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Home > Health Conditions > Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal Cancer

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  • The role of dietary carotenoids in preventing the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2022 Oct 6 - "In comparison of the highest with lowest intake quartiles, intake of total carotene (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.96, Ptrend: 0.024), α-carotene (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.46-0.83, Ptrend: 0.014), β-carotene (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46-0.86, P-trend: 0.005), and the sum of lutein and zeaxanthin (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.29-0.56, Ptrend<0.001) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of ESCC after adjustment for confounders" - See mixed carotenoids at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Rh4 Suppresses Metastasis of Esophageal Cancer and Expression of c-Myc via Targeting the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway - Nutrients 2022 Jul 25 - "The metastasis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a leading cause of death worldwide, however, it has a poor prognosis. Ginsenoside Rh4 is a rare saponin that has been shown to have potential antitumor effectiveness in ESCC ... In this study, we found that Rh4 could inhibit ESCC metastasis by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and the level of c-Myc, which is an important transcription factor in cancer" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • The Association between Dietary Vitamin C Intake and the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: An Updated Dose-Response Meta-Analysis - Nutr Cancer 2022 Jun 15 - "dietary vitamin C intake was negatively correlated to the risk of esophageal cancer. The analysis of subgroup showed a significant counter proportion between vitamin C and the risk of ESCC and EAC. Moreover, the dose-analysis indicated that if increasing dietary intake of vitamin C of 50 mg/day, esophageal cancer risk dropped down 10% (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.75-0.87). In summary, our study provides a comprehensive and updated epidemiological evidence to elucidate the relationships between dietary vitamin C and reduction of esophageal cancer risk" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin Antagonizes Esophagus Cancer by Modulating miR-1-3p/TAGLN2 Pathway-Dependent Growth and Metastasis - Nutr Cancer 2021 Sep 9 - "The progression of esophagus cancer (EC) is associated with the alterative expressions of multiple microRNAs (miRs). MiR-1-3p is reported to inhibit the development of EC by targeting TAGLN2. Quercetin (Que) is a natural compound capable of antagonizing esophagus carcinoma (EC) ... Collectively, the current study demonstrated that Que exerted inhibitory effects on EC cells by inducing miR-1-3p" - See quercetin at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Luteolin combined with low-dose paclitaxel synergistically inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and induces cell apoptosis on esophageal carcinoma in vitro and in vivo - Phytother Res 2021 Sep 7 - "Although paclitaxel is a promising frontline chemotherapy agent for various malignancies, the clinical applications have been restricted by side effects, drug resistance, and cancer metastasis. The combination of paclitaxel and other agents could be the promising strategies against malignant tumor, which enhances the antitumor effect through synergistic effects, reduces required drug concentrations, and also suppresses tumorigenesis in multiple ways. In this study, we found that luteolin, a natural flavonoid compound, combined with low-dose paclitaxel synergistically regulated the proliferation, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells in vitro, as well as synergistically inhibited tumor growth without obvious toxicity in vivo. The molecular mechanism of inhibiting cell migration and EMT processes may be related to the inhibition of SIRT1, and the mechanism of apoptosis induction is associated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway-mediated activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway" - See luteolin products at Amazon.com.
