumption and regular physical activity"
  • Are These Cholesterol Busters For You? - CBS News, 3/6/03 - "People with high cholesterol may lower their levels by a surprising one-third with a vegetarian diet that combines a variety of trendy heart-healthy foods, including plenty of soy and soluble fiber ... the diet works about as well as the older statin drugs that are still first-line therapy for people with high cholesterol ... A typical breakfast included oat bran, fruit and soy milk, lunch might involve vegetarian chili, oat bran bread and tomato, and a typical dinner was vegetable curry, a soy burger, northern beans, barley, okra, eggplant, cauliflower, onions and red peppers. Volunteers also got Metamucil three times a day to provide soluble fiber from psyllium"
  • Breakfast Reduces Diabetes, Heart Disease - WebMD, 3/6/03 - "A daily breakfast may reduce the risk of becoming obese or developing signs that can lead to diabetes -- called insulin resistance syndrome -- by 35% to 50% compared with skipping the morning meal ... Their recommendation: A bowl of whole-grain cereal ... eating whole-grain cereal each day was associated with a 15% reduction in risk for the insulin resistance syndrome ... soluble fiber forms a gel-like material that prevents cholesterol and saturated fats from entering the bloodstream, where they can collect and form plaques on artery walls. The insoluble fiber in these cereals, meanwhile, helps keep bowel movement regular and may help reduce risk of colon problems"
  • Eggs May Lower Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 2/20/03 - "eating about three eggs a week during adolescence decreased the risk of breast cancer by 18%. Diets rich in vegetable oils and dietary fiber had similar effects. But eating roughly one pat of butter a day increased risk by 6% ... eggs may be protective because they are high in essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. And studies suggest that fiber-rich foods reduce estrogen levels"
  • Ispaghula Husk [psyllium] Nearly As Effective As Simvastatin For Hyperlipidemia - Doctor's Guide, 12/24/02 - "One group received 3.5 grams of ispaghula husk twice a day and the second group received 20 milligrams of simvastatin each day ... total cholesterol decreased by 15.8 percent and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 22.97 percent among patients taking ispaghula husk ... Triglycerides decreased by 20.89 percent and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased by 10.69 percent in these patients ... Among patients taking simvastatin, total cholesterol decreased by 24.15 percent, LDL cholesterol decreased by 36.08 percent, triglycerides decreased by 20.47 percent and HDL cholesterol increased by 11.4 percent" - I've got that. See psyllium husk at Amazon.com.  3.5 grams is about one wafer (3.4 grams psyllium/wafer).
  • Diet Rich In Fruits, Vegetables Lowers Risk Of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers - Doctor's Guide, 5/24/02 - "Intake of whole grains and fibre derived from a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) cancers"
  • Fiber Stalls High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 5/15/02 - "Whole grains are included as part of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet, which has been found to help reduce blood pressure. The diet emphasizes fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and recommends a daily intake of more than 25 grams of fiber a day. But Samuel says that based on the results of this study, whole grains aren't emphasized enough"
  • Rice Bran Lowers Diabetic Blood Sugar - WebMD, 4/10/02 - "Rice bran was able to lower blood glucose by up to 30% in a small group of patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes ... also found that patients with elevated cholesterol who consumed 20 grams per day of stabilized rice bran lowered their total serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels between 5% and 15%"
  • Fiber -- the Good, the Bad, and the Indifferent for Colon Cancer Prevention - WebMD, 4/12/01 - "If you took all the fiber studies, you could divide them into three groups: those that show a benefit for fiber, those that show no benefit, and those that demonstrate increased risk associated with fiber. You would have an equal number of studies in each group," says Goodlad, who wrote an editorial about fiber in Gut, a British medical journal"
  • Little Impact With High-Fibre, Low-Fat Diet On Ovarian Hormone Levels - Doctor's Guide, 3/27/01
  • Study: Fiber Doesn't Prevent Cancer - Intelihealth, 10/13/00 - "29 percent of those receiving the supplement (ispaghula husk, a compound similar to psyllium that is not part of the average diet) got at least one new tumor within three years. That compares with 20 percent of those given fake granules"


  • The Association of Dietary Fiber Intake in Three Meals with All-Cause and Disease-Specific Mortality among Adults: The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2014 - Nutrients 2022 Jun 17 - "Firstly, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the participants in the lowest quintile of total dietary fiber intake, the participants in the highest quintile of fiber intake had lower all-cause (HR = 0.686, 95% CI: 0.589-0.799, p for trend &lt;0.001) and cancer (HR = 0.606, 95% CI: 0.446-0.824, p for trend = 0.015) mortality risks. Secondly, compared to the participants in the lowest quintile of dietary fiber intake at dinner, the participants in the highest quintile of fiber intake had lower all-cause (HR = 0.796, 95% CI: 0.668-0.949, p for trend = 0.009) and cancer (HR = 0.564, 95% CI: 0.388-0.822, p for trend = 0.005) mortality risks. Furthermore, equivalently replacing each standard deviation of dietary fiber consumed at breakfast with that at dinner was associated with lower cancer mortality risks (HR = 0.846, 95% CI: 0.747-0.958). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, in the NHANES (2003-2014) cohort, to reduce all-cause and cancer mortality risks, the optimal dietary fiber intake time is in the evening"
  • Dietary fiber intake and risk of incident disabling dementia: the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study - Nutr Neurosci 2022 Feb 6 - "Dietary fiber intake, especially soluble fiber, was inversely associated with risk of disabling dementia in a general Japanese population"
  • The effect of dietary fiber (oat bran) supplement on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension: A randomized controlled trial - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Apr 28 - "Insufficient dietary fiber (DF) intake is associated with increased blood pressure (BP) and the mode of action is unclear. The intake of DF supplements by participants in previous interventional studies was still far below the amount recommended by the World Health Organization ... Increased DF (oat bran) supplement improved BP, reduced the amount of antihypertensive drugs, and modulated the gut microbiota" - See oat bran at Amazon.com.
