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Home > Health Conditions > Kidney Stones

Kidney Stones

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  • Low Calcium, Potassium Key Risk Factors for Kidney Stones - Medscape, 8/1/22 - "A higher calcium diet is associated with a higher urinary pH, and citrate confers an alkali load which helps protect against the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Foods that are high in potassium also contain more fluid, citrate, and phytate, which, again, have been reported to be protective against kidney stones" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Over-the-counter alkali agents to raise urine pH and citrate excretion: a prospective crossover study in healthy adults - Urology 2022 Jul 14 - "In healthy participants without a history of kidney stones, LithoLyte® and KSPtabsTM are effective over-the-counter alkali supplements, with a similar side effect profile to prescription potassium citrate" - See LithoLyte® at Amazon.com and KSPtabsTM at Amazon.com. Related Study:
  • Could a Type 2 Diabetes Drug Tackle Kidney Stones? - Medscape, 6/20/22 - "Patients with type 2 diabetes who received empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, were almost 40% less likely to have a kidney stone than patients who received placebo during a median 1.5 years of treatment ... Because SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion through reduced renal reabsorption of glucose leading to osmotic diuresis and increased urinary flow, they hypothesized that these therapies "may reduce the risk of upper urinary tract stones (nephrolithiasis) by reducing the concentration of lithogenic substances in urine." - See empagliflozin inhousepharmacy.vu.
  • Lactiplantibacillus plantarum J-15 reduced calcium oxalate kidney stones by regulating intestinal microbiota, metabolism, and inflammation in rats - FASEB J 2022 Jun - "The prevention role of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum against the formation of kidney stones has been increasingly recognized; its mechanism, however, has mainly been focused on inhibiting the inflammation in the colon in the gastrointestinal (GI) system, and the intestinal metabolites from microflora have not been revealed fully with regarding to the stone formation ... L. plantarum J-15 effectively reduced renal crystallization and urinary oxalic acid. Ten microbial genera, including anti-inflammatory and SCFAs-related Faecalibaculum, were enriched in the J-15 treatment group. There are 136 metabolites from 11 categories significantly different in the J-15 supplementation group compared with CaOx model rats, most of which were enriched in the amino acid metabolic and secondary bile acid pathways. The expression of intestinal tight junction protein Occludin and the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin were decreased in the intestine, which further reduced the translocated lipopolysaccharide and inflammation levels in the blood upon J-15 treatment. Thus, the inflammation and injury in the kidney might be alleviated by downregulating TLR4/NF-κB/COX-2 signaling pathway. It suggested that L. plantarum J-15 might reduce kidney stone formation by restoring intestinal microflora and metabolic disorder, protecting intestinal barrier function, and alleviating inflammation. This finding provides new insights into the therapies for renal stones" - See Lactiplantibacillus plantarum at Amazon.com.
  • Rutin-loaded polymeric nanorods alleviate nephrolithiasis by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro - Food Funct 2022 Mar 21 - "Rutin nanorods resulted in significant protection in serum and urinary biochemistry with reduced calcifications and increased tissue viability of kidneys without any toxicity and achieved high bioavailability. Our data provide a facile strategy for the use of rutin nanorods as a targeted drug system to treat and prevent renal stone formations" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Empagliflozin and decreased risk of nephrolithiasis: A potential new role for SGLT2 inhibition? - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 Mar 15 - "Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. A recent observational study found that SGLT2 inhibitor use by type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients was associated with a 49% lower risk of nephrolithiasis, compared to GLP-1 receptor agonist ... Compared to placebo, empagliflozin therapy was associated with an approximate 40% reduced risk of urinary tract stone events in T2D patients" - See empagliflozin inhousepharmacy.vu.
  • Coffee and Caffeine Consumption and Risk of Kidney Stones: A Mendelian Randomization Study - Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Oct 19 - "The combined odds ratio of kidney stones was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.46-0.79; P < 0.001) per a genetically predicted 50% increase in coffee consumption and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.94; P = 0.005) per a genetically predicted 80-mg increase in caffeine consumption"
  • More Good News: Coffee Prevents Kidney Stones - Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Oct 19 -  But it doesn't have the abstract.