  • Antitumor Effects of Astaxanthin on Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by up-Regulation of PPARγ - Nutr Cancer 2021 Aug 2 - "Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor that is difficult to find and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to explore the chemoprevention effect of Astaxanthin (AST) and reveal the possible mechanism of AST on the development of esophageal cancer based on PPARγ ... In conclusion, our data suggested that protective effect of AST on esophageal cancer by inhibiting oxidative stress, up-regulating PPARγ, and activating the apoptotic pathway, which could provide a basis for clinical application of AST" - See Astaxanthin at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Scutellarin suppresses patient-derived xenograft tumor growth by directly targeting AKT in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2019 Sep 25 - "Scutellarin is a flavonoid compound that is found in scutellaria barbata. It has been reported to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammation activities ... We found that scutellarin directly binds to the AKT1/2 proteins and inhibits activities of AKT1/2 in vitro. The AKT protein is activated in ESCC tissues and knockdown of AKT significantly suppresses growth of ESCC cells. Scutellarin significantly inhibits anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and induces G2 phase cell cycle arrest in ESCC cells. The inhibition of cell growth by scutellarin is dependent on the expression of the AKT protein. Notably, scutellarin strongly suppresses patient-derived xenograft ESCC tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. Taken together, our data suggest that scutellarin is a novel AKT inhibitor that may prevent progression of ESCC" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • Zinc can halt the growth of cancer cells, study says - Science Daily, 9/28/17 - "Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of human cancer deaths around the world ... The average five-year survival rate is less than 20 percent ... Zinc deficiency has been found in many cancer patients ... the absence of zinc makes it impossible for cells to function ... zinc impedes overactive calcium signals in cancer cells, which is absent in normal cells, and thus zinc selectively inhibits cancer cell growth" - See zinc supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies - Nutrients. 2016 Jun 8;8(6) - "Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49-0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49-0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59-1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • Association between dietary vitamin C intake and risk of esophageal cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis - Int J Cancer. 2015 Sep 10 - "By comparing the highest versus the lowest categories of vitamin C intake, we found that vitamin C was inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer [overall OR=0.58 95%CI=0.49-0.68, I2 =56%]. A linear dose-response relationship was found. With an increase in dietary vitamin C intake of 50 mg/day, the risk of esophageal cancer statistically decreased by 13% (RR=0.87" - See American Health Products - Ester C W/Citrus Bioflavonoids, 1000 mg, 180 veg tablets at Amazon.com.
  • Alpha linolenic acid and oleic acid additively down-regulate malignant potential and positively cross-regulate AMPK/S6 axis in OE19 and OE33 esophageal cancer cells - Metabolism. 2014 Jul 25 - "Both oleic acid (OA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) have been proposed to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells ... conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether OA and ALA alone or in combination may regulate malignant potential in OE19 and OE33 esophageal cancer cell lines ... Our novel mechanistic studies provide evidence for an important role for OA and ALA in esophageal cancer, and suggest that OA and/or ALA might be useful agents in the management or chemoprevention of esophageal cancer" - Note:  Oleic acid is an omega-9 for which olive oil is a good source.  Alpha-linolenic acid is the omega-3 from plant sources.
  • Preoperative oral supplementation support in patients with esophageal cancer - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(4):437-40 - "Fifty-five patients who underwent esophagectomy for esophageal cancer were included in this study. Of the 55 patients, 26 patients consumed a liquid dietary supplement (IMPACT group) before surgery and 29 patients did not (STANDARD group). Intervention: Before surgery, the IMPACT group consumed 750 ml (3 packs)/day of Impact® for 5 consecutive days ... Significantly fewer patients developed postoperative infections in the IMPACT group compared with the STANDARD group (p=.007): 4 of 21 patients in the IMPACT group and 10 of 29 patients in the STANDARD group. Either an infectious complication or another complication developed in 8 patients in the IMPACT group and 13 patients in the STANDARD group, with the result that 6 patients in the STANDARD group died of postoperative complications (p=.001). The duration of hospitalization was 34 days in the IMPACT group and 48 days in the STANDARD group; hence, hospitalization was significantly shorter in patients treated with Impact® (p=.008). The mean 6-month survival rates for the IMPACT group and the STANDARD group were 92% (24/26) and 72% (21/29), respectively (p=.028)" - Note:  That may be one reason I fully recovered from my stage III neck cancer nine years ago.  It also supports what I was saying about staying as healthy as possible for any medical condition.
  • Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China - Public Health Nutr. 2014 Mar 27:1-5 - "The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P < 0.001) total soya foods (mean 57.2 (sd 119.0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18.8 (sd 51.7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93.3 (sd 121.5) g/d and mean 35.7 (sd 73.0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0.33 (95 % CI 0.22, 0.49) and OR = 0.48 (95 % CI 0.31, 0.74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk"
  • Chemoprevention of esophageal cancer with black raspberries, their component anthocyanins, and a major anthocyanin metabolite, protocatechuic acid - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Mar 25 - "Diets containing either freeze-dried black raspberries (BRB) or their polyphenolic anthocyanins (AC) have been shown to inhibit the development of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal cancer in rats ... F344 rats were injected with NMBA three times a week for five weeks and then fed control or experimental diets containing 6.1% BRB, an AC-rich fraction derived from BRB, or PCA ... At weeks 15 & 25, all experimental diets were equally effective in reducing NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, as well as in reducing the expression of Pentraxin-3 (PTX3), a cytokine produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to IL-1β and TNF-α. All experimental diets were also active at reducing tumorigenesis at week 35; however, the BRB diet was significantly more effective than the AC & PCA diets" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Statins and Aspirin for Chemoprevention in Barrett's Esophagus: Results of a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis - "Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Dec 31 - "aspirin chemoprevention was both more effective and cost less than endoscopic surveillance alone. Combination therapy using both aspirin and statin is expensive but could be cost-effective in patients at higher risk of progression to EAC"
  • Intakes of Dietary Folate and Other B Vitamins Are Associated with Risks of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma, Barrett's Esophagus, and Reflux Esophagitis - J Nutr. 2013 Oct 16 - "Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) may develop through a process involving inflammation [reflux esophagitis (RE)] leading to metaplasia [Barrett's esophagus (BE)] and carcinoma ... EAC risk decreased with increasing folate intake (OR highest vs. lowest = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31-1.00; P-trend < 0.01). Similar trends were found for BE (P-trend < 0.01) and RE (P-trend = 0.01). Vitamin B-6 intake was significantly inversely related to risks of all 3 lesions. Riboflavin intake was inversely associated with RE. Vitamin B-12 intake was positively associated with EAC. For EAC, there was a borderline significant interaction between folate intake and smoking (P-interaction = 0.053); compared with nonsmokers with high (≥median) folate intake, current smokers with low intakes (<median) had an 8-fold increased risk (OR: 8.15, 95% CI: 3.61-18.40). The same group had increased BE risk (OR: 2.93"
  • Dietary intake of vegetables, folate, and antioxidants and the risk of Barrett's esophagus - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Feb 19 - "When highest tertile of intake was compared with the lowest, the OR (95 % CI) was 0.46 (0.26-0.81) for dark green vegetables, 0.52 (0.30-0.90) for legumes, 0.50 (0.28-0.90) for total fiber, 0.45 (0.25-0.81) for isoflavones, 0.52 (0.30-0.67) for total folate, and 0.45 (0.26-0.79) for lutein, adjusting for multiple confounding factors including use of aspirin or proton pump inhibitor, gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms, and physical activity. The association for dark green vegetables was attenuated after adjustment for lutein, total fiber, and total folate (OR = 0.82; 95 % CI 0.30-2.22)"
  • Effects of Green Tea, Black Tea, and Coffee Consumption on the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Jan;65(1):1-16 - "PubMed, ISI -Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese VIP database up to October 2011 were searched and manual search for reference lists of relevant studies were conducted ... The pooled OR of EC was 0.77 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 0.57, 1.04] for highest vs. non/lowest green tea consumption; but it was statistically significant for case-control studies (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.96) and for studies conducted in China (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.95). No significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption against EC risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.86, 2.11). A borderline significantly inverse association of highest vs. non/lowest coffee consumption against EC risk was found (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.01). In conclusion, our data showed that both green tea and coffee consumption, but not black tea consumption, have protective effects on EC"
  • Fish Oil-Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition in Patients Following Esophageal Cancer Surgery: Effect on Inflammation and Immune Function - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Jan;65(1):71-75 - "inflammation [serum procalcitonin (PCT) ... PCT level was notably lower and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was markedly higher in the ω-3 PUFAs group ... ω-3 PUFAs supplemented PN can reduce inflammation and improve immune function in patients following esophageal cancer surgery" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee, Tea, and Fatal Oral/Pharyngeal Cancer - Medscape, 2/1/13 - "Intake of >4 cups/day of caffeinated coffee was associated with a 49% lower risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer death relative to no/occasional coffee intake (relative risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.64) (1 cup/day = 237 ml). A dose-related decline in relative risk was observed with each single cup/day consumed (P trend < 0.001). The association was not modified by sex, smoking status, or alcohol use. An inverse association for >2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee intake was suggested (relative risk = 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.37, 1.01). No association was found for tea drinking. In this large prospective study, caffeinated coffee intake was inversely associated with oral/pharyngeal cancer mortality. Research is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms whereby coffee might help to protect against these often fatal cancers"
  • Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A meta-analysis of observational studies - Int J Cancer. 2013 Jan 15 - "computer searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual review of references ... A total of 32 studies involving 10,037 cases of ESCC were included in this meta-analysis. The SRRs for the highest vs. lowest intake were 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.69) for vegetable intake and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.44-0.64) for fruit intake (P(heterogeneity) <0.001 for both). Similar results were observed in a linear dose-response analysis. There was evidence of non-linear associations for intakes of fruit (P(non-linearity) <0.001) and vegetables (P(nonlinearity) =0.041)"
  • Dietary antioxidants and risk of Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus in an australian population - Int J Cancer. 2013 Jan 7 - "esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) ... Barrett's esophagus (BE) ... High intake of β-carotene from food and supplement sources combined was inversely associated with risk of dysplastic BE (OR Q4 vs Q1=0.45; 95%CI: 0.20-1.00). High intake of vitamin E from food sources (OR Q4 vs Q1=0.43; 95%CI: 0.28-0.67), from food and supplements combined (OR Q4 vs Q1=0.64; 95%CI: 0.43-0.96), and a high antioxidant index score were inversely associated with risk of EAC. We found no significant trends between intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium and risk of non-dysplastic or dysplastic BE. However, our data suggest that a high intake of β-carotene may be associated with decreased risk of dysplastic BE" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 10 - "We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996-2000 ... In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). For example, women who consumed ≥150 g tea/mo (~2-3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Fifteen-Year Effects of Helicobacter pylori, Garlic, and Vitamin Treatments on Gastric Cancer Incidence and Mortality - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Jan 23 - "Garlic and vitamin treatments were associated with non-statistically significant reductions in gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin treatment was associated with statistically significantly fewer deaths from gastric or esophageal cancer, a secondary endpoint (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.87; P = .014)"
  • Meat Consumption, Cooking Methods, Mutagens, and Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus: A Case-Control Study in Uruguay - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Jan 13 - "Red meat, lamb, and boiled meat were directly associated with the risk of ESCC, whereas total white meat, poultry, fish, and liver were mainly protective against this malignancy"
  • Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran - Nutr J. 2011 Dec 20;10(1):137 - "ESCC cases consumed significantly more hot foods and beverages and fried and barbecued meals, compared to the controls (p<0.05). After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of ESCC increased significantly in the highest tertiles of saturated fat [OR:2.88,95%CI:1.15-3.08], cholesterol [OR:1.53, 95%CI: 1.41-4.13], discretionary calorie [OR:1.51, 95%CI: 1.06-3.84], sodium [OR:1.49,95%CI:1.12-2.89] and total fat intakes [OR:1.48, 95%CI:1.09-3.04]. In contrast, being in the highest tertile of carbohydrate, dietary fiber and (n-3) fatty acid intake reduced the ESCC risk by 78%, 71% and 68%, respectively. The most cancer-protective effect was observed for the combination of high folate and vitamin E intakes (OR: 0.02, 95%CI: 0.00-0.87; p<0.001). Controls consumed 623.5 times higher selenium, 5.48 times as much beta-carotene and 1.98 times as much alpha-tocopherol as the amount ESCC cases consumed"
  • Dietary patterns and risk of oesophageal cancers: a population-based case-control study - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 7:1-10 - "We conducted a population-based case-control study, which included 365 oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), 426 oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (OGJAC) and 303 oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases, with frequency matched on age, sex and geographical location to 1580 controls ... A high score on the meat-and-fat pattern was associated with increased risk of all three cancers: multivariable-adjusted OR 2.12 (95 % CI 1.30, 3.46) for OAC; 1.88 (95 % CI 1.21, 2.94) for OGJAC; 2.84 (95 % CI 1.67, 4.83) for OSCC (P-trend < 0.01 for all three cancers). A high score on the pasta-and-pizza pattern was inversely associated with OSCC risk (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.36, 0.96, P for trend = 0.009); and a high score on the fruit-and-vegetable pattern was associated with a borderline significant decreased risk of OGJAC (OR for Q4 v. Q1 0.66, 95 % CI 0.42, 1.04, P = 0.07) and significantly decreased risk of OSCC (OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.70, P for trend = 0.002). High-fat dairy foods appeared to play a dominant role in the association between the meat-and-fat pattern and risk of OAC and OGJAC"
