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Home > Health Conditions > Stomach Cancer

Stomach Cancer

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  • Sulforaphane Targets the TBX15/KIF2C Pathway to Repress Glycolysis and Cell Proliferation in Gastric Carcinoma Cells - Nutr Cancer 2023;75(4):1263-1270 - "The anti-tumor effects of sulforaphane were antagonized by down-regulation of TBX15, up-regulation of KIF2C or addition of a PKM2 agonist. Sulforaphane can reduce cell proliferation and PKM2-mediated glycolysis in gastric carcinoma cells, apparently by activating the TBX15/KIF2C pathway" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Allium vegetable intake associated with the risk of incident gastric cancer: a continuous follow-up study of a randomized intervention trial - Am J Clin Nutr 2023 Jan - "We found a significant reduction in the risk of developing GC with increasing dietary intake of allium vegetables, particularly garlic vegetables. The findings add to the literature on the potential inverse association of garlic vegetable intake with the risk of GC, therefore holding public health implications for dietary recommendations" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Association of Dietary Antioxidant Vitamin Intake and Gastric Cancer Risk According to Smoking Status and Histological Subtypes of Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Korea - Nutr Cancer 2022 Dec 1 - "This study aimed to determine the association between dietary antioxidant vitamin intake and GC risk according to smoking status and the histological subtype ... Dietary information was collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). When stratified by smoking status, increased intake of vitamin C (OR = 0.38; 95% CI = 0.17-0.84 for highest vs. lowest; P for trend = 0.033) and folate (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.12-0.64 for highest vs. lowest; P for trend = 0.003) decreased GC risk in nonsmokers. Vitamin C (P for interaction = 0.043) and folate (P for interaction =0.015) levels were significantly associated with smoking status. Similar results were observed in nonsmokers with diffuse and mixed types of GC, but not in those with intestinal type of GC. Therefore, we found an inverse association between higher intake of dietary vitamin C and folate with the risk of GC among nonsmokers. These protective associations were strong in nonsmokers with diffuse and mixed types of GC" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Can Folic Acid Halt or Reverse Progression of Gastric Precancerous Conditions? - Medscape, 8/10/22 - "Folic acid supplementation can improve histopathologic aspects of gastric precancerous conditions (GPC), including gastric mucosal atrophy and intestinal metaplasia ... A meta-analysis of five studies showed a statistically significant positive treatment effect of folic acid supplementation on gastric mucosal atrophy (relative risk [RR]: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.07 – 2.41) ... A meta-analysis of two trials showed a statistically significant effect of folic acid on reversal of intestinal metaplasia (RR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.32 – 2.37) ... Our study indicates that folic acid has a beneficial effect in the treatment of pathological changes of GPC when the dose was maintained at 20–30 mg/d and the duration of treatment was maintained at 3–6 months" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Inverse Association between Dietary Iron Intake and Gastric Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Case-Control Studies of the Stop Consortium - Nutrients 2022 Jun 20 - "Dietary iron is inversely related to GC, with no difference by subsite or histological type. While the results should be interpreted with caution, they provide evidence against a direct effect of iron in gastric carcinogenesis" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • A Specifically Tailored Multistrain Probiotic and Micronutrient Mixture Affects Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Markers in Patients with Obesity after Mini Gastric Bypass Surgery - J Nutr 2021 Nov 22 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequent among patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Beyond weight reduction, dietary supplements like micronutrients or probiotics that modify insulin resistance and lipotoxicity can be used to prevent or delay the progression of liver disease ... Patients received a combination of specifically tailored multistrain probiotic powder and a specific micronutrient mixture (Pro+SM) or a control treatment consisting of a placebo and a basic care micronutrient mixture (Con+BM), with some micronutrients in lower doses than SM, for 12 wk after hospital discharge ... Compared with Con+BM, Pro+SM improved serum ASAT (difference: -8.0 U/L, 95% CI: -17.0, -4.0; P = 0.043), NAFLD fibrosis score (difference: -0.39; 95% CI: -0.78, 0; P = 0.048), serum triglycerides (difference: -22.8 mg/dL; 