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Home > Anti-aging Research > Carbohydrates.


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  • This Is the ‘Worst Food Ingredient for Your Immune System'—Especially During Covid, Says Immunologist - NBC, 1/15/22 - "As an allergist and immunologist, I frequently tell my patients that having diabetes means you're in a chronic low-grade inflammatory state, which taxes the body's innate immune system and makes it slower to jump on pathogens when they enter the body ... When it comes to our immune system, what we eat matters a lot. And no ingredient is more detrimental to your immune health than sugar, especially during Covid ... When you have high blood sugar — which is caused by many factors, but the biggest is consuming too much of it in your diet — it starts a vicious cycle of insulin resistance and obesity that drives up inflammatory cytokines, damages blood vessels, and activates the immune system to repair those areas ... This creates a major distraction for the immune system and paves the way for dangerous bacteria and viruses to slip through our body's defenses"
  • Starchy Snacks, ‘Western-Style’ Lunches May Harm Heart Health - WebMD, 6/28/21 - "Eating a Western lunch (typically containing refined grains, cheese, and cured meat) was associated with a 44% increased risk of dying from heart and vascular disease ... Eating a fruit-based lunch was associated with a 34% reduced risk of dying from heart and vascular disease ... Eating a vegetable-based dinner was associated with a 23% lower risk of dying from heart disease and a 31% lower risk of dying from any cause ... Eating a snack high in starch after any meal was associated with a 50% to 52% increased risk of dying from any cause and a 44% to 57% increased risk of dying from heart disease"
  • Go Low-Carb for Type 2 Diabetes Remission? - WebMD, 1/19/21 - "Overall, Brinkworth's team found, low-carb diets were winning at the six-month mark: People on those plans had lost, on average, about 7.5 pounds more than those on comparison diets, and their triglycerides (a type of blood fat) were lower ... In trials that looked at diabetes remission, 57% of people on low-carb plans had gone into remission, versus 31% of people on other diets. Remission meant that a person's average blood sugar in the past three months was below the threshold for diagnosing diabetes ... By the 12-month point, however, most of the advantages of low-carb diets had vanished ... "Despite the benefits for blood-sugar control that very low-carb diets can offer, they can be very difficult to adhere to," said Julie Stefanski"
  • Potato as effective as carbohydrate gels for boosting athletic performance, study finds - Science Daily, 10/18/19 - "Research has shown that ingesting concentrated carbohydrate gels during prolonged exercise promotes carbohydrate availability during exercise and improves exercise performance ... Potatoes are a promising alternative for athletes because they represent a cost-effective, nutrient-dense and whole-food source of carbohydrates ... We found no differences between the performance of cyclists who got their carbohydrates by ingesting potatoes or gels at recommended amounts of about 60 grams per hour during the experiments ... Both groups saw a significant boost in performance that those consuming only water did not achieve" - Note:  I found that out on my own.  I noticed that when I spray french-fries with avocado oil and fry them in the air fryer for 13 minutes, my swim time is significantly faster the next day.
  • Carbs May Be Intrinsically Bad, Regardless of Weight - Medscape, 6/26/19 - "Looking at those metabolic syndrome parameters, there was no significant change in waist circumference or blood pressure, but fasting glucose levels and triglycerides were significantly lower in the low-carb diet group, while HDL was higher ... In fact, of the 16 individuals in the trial, nine no longer met criteria for metabolic syndrome after 4 weeks of the low-carb diet. By comparison, only one individual no longer met the definition of metabolic syndrome after 4 weeks of the high-carb diet ... Other surprising findings: Blood levels of saturated fats were actually lower in the low-carb group, which had a substantially higher saturated fat intake (mostly in the form of cheese). This argues that the old canard "You are what you eat" doesn't quite jibe with modern metabolic science" - Note:  I'm not sure they're looking at the big picture.  High protein is associated with heart problems such as a heart block.
    • Think Your High-Protein Diet Is Healthy? It May Be Hurting Your Heart - healthline - "They found that the men who ate the most protein from animal sources had a 43 percent greater risk of heart failure compared with those who ate the least amount of protein ... Those that consumed a high amount of protein from dairy sources had a 49 percent increased risk. Those who consumed most of their protein from plants had a 17 percent increased risk ... Despite those higher protein intakes all being associated with increased risk for heart failure, protein from eggs and fish wasn’t associated with an increased risk"
  • Low-carb diet tied to common heart rhythm disorder - Science Daily, 3/6/19 - "People getting a low proportion of their daily calories from carbohydrates such as grains, fruits and starchy vegetables are significantly more likely to develop atrial fibrillation (AFib), the most common heart rhythm disorder ... People with AFib are five times more likely to have a stroke than people without the condition. It can also lead to heart failure ... Restricting carbohydrates has become a popular weight loss strategy in recent years. While there are many different low-carbohydrate diets including the ketogenic, paleo and Atkins diets, most emphasize proteins while limiting intake of sugars, grains, legumes, fruits and starchy vegetables ... Low carbohydrate diets were associated with increased risk of incident AFib regardless of the type of protein or fat used to replace the carbohydrate ... Participants reporting low carbohydrate intake were the most likely to develop AFib. These participants were 18 percent more likely to develop AFib than those with moderate carbohydrate intake and 16 percent more likely to develop AFib than those with high carbohydrate intake"H
  • Low a Low-Carb Diet Might Help You Maintain a Healthy Weight - NYT, 11/14/18 - "overweight adults who cut carbohydrates from their diets and replaced them with fat sharply increased their metabolisms. After five months on the diet, their bodies burned roughly 250 calories more per day than people who ate a high-carb, low-fat diet, suggesting that restricting carb intake could help people maintain their weight loss more easily ... The new study is unique in part because of its size and rigor. It is among the largest and most expensive feeding trials ever conducted on the subject ... experts like Dr. Ludwig, argue that the obesity epidemic is driven by refined carbohydrates such as sugar, juices, bagels, white bread, pasta and heavily processed cereals. These foods tend to spike blood sugar and insulin, a hormone that promotes fat storage, and they can increase appetite"
  • Low carbohydrate diets are unsafe and should be avoided, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/28/18 - "Compared to participants with the highest carbohydrate consumption, those with the lowest intake had a 32% higher risk of all-cause death over an average 6.4-year follow-up. In addition, risks of death from coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cancer were increased by 51%, 50%, and 35%, respectively ... The results were confirmed in a meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies with 447,506 participants and an average follow-up 15.6 years, which found 15%, 13%, and 8% increased risks in total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality with low (compared to high) carbohydrate diets"