  • Fruits and Vegetables Consumption and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study - Nutr Cancer. 2011 May 24:1 - "A protective independent effect was observed for the highest tertile of total fruit consumption (OR: 0.13, CI: 0.04-0.45, P value = 0.001). Within the group of fruits, a significant inverse association was observed for bananas and kiwis (P for trends: 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). The risk of SCC decreased monotonically with increasing intake frequency of oranges (P value for trend = 0.01). The effect of total vegetable consumption on esophageal SCC was not significant, although a reduction in risk was observed in the highest tertile of intake (OR: 0.66, CI: 0.23-1.87, P value = 0.43). The results of the present study suggest a reasonable association between fruit consumption and esophageal SCC in a Middle Eastern high-risk population"
  • Strawberries may slow precancerous growth in the esophagus, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/6/11 - "freeze-dried strawberries significantly inhibited tumor development in the esophagus of rats ... daily consumption of strawberries suppressed various biomarkers involved in esophageal carcinogenesis, including cell proliferation, inflammation and gene transcription ... Each of the 36 study participants ate 60 grams (about two ounces) of freeze-dried strawberries daily for six months. The researchers obtained biopsy specimens before and after the strawberry consumption. The results showed that 29 out of 36 participants experienced a decrease in histological grade of the precancerous lesions during the study ... The survival rate of this type of esophageal cancer is very low, with only 10 percent of patients living 5 years after diagnosis"
  • Dietary Antioxidant and Mineral Intake in Humans Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma but Not Reflux Esophagitis or Barrett' Esophagus - J Nutr. 2010 Aug 11 - "We found that overall antioxidant index, a measure of the combined intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, and selenium, was associated with a reduced risk of EAC [odds ratio (OR) = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.33-0.98], but not BE (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.53-1.71) or RE (OR = 1.60; 95% CI = 0.86-2.98), for those in the highest compared with lowest category of intake. Those in the highest category of vitamin C intake had a lower risk of EAC (OR = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.21-0.66; P-trend = 0.001) and RE (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.24-0.90; P-trend = 0.03) compared with those in the lowest category. Vitamin C intake was not associated with BE, and intake of vitamin E, total carotenoids, zinc, copper, or selenium was not associated with EAC, BE, or RE. In conclusion, the overall antioxidant index was associated with a reduced risk of EAC. Higher dietary intake of vitamin C was associated with a reduced risk of EAC and RE. These results suggest that antioxidants may play a role in the pathogenesis of RE and EAC and may be more important in terms of progression rather than initiation of the disease process"
  • Curry compound kills cancer cells, study shows - MSNBC, 10/28/09 - "Researchers at the Cork Cancer Research Center in Ireland treated esophageal cancer cells with curcumin — a chemical found in the spice turmeric, which gives curries a distinctive yellow color — and found it started to kill cancer cells within 24 hours ... But these cells showed no evidence of suicide, and the addition of a molecule that inhibits caspases and stops this "switch being flicked' made no difference to the number of cells that died, suggesting curcumin attacked the cancer cells using an alternative cell signaling system" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Citrus fruit and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Oct 24 - "The ORs for the highest versus lowest category of citrus fruit consumption were 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.36-0.61) for oral and pharyngeal, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.25-0.70) for esophageal, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.92) for stomach, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for colorectal, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37-0.83) for laryngeal cancer"
  • Effects of Dietary Fiber, Fats, and Meat Intakes on the Risk of Barrett's Esophagus - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(5):607-16 - "Higher intakes of omega-3-fatty-acids [cases vs. population controls; OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22-0.97, 4th vs. 1st quartiles of intake], polyunsaturated fat, total fiber (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15-0.76), and fiber from fruits and vegetables (OR = 0.47 95% CI = 0.25-0.88) were associated with a lower risk of Barrett's esophagus. Higher meat intakes were associated with a lower risk of long-segment Barrett's esophagus (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.09-0.72). In contrast, higher trans-fat intakes were associated with increased risk (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.03-1.21 per g/day). Total fat intake, barbecued foods, and fiber intake from sources other than fruits and vegetables were not associated with Barrett's esophagus"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Benefit Cancer Patients Undergoing Major Operations - Science Daily, 4/10/09 - "A randomised controlled trial showed omega-3 fatty acids given as part of an oral nutritional supplement resulted in the preservation of muscle mass in patients undergoing surgery for oesopahageal cancer, a procedure normally associated with significant weight loss and quality of life issues ... Patients given the standard supplement without omega 3 lost a significant amount of weight comprising 100% muscle mass. In fact 68% of patients suffered ‘clinically severe’ weight loss post surgery in the standard group (without omega 3) versus only 8% in the omega 3 group" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Study: Drinking Too-Hot Tea May Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk - WebMD, 3/26/09 - "hot tea drinkers were twice as likely as warm or lukewarm tea drinkers to have esophageal cancer"