95% CI: -45.6, -0.1; P = 0.049) and the visceral adiposity index (difference: -0.70" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Serum carnitine as a biomarker of sarcopenia and nutritional status in preoperative gastrointestinal cancer patients - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Dec 22 - "Sarcopenia is an important factor in the postoperative outcome of gastrointestinal cancer patients ... One hundred fourteen patients scheduled to undergo gastroenterological surgery between August 2016 and January 2017 were enrolled. Their mean age was 68.4 ± 10.5, and 64.9% were male. Serum carnitine fractions [total carnitine (TC), free l-carnitine (FC), and acylcarnitine (AC)] were measured prior to surgery ... This study suggests that carnitine level is a biomarker of sarcopenia and nutritional status" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • Pleiotropic nature of curcumin in targeting multiple apoptotic-mediated factors and related strategies to treat gastric cancer: A review - Phytother Res 2021 May 24 - "Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the major reasons for cancer-associated death and exhibits the second-highest mortality rate worldwide. Several advanced approaches have been designed to treat GC; however, these strategies possess many innate complications. In view of this, the upcoming research relying on natural products could result in designing potential anticancer agents with fewer side effects. Curcumin, isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L. has several medicinal properties like antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antitumor, and antimetastatic. Such pleiotropic nature of curcumin impedes the invasion and proliferation of GC by targeting several oncogenic factors like p23, human epidermal factor receptor2 including Helicobacter pylori. The side effect of chemotherapy, that is, chemotherapeutic resistance and radiotherapy could be reduced combination therapy of curcumin. Moreover, the photodynamic therapy of curcumin destroys the cancer cells without affecting normal cells. However, further more potential studies are required to establish the potent efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of GC" - See curcumin at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Berberine on Circular RNA Expression Profiles in Human Gastric Cancer Cells - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 May 4 - "Our results demonstrate that berberine has the potential to influence cancer-related pathways by regulating circRNA expression and their corresponding target genes in GC cells" - See berberine at Amazon.com.
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 (Shenyi Capsule) Combined with Chemotherapy for Digestive System Cancer in China: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2019 Dec 17 - "Ginsenoside Rg3 combined with chemotherapy can improve the clinical efficacy and alleviate treatment-induced side effects for digestive system cancer" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Statins were associated with a reduced gastric cancer risk in patients with eradicated Helicobacter pylori infection: a territory-wide propensity score matched study - Biol Pharm Bull. 2019;42(12):2002-2008 - "statins were associated with a lower GC risk (SHR 0.34; 95% CI:0.19-0.61), in a duration- and dose-response manner"
  • Associations between calcium and magnesium intake and the risk of incident gastric cancer, a prospective cohort analysis of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study - Int J Cancer. 2019 Aug 31 - "We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to estimate the association between calcium and magnesium intakes with risk of incident gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) overall and by anatomic location, noncardia (NCGA) and cardia (CGA). A total of 536,403 respondents (59% males, 41% females) were included for analysis, among whom 1,518 incident GAs (797 NCGA, 721 CGA) occurred. Increasing calcium intake was associated with lower risk of GA overall (p-trend = 0.05), driven primarily by the association with NCGA, where above median calcium intakes were associated with a 23% reduction in risk compared to the lowest quartile (p-trend = 0.05). This magnitude of NCGA risk reduction was greater among non-white races and Hispanics (HR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.24-1.07, p-trend = 0.04), current/former smokers (HR 0.58, 95% CI: 0.41-0.81), obese individuals (HR 0.54,95% CI: 0.31-0.96), and those with high NCGA risk scores (HR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.80). Among men only, increasing magnesium intake was associated with 22-27% reduced risk of NCGA (p-trend = 0.05), while for the cohort, dietary magnesium intake in the highest versus lowest quartile was associated with a 34% reduced risk of NCGA (HR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.90). These findings have important implications for risk factor modification