  • Grain and dietary fiber intake and bladder cancer risk: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Aug 10 - "Higher intakes of total whole grain and total dietary fiber are associated with reduced risk of BC individually and jointly"
  • Associations between consumption of dietary fibers and the risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, type 2 diabetes, and mortality in the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 May 5 - "different types [total (TDF), soluble (SF), insoluble (IF)] ... T2D risk was inversely associated with TDFs [HR for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.82), P-trend <0.001], SFs [HR: 0.77 (0.56, 1.08); P-trend = 0.02], and IFs [HR: 0.69 (0.50, 0.96); P-trend = 0.004]. SFs were associated with a decreased risk of CVD [HR: 0.80 (0.66, 0.98); P-trend = 0.01] and colorectal cancer [HR: 0.41 (0.21, 0.79); P-trend = 0.01]. IFs were inversely associated with mortality from cancer or CVDs [HR: 0.65 (0.45, 0.94); P-trend = 0.02]. TDF intake was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer [HR:: 0.79 (0.54, 1.13); P-trend = 0.04]. DF intake from fruit was associated with the risk of several chronic diseases ... Our results suggest that DF intake, especially SFs and DFs from fruits, was inversely associated with the risk of several chronic diseases and with mortality"
  • Fiber Intake Predicts Weight Loss and Dietary Adherence in Adults Consuming Calorie-Restricted Diets: The POUNDS Lost (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) Study - J Nutr. 2019 Jun 7 - "Dietary fiber intake, independently of macronutrient and caloric intake, promotes weight loss and dietary adherence in adults with overweight or obesity consuming a calorie-restricted diet"
  • Should Viscous Fiber Supplements Be Considered in Diabetes Control? Results From a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Diabetes Care. 2019 Jan 7 - "Viscous fiber supplements improve conventional markers of glycemic control beyond usual care and should be considered in the management of type 2 diabetes" - See viscous fiber supplements at Amazon.com.
    • Rich Sources of Viscous Fiber - "A very large review study found that psyllium and guar gum — both soluble, viscous fibers — are ineffective as weight loss supplements ... Viscous, soluble fiber is only found in plant foods. Whole plant foods such as beans, asparagus, Brussels sprouts and oats are rich in viscous fiber"
  • Exploration of the association between dietary fiber intake and depressive symptoms in adults - Nutrition. 2018 Mar 21;54:48-53 - "A total of 16 807 adults ages 20 y or older were included in this study. Dietary intakes of total, cereal, vegetable, and fruit fiber were inversely associated with depressive symptoms in unadjusted model and multivariate-adjusted model 1. In multivariate-adjusted model 2, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of depressive symptoms were 0.59 (0.44-0.79), 0.90 (0.69-1.19), 0.58 (0.45-0.76), and 0.64 (0.45-0.92) for the highest versus lowest quartile of total, cereal, vegetable, and fruit fiber intakes, respectively. Dose-response analyses found that the risk of depressive symptoms was associated with total fiber intake in a nonlinear manner, whereas the relationships were linear with cereal, vegetable, and fruit fiber intakes" - [Nutra USA]
  • Probiotic With or Without Fiber Controls Body Fat Mass, Associated With Serum Zonulin, in Overweight and Obese Adults—Randomized Controlled Trial - j.ebiom.2016.10.036 - "We investigated the possible effects of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 (B420) and the dietary fiber Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU) on body fat mass and other obesity-related parameters ... For relative change in body fat mass, LU + B420 showed a − 4.5% (−1.4 kg, P = 0.02, N = 37) difference to the Placebo group, whereas LU (+0.3%, P = 1.00, N = 35) and B420 (−3.0%, P = 0.28, N = 24) alone had no effect (overall ANOVA P = 0.095, Placebo N = 35). A post-hoc factorial analysis was significant for B420 (−4.0%, P = 0.002 vs. Placebo). Changes in fat mass were most pronounced in the abdominal region, and were reflected by similar changes in waist circumference. B420 and LU + B420 also significantly reduced energy intake compared to Placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com and polydextrose at Amazon.com.
  • Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fibre intake in relation to blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study - Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 2 - "After multivariable adjustment, total fibre intake higher by 6.8 g/4184 kJ (6.8 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1.69 mmHg lower systolic blood pressure (SBP; 95 % CI -2.97, -0.41) and attenuated to -1.01 mmHg (95 % CI -2.35, 0.34) after adjustment for urinary K. Insoluble fibre intake higher by 4.6 g/4184 kJ (4.6 g/1000 kcal) was associated with a 1.81 mmHg lower SBP (95 % CI -3.65, 0.04), additionally adjusted for soluble fibre and urinary K excretion, whereas soluble fibre was not associated with BP. Raw fruit was the main source of total and insoluble fibre, followed by whole grains and vegetables. In conclusion, higher intakes of fibre, especially insoluble, may contribute to lower BP, independent of nutrients associated with higher intakes of fibre-rich foods"
  • Fiber intake and risk of subsequent prostate cancer in Japanese men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jan;101(1):118-25 - "Dietary fiber is inversely associated with advanced prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms even among populations with relatively low intake, such as Japanese. These results suggest that a very low intake of dietary fiber is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer"
  • Fiber intake and all-cause mortality in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;100(6):1498-1507 - "Baseline fiber intake and fruit consumption were significantly associated with lower risk of death [HRs for the fifth compared with the first quintile: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.86; P = 0.015) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.82; P = 0.004), respectively]" - See fiber supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fiber Intake Is Inversely Associated with Stroke Incidence in Healthy Swedish Adults - J Nutr. 2014 Dec;144(12):1952-1955 - "High intakes of total fiber and fiber from fruits and vegetables but not from cereals were inversely associated with risk of stroke. After adjustment for other risk factors for stroke, the multivariable RRs of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for total fiber, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95) for fruit fiber, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00) for vegetable fiber, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.04) for cereal fiber"
  • Dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes and colorectal cancer risk in chinese adults - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Apr;66(3):351-61 - "Total dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest quartile were 0.38 (0.27-0.55) for total dietary fiber, 0.45 (0.32-0.64) for vegetable fiber, and 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for fruit fiber, respectively ... This study showed that a high intake of dietary fiber, particularly derived from vegetables and fruit, was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults"
  • Dietary Total and Insoluble Fiber Intakes Are Inversely Associated with Prostate Cancer Risk - J Nutr. 2014 Feb 1 - "included 3313 men from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) cohort who completed at least 3 24-h dietary records ... Prostate cancer risk was inversely associated with total dietary fiber intake (HR of quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81; P = 0.001), insoluble (HR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.78; P = 0.001), and legume (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.95; P = 0.04) fiber intakes. In contrast, we found no association between prostate cancer risk and soluble (P = 0.1), cereal (P = 0.7), vegetable (P = 0.9), and fruit (P = 0.4) fiber intakes"
  • Dietary Fiber Lowers Risk of CVD and CHD - Medscape, 12/27/13 - "For every 7 g of dietary fiber eaten daily—which can be achieved by eating two to four servings of fruits and vegetables, or a serving of whole grains plus a portion of beans or lentils—the risks of CVD and CHD were each lowered by 9%, according to a new meta-analysis published December 19, 2013 in BMJ"
  • Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry - Nutr J. 2013 Dec 11;12(1):159 - "A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire ... increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients"
  • Associations of Dietary Fiber Intake With Long-Term Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk and C-Reactive Protein Levels (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data [2005-2010]) - Am J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 3 - "A total of 11,113 subjects, aged 20 to 79 years with no history of CVD, from the 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the present study to examine associations of dietary fiber intake with predicted lifetime CVD risk and C-reactive protein levels. Dietary fiber intake showed a significant gradient association with the likelihood of having a low or an intermediate predicted lifetime CVD risk among young and middle-age adults. In fully adjusted multinomial logistic models, dietary fiber intake was related to a low lifetime CVD risk with an odds ratio of 2.71 (95% confidence interval 2.05 to 3.59) in the young adults and 2.13 (95% confidence interval 1.42 to 3.20) in the middle-age adults and was related to an intermediate lifetime risk of 2.65 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 3.92) in the young and 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 2.98) in the middle-age adults compared with a high lifetime risk. A significant inverse linear association was seen between dietary fiber intake and log-transformed C-reactive protein levels with a regression coefficient +/- standard error of -0.18 +/- 0.04 in the highest quartile of fiber intake compared with the lowest fiber intake" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term effect of dietary fibre intake on glycosylated haemoglobin A1c level and glycaemic control status among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Public Health Nutr. 2013 Jul 24:1-7 - "Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2011, with the second one being a repeat survey on a sub-sample from the initial one ... Dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ ... dietary fibre intake at the first survey was inversely associated with uncontrolled glycaemic status at the second survey, with adjusted odds ratios across the tertiles of intake being 1.00, 0.72 (95 % CI 0.43, 1.21) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.34, 0.99; P trend = 0.048) ... Dietary fibre may have a long-term beneficial effect on HbA1c level among Chinese diabetes patients"