  • 'Right' Amount of Carbs May Help You Live Longer - WebMD, 8/17/18 - "Researchers followed more than 15,000 people in the United States for a median of 25 years and found that low-carb diets (fewer than 40 percent of calories from carbohydrates) and high-carb diets (more than 70 percent of calories) were associated with an increased risk of premature death ... Moderate consumption of carbohydrates (50 to 55 percent of calories) was associated with the lowest risk of early death ... The researchers estimated that from age 50, people eating a moderate-carb diet would live another 33 years, four years longer than those with very low carb consumption, and one year longer than those with high carb consumption ... all low-carb diets may not be equal. Eating more animal-based proteins and fats from foods like beef, lamb, pork, chicken and cheese instead of carbohydrates was associated with a greater risk of early death, while eating more plant-based proteins and fats from foods such as vegetables, legumes, and nuts lowered the risk"
  • Dietary carbohydrates could lead to osteoarthritis, new study finds - Science Daily, 8/9/18 - "the carbohydrate composition of diets increased the risk of osteoarthritis in laboratory mice -- even when the animals didn't differ in weight ... In particular, Griffin's team found that changing the amount of sucrose -- table sugar -- and fiber in the diet altered OA pathology in the rodents. The high-sucrose diet increased signs of joint inflammation, while the high-fiber diet caused changes in cartilage genes and cellular stress-response pathways"
  • The Startling Link Between Sugar and Alzheimer's - The Atlantic, 1/26/18 - "A longitudinal study, published Thursday in the journal Diabetologia, followed 5,189 people over 10 years and found that people with high blood sugar had a faster rate of cognitive decline than those with normal blood sugar—whether or not their blood-sugar level technically made them diabetic. In other words, the higher the blood sugar, the faster the cognitive decline ... People who have type 2 diabetes are about twice as likely to get Alzheimer’s, and people who have diabetes and are treated with insulin are also more likely to get Alzheimer’s, suggesting elevated insulin plays a role in Alzheimer’s. In fact, many studies have found that elevated insulin, or “hyperinsulinemia,” significantly increases your risk of Alzheimer’s ... The group that ate the most carbs had an 80 percent higher chance of developing mild cognitive impairment—a pit stop on the way to dementia—than those who ate the smallest amount of carbs" -  See my Insulin and Aging page.
  • Potatoes Tied to High Blood Pressure Risk - NYT, 3/17/16 - "After controlling for body mass index, physical activity, smoking and other factors, they found that compared to eating potatoes only once a month, having one potato — baked, boiled or mashed — four to six times a week increased the risk for hypertension by 11 percent. Eating four or more four-ounce servings of French fries a week increased the risk by 17 percent. Adjusting for salt and saturated fat intake did not change the results ... The researchers suggest that potatoes cause a rapid rise in blood glucose levels, which is associated with blood vessel problems and inflammation"
  • Potatoes Tied to Higher Risk of Type 2 Diabetes; French Fries Worst - Medscape, 12/24/15 - "Eating potatoes may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and replacing them with whole grains may lower this risk ... Potatoes contain a large amount of starch and a relatively small amount of fiber, vitamins, minerals, and polyphenols ... participants who ate less than two to four servings of potatoes per week had a 7% increased risk of type 2 diabetes (pooled hazard ratio [HR], 1.07), while those who ate seven or more servings per week had 33% increased risk (pooled HR, 1.33) compared with those who ate less than one serving per week"
  • Intensive training affects the sleep, performance and mood of athletes, but more carbs may help - Science Daily, 12/11/15 - "the extra time under the covers didn't result in any more actual sleep. "Sleep efficiency was significantly reduced during the intensified training period," the researchers observed, with the number of times the athletes woke throughout the night significantly increased. In addition, the cyclists reported changes in their moods as the study went on, including higher tension, anger, fatigue, confusion, depression and increased feelings and symptoms of stress ... he team concluded that a high carbohydrate regime reduced some, but not all, of the effects of hard training. The moderate-carb athletes recorded more sleep time, but this may demonstrate higher levels of fatigue and a greater need for recovery when following that diet"
  • Endurance Runners on Low-Carb Diet Burn Fat - Medscape, 6/11/15 - "Ten of the athletes habitually ate high-carbohydrate diets that were 28% fat, 15% protein, and 58% carbohydrate, and 10 ate low-carbohydrate diets that were 71% fat, 19% protein, and 11% carbohydrate. All had been on these diets for at least 6 months ... on average, the high-carbohydrate group burned less fat per minute than the low-carbohydrate group ... 0.67 vs 1.54 g"
  • Sugar and carbs, not physical inactivity, behind surge in obesity, say experts - Science Daily, 4/22/15 - "Recent research indicates that cutting down on dietary carbohydrate is the single most effective approach for reducing all of the features of the metabolic syndrome and should be the primary strategy for treating diabetes, with benefits occurring even in the absence of weight loss"
  • Choice of protein- and carbohydrate-rich foods may have big effects on long-term weight gain - Science Daily, 4/9/15 - "diets with a high glycemic load (GL) from eating refined grains, starches, and sugars were associated with more weight gain ... Increasing intakes of red meat and processed meat were most strongly associated with weight gain ... Increasing intakes of yogurt, seafood, skinless chicken, and nuts were most strongly associated with weight loss -- the more people ate, the less weight they gained ... Increasing other dairy products, including full-fat cheese, whole milk, and low-fat milk, did not significantly relate to either weight gain or weight loss ... The fat content of dairy products did not seem to be important for weight gain ... when people consumed more low-fat dairy products, they actually increased their consumption of carbs, which may promote weight gain"
  • Low muscle mass in older men: the role of lifestyle, diet and cardiovascular risk factors - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(1):26-33 - "Setting: British Regional Heart Study. Participants: 4252 men aged 60-79 years ... Participants attended a physical examination in 1998-2000, and completed a general questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. Low muscle mass was assessed by two measures: midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) ... Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen were associated with significantly increased odds of low MAMC and FFMI after adjustment for body mass index, lifestyle characteristics and morbidity. Those with higher percent energy intake from carbohydrates showed decreased odds of low MAMC (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.96) and FFMI (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99)" - Note:  See my macaroni and cheese recipe on my grains page.
