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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 7/13/11.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Sodium/Potassium Ratio Important for Health - Medscape, 7/12/11 - "During a mean follow-up of 14.8 years, there were a total of 2270 deaths, including 825 cardiovascular deaths and 443 ischemic heart-disease deaths. After multivariable adjustment, higher sodium intake was associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.20 per 1000 mg/day), whereas higher potassium intake was associated with lower mortality risk (HR 0.80 per 1000 mg/day) ... For sodium-potassium ratio, the adjusted hazard ratios comparing the highest quartile with the lowest quartile were 1.46 for all-cause mortality, 1.46 for CVD mortality, and 2.15 for ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality ... The results show that sodium/potassium ratio of <1 is protective ... One simple way of boosting potassium, she notes, is to replace regular snacks with fruit"

Feds: Pot has no medical purpose - MSNBC, 7/8/11 - "The federal government officially declared that marijuana has no accepted medical use and should remain classified as a dangerous and addictive drug. It will remain in the same class of drugs as heroin" - I never bought off on that "I need it for my medical condition" line.  Maybe I just heard it too many times as a kid when granny on the Beverly Hillbillies would say it referring the her moonshine.

Mercury vapor released from broken compact fluorescent light bulbs can exceed safe exposure levels for humans, study finds - Science Daily, 7/6/11 - "Once broken, a compact fluorescent light bulb continuously releases mercury vapor into the air for weeks to months, and the total amount can exceed safe human exposure levels in a poorly ventilated room"

Unhealthy lifestyle is associated with sexual dysfunction - Science Daily, 7/6/11 - "A new study published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine reveals that several unhealthy lifestyle factors, such as weight problems, physical inactivity, high alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, and hard drugs are associated with sexual dysfunctions in men. Additionally, an unhealthy lifestyle is more common in persons who are sexually inactive ... Among those who had a sexual partner, risk of experiencing sexual dysfunction was greater in men who lead unhealthy lives by 71% in those with substantially increased waist circumference and more than 800% in men using hard drugs. Women who used hashish had almost 3 times increased risk of anorgasmia (difficulties or inability to reach climax during sexual activity with a partner) compared to non-users"

Eggs' antioxidant properties may help prevent heart disease and cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "They found the yolks contained two amino acids, tryptophan and tyrosine, which have high antioxidant properties ... After analyzing the properties, the researchers determined that two egg yolks in their raw state have almost twice as many antioxidant properties as an apple and about the same as half a serving (25 grams) of cranberries ... However, when the eggs were fried or boiled, antioxidant properties were reduced by about half, and a little more than half if the eggs were cooked in a microwave"

A gut-full of probiotics for your neurological well-being - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "A recent study in mice, for example, showed that the presence of neurochemicals such a serotonin in the bloodstream was due to direct uptake from the gut ... Until recently the idea that probiotic bacteria administered to the intestine could influence the brain seemed almost surreal ... Yet in Lyte's paper the concept is supported by studies showing that microbes can produce and respond to neurochemicals, which can induce neurological and immunological effects on the host ... The research presents an idea for selecting probiotic strains with neurological applications and linking this with immune-modulatory effects, while highlighting the fact that microbial strains already being widely ingested in fermented food can produce neurochemicals" - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D can help elderly women survive, review suggests - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "The eight-strong international team of researchers identified 50 randomised trials that together had 94,148 participants. They had a mean age of 74 years, and 79% were women. "Our analyses suggest that vitamin D3 reduces mortality by about 6%. This means that you need to give about 200 people vitamin D3 for around two years to save one additional life," ... There were no significant benefits of taking other forms of vitamin D such as vitamin D2, and the active forms of the vitamin, alfacalcidol or calcitriol. However, the researchers point out that they could only find much less data relating to these types of vitamin D and so these conclusions should be taken with caution ... alfacalcidol and calcitriol significantly increased the risk of hypercalcaemia, and vitamin D3 combined with calcium significantly increased the risk of kidney stones"

Finger Ratio: Science or Palm Readings - ABC News, 7/5/11 - "those with longer ring fingers compared to their index fingers made 11 times more money than those with the shortest ring fingers. Over the same time, the most experienced traders made about nine times more than the least experienced ones ... Looking only at experienced traders, the long-ring-finger folks earned five times more than those with short ring fingers" - Didn't work for me or I'd be well off.