  • What Foods Should I Avoid to Prevent Kidney Stones? - NYT, 9/14/18 - "More than 90 percent of stones contain calcium, usually in the form of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate or hydroxyapatite. Less often, stones are formed of uric acid or other chemicals. Different types of stones can also occur in the same person ... Since most stones contain calcium, doctors historically advised patients to limit the amount of calcium in their diets. It was a logical recommendation, but it was wrong ... In the early 1990s, a group of Harvard doctors followed for four years more than 45,000 men who had never had a kidney stone and came to a surprising conclusion: Diets that are high in calcium actually decrease the risk of kidney stones"
  • Calcium supplements may increase the risk of kidney stone recurrence - Science Daily, 10/14/15 - "Patients who took calcium supplements had lower total calcium and oxalate (which are components of kidney stones) in their urine while blood levels were unaffected. However, these patients also had a faster rate of kidney stone growth suggesting that the mechanism of calcium supplementation on stone formation may not be straightforward. Vitamin D supplementation also decreased urinary calcium excretion as well as stone growth, suggesting that it may help prevent the risk of stone formation"
  • Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;100(6):1596-1603 - "3 large prospective cohorts ... Caffeine intake is independently associated with a lower risk of incident kidney stones"
  • High-Protein Diets, Like the Popular Dr. Dukan Diet, Increase the Risk of Developing Kidney Disease in Rats, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/21/14 - "researchers studied 20 Wistar rats, divided into two groups of 10. The first group were fed a high-protein diet of commercial hydrolysed protein supplements with a 45% protein level. The control group were fed a normal protein diet. The experiment lasted 12 weeks, which is the equivalent of 9 years in human terms ... the rats on a high-protein diet lost up to 10% of their body weight over the 12 weeks with no improvement in their plasma lipid profile. Moreover, urinary citrate in these rats was 88% lower and urinary pH was 15% more acidic. In the animals fed a high-protein diet, kidney weight increased by 22%, glomerular area -- the network of capillaries that filter blood in the kidneys -- by 13%, and the mesangium -- a collagen structure surrounded by these capillaries -- by 32% ... Eating large amounts of fruit and vegetables reduces the risk of kidney stones forming -- probably due to their high potassium and magnesium content, which compensates for the acidity of the high-protein diet"
  • Vitamin D does not contribute to kidney stones - Science Daily, 10/17/13 - "a study of 2,012 participants -- published in the American Journal of Public Health -found no statistically relevant association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) serum level in the range of 20 to 100 ng/mL and the incidence of kidney stones"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Management of Hypercalciuric Stone Formers - Urology. 2011 Oct 13 - "All patients received empiric dietary recommendations for intake of fluids, sodium, protein, and citric juices. All subjects with hypercalciuria (urinary calcium >250 mg/d for males or >200 mg/d for females) on at least two 24-hour urine collections were counseled to supplement their diet with fish oil (1200 mg/d) ... Twenty-nine patients were followed for 9.86 +/- 8.96 months. The mean age was 43.38 +/- 13.78 years. Urinary calcium levels decreased in 52% of patients, with 24% converting to normocalciuria. The average urinary calcium (mg/d) decreased significantly from baseline (329.27 +/- 96.23 to 247.47 +/- 84.53, P <.0001). Urinary oxalate excretion decreased in 34% of patients. The average urinary oxalate (mg/d) decreased significantly from baseline (45.40 +/- 9.90 to 32.9 +/- 8.21, P = .0004). Urinary citrate (mg/d) increased in 62% of subjects from baseline (731.67 +/- 279.09 to 940.22 +/- 437.54, P = .0005). Calcium oxalate supersaturation decreased in 38% of the subjects significantly from baseline (9.73 +/- 4.48 to 3.68 +/- 1.76, P = .001)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil May Reduce the Risk of Kidney Stones - Medscape, 2/3/11 - "Five days of supplementation with EPA and DHA didn't alter urinary oxalate excretion. But after 30 days of supplements, urinary oxalate excretion dropped from 0.277 to 0.238 mmol/24 hours ... Similarly, after 5 days there was no change in relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate (RS CaOx), a proxy for the risk of calcium oxalate stone formation. But after 30 days, RS CaOx decreased by 23%" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Urinary Risk Factors for Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation - J Urol. 2010 Dec 18 - "evaluated the physiological effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate stone formation under standardized conditions ... After short-term supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in phase 1 we noted no changes in urinary parameters compared to the control phase. After 30-day supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in phase 3 relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate decreased significantly by 23% from a mean +/- SD of 2.01 +/- 1.26 to 1.55 +/- 0.84 due to significantly decreased urinary oxalate excretion (p = 0.023) ... Calcium oxalate stone formers may benefit from long-term n-3 fatty acid supplementation"
  • Healthy diet rocks when it comes to fighting kidney stones - Science Daily, 9/16/10