  • Carbs at night can help you lose weight - Today Health, 1/20/13 - "In the study, researchers split 78 Israeli police officers into two groups and placed them on nearly identical 6-month-long low-calorie diets (1,300 to 1,500 calories a day) eating equal amount of carbs, protein, and fat throughout the day. The only difference: Half of the officers ate the majority of their carbs at night while the other half ate them throughout the day. At the start and end of the study, researchers analyzed blood hormone levels while the cops recorded their hunger levels ... Nighttime carb eaters lost 27 percent more body fat than people on the standard diet. Surprisingly, they also felt 13.7 percent fuller at the end of the study than the beginning, while regular dieters were hungrier. What's more, the level of inflammatory hormones -- which can lead to heart disease and cancer -- in the nighttime group's blood decreased by 27.8 percent compared to only 5.8 percent in the standard dieters" - Note:  So maybe carbs at night and eggs in the morning might be a strategy:
    • Eggs at Breakfast May Delay Hunger - WebMD, 5/11/12 - "researchers tracked 20 overweight or obese people, giving them either a breakfast containing eggs or cold cereal for one week. Although the breakfasts offered different protein foods, the meals themselves were equally matched in terms of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat ... people who had eggs in the morning felt fuller before lunch, and they also ate less food from the buffet compared to those who had cereal. Egg eaters also had lower levels of ghrelin and higher amounts of PYY3-36 during the three hours between breakfast and lunch. This suggests they felt less hungry and more satisfied between meals ... Long-term weight loss trials to compare the manipulation of protein quality without increasing protein quantity should be explored"
  • New research: Limiting carbs to dinner-time increases satiety, reduces risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease - Science Daily, 11/11/12 - "randomly assigned 78 police officers to either the experimental diet (carbohydrates at dinner) or a control weight loss diet (carbohydrates throughout the day). 63 subjects finished the six-month program ... researchers examined the experimental diet's effect on the secretion of three hormones: leptin, considered to be the satiety hormone, whose level in the blood is usually low during the day and high during the night; ghrelin, considered the hunger hormone, whose level in the blood is usually high during the day and low during the night; and adiponectin, considered the link between obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, whose curve is low and flat in obese people ... the innovative dietary manipulation led to changes in daylight hormonal profiles in favor of the dieters: the satiety hormone leptin's secretion curve became convex during daylight hours with a nadir in the late day; the hunger hormone ghrelin's secretion curve became concave, peaking only in the evening hours; and the curve of adiponectin, considered the link between obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, was elevated. At the same time this dietary pattern led to lower hunger scores, and better anthropometric (weight, abdominal circumference and body fat), biochemical (blood sugar, blood lipids) and inflammatory outcomes compared to the control group"
  • Eating lots of carbs, sugar may raise risk of cognitive impairment - Science Daily, 10/16/12 - "People 70 and older who eat food high in carbohydrates have nearly four times the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment, and the danger also rises with a diet heavy in sugar, Mayo Clinic researchers have found. Those who consume a lot of protein and fat relative to carbohydrates are less likely to become cognitively impaired ... Researchers tracked 1,230 people ages 70 to 89 who provided information on what they ate during the previous year ... A high carbohydrate intake could be bad for you because carbohydrates impact your glucose and insulin metabolism"
  • Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets may reduce both tumor growth rates and cancer risk - Science Daily, 6/14/11 - "The first diet, a typical Western diet, contained about 55 percent carbohydrate, 23 percent protein and 22 percent fat. The second, which is somewhat like a South Beach diet but higher in protein, contained 15 percent carbohydrate, 58 percent protein and 26 percent fat. They found that the tumor cells grew consistently slower on the second diet ... As well, mice genetically predisposed to breast cancer were put on these two diets and almost half of them on the Western diet developed breast cancer within their first year of life while none on the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet did. Interestingly, only one on the Western diet reached a normal life span (approximately 2 years), with 70 percent of them dying from cancer while only 30 percent of those on the low-carbohydrate diet developed cancer and more than half these mice reached or exceeded their normal life span ... tumor cells, unlike normal cells, need significantly more glucose to grow and thrive. Restricting carbohydrate intake can significantly limit blood glucose and insulin, a hormone that has been shown in many independent studies to promote tumor growth in both humans and mice"
  • Cut down on 'carbs' to reduce body fat, study authors say - Science Daily, 6/5/11 - "Subjects received either a standard lower-fat diet or a diet with a modest reduction in carbohydrates, or "carbs," but slightly higher in fat than the standard diet. The moderately carb-restricted diet contained foods that had a relatively low glycemic index, a measure of the extent to which the food raises blood glucose levels. This diet consisted of 43 percent calories from carbohydrates and 39 percent calories from fat, whereas the standard diet contained 55 percent of calories from carbohydrates and 27 percent from fat. Protein made up the other 18 percent of each diet ... After the weight maintenance phase, subjects who consumed the moderately carb-restricted diet had 11 percent less deep abdominal fat than those who ate the standard diet. However, when the researchers analyzed results by race, they found it was exclusive to whites. Whites have more deep abdominal fat than Blacks even when matched for body weight or percent body fat, and may benefit from loss of this metabolically harmful depot"
  • Limiting carbs, not calories, reduces liver fat faster, researchers find - Science Daily, 4/19/11 - "Curbing carbohydrates is more effective than cutting calories for individuals who want to quickly reduce the amount of fat in their liver ... could have implications for treating numerous diseases including diabetes, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, or NAFLD. The disease, characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the liver, affects as many as one-third of American adults. It can lead to liver inflammation, cirrhosis and liver cancer ... Weight loss, regardless of the mechanism, is currently the most effective way to reduce liver fat"
  • Highest Mortality Risk Seen With High-Fat Dairy and High Sugar Intake - Medscape, 12/23/10 - "Compared to people who ate healthy foods, men and women in their 70s had a 40% higher risk of death if they got most of their calories from high-fat dairy foods or from sweets and desserts" - I'd take that one study with a grain of salt.  In regard to dairy, it contradicts this analysis of many studies.