  • Dietary Fiber Intake and Risk of First Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Stroke. 2013 Mar 28 - "Total dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of hemorrhagic plus ischemic stroke, with some evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I2; relative risk per 7 g/day, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; I2=59%). Soluble fiber intake, per 4 g/day, was not associated with stroke risk reduction with evidence of low heterogeneity between studies, relative risk 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.01; I2=21%). There were few studies reporting stroke risk in relation to insoluble fiber or fiber from cereals, fruit, or vegetables"
  • Intake of fiber and fiber-rich plant foods is associated with a lower risk of renal cell carcinoma in a large US cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 20 - "NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (n = 491,841) ... Total dietary fiber intake was associated with a significant 15-20% lower risk of RCC in the 2 highest quintiles compared with the lowest (P-trend = 0.005). Intakes of legumes, whole grains, and cruciferous vegetables were also associated with a 16-18% reduced risk of RCC. Conversely, refined grain intake was positively associated with RCC risk in a comparison of quintile 5 with quintile 1 (HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.39; P-trend = 0.04)"
  • High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level - Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec 28 - "In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study ... HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively)"
  • Dietary fiber intake and risk of hormonal receptor defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec 26 - "We investigated the relation between total dietary fiber and its main food sources (vegetables, fruit, cereals, and legumes) and BC risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) ... median follow up of 11.5 y ... BC risk was inversely associated with intakes of total dietary fiber (HR(Q5-Q1): 0.95; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.01; P-trend = 0.03) and fiber from vegetables (0.90; 0.84, 0.96; P-trend < 0.01) but not with fiber from fruit, cereals, or legumes. Overall, associations were homogeneous by menopausal status and ER and PR expression in tumors. For vegetable fiber, stronger associations were observed for estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor-negative (HR(Q5-Q1):0.74; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.93; P-trend = 0.01) than for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors (0.92: 0.81, 1.03; P-trend = 0.05), with P-heterogeneity = 0.09"
  • Dietary fibre consumption and insulin resistance - the role of body fat and physical activity - Br J Nutr. 2012 Dec 7:1-9 - "Fibre and energy consumption were assessed using 7 d weighed food records ... In women who had high soluble fibre intake (upper 50 %), the OR of having an elevated HOMA-IR level was 0.58 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.94) times that of women with low soluble fibre intake (lower 50 %). After controlling for all of the potential confounding factors simultaneously, the OR was 0.52 (95 % CI 0.29, 0.93). High fibre intake, particularly soluble fibre, is significantly related to lower levels of insulin resistance in women"
  • Dietary fiber intake and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 17 - "We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to indentify prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to risk of stroke ... The dose-response analysis suggested a 12% (RR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97) reduction in risk of stroke for each 10 g per day increment in dietary fiber intake ... Findings of this meta-analysis indicate a significant inverse dose-response relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of stroke"
  • The effects of bulking, viscous and gel-forming dietary fibres on satiation - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul 31:1-8 - "Test products were cookies containing either: no added fibre (control), cellulose (bulking, 5 g/100 g), guar gum (viscous, 1.25 g/100 g and 2.5 g/100 g) or alginate (gel forming, 2.5 g/100 g and 5 g/100 g) ... In a separate study with ten subjects, 4 h gastric emptying rate of a fixed amount of test products was assessed by 13C breath tests. Ad libitum energy intake was 22 % lower for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (3.1 (sd 1.6) MJ) compared to control (4.0 (sd 2.2) MJ, P < 0.001). Intake of the other four products did not differ from control. Oral exposure time for the product with 5 g/100 g alginate (2.3 (sd 1.9) min) was 48 % longer than for control (1.6 (sd 0.9) min, P = 0.01). Gastric emptying of the 5 g/100 g alginate product was faster compared to control (P < 0.05). We concluded that the addition of 5 g/100 g alginate (i.e. gel-forming fibre) to a low-fibre cookie results in earlier satiation. This effect might be due to an increased oral exposure time"
  • Lower lifetime dietary fiber intake is associated with carotid artery stiffness: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul;96(1):14-23 - "This was a longitudinal cohort study among 373 participants in whom dietary intake was assessed between the ages of 13 to 36 y (2-8 repeated measures, median of 5), and arterial stiffness estimates of 3 large arteries (ultrasonography) were ascertained at age 36 y ... After adjustment for sex, height, total energy intake, and other lifestyle variables, subjects with stiffer carotid arteries consumed less fiber (in g/d) during the 24-y study than did those with less stiff carotid arteries, as defined on the basis of the highest compared with the lowest sex-specific tertiles of the distensibility and compliance coefficients (reversed) and Young's elastic modulus: -1.9 (95% CI: -3.1, -0.7), -2.3 (-3.5, -1.1), and -1.3 (-2.5, -0.0), respectively. Furthermore, subjects with stiffer carotid arteries were characterized by a lower lifetime consumption of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains-deleterious associations that could be explained, to a great extent, by related low fiber intake"
