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Home > Anti-aging Research > Marijuana

Marijuana

Note: The problem with marijuana is that even if you do believe it has medical purposes (which I don’t), 99.999% are faking it and look at the damage that does. It entirely outweighs any benefit to the other 0.001% (if you really believe they benefit) when you consider the DNA damage to the future fetus, increased schizophrenia, 8 point lower IQ, loss of productivity which hurts America as a whole and society has to make up for, increased injuries from traffic accidents some involving loss of limbs (that they have to live with their entire lives) and some involving deaths (which their families have to mourn their entire lives), etc. These fully outweigh the 0.001% that people believe will benefit from it (which I don’t).

I can’t think of any medical condition including pain where you’re not better off being as healthy as possible and marijuana is counterproductive to that. The DNA damage to the unborn fetus is permanent caused by the damage to the eggs and male reproductive system prior to pregnancy. It’s not something where you can lay off it, get pregnant, have the kid and then start again. Those kids have to live with those defects for their entire lives plus some are even passed on to their kids.

Right or wrong, I see the medical marijuana people as being selfish in believing their rights outweigh all the negatives. I don’t buy that argument that 99.9999999% have to assume the consequences and be the bleeding hearts for the perceived 0.0000001% even it that perceived were true. Maybe the recent 30% increase is Autism was due to the increased legalization. People don’t seem to have a problem if it’s caused by a recreational drug, just if it’s caused by those evil pharmacy companies. We should try using that thing that’s between their ears.  Why aren't all those moms that protested the pharmacy companies out there protesting the pot houses?  Maybe because it's not cool or politically correct?  People need to do what's right not what's cool.

Another issue is what it does to your hormonal balance.  The same people who want to outlaw BPA because it disrupts hormones don't have a problems with marijuana which much worse and disrupts hormones to the point of causing male boobs.  If BPA is affecting the unborn due to hormone disruption just think of what marijuana is doing but again it's cool to protest those evil companies that produce plastics but it's not cool to protest pot houses.  Click here for what Jerry Brown says about marijuanna.

There are a lot of doctors who make their money by telling people what they want to hear.  I consider Dr. Gupta on CNN to be one of them.  Some polls even show doctors think it should be legalized.  Doctor's don't have time to sit around reading studies all day like I've been doing for a long time.  I've gone a few rounds with regard to a lot of issues that doctors have told me that I pointed out were wrong.  I've probably even got one of those "difficult patient" secret marks in my medical records like that episode of Seinfeld.  I'll bet most have read few if any studies on marijuana let alone the negative ones and I doubt very much that they teach marijuana courses in medical school and I doubt if they are even aware or scholarly or read the studies in the issues I raised above.  Doctors were doing Camel and Lucky Strike cigarette commercials in the '60's.  I still have my saliva glands along with no other after affects after stage III neck cancer because I was one of those difficult patients and disagreed with every single doctor on radiation treatment.  It’s alarming to see people act like zombies and consider anything that a doctor says to be written in stone.  There are even doctors selling OxyContin  prescriptions at Starbucks for god's sake!

The whole issue reminds me of the days when they claimed there were no problems with tobacco despite more and more evidence.  There's even evidence that marijuana might even be a bigger carcinogen than tobacco in addition to all the other problems I mentioned above.  I was also in the minority back when everyone thought tobacco was cool.  ‘Medical’ my butt. I read the abstracts on things like this every day. It's about as medical as tobacco and alcohol. Remember Granny on 'The Beverly Hillbillies' that had to have her moonshine for her 'arthritis'?  Who picks up the tab for those $500/month schizophrenia meds due to the increased schizophrenia?  Try the taxpayers.  And let's send more jobs to India because of the eight point decrease in American IQ.  Who pays the lifetime disability from the lifetime birth defects and increased traffic accidents?  Too many people don’t think.