    • Milk and dairy consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;93(1):158-71 - "PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched for articles published up to February 2010. Of >5000 titles evaluated, 17 met the inclusion criteria, all of which were original prospective cohort studies ... A modest inverse association was found between milk intake and risk of overall CVD [4 studies; relative risk (RR): 0.94 per 200 mL/d; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99]. Milk intake was not associated with risk of CHD (6 studies; RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.04), stroke (6 studies; RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.05), or total mortality (8 studies; RR per 200 mL/d: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.03). Limited studies of the association of total dairy products and of total high-fat and total low-fat dairy products (per 200 g/d) with CHD showed no significant associations"
  • Animal-Based Low-Carbohydrate Diet Linked to Higher All-Cause Mortality - Medscape, 9/7/10 - "In a pooled analysis comparing the lowest vs the highest deciles, overall low-carbohydrate score was associated with a slight increase in overall mortality rates (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 - 1.24; P for trend = .136). Higher animal-based low-carbohydrate score was associated with higher all-cause mortality rates (pooled HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11 - 1.37; P for trend = .051), cardiovascular deaths (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.29; P for trend = .029), and cancer-related deaths (corresponding HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 - 1.60; P for trend = .089) ... In contrast, higher vegetable-based low-carbohydrate score was linked to reduced all-cause mortality rates (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75 - 0.85; P for trend ≤ .001) and cardiovascular deaths (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68 - 0.87; P for trend < .001)"
  • Study: Too Much Sugar Increases Heart Risks - Time Magazine, 4/21/10 - "Compared with people consuming less than 5% of their daily calories in added sugar, those in the highest consumption group — who got 25% or more of their daily calories in added sugar — were twice as likely to have low levels of HDL cholesterol, the beneficial lipid that mops up artery-clogging LDL cholesterol. According to government health guidelines, HDL levels below 50 mg/dL for women and 40 mg/dL for men are considered low; 43% of the highest sugar consumers recorded low HDL, while only 22% of the lowest sugar consumers did ... People eating the most added sugar also recorded the highest triglyceride levels ... Low HDL and high triglyceride levels are two of the primary risk factors for heart disease"
  • Eating the Wrong Kind of Carbohydrates Increases Heart Disease Risk - U.S. News and World Report, 4/12/10 - "women who ate the most "high-glycemic" carbohydrates—which cause quick spikes in blood sugar levels—had more than twice the risk of having heart disease as those who ate the least. (The study didn't find the same association in men.) What's interesting, though, is that it was the type of carbs, not the amount, that had the health impact. "High consumption of carbohydrate from high-glycemic foods, rather than overall quantity of carbohydrate consumed, appears to influence the risk of developing heart disease in women,""
  • Mood Improves On Low-fat, But Not Low-carb, Diet Plan - Science Daily, 11/10/09 - "After one year, a low-calorie, low-fat diet appears more beneficial to dieters' mood than a low-carbohydrate plan with the same number of calories"
  • High-Carb, High-Fat Diets Better for Cognitive Performance - Medscape, 9/1/09 - "Diets high in carbohydrates or fat can lead to significantly better cognitive-performance and inflight-testing scores in pilots than diets high in protein"
  • Low-carb Diets Linked To Atherosclerosis And Impaired Blood Vessel Growth - Science Daily, 8/25/09 - "Even as low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets have proven successful at helping individuals rapidly lose weight, little is known about the diets' long-term effects on vascular health ... mice placed on a 12-week low carbohydrate/high-protein diet showed a significant increase in atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque in the heart's arteries and a leading cause of heart attack and stroke ... our research suggests that, at least in animals, these diets could be having adverse cardiovascular effects that are not reflected in simple serum markers"
  • High-carb diet could aid slimming: Study - Nutra USA, 7/20/09
  • Carbohydrate Restriction May Slow Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 5/26/09 - "The researchers believe that insulin and insulin-like growth factor contribute to the growth and proliferation of prostate cancer, and that a diet devoid of carbohydrates lowers serum insulin levels in the bodies of the mice, thereby slowing tumor growth"
  • Not So Sweet: Over-consumption Of Sugar Linked To Aging - Science Daily, 3/9/09 - "We know that lifespan can be extended in animals by restricting calories such as sugar intake ...it's not sugar itself that is important in this process but the ability of cells to sense its presence ... the lifespan of yeast cells increased when glucose was decreased from their diet. They then asked whether the increase in lifespan was due to cells decreasing their ability to produce energy or to the decrease in signal to the cells by the glucose sensor ... cells unable to consume glucose as energy source are still sensitive to the pro-aging effects of glucose. Conversely, obliterating the sensor that measures the levels of glucose significantly increased lifespan"
  • Low-carb Diets Can Affect Dieters' Cognition Skills - Science Daily, 12/11/08 - "A new study from the psychology department at Tufts University shows that when dieters eliminate carbohydrates from their meals, they performed more poorly on memory-based tasks than when they reduce calories, but maintain carbohydrates. When carbohydrates were reintroduced, cognition skills returned to normal"