  • Wine May Cut Risk of Esophageal Cancer - WebMD, 3/2/09 - "Esophageal cancer rates have increased over the last three decades, due to a more than 500% increase of a subtype of the cancer linked to acid reflux disease, known as esophageal adenocarcinoma ... drinking as little as one glass of wine a day was associated with a 56% decrease in the risk for developing Barrett's esophagus ... About 5% of the U.S. population is estimated to have Barrett's, but most are never diagnosed. People with the condition have about a 30- to 40-fold higher risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma than the general population ... Wine is high in antioxidants and other studies have shown that people who eat plenty of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables are less likely to have Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer"
  • Chemopreventive Agents In Black Raspberries Identified - Science Daily, 1/8/09 - "anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids in black raspberries, inhibited growth and stimulated apoptosis in the esophagus of rats treated with an esophageal carcinogen" - [Nutra USA]
  • Plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in patients with laryngeal cancer - Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008 Dec;134(12):1328-33 - "The mean (SD) level of total homocysteine in patients with laryngeal carcinoma was 2.84 (1.62) mg/L vs 0.99 (0.24) mg/L in the control group"
  • Green tea drinking, high tea temperature and esophageal cancer in high- and low-risk areas of Jiangsu Province, China: A population-based case-control study - Int J Cancer. 2008 Nov 6 - "Results showed that ever drinking green tea elevated OR in both counties (Dafeng OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; Ganyu: OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.4). Drinking tea at high temperature was found to increase cancer risk in both areas (Dafeng: OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9; Ganyu OR = 3.1 95% CI = 2.2-4.3). However, after further adjustment for tea temperature, ever drinking tea was not related to cancer in either county (Dafeng: OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.7-1.3; Ganyu: OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-1.7). For dose-response relationships, we observed positive relationship with monthly consumption of tea (p for trend = 0.067) and tea concentration (p for trend = 0.006) after further adjustment for tea temperature. In conclusion, green tea drinking was not inversely associated with esophageal cancer in this study. However, drinking tea at high temperatures significantly increased esophageal cancer risk. There was no obvious difference of green tea drinking between low- and high-risk areas"
  • Effect of alpha-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine and omeprazole on esophageal adenocarcinoma formation in a rat surgical model - Int J Cancer. 2008 Oct 20 - "oxidative stress subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux is an important driving force of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) formation in the esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA) rat model. This study investigated the possible tumor inhibitory effects of 2 antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol (389 and 778 ppm), N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 500 and 1,000 ppm), and their combination (389 and 500 ppm, respectively), as well as an antacid therapeutic agent, omeprazole (1,400 ppm) ... alpha-Tocopherol dose-dependently decreased the incidence of EAC (p = 0.03), with 778 ppm alpha-tocopherol reducing the incidence of EAC to 59% (16/27) in comparison with 84% (26/31) in the control group (p = 0.04). Supplementation of alpha-tocopherol also increased the serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol. NAC at 500 and 1,000 ppm did not significantly decrease EAC incidence; however, the combination of alpha-tocopherol 389 ppm and NAC 500 ppm significantly reduced the incidence of EAC to 55% (15/27) (p = 0.02). alpha-Tocopherol alone or in combination with NAC significantly reduced the number of infiltrating cells positively stained for 4-hydroxynonenal. Omeprazole showed only a slight nonsignificant inhibitory effect at the dose given"
  • Black Raspberries Slow Cancer By Altering Hundreds Of Genes - Science Daily, 8/27/08 - "examined the effect of freeze-dried black raspberries on genes altered by a chemical carcinogen in an animal model of esophageal cancer ... The carcinogen affected the activity of some 2,200 genes in the animals’ esophagus in only one week, but 460 of those genes were restored to normal activity in animals that consumed freeze-dried black raspberry powder as part of their diet during the exposure"
  • (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits HGF-induced invasion and metastasis in hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells - Cancer Lett. 2008 Jul 14 - "Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has recently attracted a considerable amount of attention as a stromal-derived mediator in tumor-stromal interactions, particularly because of its close involvement in cancer invasion and metastasis, and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) can modulate the cell signaling associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and migration of cancer cells ... EGCG at physiologically relevant concentration (1muM) suppressed HGF-induced tumor motility and MMP-9 and uPA activities, and the suppression of Akt and Erk pathway by EGCG was one of the downstream mechanisms to facilitate EGCG-induced anti-invasion effects. These results suggest that EGCG may serve as a therapeutic agent to inhibit HGF-induced invasion in hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients" - I took six capsules per day of green tea extract when I had my neck cancer.  Maybe that's what saved me.  See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Black Raspberries and Esophageal Cancer - Medscape, 12/10/07 - "Most important, 8-epiprostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) declined significantly after berry consumption (P < .05), with dramatic individual level declines occurring in 58% of the study patients" - See raspberry extracts at iHerb.