  • Fiber intake and total and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "The aim of this study was to assess the relation between fiber intake, mortality, and cause-specific mortality in a large European prospective study of 452,717 men and women ... Fiber intake was inversely associated with total mortality (HR(per 10-g/d increase): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.92); with mortality from circulatory (HR(per 10-g/d increase): 0.90 and 0.88 for men and women, respectively), digestive (HR: 0.61 and 0.64), respiratory (HR: 0.77 and 0.62), and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory (HR: 0.85 and 0.80) diseases; and with smoking-related cancers (HR: 0.86 and 0.89) but not with non-smoking-related cancers (HR: 1.05 and 0.97). The associations were more evident for fiber from cereals and vegetables than from fruit. The associations were similar across BMI and physical activity categories but were stronger in smokers and participants who consumed >18 g alcohol/d"
  • Dietary fibre intake and ischaemic heart disease mortality: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heart study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 23 - "average follow-up of 11.5 years ... The calibrated intake of dietary fibre was inversely related with IHD mortality; each 10 g/day was associated with a 15% lower risk (relative risk (RR) 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.99, P=0.031). There was no difference in the associations of the individual food sources of dietary fibre with the risk of IHD mortality; RR for each 5 g/day higher cereal fibre intake was 0.91 (CI: 0.82-1.01), RR for each 2.5 g/day fruit fibre intake was 0.94 (CI: 0.88-1.01) and RR for each 2.5 g/day vegetable fibre intake was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.76-1.07).  Conclusion: A higher consumption of dietary fibre is associated with a lower risk of fatal IHD with no clear difference in the association with IHD for fibre from cereals, fruits or vegetables"
  • High-Fiber Foods Reduce Periodontal Disease Progression in Men Aged 65 and Older: The Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study/Dental Longitudinal Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Feb 8 - "Dental and physical examinations were conducted every 3 to 5 years. Diet was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Mean follow-up was 15 years (range: 2-24 years) ... alveolar bone loss (ABL) ... In men aged 65 and older, each serving of good to excellent sources of total fiber was associated with lower risk of ABL progression (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.60-0.95) and tooth loss (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53-0.97). Of the different food groups, only fruits that were good to excellent sources of fiber were associated with lower risk of progression of ABL (HR = 0.86 per serving, 95% CI = 0.78-0.95), PPD (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.91-0.99), and tooth loss (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.78-0.99). No significant associations were seen in men younger than 65"
  • Fruit, vegetables, fibre and micronutrients and risk of US renal cell carcinoma - Br J Nutr. 2011 Dec 20:1-9 - "Intake of vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of RCC (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.7; Ptrend = 0.002), (top compared to the bottom quartile of intake). When intake of individual nutrients was investigated, vegetable fibre intake was associated with decreased risks (OR 0.4; 95 % CI 0.2, 0.6; P < 0.001), but this was not the case with fruit fibre (OR 0.7; 95 % CI 0.4, 1.1) or grain fibre (OR 1.0; 95 % CI 0.6, 1.5). β-Cryptoxanthin and lycopene were also associated with decreased risks, but when both were included in a mutually adjusted backwards stepwise regression model, only β-cryptoxanthin remained significant (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.8). When other micronutrients and types of fibre were investigated together, only vegetable fibre and β-cryptoxanthin had significant trends (P < 0.01) (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.9) (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 0.9), respectively. These findings were stronger in those aged over 65 years (Pinteraction = 0.001). Among non-smokers, low intake of cruciferous vegetables and fruit fibre was also associated with increased risk of RCC (Pinteraction = 0.03); similar inverse associations were found for β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and vitamin C. When nutrients were mutually adjusted by backwards regression in these subgroups, only β-cryptoxanthin remained associated with lower RCC risk"
  • Dietary Fiber and Nutrient Density Are Inversely Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in US Adolescents - J Am Diet Assoc. 2011 Nov;111(11):1688-95 - "The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.4% (n=138). There was a graded inverse association between the fiber index and MetS (P<0.001) with a threefold difference between the lowest and highest quintiles (9.2% vs 3.1%). Each quintile increase in the fiber index was associated with a 20% decrease in MetS (adjusted odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.68-1.00; P0.043). Neither the saturated fat index (P=0.87) nor the cholesterol index (P=0.22) was significantly associated with MetS ... Higher intakes of dietary fiber, but not low intakes of saturated fat or cholesterol are related to the MetS in adolescents. These findings suggest that to reduce the risks for MetS in adolescents, it is more important to emphasize a paradigm that promotes the inclusion of fiber-rich, nutrient-dense, plant-based foods vs what foods to restrict or exclude as is commonly done when the focus is on total fat, cholesterol, or saturated fat intake"
  • Inverse association between fruit, legume, and cereal fiber and the risk of metabolic syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Aug 17 - "Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of MetS between highest and lowest quartiles was 0.53 (95% CI: 0.39-0.74; P for trend <0.05) for total dietary fiber, 0.60 (0.43-0.84; P for trend <0.05) for soluble fiber, and 0.51 (0.35-0.72; P for trend <0.05) for insoluble fiber. Among sources of dietary fiber, fruit fiber (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.37-0.72), cereal fiber (0.74; 0.57-0.97), and legume fiber (0.73; 0.53-0.99) were inversely associated with the risk of MetS, after adjustment for confounding factors. Intake of vegetable fiber and nut fiber were unrelated to the risk of MetS ... Total dietary fiber, soluble- and insoluble fiber, fruit fiber, cereal fiber and legume fiber were associated with a protective effect for the presence of MetS among this Tehranian population"
  • Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 20 - "We identified 10 prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer involving 16,848 cases and 712,195 participants. The combined RR of breast cancer for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.96), and little evidence of heterogeneity was observed. The association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer did not significantly differ by geographic region, length of follow-up, or menopausal status of the participants. Omission of any single study little changed the combined risk estimate. Dose-response analysis showed that every 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber intake was associated with a significant 7% reduction in breast cancer risk. Little evidence of publication bias was found"
  • Viscosity rather than quantity of dietary fibre predicts cholesterol-lowering effect in healthy individuals - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 31:1-4 - "The well-documented lipid-lowering effects of fibre may be related to its viscosity, a phenomenon that has been understudied, especially when fibre is given against the background of a typical North American (NA) diet. In this three-arm experiment, we compared the lipid-lowering effect of low-viscosity wheat bran (WB), medium-viscosity psyllium (PSY) and a high-viscosity viscous fibre blend (VFB), as part of a fibre intervention aimed at increasing fibre intake to recommended levels within the context of a NA diet in apparently healthy individuals. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-three participants (twelve males and eleven females; age 35 (sd 12) years; LDL-cholesterol (C) 2.9 (sem 0.6) mmol/l) consuming a typical NA diet received a standard, fibre-enriched cereal, where approximately one-third of the fibre was either a low-viscosity (570 centipoise (cP)) WB, medium-viscosity (14 300 cP) PSY or a high-viscosity (136 300 cP) novel VFB, for 3 weeks separated by washout periods of ≥ 2 weeks. There were no differences among the treatments in the amount of food consumed, total dietary fibre intake, reported physical activity and body weight. Final intake of the WB, PSY and VFB was 10.8, 9.0 and 5.1 g, respectively. Reduction in LDL-C was greater with the VFB compared with the medium-viscosity PSY ( - 12.6 (sem 3.5) %, P = 0.002) and low-viscosity WB ( - 14.6 (sem 4.2) %, P = 0.003). The magnitude of LDL-C reduction showed a positive association with fibre apparent viscosity (r - 0.41, P = 0.001). Despite the smaller quantity consumed, the high-viscosity fibre lowered LDL-C to a greater extent than lower-viscosity fibres. These data support the inclusion of high-viscosity fibre in the diet to reduce plasma lipids among apparently healthy individuals consuming a typical NA diet"
  • A diet rich in oat bran improves blood lipids and hemostatic factors, and reduces apparent energy digestibility in young healthy volunteers - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "Total cholesterol decreased by 14% during the oat bran period compared with 4% during the control period (P<0.001). Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 16% in the oat bran period compared with 3% in the control period (P<0.01), as did total triacylglycerol (21 vs 10%, P<0.05) and very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol 33 vs 9%, P<0.01). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and factor VII (fVII) levels decreased more during consumption of oat bran compared with the control period (PAI-1: 30 vs 2.3%, P<0.01; fVII: 15 vs 7.6%, <0.001). Fecal volume and dry matter were greater when consuming the oat bran diet compared with the control (P<0.001), and energy excretion was increased by 37% (1014 vs 638 kJ/day, P<0.001); however, changes in body weight did not differ (oat bran:-0.3+/-0.5 kg; control: 0.0+/-0.7 kg).Conclusions: Addition of oat bran (6 g soluble fiber/day) to a low-fiber diet lowered total and non-HDL cholesterol, as well as hemostatic factors, and may affect energy balance through reduced energy utilization"
  • Dietary fiber intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based study cohort - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of CVD for the third to fifth quintiles of total fiber were 0.79 (0.63-0.99), 0.70 (0.54-0.89) and 0.65 (0.48-0.87) in women, respectively, compared with the lowest quintile. Total fiber intake was inversely associated with the incidence of stroke, either cerebral infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage in women. The results for insoluble fiber in women were similar to those for total fiber, whereas those for soluble fiber were weak. An inverse association of total fiber with CVD was observed primarily in non-smokers (P for trend=0.045 and 0.001) and not in smokers (probability values for interaction between total fiber and smoking were 0.06 and 0.01 in men and women, respectively).Conclusions: Higher total dietary fiber was associated with reduced risk of CVD in Japanese non-smokers"
  • Dietary Fiber Intake and Mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study - Arch Intern Med. 2011 Feb 14 - "During an average of 9 years of follow-up, we identified 20 126 deaths in men and 11 330 deaths in women. Dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly lowered risk of total death in both men and women (multivariate relative risk comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82; P for trend, <.001] in men and 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.85; P for trend, <.001] in women). Dietary fiber intake also lowered the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases by 24% to 56% in men and by 34% to 59% in women. Inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cancer death was observed in men but not in women. Dietary fiber from grains, but not from other sources, was significantly inversely related to total and cause-specific death in both men and women" - See brown rice pasta at Amazon.com (my favorite with turkey meatballs and roasted garlic tomato sauce).