  • Low-carb Diets Alter Glucose Formation By The Liver - Science Daily, 10/20/08 - "a low-carbohydrate diet changes hepatic energy metabolism. When carbohydrates are restricted, the liver relies more on substances like lactate and amino acids to form glucose, instead of glycerol ... They suggest that the shift in glucose metabolism associated with a low carbohydrate diet could be beneficial in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to improved disposal of hepatic fat"
  • Too Much Sugar Turns Off Gene That Controls Effects Of Sex Steroids - Science Daily, 11/21/07 - "This discovery reinforces public health advice to eat complex carbohydrates and avoid sugar ... Glucose and fructose are metabolized in the liver. When there’s too much sugar in the diet, the liver converts it to lipid. Using a mouse model and human liver cell cultures, the scientists discovered that the increased production of lipid shut down a gene called SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin), reducing the amount of SHBG protein in the blood. SHBG protein plays a key role in controlling the amount of testosterone and estrogen that’s available throughout the body"
  • Intake of sucrose-sweetened water induces insulin resistance and exacerbates memory deficits and amyloidosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease - J Biol Chem. 2007 Oct 17 - "controlling the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be an effective way to curtail the risk of developing AD"
  • Limiting Refined Carbohydrates May Stall AMD Progression - Science Daily, 10/8/07 - "Our data showed those people in the high-glycemic-index group were at greater risk of AMD progression, especially those already in the late stages ... Participants who consumed the most refined carbohydrates were 17 percent more likely to develop blinding AMD than the group that consumed the least"
  • Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community - Circulation. 2007 Jul 31;116(5):480-8 - "Consumption of > or = 1 soft drink per day was associated with increased odds of developing metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.74), obesity (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.68), increased waist circumference (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.56), impaired fasting glucose (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.48), higher blood pressure (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.44), hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.51), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR, 1.32"
  • Carbs May Help You Fall Asleep Faster - WebMD, 2/14/07 - "Carbs which quickly raise blood sugar (those with a high glycemic index) may hasten sleep, especially when eaten four hours before bedtime ... The men fell asleep fastest after eating the jasmine rice meal four hours before bedtime. It took them nine minutes, on average, to fall asleep that night ... They were slowest to fall asleep after eating the long-grain rice meal four hours before bedtime, taking nearly 18 minutes, on average, to fall asleep"
  • Calories Seen Outweighing Sugar as Diabetes Risk - Vital Choices Newsletter, 1/1/07 - "they found no link between consumption of sweetened beverages and the risk of developing diabetes ... men who drank four or more cups of coffee a day cut their risk of developing type-2 diabetes by more than 23 percent ... while a high sugar intake may not by itself cause diabetes, it can certainly be a major contributing factor to weight gain and obesity: factors that clearly do promote diabetes" - [Abstract / Abstract]
  • Sugar-packed diet may boost pancreatic cancer risk - Reuters, 11/29/06 - "People who consumed two or more servings of soft drinks a day had a 93 percent greater risk of pancreatic cancer ... Eating too much sugar could therefore conceivably boost pancreatic cancer risk by putting greater demands on the pancreas to produce insulin while reducing sensitivity to the hormone"
  • 20-year Study Finds No Association Between Low-carb Diets And Risk Of Coronary Heart Disease - Science Daily, 11/9/06 - "In the first study to look at the long-term effects of low-carbohydrate diets, researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) found no evidence of an association between low-carb diets and an increased risk of CHD in women. Their findings did suggest, however, an association between low-carb diets high in vegetable sources of fat and protein and a low risk of CHD"
  • Pancreatic cancer tied to fizzy drinks and sugar - MSNBC, 11/8/06 - "The group of people who said they drank fizzy or syrup-based drinks twice a day or more ran a 90 percent higher risk of getting cancer of the pancreas than those who never drank them"
  • Carbs may be worse for heart than fatty foods - MSNBC, 11/8/06 - "The study of thousands of women over two decades found that those who got lots of their carbohydrates from refined sugars and highly processed foods nearly doubled their risk of heart disease ... At the same time, those who ate a low-carb diet but got more of their protein and fat from vegetables rather than animal sources cut their heart disease risk by 30 percent on average"
  • Key Sugar Sweetens Athletic Performance - HealthDay, 1/12/06 - "The women were tracked on how they performed on 2,000-meter rowing time trials over eight weeks ... The women who took the dextrose drink showed a median improvement of 15.2 seconds over eight weeks, compared to a median improvement of 5.2 seconds among the women who took the ribose drink" [WebMD] - See Dextrose products at iHerb.  By my calculations, 10 grams would be 3.125 teaspoons or about a tablespoon and would be 37.5 calories.  It's worth a try to see if it makes my jogging a swimming easier. - Ben
  • Carbohydrate-rich diets may improve insulin control - Nutra USA, 1/11/06 - "Although an increasing body of evidence would suggest merit in adopting high-carbohydrate, low-GI diets, the charge that high-GI diets result in insulin resistance is unproven on the basis of current experimental data"
  • Low-Fat, High-Carb Diet Is No Gainer - WebMD, 1/3/06
  • High-carb diet may raise diabetics’ blood pressure - Nutra USA, 11/28/05
  • Low-carb Diet Better Than Low-fat Diet At Improving Metabolic Syndrome - Science Daily, 11/16/05 - "the features of metabolic syndrome are precisely those that are improved by reducing carbohydrates in the diet"