and personalized prevention" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-tumor activity of curcumin on stomach cancer - Science Daily, 4/22/19 - "In addition to curcumin, other compounds found to play a key role in modulating histone activity were cholecalciferol, resveratrol (present mainly in grape seeds and red wine), quercetin (abundant in apples, broccoli and onions), garcinol (isolated from the bark of the kokum tree, Garcinia indica), and sodium butyrate (produced by gut bacteria via fermentation of dietary fiber) ... "These compounds can favor the activation or repression of genes involved in the development of stomach cancer by promoting or inhibiting histone acetylation," Calcagno said ... Curcumin, for example, influences histone modifications primarily by inhibiting HATs and HDACs to suppress cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). Garcinol, whose chemical structure resembles that of curcumin, inhibits HATs and helps prevent stomach cancer by neutralizing free radicals" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant intake from diet and supplements and risk of digestive cancers in middle-aged adults: results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohor - Br J Nutr. 2017 Sep 20:1-9 - "This prospective cohort study with quantitative assessment of supplemental intakes suggests a potential protective effect of several antioxidants (vitamins C and E and Se) on digestive cancer risk, and a modulation of some of these relationships by alcohol consumption and smoking status"
  • Tomato extract fights stomach cancer, ripe for further study - Science Daily, 5/13/17 - "whole tomato extracts from two different Southern Italy cultivars inhibit gastric cancer cell growth and malignant features ... Treatment with the whole tomato extracts affected key processes within the cells hindering their migration ability, arresting cell cycle through the modulation of retinoblastoma family proteins and specific cell cycle inhibitors, and ultimately inducing cancer cell death through apoptosis" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Meta-Analysis: Does Garlic Intake Reduce Risk of Gastric Cancer? - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Nov 20:1-11 - "Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer ... High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I2 = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively)" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Involvement of BID Translocation in Glycyrrhetinic Acid and 11-Deoxy Glycyrrhetinic Acid-Induced Attenuation of Gastric Cancer Growth - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Feb 18 - "Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the main chemical constituents of licorice, has shown remarkable anticancer activity. However, the side effects limit its widespread use. 11-DOGA is produced through reduction of GA 11-carbonyl to 11-hydroxyl to reduce its side effects, although its anticancer activities are largely unknown. Here, we report that the functional mechanisms of GA and 11-DOGA in gastric cancers, as well as the comparison between these two drugs' pharmacological potential. Firstly, we found that GA and 11-DOGA significantly inhibits the viabilities of gastric cancer cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Both GA and 11-DOGA induce gastric cancer cells apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G2 phase by upregulation of p21 and downregulation of cdc2 and cyclin B1. Further studies show that GA and 11-DOGA-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells is associated with BID translocation from nucleus to mitochondria. Moreover, GA and 11-DOGA could effectively inhibit tumor formation of gastric cancer cells in nude mice" - Note:  One of those side effects is that licorice increases cortisol which is not good for most people.  See licorice supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Physical Activity is Associated with Reduced Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Sep 18 - "Meta-analysis demonstrated that the risk of gastric cancer was 21% lower among the most physically active people as compared with the least physically active people"
  • Prediagnostic plasma vitamin C and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese population - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 11 - "China has some of the highest incidence rates for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the world ... Two cohort studies and the current study were included to assess the body of evidence ... For GA, each 20-μmol/L increase in plasma vitamin C was associated with a 14% decrease in risk ... Compared with individuals with low plasma vitamin C concentrations (≤28 μmol/L), those with normal concentrations (>28 μmol/L) had a 27% reduced risk of GA ... No association between vitamin C concentrations and ESCC was seen" - See Jarrow Formulas, C 1000, Ascorbic Acid + Oleaselect Olive Fruit Extract, 250 Veggie Caps.