  • Carbohydrate Nutrition Is Associated with the 5-Year Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease - J Nutr. 2011 Jan 12 - "participants in the 4th quartile of mean dietary GI intake compared with those in the first quartile (reference) had a 55% increased likelihood of having eGFR < 60 mL⋅min(-1)⋅1.73 m(-2) [multivariable-adjusted OR = 1.55 (95% CI = 1.07-2.26); P-trend = 0.01]. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the 4th quartile of dietary cereal fiber intake compared with those in the first quartile (reference) had a 50% reduced risk of incident moderate CKD (P-trend = 0.03). Higher baseline consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor sources of carbohydrate (e.g. cookies) yielded a 3-fold higher risk of incident CKD (P-trend = 0.01). In summary, we observed a novel link between high cereal fiber intake and reduced incidence of moderate CKD and this was supported by the cross-sectional association with dietary GI. Conversely, our data suggest that higher intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor sources of carbohydrate, potentially through acute hyperglycemia, could impair renal function"
  • Carbohydrate quantity and quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4 - "Dietary fiber was inversely associated with diabetes risk (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99; P lt 0.05)"
  • Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women - J Nutr. 2010 Jun 23 - "Total, insoluble, and soluble dietary fiber intakes were inversely associated with risk of mortality from CHD and total CVD for both men and women. For men, the multivariable HR (95% CI) for CHD in the highest vs. the lowest quintiles were 0.81 [(95% CI, 0.61-1.09); P-trend = 0.02], 0.48 [(95% CI, 0.27-0.84); P-trend < 0.001], and 0.71 [(95% CI, 0.41-0.97); P-trend = 0.04] for total, insoluble, and soluble fiber, respectively. The respective HR (95% CI) for women were 0.80 [(95% CI, 0.57-0.97); P-trend = 0.01], 0.49 [(95% CI, 0.27-0.86); P-trend = 0.004], and 0.72 [(95% CI, 0.34-0.99); P-trend = 0.03], respectively. For fiber sources, intakes of fruit and cereal fibers but not vegetable fiber were inversely associated with risk of mortality from CHD. In conclusion, dietary intakes of fiber, both insoluble and soluble fibers, and especially fruit and cereal fibers, may reduce risk of mortality from CHD"
  • Sickness behavior induced by endotoxin can be mitigated by the dietary soluble fiber, pectin, through up-regulation of IL-4 and Th2 polarization - Brain Behav Immun. 2010 Feb 6 - "We show that a diet rich in soluble fiber protects mice from endotoxin-induced sickness behavior by polarizing mice Th2 when compared to a diet containing only insoluble fiber. Mice fed soluble fiber became less sick and recovered faster from endotoxin-induced sickness behaviors than mice fed insoluble fiber ... These data show that a diet rich in soluble fiber protects against endotoxin-induced sickness behavior by polarizing mice Th2 and promoting alternative activation of macrophages" - See pectin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fibre intake is inversely associated with carotid intima-media thickness: a cross-sectional assessment in the PREDIMED study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 24 - "Our results suggest that high fibre intake is inversely associated with carotid atherosclerosis"
  • Glycemic Index, Retinal Vascular Caliber, and Stroke Mortality - Stroke. 2008 Oct 23 - "high glycemic index (GI) and low cereal fiber (CF) ... Persons consuming food in the highest GI tertile and lowest CF tertile had a 5-fold increased risk of stroke death ... High-GI and low-CF diets predict greater stroke mortality and wider retinal venular caliber. The association between a high-GI diet and stroke death was partly explained by GI effects on retinal venular caliber, suggesting that a high-GI diet may produce deleterious anatomic changes in the microvasculature"
  • Dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality over 40 y: the Zutphen Study -  Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1119-25 - "Every additional 10 g of recent dietary fiber intake per day reduced coronary heart disease mortality by 17% (95% CI: 2%, 30%) and all-cause mortality by 9% (0%, 18%). The strength of the association between long-term dietary fiber intake and all-cause mortality decreased from age 50 y (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.93) until age 80 y (0.99; 0.87, 1.12). We observed no clear associations for different types of dietary fiber. CONCLUSIONS: A higher recent dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower risk of both coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. For long-term intake, the strength of the association between dietary fiber and all-cause mortality decreased with increasing age"
  • Dietary Fiber, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study - Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Dec 5 - "Adjusted odds ratios of COPD for the highest versus lowest quintiles of intake were 0.85 (p = 0.044) for total fiber, 0.83 (p = 0.021) for cereal fiber, and 0.72 (p = 0.005) for fruit fiber. This study provides the first known evidence that dietary fiber is independently associated with better lung function and reduced prevalence of COPD"
  • Association between dietary fiber and endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1730-7 - "the random-effects summary risk estimate was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.90) per 5 g/1000 kcal dietary fiber"
  • Dietary fiber intake and retinal vascular caliber in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1626-1632 - "Dietary fiber was related to wider retinal arteriolar caliber and narrower venular caliber, which are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. These data add to the growing evidence of the benefits of fiber intake on various aspects of cardiovascular pathogenesis"
  • Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Black Women - Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 26;167(21):2304-9 - "Increasing cereal fiber in the diet may be an effective means of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, a disease that has reached epidemic proportions in black women"
  • Insoluble cereal fiber reduces appetite and short-term food intake and glycemic response to food consumed 75 min later by healthy men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):972-979 - "A serving of 33 g insoluble fiber reduced appetite, lowered food intake, and reduced glycemic response to a meal consumed 75 min later"