  • Green Tea May Prevent Kidney Stones - WebMD, 11/20/09 - "The results showed that as the amount of green tea extract applied increased, the calcium oxalate crystals became flatter and flatter ... Researchers say flatter crystals form less stable kidney stones that break up more easily" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • An Apple A Day Keeps Kidney Stones Away: More Fruits And Veggies, Less Salt Prevents Stones From Forming - Science Daily, 8/13/09
  • Probiotic hope for kidney stones - BBC News, 3/9/08 - "People naturally carrying the bacterium Oxalobacter formigenes were found to be 70% less likely to have problems"
  • Orange Juice Fights Kidney Stones - WebMD, 9/7/06 - "a daily glass of orange juice may help prevent recurrent kidney stones better than other citrus juices like lemonade"
  • Orange Juice Is Better Than Lemonade At Keeping Kidney Stones Away - Science Daily, 9/1/06
  • Lemonade, Potassium Citrate Effective in Reducing Kidney Stone Risk - Doctor's Guide, 5/26/06
  • Lemonade Offers Sweet Relief From Kidney Stones - Intelihealth, 5/25/06
  • Weight Gain, Obesity Linked to Kidney Stones - WebMD, 1/25/05
  • UT Southwestern Researchers Find Calcium Intake Contributing Factor In Formation Of Kidney Stones - Science Daily, 1/19/05 - "Individuals with either calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate kidney stones should not take extra calcium on their own as suggested by previous research, but should check with their doctors to determine the dietary guidelines that work best for them"
  • Calcium Intake Contributing Factor In Formation Of Kidney Stones - Doctor's Guide, 12/29/04 - "urinary calcium - the amount of calcium in a person's urine - is an important contributing factor in the formation of both types of kidney stones. Earlier studies had downplayed the significance of calcium when compared to the levels of oxalate in urine, and even encouraged kidney stone patients to increase their dietary intake of calcium"
  • Higher Calcium Intake May Decrease Risk of Kidney Stones in Younger Women - Medscape, 4/27/04
  • Calcium-rich foods cut kidney stone risk - Nutra USA, 4/27/04
  • Calcium OK For Kidney Stones - Natural Food Merchandiser, 10/02
  • Low-Protein, Low-Salt Diet Protects Against Recurrent Kidney Stones - Intelihealth, 1/17/02
  • Diet Could Prevent Kidney Stones - Intelihealth, 1/10/02
  • Kidney Stone Diets Compared - Doctor's Guide, 1/10/02
  • New study shows soy products may be harmful to some - Healthscout, 9/26/01 - "New research shows soy-based products could increase the risk of developing this painful urinary tract condition [kidney stones] ... The culprit is oxalate, a compound in plants that recently was discovered to be abundant in the soybean ... patients with calcium oxalate kidney stones limit oxalate levels to no more than 10 milligrams per serving ... Other high-oxalate foods include legumes like refried beans, lentils and peanuts, each containing between 100 and 200 milligrams of oxalate per serving ... For most folks oxalate, which has no nutritive value of its own, is not a problem"
  • Cranberry Ups Kidney Stone Risk - Nutrition Science News, 6/01 - "Cranberry contains oxalate, a component of calcium oxalate. The average oxalate concentration in participants' urine increased by 43 percent. When urine becomes so saturated with calcium oxalate, it precipitates as kidney stones"
  • Saw Palmetto: Effective BPH Symptom Relief - Nutrition Science News, 9/00 - "They also used the herb to flush kidney stones"
  • The Lore of the Roses - Nutrition Science News, 6/00 - "A rose hips tea (Rosa canina) showed some benefit against kidney stones in a rat study conducted in Spain"
  • Which supplements do you recommend for treating kidney stones? - Nutrition Science News, 12/99 - "happens when a person has too much oxalate in his system, not enough water to keep oxalate in solution, or both ... drink lots of water. After that, the most important nutritional therapies are magnesium and vitamin B6. Although it has long been suggested that cutting down on calcium-containing foods prevents kidney stones, research suggests calcium intake isn't the problem, but an imbalance of calcium and magnesium is ... 400-600 mg daily of a well-absorbed magnesium supplement ... 25-50 mg in a quality B-complex vitamin"
  • Ease Gout Pain - Nutrition Science News, 7/99 - "The more diluted the urine, the less risk there is for developing kidney stones ... Increased uric acid levels can also increase the risk of kidney stones"
  • Intake of vitamins B6 and C and the risk of kidney stones in women - J Am Soc Nephrol 1999 Apr;10(4):840-5 - "Large doses of vitamin B6 may reduce the risk of kidney stone formation in women. Routine restriction of vitamin C to prevent stone formation appears unwarranted"
  • No contribution of ascorbic acid to renal calcium oxalate stones - Ann Nutr Metab 1997;41(5):269-82 - "those groups in the highest quintile of vitamin C intake (> 1,500 mg/day) had a lower risk of kidney stones than the groups in the lowest quintiles"
  • Calcium From Milk May Reduce Risk of Kidney Stones in Women - Doctor's Guide, 4/11/97 - "the researchers suggest that it may be linked to a reduction in the absorption of oxalate (calcium oxalate stones are the most common) that occurs when calcium is consumed as part of a food, hypothesizing that calcium consumed without food may not have the same effect"
  • A prospective study of the intake of vitamins C and B6, and the risk of kidney stones in men - J Urol 1996 Jun;155(6):1847-51 - "These data do not support an association between a high daily intake of vitamin C or vitamin B6 and the risk of stone formation, even when consumed in large doses"

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