  • Inhibitory effects of isoflavones on tumor growth and cachexia in newly established cachectic mouse models carrying human stomach cancers - Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(4):578-89 - "Isoflavone treatment on the models induced tumor cytostasis, attenuation of cachexia, and prolonged survival whereas discontinuation of the treatment resulted in progressive tumor growth and weight loss" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea found to reduce rate of some GI cancers - Science Daily, 10/31/12 - "the investigators surveyed women enrolled in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based study of approximately 75,000 middle-aged and older Chinese women ... regular tea consumption, defined as tea consumption at least three times a week for more than six months, was associated with a 17 percent reduced risk of all digestive cancers combined. A further reduction in risk was found to be associated with an increased level of tea drinking. Specifically, those who consumed about two to three cups per day (at least 150 grams of tea per month) had a 21 percent reduced risk of digestive system cancers ... For all digestive system cancers combined, the risk was reduced by 27 percent among women who had been drinking tea regularly for at least 20 years ... For colorectal cancer, risk was reduced by 29 percent among the long-term tea drinkers. These results suggest long-term cumulative exposure may be particularly important ... Tea contains polyphenols or natural chemicals that include catechins like EGCG and ECG. Catechins have antioxidant properties and may inhibit cancer by reducing DNA damage and blocking tumor cell growth and invasion" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and gastric adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 17 - "gastric cancer (GC) ...followed 477,312 subjects (29.8% men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at baseline ... average follow-up of 11 y ... We observed a significant inverse association between total flavonoid intake and GC risk in women (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.94; for the continuous variable after log(2) transformation) but not in men (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.09). In women, significant inverse associations with GC risk were also observed for intakes of some flavonoid subgroups (anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones, and flavanols), particularly with intestinal type tumors for total flavonoid and flavanol intakes" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 10 - "We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996-2000 ... In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). For example, women who consumed ≥150 g tea/mo (~2-3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Fifteen-Year Effects of Helicobacter pylori, Garlic, and Vitamin Treatments on Gastric Cancer Incidence and Mortality - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Jan 23 - "Garlic and vitamin treatments were associated with non-statistically significant reductions in gastric cancer incidence and mortality. Vitamin treatment was associated with statistically significantly fewer deaths from gastric or esophageal cancer, a secondary endpoint (HR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.30 to 0.87; P = .014)"
  • Dietary total antioxidant capacity and gastric cancer risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study - Int J Cancer. 2011 Nov 9 - "A high intake of dietary antioxidant compounds has been hypothesized to be an appropriate strategy to reduce gastric cancer (GC) development. We investigated the effect of dietary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) in relation to GC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study including 23 centers in 10 European countries ... Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC for both FRAP (adjusted HR 0.66; 95%CI (0.46-0.95) and TRAP (adjusted HR 0.61; 95%CI (0.43-0.87) (highest vs. lowest quintile). The association was observed for both cardia and non cardia cancers. A clear effect was observed in smokers with a significant reduction in GC risk for the 5(th) quintile of intake for both assays (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.41; 95%CI (0.22-0.76) p for trend <0.001 for FRAP; adjusted HR 0.52; 95%CI (0.28-0.97) p for trend <0.001 for TRAP) but not in never smokers. In former smokers the association with FRAP intake was statistically significant (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.4; 95%CI (0.21-0.75) p<0.05); no association was observed for TRAP"
  • Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and the risk of stomach cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Jun 3 - "Strong inverse relations were found for proanthocyanidins. The OR was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.76) for monomers and dimers combined and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.21-0.63) for polymers with three or more mers. Further adjustment for fruit and vegetables, or vitamin C, did not materially change these associations. This is the first epidemiological study to suggest that dietary proanthocyanidins have a favorable role on gastric cancer risk"
  • Mediterranean Diet Linked to Lower Risk for Stomach Cancer - Medscape, 12/29/09 - "For every 1-unit increase in relative Mediterranean diet score, the risk for gastric adenocarcinoma decreased by 5% to 7%"
  • Citrus fruit and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Oct 24 - "The ORs for the highest versus lowest category of citrus fruit consumption were 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.36-0.61) for oral and pharyngeal, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.25-0.70) for esophageal, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.92) for stomach, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for colorectal, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37-0.83) for laryngeal cancer"