  • Dietary risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Maghrebian countries - Int J Cancer. 2007 Jun 20 - "consumption of rancid butter, rancid sheep fat and preserved meat not spicy (mainly quaddid) were associated with significantly increased risk of NPC, while consumption of cooked vegetables and industrial preserved fish was associated with reduced risk. Other foods such as fresh citrus fruits and spicy preserved meat (mainly osban) in childhood, industrial made olive condiments in adulthood, were marginally associated. In multivariate analyses, only rancid butter, rancid sheep fat and cooked vegetables were significantly associated with NPC"
  • Fiber intake and risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and stomach - Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Jun 12 - "Compared to subjects in the lowest quartile of fiber intake, subjects in the highest quartile of intake showed odd ratios of 0.44 (95% CI = 0.26-0.76) for esophageal adenocarcinoma (P trend = 0.004) and 0.58 (95% CI = 0.38-0.88) for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma ... High intake of fiber was associated with significant reduced risks of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma"
  • Flavonoids and laryngeal cancer risk in Italy - Ann Oncol. 2007 Mar 19 - "Significant inverse relations were found for the highest versus the lowest quintile of intake for flavan-3-ols (OR = 0.64), flavanones (OR = 0.60), flavonols (OR = 0.32) and total flavonoids (OR = 0.60)"
  • Nutrient intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay - Nutr Cancer. 2006;56(2):149-57 - "The odds ratio (OR) for high intake of linoleic acid was 1.4 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.2-1.6), whereas lycopene displayed a strong protective effect (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.6-0.9)" - Note:  Linoleic acid is an omega-6 oil found in most cooking oils like soy and corn oil.
  • Broccoli fights cancer-causing bacteria in humans - Nutra USA, 11/3/05
  • Zinc Deficiency Linked to Increased Risk of Less-Common Form of Esophageal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 2/16/05 - "zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of developing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, an often-fatal form of esophageal cancer that has about 7,000 cases a year"
  • Selenium May Lower Risk Of Esophageal Cancer In People With Barrett's Esophagus - Intelihealth, 5/21/03 - "Higher serum selenium levels appear to be associated with a reduced risk of progression toward esophageal cancer among people with Barrett's esophagus"
  • Selenium May Inhibit Progression Toward Esophageal Cancer In Patients With Barrett's Esophagus - Doctor's Guide, 5/21/03
  • Selenium Reduces Risk of Some Cancers: FDA Approves Claim - New Hope Natural Media, 4/17/03 - "Companies that manufacture selenium supplements will now be permitted by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to claim that selenium supplements may reduce the risk of some cancers, according to a statement by the FDA. Although the FDA does not permit manufacturers to list specific types of cancer in the health claim, studies suggest selenium supplementation may reduce the risk of colon, prostate, lung, liver and esophageal cancers" - See iHerb and Vitacosticon selenium products.
  • Broccoli Beats Ulcers, Cancer - WebMD, 5/28/02
  • Nutrients May Influence Risk Of Stomach And Esophageal Cancer - Intelihealth, 11/8/01 - "patients who consumed high amounts of fiber, beta-carotene, folate, and vitamin C (found primarily in plant-based foods) were significantly less likely to develop cancer of the esophagus or stomach than those who consumed low amounts of these nutrients. Those who took vitamin C supplements were also less likely to develop certain types of stomach cancer. In contrast, those who consumed high amounts of foods of animal origin, including dietary cholesterol, animal protein, and vitamin B12, were significantly more likely to develop these cancers than those who consumed low amounts of such nutrients"
  • Hypericin May Be Potential Candidate For Treating Esophageal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 5/22/01 - "Hypericin, the active ingredient in St. John’s Wort, a popular herbal remedy for depression, may be a potential candidate for treating esophageal and other tumors"

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