  • Do Carbs, Calories Affect Alzheimer's Risk? - WebMD, 1/13/05 - "mice eating fewer calories and carbohydrates than those allowed to eat all they wanted showed no signs of Alzheimer's-like disease, even though they had been bred to have the condition"
  • High- and Low-Carb Diets Produce Similar Results - Medscape, 11/17/04 - "A rare head-to-head comparison of a high glycemic index (GI)/high-carbohydrate diet with a low-GI/low-carbohydrate diet resulted in comparable weight loss and increase in insulin sensitivity"
  • Carbohydrates May Make You Feel Full Longer - WebMD, 11/9/04
  • Center Refutes Finding That Added Sugars Displace Vitamins And Minerals - Science Daily, 10/11/04
  • Counting Carbs? - Dr. Weil, 8/17/04
  • High-Carb Diet Linked to Breast Cancer - WebMD, 8/6/04
  • Study Links High Carbohydrate Diet To Increased Breast Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 8/6/04 - "those who derived 57 or more percent of their total energy intake from carbohydrates incurred a risk of breast cancer 2.2 times higher than women with more balanced diets"
  • When a Carb's Not a Carb: The Net Carb Debate - WebMD, 8/5/04
  • High-Carb Diets May Help Maintain Weight - WebMD, 8/4/04 - "High-fiber foods help control weight in several ways: They tend to fill you up faster, so you're less hungry and less likely to overeat. But they also tend to be lower in their glycemic index, producing less of a spike in blood sugar levels after meals and therefore less of an increase in insulin levels"
  • Researchers: Sweetener [fructose] Gets A Bad Rap - Intelihealth, 7/19/04
  • Not All Sugars Are Equal, at Least When it Comes to Weight Gain and Health - Doctor's Guide, 6/4/04 - "drinking beverages containing fructose, a naturally-occurring sugar commonly used to sweeten soft drinks and other beverages, induces a pattern of hormonal responses that may favor the development of obesity"
  • More Carbs, More Exercise = More Weight Loss - WebMD, 3/5/04 - "The thinnest people eat the most carbs ... Without exception, a high-complex-carbohydrate, high-vegetable-protein diet is associated with low body mass ... High-protein diets were associated with higher body weight"
  • Low carbs cause mood 'lows' - Nutra USA, 3/2/04 - "a lack of carbohydrates will reduce levels of the mood-regulating hormone seratonin"
  • U.S. Eating More Carbs - WebMD, 2/5/04
  • Study Links High-Carbs And Weight Loss - Intelihealth, 1/27/04
  • Carbohydrate-Rich Diet Associated with Lower High-Density Lipoprotein Levels - Doctor's Guide, 10/6/03 - "The researchers defined glycaemic index as the measure of blood glucose after consumption of carbohydrate-containing foods, ranging in values from 1 to 100. Glycaemic load was defined as the carbohydrate content of a food multiplied by the glycaemic index and servings per week ... Results showed an inverse relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level and both the glycaemic index and glycaemic load" - Note:  HDL is the good cholesterol.
  • Low-Carbohydrate, High-Protein Diets Increase Risk Of Kidney Stones And May Raise Bone Loss Risk - Doctor's Guide, 8/1/02 - "acid excretion - a marker for the acid load in the blood - increased as much as 90 percent while subjects were on diets that severely restricted carbohydrates. Levels of urinary citrate, which inhibits kidney stones, fell by almost 25 percent in the group during the six-week study ... People may lose weight on this diet, but this study shows that this is not a healthy way to lose weight ... there was an increased risk of developing kidney stones and a possible increase in the risk of bone loss"
  • Want to Reduce Your Diabetes Risk? - WebMD, 7/25/02 - "those who reported eating the most servings of whole grain foods tended to have lower insulin levels, lower body weights, and lower cholesterol levels ... The study is just the latest to find that foods such as slow-cooking oatmeal, popcorn, brown rice, and certain processed whole grain breads and cereals are protective against type 2 diabetes. Eating whole grain foods has also been shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease ... the wildly popular weight-loss programs that restrict or eliminate carbohydrates from the diet are delivering the false message that all carbohydrates are bad"
  • High-Protein Beats High-Carbohydrate for Weight Loss in Low-Fat Diets - Doctor's Guide, 2/26/02 - "Measurements taken after a 10 hour fast and at 2.5-hour post breakfast, lunch and dinner showed that postprandial thermogenesis averaged about twofold higher on the high-protein against the high-carbohydrate diet ... Nitrogen balance on the high protein diet was found to be significantly greater than the high-carbohydrate diet"
  • Mother's Diet During Pregnancy May Influence Child's Blood Pressure Later In Life - Intelihealth, 1/17/02 - "Pregnant women who consume a diet rich in animal protein and low in carbohydrates may be more likely to have children with elevated blood pressure later in life"
  • Many Parents Are Confused About What to Feed Growing Athletes - WebMD, 7/6/01 - "The survey of parents of 6- to 12-year-old athletes, conducted by the American Dietetic Association's sports group, SCAN (Sports, Cardiovascular and Wellness Nutritionists) found that 60% said athletic kids need lots of protein to increase muscle size. However, such kids actually need a diet rich in breads, cereals, pasta, and other carbohydrates because carbs are the body's main energy source for exercise and the major fuel for the brain ... "Despite the popular myth, extra protein doesn't mean bigger muscles because muscle size is dependent on calories, physical maturity, genetics, and training," she tells WebMD. The athletic kid's diet ratio should be 50-55% carbohydrate, 10-15% protein and 30% fat"