  • Intake of soluble fibers has a protective role for the presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep 19 - "The intake of soluble fibers, particularly from whole-grain foods and fruits, may have a protective role for the presence of MS in this selected sample of patients with type 2 DM"
  • Dietary fiber intake and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status-A prospective cohort study among Swedish women - Int J Cancer. 2007 Aug 31 - "estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-defined breast cancer risk ... When comparing the highest to the lowest quintile, we observed non-significant inverse associations between total fiber intake and the risk of all tumor subtypes; the multivariate-adjusted RRs were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.69-1.05) for overall, 0.85 (0.64-1.13) for ER+PR+, 0.83 (0.52-1.31) for ER+PR- and 0.94 (0.49-1.80) for ER-PR-. For specific fiber, we observed statistically significant risk reductions for overall (34%) and for ER+PR+ (38%) for the highest versus lowest quintile of fruit fiber, and non-significant inverse associations for other subtypes of cancer and types of fiber. Among ever-users of postmenopausal hormone (PMH), total fiber intake and especially cereal fiber were statistically significantly associated with approximately 50% reduced risk for overall and ER+PR+ tumors when comparing the highest to the lowest quartile, but no association was observed among PMH never users"
  • Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas: The EPIC-EURGAST study - Int J Cancer. 2007 Jun 20 - "Intakes of cereal fiber, but not total, fruit or vegetable fiber, were associated with reduced GC risk [adjusted HR for the highest vs. lowest quartile of cereal fiber 0.69"
  • Fibre intake and renal cell carcinoma: A case-control study from Italy - Int J Cancer. 2007 Jun 20 - "The continuous OR for an increase in intake equal to the difference between the 80th and the 20th percentile were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.82-1.08) for total dietary fibre, 0.98 (95% CI: 0.85-1.13) for soluble noncellulose polysaccharides, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80-1.05) for total insoluble fibre, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.04) for cellulose, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.84-1.06) for insoluble noncellulose polysaccharides and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93-1.21) for lignin"
  • Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study - Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Jun 8 - "Dietary fiber was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, but its relation to replacement hormone use and other factors affected its inverse association in women"
  • Effect of a High-Fiber Diet vs a Fiber-Supplemented Diet on C-Reactive Protein Level - Arch Intern Med. 2007 Mar 12;167(5):502-6 - "Overall, the mean C-reactive protein (CRP) level changed from 4.4 to 3.8 mg/L (-13.7%; P = .046) in the high-fiber DASH diet group and to 3.6 mg/L (-18.1%) in the fiber-supplemented diet group ... fiber intake of about 30 g/d) from a diet naturally rich in fiber or from a supplement can reduce levels of CRP"
  • Fibre and colorectal cancer: a controversial question - Br J Nutr. 2006 Aug;96 Suppl 1:S46-8 - "there are multiple animal experimental studies that support the role of fibre in the prevention of colorectal cancer ... it is recommended to continue encouraging an increase in the daily consumption of fibre, since it probably plays an important role in the prevention of colorectal cancer, together with other beneficial effects"
  • Fiber Intakes and Anthropometric Measures are Predictors of Circulating Hormone, Triglyceride, and Cholesterol Concentrations in the Women's Health Trial - J Nutr. 2006 Aug;136(8):2249-54 - "weight loss, especially around the waist, and increased fiber intakes are likely to be beneficial for lipid, cholesterol, and hormone profiles of U.S. women"
  • Cereal fiber improves whole-body insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese women - Diabetes Care. 2006 Apr;29(4):775-80 - "Increased insoluble dietary fiber intake for 3 days significantly improved whole-body insulin sensitivity"
  • Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies - JAMA. 2005 Dec 14;294(22):2849-57
  • Effect of fiber bread on the management of diabetes mellitus - J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2004 Nov;14(11):673-6 - "Glycemic control, both fasting and postprandial, improved significantly during intervention. Satisfactory reduction of blood pressure as well as serum cholesterol and triglyceride level was also observed in these cases. The medicines reduced significantly and quality of life improved in all subjects"
  • Dietary Fiber Intake and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in US Men and Women - Arch Intern Med 2003;163 1905-1912 - "Compared with the lowest quartile of dietary fiber intake (median, 5.9 g/d), participants in the highest quartile (median, 20.7 g/d) had an adjusted relative risk of 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-1.04; P = .05 for trend) for CHD events and of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.80-0.99; P = .01 for trend) for CVD events. The relative risks for those in the highest (median, 5.9 g/d) compared with those in the lowest (median, 0.9 g/d) quartile of water-soluble dietary fiber intake were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.74-0.98; P = .004 for trend) for CHD events and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.99; P = .01 for trend) for CVD events"
  • Whole-grain rye and wheat foods and markers of bowel health in overweight middle-aged men - Am. J. of Clin. Nutr., 4/03 - "High-fiber wheat foods provided 18 g DF, and high-fiber rye foods provided 18 g DF, both giving a total of 32 g DF/d ... Postprandial plasma insulin was decreased by 46–49% (P = 0.0001) and postprandial plasma glucose by 16–19%"
  • Lack of effect of a low-fat, high-fiber diet on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Polyp Prevention Trial Study Group - N Engl J Med 2000 Apr 20;342(16):1149-55
  • Lack of effect of a high-fiber cereal supplement on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas. Phoenix Colon Cancer Prevention Physicians' Network - N Engl J Med 2000 Apr 20;342(16):1156-62