  • Study: 88% of GI Cancer Patients Deficient in Vitamin D - oncologystat.com, 7/6/09 - "At baseline, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was nearly 88%, including 61% of patients who met criteria for moderate to severe deficiency"
  • Coffee, black tea and risk of gastric cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 May 12 - "Our investigation, based on a uniquely large dataset, provides convincing evidence that coffee and black tea consumption is unlikely to be strongly associated with gastric cancer risk"
  • Reductions In Cancer And Overall Mortality Persist 10 Years After Vitamin And Mineral Supplementation - Science Daily, 4/2/09 - "Individuals who took a dietary supplement called "factor D", which included selenium, vitamin E, and beta-carotene, continued to have lower gastric cancer and overall mortality 10 years after supplementation ceased compared with individuals who did not take the supplements ... Individuals who took factor D continued to show benefits, with a 5% reduction in overall mortality (from a cumulative mortality of 33.62% of participants not taking factor D to 32.19% of participants taking factor D) and an 11% reduction in gastric cancer mortality (from a cumulative gastric cancer mortality of 4.28% in the no-factor D group to 3.84% in the factor D group)"
  • Grape Extracts May Be Effective Against Harmful Gut Bacteria - Science Daily, 3/4/09 - "H. pylori is the bacterial agent most commonly associated with peptic ulcers, gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric cancer ... The antibacterial effects of extracts from red, white, black and muscadine grapes as well as the pure compounds resveratrol, ellagic acid, and myricetin were tested for anti-H. pylori activity using agar dilution, laser scanning microscopy and cell proliferation. Following 24 hour treatment, results showed that muscadine grape skin extract had the highest anti-H. pylori effect, followed by muscadine grape synergy and seed extract. Additionally, two of the three compounds, resveratrol and ellagic acid, also inhibited H. pylori" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com and resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium May Cut Cancer Risk - WebMD, 2/23/09 - "older men and women who got the most calcium from food and supplements had a 16% lower risk of colorectal and other cancers of the digestive system than those who got the least calcium"
  • Effects of aqueous green tea extract on activities of DNA turn-over enzymes in cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric and colon tissues - Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 May-Jun;14(3):30-3 - "Our data suggest that green tea may support the medical treatment of stomach and colon cancer" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea extract's Janus Effect on stomach health: study - Nutra USA, 2/12/08 - "The green tea polyphenol (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) may slash the risk of gastric cancer among women by 75 per cent" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Fiber intake and risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and stomach - Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Jun 12 - "Compared to subjects in the lowest quartile of fiber intake, subjects in the highest quartile of intake showed odd ratios of 0.44 (95% CI = 0.26-0.76) for esophageal adenocarcinoma (P trend = 0.004) and 0.58 (95% CI = 0.38-0.88) for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma ... High intake of fiber was associated with significant reduced risks of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma"
  • Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas: The EPIC-EURGAST study - Int J Cancer. 2007 Jun 20 - "There was a strong inverse association for diffuse [HR 0.43, 0.22-0.86], but not intestinal type [HR 0.98, 0.54-1.80] tumors"
  • Vitamin A, retinol, and carotenoids and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):497-503 - "During a mean 7.2-y follow-up, 139 incident cases of gastric cancer were diagnosed. High intakes of vitamin A and retinol from foods only (dietary intake) and from foods and supplements combined (total intake) and of dietary alpha-carotene and beta-carotene were associated with a lower risk of gastric cancer. The multivariate relative risks for the highest versus lowest quartiles of intake were 0.53 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.89; P for trend = 0.02) for total vitamin A, 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.95; P for trend = 0.05) for total retinol, 0.50 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.83; P for trend = 0.03) for alpha-carotene, and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.32, 0.94; P for trend = 0.07) for beta-carotene"
  • Broccoli fights cancer-causing bacteria in humans - Nutra USA, 11/3/05
  • Vitamin C May Protect Against Ulcer-Causing Bacteria - Doctor's Guide, 8/1/03 - "the lower the level of vitamin C in the blood the more likely a person will become infected by Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria that can cause peptic ulcers and stomach cancer ... The bottom line is that higher levels of vitamin C may have the potential to prevent peptic ulcers and stomach cancer"
  • Broccoli Beats Ulcers, Cancer - WebMD, 5/28/02
  • Nutrients May Influence Risk Of Stomach And Esophageal Cancer - Intelihealth, 11/8/01 - "patients who consumed high amounts of fiber, beta-carotene, folate, and vitamin C (found primarily in plant-based foods) were significantly less likely to develop cancer of the esophagus or stomach than those who consumed low amounts of these nutrients. Those who took vitamin C supplements were also less likely to develop certain types of stomach cancer. In contrast, those who consumed high amounts of foods of animal origin, including dietary cholesterol, animal protein, and vitamin B12, were significantly more likely to develop these cancers than those who consumed low amounts of such nutrients"

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