  • Dietary carbohydrate quality and risk of breast cancer among women - Nutr J 2021 Nov 26 - "A few studies have examined the relationship between carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and risk of breast cancer (BC) among women in Middle Eastern countries. We studied the associations between carbohydrate quality index and the risk of BC in overall and by menopausal status ... Mean GI and GL of participants were totally 57.5 ± 7.2 and 245.7 ± 64.7, respectively. A trend toward significant association was seen between GI and odds of BC in the whole population; such that after stratifying analysis by menopausal status, premenopausal women in the highest quartile of GI were 1.85 times higher likely to have BC than those in the lowest quartile (95% CI: 1.12, 3.07, P = 0.01). We found that women with the greatest CQI had lower odds for BC, compared with those with the lowest CQI (0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.94, P = 0.03). This association was remained after stratifying analysis by menopausal status in premenopausal (0.55 ... We found that GI was directly and CQI inversely associated with odds of BC"
  • The Merits and the Pitfalls of Low Carbohydrate Diet: A Concise Review - J Nutr Health Aging 2020 - "there are untoward side effects especially when carbohydrates are severely restricted (< 50 gm a day) to induce ketosis. The latter curbs appetite but also may cause nausea, fatigue water and electrolyte losses and limits exercise capacity. In addition, observational studies suggest that low carbohydrate diets (< 40% energy form carbohydrates) as well as very high carbohydrate diets (> 70% energy from carbohydrate) are associated with increased mortality. The available scientific evidence supports the current dietary recommendations to replace highly processed carbohydrates with unprocessed carbohydrates as well as limiting added sugars in the diet"
  • Energy Requirement Is Higher During Weight-Loss Maintenance in Adults Consuming a Low- Compared With High-Carbohydrate Diet - J Nutr 2020 May 29 - "The study reports secondary outcomes from a feeding study in which the primary outcome was total energy expenditure (TEE). After attaining a mean Run-in weight loss of 10.5%, 164 adults (BMI ≥25 kg/m2; 70.1% women) were randomly assigned to Low-Carbohydrate (percentage of total energy from carbohydrate, fat, protein: 20/60/20), Moderate-Carbohydrate (40/40/20), or High-Carbohydrate (60/20/20) Test diets for 20 wk. Calorie content was adjusted to maintain individual body weight within ± 2 kg of the postweight-loss value ... Mean EER was higher in the Low- versus High-Carbohydrate group in models of varying covariate structure involving ITT [ranging from 181 (95% CI: 8-353) to 246 (64-427) kcal/d; P ≤0.04] and PP [ranging from 245 (43-446) to 323 (122-525) kcal/d; P ≤0.02]. This difference remained significant in sensitivity analyses accounting for change in adiposity and possible nonadherence"
  • Fried potato consumption is associated with elevated mortality: an 8-y longitudinal cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 7 - "participants with the highest consumption of potatoes did not show an increased risk of overall mortality (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.91). However, subgroup analyses indicated that participants who consumed fried potatoes 2-3 times/wk (HR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.41) and ≥3 times/wk (HR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.15, 4.47) were at an increased risk of mortality. The consumption of unfried potatoes was not associated with an increased mortality risk"
  • Low-carbohydrate diets and cardiovascular and total mortality in Japanese: a 29-year follow-up of NIPPON DATA80 - Br J Nutr. 2014 Sep;112(6):916-24 - "low-carbohydrate diets (LCD) ... The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for CVD mortality using the Cox model comparing the highest v. lowest deciles of LCD score was 0.60 (95 % CI 0.38, 0.94; P trend= 0.021) for women and 0.78 (95 % CI 0.58, 1.05; P trend= 0.079) for women and men combined; the HR for total mortality was 0.74 (95 % CI 0.57, 0.95; P trend= 0.029) for women and 0.87 (95 % CI 0.74, 1.02; P trend= 0.090) for women and men combined. None of the associations was statistically significant in men"
  • Amount, type, and sources of carbohydrates in relation to ischemic heart disease mortality in a Chinese population: a prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Apr 30 - "We prospectively examined the association of carbohydrate intake and IHD mortality in 53,469 participants in the Singapore Chinese Health Study with an average follow-up of 15 y. Diet was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire ... Total carbohydrate intake was not associated with IHD mortality risk [men: HR per 5% of energy, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.03); women: 1.06 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.14)]. When types of carbohydrates were analyzed individually, starch intake was associated with higher risk [men: 1.03 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.08); women: 1.08, (95% CI: 1.02, 1.14)] and fiber intake with lower risk of IHD mortality [men: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.08); women: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.84)] with stronger associations in women than men (both P-interaction < 0.01). In substitution analyses, the replacement of one daily serving of rice with one daily serving of noodles was associated with higher risk (difference in HR: 26.11%; 95% CI: 10.98%, 43.30%). In contrast, replacing one daily serving of rice with one of vegetables (-23.81%; 95% CI: -33.12%, -13.20%), fruit (-11.94%; 95% CI: -17.49%, -6.00%), or whole wheat bread (-19.46%; 95% CI: -34.28%, -1.29%) was associated with lower risk of IHD death"
  • Carbohydrate Ingestion during Endurance Exercise Improves Performance in Adults - J Nutr. 2011 Mar 16 - "This study was a systematic review with meta-analysis examining the efficacy of carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion compared with placebo (PLA) on endurance exercise performance in adults. Relevant databases were searched to January 2011 ... time trial (TT) or exercise time to exhaustion (TTE) ... effect size (ES) ... The ES for submaximal exercise followed by TT was significant (ES = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.37-0.69; P < 0.001) as was the ES for TT (ES = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.07-0.53; P = 0.011). The weighted mean improvement in exercise performance favored CHO ingestion (7.5 and 2.0%, respectively). TTE (ES = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.32-0.62; P < 0.001) and submaximal exercise followed by TTE (ES = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.08-0.80; P = 0.017) also showed significant effects, with weighted mean improvements of 15.1 and 54.2%, respectively, with CHO ingestion. Similar trends were evident for subanalyses of studies using only male or trained participants, for exercise of 1-3 h duration, and where CHO and PLA beverages were matched for electrolyte content. The data support that ingestion of CHO between 30 and 80 g/h enhances endurance exercise performance in adults"