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Resveratrol attenuates steatosis in obese Zucker rats by decreasing fatty acid availability and reducing oxidative stress - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 28:1-9 - "Resveratrol reduced liver weight and TAG content. It did not modify the activity of lipogenic enzymes but it did increase CPT-Ia and ACO activities. NEFA and ALP were reduced in both resveratrol-treated groups. AST/GOT was reduced only by the lowest dose. ALT/GPT, TAG and adiponectin remained unchanged. Resveratrol reduced liver oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that resveratrol can protect the liver from NAFLD by reducing fatty acid availability. Moreover, resveratrol also protects liver from oxidative stress" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D status has a linear association with seasonal infections and lung function in British adults - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 6:1-8 - "Higher vitamin D concentrations have been proposed as a protective 'seasonal stimulus' against influenza, and there are suggestions for associations with other aspects of respiratory health ... the prevalence of respiratory infections had a strong seasonal pattern in the opposite direction to the pattern for 25(OH)D concentrations. Each 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a 7 % lower risk of infection (95 % CI 3, 11 %) after adjustment for adiposity, lifestyle and socio-economic factors. For FEV1 and FVC, each 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was associated with 8 (95 % CI 3, 13) ml and 13 (95 % CI 7, 20) ml higher volume, respectively, after controlling for covariates. Associations of 25(OH)D with FEV1 and FVC were only slightly attenuated after further adjustment for infection and other respiratory illness. In conclusion, vitamin D status had a linear relationship with respiratory infections and lung function" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Long-term dietary antioxidant cocktail supplementation effectively reduces renal inflammation in diabetic mice - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 3:1-8 - "Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlies the development of diabetic complications remains unknown. We hypothesised that dietary antioxidant supplementation with single N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vitamin C combined with either vitamin E or vitamin E and NAC improves diabetic renal inflammation through the modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Experimental animals were treated with alloxan monohydrate to induce diabetes. Mice were divided into five groups and supplemented with single or a combination of antioxidants. Body weights and blood glucose levels were measured once a week. After 8 weeks of dietary antioxidant supplementation, mice were killed and blood urea N (BUN) and plasma creatinine levels were measured to evaluate renal function. NF-κB protein was indirectly demonstrated by the phosphorylated IκBα (pIκBα) level, and the expressions of oxidative stress- and inflammatory response-related proteins were also determined. We demonstrated that dietary antioxidant supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation levels demonstrated by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, BUN and plasma creatinine levels in diabetic kidneys. Moreover, dietary antioxidant cocktail supplementation improved blood glucose levels and selectively regulated the expressions of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, haeme oxygenase-1, pIκBα, inducible NO synthase, cyclo-oxygenase-2 and C-reactive protein in diabetic kidneys effectively. These findings demonstrated that diabetic renal failure was associated with inflammatory responses induced by hyperglycaemia. In addition, results in the study suggest that antioxidant cocktail supplementation may have beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy through selective reduction of blood glucose levels and inflammatory response" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.

Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides improve insulin sensitivity along with the suppression of adipocytokine secretion from mesenteric fat cells in rats - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 2:1-8 - "Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) are known to have beneficial effects on health. However, the effects of FOS on insulin resistance have not been fully clarified. We observed the effects of FOS feeding on insulin sensitivity and adipocytokine release from abdominal adipocytes in weaning rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 3 weeks old, were divided into three groups and fed a sucrose-based American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93 growth diet (control), the control diet containing 5 % FOS for 5 weeks (FOS-5wk) or the control diet for 2 weeks followed by the 5 % FOS diet for 3 weeks (FOS-3wk). Tail blood was collected after fasting for 9 h on day 33 of feeding, and glucose and insulin levels were measured. On the last day, rats were anaesthetised and killed after the collection of aortic blood. Small- and large-intestinal mesenteric fat tissues were immediately excised, and the release of adiponectin, leptin and TNF-α was evaluated from the subsequently isolated adipocytes. The weight of the large-intestinal mesenteric fat, fasting blood insulin level and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance decreased in a time-dependent manner, and were much lower in the FOS-5wk group than in the control group. These values were correlated with aortic blood leptin levels. The secretion rate of leptin from the isolated mesenteric adipocytes in the small intestine, but not in the large intestine, was lower in the FOS-fed groups than in the control group. In conclusion, FOS feeding improved insulin sensitivity accompanied by the reduction in large-intestinal fat mass and leptin secretion from the mesenteric adipocytes of the small intestine" - See Jarrow Formulas, InulinFos, 180 g Powder at iHerb.

Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 1:1-10 - "Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45-75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004-9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score < 24) were 2.23 (95 % CI 1.24, 3.99) for total sugars and 2.28 (95 % CI 1.26, 4.14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality"

Grape seed extract supplementation prevents high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats by improving insulin and adiponectin signalling pathways - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 31:1-9 - "Recent evidence strongly supports the contention that grape seed extract (GSE) improves hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia in high-fructose-fed rats. To explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of action, we examined the effects of GSE on the expression of muscle proteins related to the insulin signalling pathway and of mRNA for genes involved in the adiponectin signalling pathway. Compared with rats fed on a normal diet, high-fructose-fed rats developed pathological changes, including insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriacylglycerolaemia, a low level of plasma adiponectin and a high level of plasma fructosamine. These disorders were effectively attenuated in high-fructose-fed rats supplemented with GSE. A high-fructose diet causes insulin resistance by significantly reducing the protein expression of insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, Akt and GLUT4, and the mRNA expression of adiponectin, adiponectin receptor R1 (AdipoR1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α in the skeletal muscle. Supplementation of GSE enhanced the expression of insulin signalling pathway-related proteins, including Akt and GLUT4. GSE also increased the mRNA expression of adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AMPK-α. In addition, GSE increased the mRNA levels of glycogen synthase and suppressed the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3-α, causing an increase in glycogen accumulation in the skeletal muscle. These results suggest that GSE ameliorates the defective insulin and adiponectin signalling pathways in the skeletal muscle, resulting in improved insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.

Viscosity rather than quantity of dietary fibre predicts cholesterol-lowering effect in healthy individuals - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 31:1-4 - "The well-documented lipid-lowering effects of fibre may be related to its viscosity, a phenomenon that has been understudied, especially when fibre is given against the background of a typical North American (NA) diet. In this three-arm experiment, we compared the lipid-lowering effect of low-viscosity wheat bran (WB), medium-viscosity psyllium (PSY) and a high-viscosity viscous fibre blend (VFB), as part of a fibre intervention aimed at increasing fibre intake to recommended levels within the context of a NA diet in apparently healthy individuals. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-three participants (twelve males and eleven females; age 35 (sd 12) years; LDL-cholesterol (C) 2.9 (sem 0.6) mmol/l) consuming a typical NA diet received a standard, fibre-enriched cereal, where approximately one-third of the fibre was either a low-viscosity (570 centipoise (cP)) WB, medium-viscosity (14 300 cP) PSY or a high-viscosity (136 300 cP) novel VFB, for 3 weeks separated by washout periods of ≥ 2 weeks. There were no differences among the treatments in the amount of food consumed, total dietary fibre intake, reported physical activity and body weight. Final intake of the WB, PSY and VFB was 10.8, 9.0 and 5.1 g, respectively. Reduction in LDL-C was greater with the VFB compared with the medium-viscosity PSY ( - 12.6 (sem 3.5) %, P = 0.002) and low-viscosity WB ( - 14.6 (sem 4.2) %, P = 0.003). The magnitude of LDL-C reduction showed a positive association with fibre apparent viscosity (r - 0.41, P = 0.001). Despite the smaller quantity consumed, the high-viscosity fibre lowered LDL-C to a greater extent than lower-viscosity fibres. These data support the inclusion of high-viscosity fibre in the diet to reduce plasma lipids among apparently healthy individuals consuming a typical NA diet"