  • Carbohydrate Nutrition Is Associated with the 5-Year Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease - J Nutr. 2011 Jan 12 - "participants in the 4th quartile of mean dietary GI intake compared with those in the first quartile (reference) had a 55% increased likelihood of having eGFR < 60 mL⋅min(-1)⋅1.73 m(-2) [multivariable-adjusted OR = 1.55 (95% CI = 1.07-2.26); P-trend = 0.01]. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the 4th quartile of dietary cereal fiber intake compared with those in the first quartile (reference) had a 50% reduced risk of incident moderate CKD (P-trend = 0.03). Higher baseline consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor sources of carbohydrate (e.g. cookies) yielded a 3-fold higher risk of incident CKD (P-trend = 0.01). In summary, we observed a novel link between high cereal fiber intake and reduced incidence of moderate CKD and this was supported by the cross-sectional association with dietary GI. Conversely, our data suggest that higher intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor sources of carbohydrate, potentially through acute hyperglycemia, could impair renal function"
  • Carbohydrate quantity and quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4 - "glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI) ... During a mean follow-up of 10 y, 915 incident diabetes cases were documented. Dietary GL was associated with an increased diabetes risk after adjustment for age, sex, established diabetes risk factors, and dietary factors [hazard ratio (HR) per SD increase: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.54; P lt 0.001]. GI tended to increase diabetes risk (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P equals 0.05). Dietary fiber was inversely associated with diabetes risk (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99; P lt 0.05), whereas carbohydrate intake was associated with increased diabetes risk (HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.32; P lt 0.05). Of the carbohydrate subtypes, only starch was related to increased diabetes risk [HR: 1.25 (1.07, 1.46), P lt 0.05]. All associations became slightly stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. CONCLUSIONS: Diets high in GL, GI, and starch and low in fiber were associated with an increased diabetes risk. Both carbohydrate quantity and quality seem to be important factors in diabetes prevention. Energy misreporting contributed to a slight attenuation of associations"
  • High-sugar diets increase cardiac dysfunction and mortality in hypertension compared to low-carbohydrate or high-starch diets - J Hypertens. 2008 Jul;26(7):1402-1410 - "Diets high in sugar accelerated cardiac systolic dysfunction and mortality in hypertension compared to either a low-carbohydrate/high-fat or high-starch diet"
  • Consumption of sweetened beverages and intakes of fructose and glucose predict type 2 diabetes occurrence - J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1447-54 - "Combined intake of fructose and glucose was associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes but no significant association was observed for intakes of sucrose, lactose, or maltose. The relative risk between the highest and lowest quartiles of combined fructose and glucose intake was 1.87"
  • Effect of eucaloric high- and low-sucrose diets with identical macronutrient profile on insulin resistance and vascular risk: a randomized controlled trial - Diabetes. 2006 Dec;55(12):3566-72 - "In this study, a high-sucrose intake as part of an eucaloric, weight-maintaining diet had no detrimental effect on insulin sensitivity, glycemic profiles, or measures of vascular compliance in healthy nondiabetic subjects"
  • Coffee and sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study - Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Dec 1;164(11):1075-84 - "They found an inverse association, after adjusting for potential confounders, between increased coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men (for > or =4 cups (> or =0.95 liter)/day compared with almost never: hazard ratio = 0.77, p(trend) = 0.02) with no significant association in women (hazard ratio = 0.89 ... Sweetened beverage consumption (men: hazard ratio = 1.03, p(trend) = 0.94; women: hazard ratio = 1.01, p(trend) = 0.58) showed no consistent association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus"
  • Effect of high protein vs high carbohydrate intake on insulin sensitivity, body weight, hemoglobin A1c, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Apr;105(4):573-80 - "Both the high-carbohydrate and high-protein groups lost weight (-2.2+/-0.9 kg, -2.5+/-1.6 kg, respectively, P <.05) and the difference between the groups was not significant ( P =.9). In the high-carbohydrate group, hemoglobin A1c decreased (from 8.2% to 6.9%, P <.03), fasting plasma glucose decreased (from 8.8 to 7.2 mmol/L, P <.02), and insulin sensitivity increased (from 12.8 to 17.2 mumol/kg/min, P <.03). No significant changes in these parameters occurred in the high-protein group, instead systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased (-10.5+/-2.3 mm Hg, P =.003 and -18+/-9.0 mm Hg, P <.05, respectively)"
  • Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women - JAMA. 2004 Aug 25;292(8):927-34 - "women consuming 1 or more sugar-sweetened soft drinks per day had a relative risk [RR] of type 2 diabetes of 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-2.36; P<.001 for trend) compared with those who consumed less than 1 of these beverages per month"

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