Taurine supplementation restored the changes in pancreatic islet mitochondria in the fetal protein-malnourished rat - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 31:1-9 - "Intra-uterine growth retardation has been linked to the development of type 2 diabetes in later life. Mitochondrial changes have been suggested as a link between fetal malnutrition and adult insulin resistance. Taurine has been implicated in this process ... Male offspring of rats fed a control diet, a low-protein diet or a low-protein diet supplemented with taurine during pregnancy and lactation were weaned onto the control diet. In each group, at 20 weeks of age, intravenous glucose tolerance tests, euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies, morphometric analysis of the pancreatic islets and ultra-structural analysis of the mitochondria of the β-cells were performed. The expressions of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) I and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II were also measured. Fetal protein-malnourished rats showed decreased pancreatic islet mass and reduced insulin-secretory responses to a glucose load. These rats also showed reduced mitochondrial DNA-encoded COX I gene expression in the islets. Electron microscopic examination showed abnormal mitochondrial shapes in the β-cells of fetal protein-malnourished rats. Taurine supplementation to the low-protein diet restored all these changes. Our findings indicate that a maternal protein-restriction diet causes long-lasting mitochondrial changes that may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes later in life. The lack of taurine may be a key causative factor for these dysfunctional mitochondrial changes" - See taurine at Amazon.com.

Impact of low v. moderate intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids on risk of coronary heart disease - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 31:1-13 - "The objective of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of ≥ 250 v. < 250 mg of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCFA) per d is associated with a reduction in the risk of fatal and non-fatal CHD in individuals with no prior history of CHD. A comprehensive and systematic review of the published scientific literature resulted in the identification of eight prospective studies (seven cohorts and one nested case-control study) that met predefined inclusion criteria. Relative to the consumption of < 250 mg n-3 LCFA per d, the consumption of ≥ 250 mg/d was associated with a significant 35.1 % reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death and a near-significant 16.6 % reduction in the risk of total fatal coronary events, while the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction was not significantly reduced. In several meta-analyses, which were based on US studies, risk of CHD death was found to be dose-dependently reduced by the n-3 LCFA, with further risk reductions observed with intakes in excess of 250 mg/d. Prospective observational and intervention data from Japan, where intake of fish is very high, suggest that n-3 LCFA intakes of 900 to 1000 mg/d and greater may confer protection against non-fatal myocardial infarction. Thus, the intake of 250 mg n-3 LCFA per d may, indeed, be a minimum target to be achieved by the general population for the promotion of cardiovascular health" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces mortality in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain) - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 17:1-11 - "Epidemiological studies show that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) increases longevity; however, few studies are restricted to Mediterranean populations or explore the effect of a MD pattern that directly incorporates olive oil. Therefore the relationship between adherence to the MD and mortality was studied within the the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain) ... Risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed according to the level of adherence to a relative MD (rMED) score, measured using an 18-unit scale incorporating nine selected dietary components. A high compared with a low rMED score was associated with a significant reduction in mortality from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) 0.79; 95 % CI 0.69, 0.91), from CVD (HR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.49, 0.89), but not from overall cancer (HR 0.92; 95 % CI 0.75, 1.12). A 2-unit increase in rMED score was associated with a 6 % (P < 0.001) decreased risk of all-cause mortality. A high olive oil intake and moderate alcohol consumption contributed most to this association. In this Spanish cohort, following an olive oil-rich MD was related to a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, and reduced the risk of mortality from CVD. These results support the important role that the MD pattern has on reducing mortality in Mediterranean countries" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.

Diabetes prevalence is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in US middle-aged Caucasian men and women: a cross-sectional analysis within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 17:1-6 - "because studies examining the associations of all three chronic conditions with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) are limited, we examined these associations in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (n 2465). Caucasian PLCO participants selected as controls in previous nested case-control studies of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were included in this analysis. Diabetes, CHD and hypertension prevalence, risk factors for these conditions and intake of vitamin D and Ca were collected from a baseline questionnaire. Results indicated that serum levels of 25(OH)D were low ( < 50 nmol/l) in 29 % and very low ( < 37 nmol/l) in 11 % of subjects. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and CHD was 7, 30 and 10 %, respectively. After adjustment for confounding by sex, geographical location, educational level, smoking history, BMI, physical activity, total dietary energy and vitamin D and Ca intake, only diabetes was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels. Caucasians who had 25(OH)D ≥ 80 nmol/l were half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0.5 (95 % CI 0.3, 0.9)) compared with those who had 25(OH)D < 37 nmol/l. Those in the highest quartile of 1,25(OH)2D ( ≥ 103 pmol/l) were less than half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0.3 (95 % CI 0.1, 0.7)) than those in the lowest quartile ( < 72 pmol/l). In conclusion, the independent associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with diabetes prevalence in a large population are new findings, and thus warrant confirmation in larger, prospective studies" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Dietary folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intake and the risk of breast cancer by oestrogen and progesterone receptor status - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 16:1-8 - "Dietary intake information was assessed using a validated FFQ administered through a face-to-face interview ... A significant inverse association was found between dietary folate and vitamin B6 intake and breast cancer risk. The adjusted OR of the highest v. the lowest quartile were 0.32 (95 % CI 0.21, 0.49; Ptrend < 0.001) for dietary folate and 0.46 (95 % CI 0.30, 0.69; Ptrend < 0.001) for vitamin B6. No associations were observed for vitamin B12 and methionine intake. A significant inverse association between dietary folate intake and breast cancer risk was observed in all subtypes of ER and PR status. These findings suggest that dietary folate and vitamin B6 intakes were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. The inverse association did not differ by ER and/or PR status"

Strawberry anthocyanin and its association with postprandial inflammation and insulin - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 16:1-10 - "moderate-fat meal (HCFM) ... The postprandial concentrations of pelargonidin sulfate and pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside were significantly increased when the strawberry beverage was consumed concurrently with the HCFM compared with the placebo beverage (P < 0.001). The strawberry beverage significantly attenuated the postprandial inflammatory response as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and IL-6 (P < 0.05) induced by the HCFM. It was also associated with a reduction in postprandial insulin response (P < 0.05). Collectively, these data provide evidence for favourable effects of strawberry antioxidants on postprandial inflammation and insulin sensitivity"

An estimate of the global reduction in mortality rates through doubling vitamin D levels - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 6 - "Increasing serum 25(OH)D levels is the most cost-effective way to reduce global mortality rates, as the cost of vitamin D is very low and there are few adverse effects from oral intake and/or frequent moderate UVB irradiance with sufficient body surface area exposed" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Reduced Dietary Salt for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (Cochrane Review) - Am J Hypertens. 2011 Jul 6 - "Despite collating more event data than previous systematic reviews of RCTs (665 deaths in some 6,250 participants) there is still insufficient power to exclude clinically important effects of reduced dietary salt on mortality or CVD morbidity. Our estimates of benefits from dietary salt restriction are consistent with the predicted small effects on clinical events attributable to the small BP reduction achieved"

Improvement of mitochondrial function in muscle of genetically obese rats after chronic supplementation with proanthocyanidins - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jul 5 - "grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) ... In muscle, chronic GSPE administration decreased citrate synthase activity, the amount of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I and II, and Nrf1 gene expression, without any effects on the mitochondrial oxidative capacity. This situation was associated with lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Additionally, GSPE administration enhanced the ability to oxidise pyruvate, and it also increased the activity of enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation including cytochrome c oxidase. There is strong evidence to suggest that GSPE administration stimulates mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle specifically by increasing the capacity to oxidise pyruvate and contributes to reduced muscle ROS generation in obese Zucker rats" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.

Conjugated linoleic acid isomers may diminish human macrophages adhesion to endothelial surface - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2011 Jul 1 - "Both CLA isomers decreased expression of VLA-4 and Mac-1 on macrophages compared with control cells (cultured with bovine serum albumine (BSA) or oxidized form of low-density lipoproteins). cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression on the endothelium surface. Strong tendency to reduce of adhesion of macrophages to HUVEC in the cells cultured with CLA isomers was observed. The potential role of cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the reduction of adhesion of macrophages to the HUVEC - one of the important steps in the inflammatory process, can be considerate. These mechanisms may contribute to the potent anti-atherosclerotic effects of CLA in vivo" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.

Is the association between overt hyperthyroidism and mortality causal? Critical review and meta-analysis - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jul 1 - "In patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism mortality is increased by approximately 20%"

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