There are other natural options for pain such as resveratrol:

Resveratrol inhibits glycine receptor-mediated ion currents - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(4):576-80 - "These results indicate that resveratrol regulates glycine receptor channel activity and that resveratrol-mediated regulation of glycine receptor channel activity is one of several cellular action mechanisms of resveratrol for pain regulation" - Note:  Resveratrol for pain relief?  Sounds like it’s a much better choice than destroying your health (and society) and getting stoned with Mary Jane plus destroying your health just increases pain in the long run plus resveratrol has anti-aging properties.  500 pot shops in L.A.?  Do that many people really have a medical condition?  I researched it some more and here’s a good article on it.  See:
  • Chronic Pain and Resveratrol: The Pleasure of Relief - Psychology Today, 2/6/12 - "resveratrol, a compound found in these foods, may be beneficial as a treatment for acute and chronic pain conditions ... resveratrol, a natural product found in the aforementioned foods, might be effective in the local treatment of post-surgical pain. They reasoned that activators of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may represent a reasonable treatment option, because AMPK activators inhibit two important pathways involved in the sensitization of peripheral pain receptors ... resveratrol profoundly inhibited ERK and mTOR signaling in sensory neurons in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion. Further, interleukin-6 (IL-6) is felt to play a role in pain; again, resveratrol had an impact, potently inhibiting IL-6-mediated signaling to ERK in sensory neurons, blocking the perception of pain. And, resveratrol administered at the time of incision completely blocked the development of persistent pain sensitization, preventing the transition to a chronic pain state" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • 11 ‘Fitness Foods’ to Help You Get in Shape Faster - ABC News, 4/4/14 - "Scientists found that the cherry juice had a significant effect on pain reduction. In addition, strength loss averaged 22 percent in the placebo group compared to just 4 percent in the cherry group" - Do we really need 500 pot shops in L.A. that does the same thing as cherry juice?

News & Research:

  • Marijuana associated with three-fold risk of death from hypertension - Science Daily, 8/9/17
  • Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Depression, Suicidality - Medscape, 7/31/17  - "among monozygotic twins, those who used cannabis were more than 100 times more likely to meet criteria for MDD and report suicidal ideation than their genetically identical twin who had never used cannabis or who had used it less frequently"
  • Muted stress response linked to long-term cannabis use - Science Daily, 7/31/17 - "The findings are consistent with a growing body of literature that indicates chronic cannabis use is associated with dulled adrenal and emotional reactivity ... the release of cortisol typically serves an adaptive purpose, allowing an individual to mobilize energy stores and respond appropriately to threats in the environment ... Thus, an inability to mount a proper hormonal response to stress could also have detrimental effects that could potentially be harmful to the individual"
  • Pattern of marijuana use during adolescence may impact psychosocial outcomes in adulthood - Science Daily, 7/25/17
  • Cannabis Use Directly Linked to Psychosis Relapse - Medscape, 7/24/17
  • Marijuana and vulnerability to psychosis - Science Daily, 7/5/17 - "Going from an occasional user of marijuana to a weekly or daily user increases an adolescent's risk of having recurrent psychotic-like experiences by 159%"
  • Recreational cannabis, used often, increases risk of gum disease - Science Daily, 5/29/17
  • Cannabis use in adolescence linked to schizophrenia - Science Daily, 4/26/17 - "young people with a genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia -- those who have psychiatric disorders in their families -- should bear in mind that they're playing with fire if they smoke pot during adolescence ... Researchers exposed mouse models with a genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia -- the mutant DISC-1 gene -- to THC, the psychoactive compound in cannabis. During a time period similar to that of human adolescence, the susceptible mice were found to be at a far higher risk for lasting brain defects associated with the onset of schizophrenia"
  • Marijuana use associated with increased risk of stroke, heart failure - Science Daily, 3/9/17 - "marijuana use was independently associated with a 26 percent increase in the risk of stroke and a 10 percent increase in the risk of developing heart failure"
  • Pot May Restrict Blood Flow to Brain: Study - WebMD, 12/30/16 - "Brain scans of nearly 1,000 past and present marijuana users revealed abnormally low blood flow throughout their brains, compared with a smaller control group of 92 people who'd never used pot ... The differences were astonishing ... Virtually every area of the brain we measured was lower in blood flow and activity in the marijuana smokers than in the healthy group ... Blood flow was lowest in the hippocampus of marijuana users, which Amen found most troubling ... The hippocampus is the gateway to memory, to get memories into long-term storage"
  • Brain Blood Flow Abnormally Low in Marijuana Smokers - Medscape, 12/9/16 - "Using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in marijuana users and healthy nonusers, researchers found abnormally low blood flow in multiple brain regions in marijuana users, particularly in areas known to be affected by Alzheimer's pathology, and this "reliably" distinguished marijuana users from nonusers ... This work suggests that marijuana use has damaging influences in the brain — particularly regions important in memory and learning and known to be affected by Alzheimer's"
  • Marijuana use may be linked to temporarily weakened heart muscle - heart.org, 11/13/16 - "marijuana users were almost twice as likely to develop stress cardiomyopathy compared to non-users, even after taking other cardiovascular risk factors into consideration ... Stress cardiomyopathy is a sudden, usually temporary, weakening of the heart muscle that reduces the heart’s ability to pump, leading to chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness and sometimes fainting"
  • Cannabis excess linked to bone disease, fractures - Science Daily, 10/12/16 - "Our research has shown that heavy users of cannabis have quite a large reduction in bone density compared with non-users and there is a real concern that this may put them at increased risk of developing osteoporosis and fractures later in life"
  • Early marijuana use associated with abnormal brain function, lower IQ - Science Daily, 10/5/16 - "The study found no evidence that marijuana use improved depressive symptoms ... those participants who used marijuana from a young age had highly abnormal brain function in areas related to visuo-spatial processing, memory, self-referential activity and reward processing. The study found that early marijuana use was also associated with lower IQ scores"
  • Cannabis reduces creativity, but user generally not aware - Science Daily, 10/4/16 - "Regular users of cannabis are less aware of their own mistakes, and they are not good at creative thinking ... The research also indicated clear long-term effects: cannabis disrupts the activity of dopamine in the brain. With chronic users a significant reduction was seen in the frequency of spontaneous eye blinking, an indication of a reduction in dopamine production"
  • Pot Use Linked to Relapse in Psychosis Patients - WebMD, 9/28/16 - "the risk that patients would relapse was 13 percent higher when they used pot than when they didn't. And the odds appeared to go up when the patients used more pot"
  • Arizona’s governor asked voters to fact-check whether pot is safer than alcohol. So we did - Washington Post, 9/8/16
  • Scientists Prove Stoned Rats Really Don’t Care About Much - Daily Caller, 8/24/16 - "Researchers from the University of British Columbia found that giving THC, the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, to rats made them “cognitively lazy,”"
  • Marijuana Tied to Persistent Subclinical Psychotic Symptoms in Teens - Medscape, 8/15/16 - "for each year the teens engaged in weekly marijuana use, their level of subsequent subclinical psychotic symptoms rose by 21%. The increase was greatest for paranoia (133%) and hallucinations (92%)"
  • Marijuana use dampens brain's response to reward over time, study finds - Science Daily, 7/6/16 - "for people who've been using marijuana, that rush just isn't as big -- and gets smaller over time ... something that would be rewarding to most people was no longer rewarding to them, suggesting but not proving that their reward system has been 'hijacked' by the drug, and that they need the drug to feel reward -- or that their emotional response has been dampened ... the more marijuana use a volunteer reported, the smaller the response in their nucleus accumbens over time ... long-term marijuana use dampens a person's emotional response -- something scientists call anhedonia"
  • Colorado prosecutor: Marijuana-related murders are skyrocketing - American Thinker, 6/1/16 - "Regular readers will know that Colorado has seen a massive increase in crime since it legalized pot. The numbers just keep getting worse ... Now a prosecutor in the state has gone on the record with his concerns. Arapahoe County district attorney George Brauchler provides some disturbing statistics: 10 of the last 15 murders in his jurisdiction were connected to marijuana ... Similar trends were observed in Utah, where "officials say the number of fatal car wrecks in Utah in which drivers tested positive for marijuana has more than doubled in the last three years.""
  • Marijuana use in College Linked to Poor Health Years Later - Medscape, 5/18/16 - "Overall, students with minimal or no marijuana use during the first six years of the study had significantly better health outcomes by their late 20s than those who used marijuana chronically or increased their use in the latter part of the study's first six years. Even students who reported low marijuana use had worse health outcomes than those who never used marijuana"
  • Driving while high on marijuana causing spike in fatal accidents - today.com, 5/10/16 - "A new report by the American Auto Association (AAA) has found that the percentage of drivers who are high on pot during fatal accidents in Washington State more than doubled between 2013 and 2014"
  • Cannabis, Psychosis, and Mortality: A Cohort Study of 50,373 Swedish Men - Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Apr 22 - "Subjects with a baseline history of heavy cannabis use had a significantly higher risk of death (hazard ratio=1.4"
  • Study: Heavy Pot Users Face As Many Midlife Troubles As Those Dependent on Alcohol - CNS News, 3/19/16 - "Researchers found that regular cannabis smokers “ended up in a lower social class than their parents, with lower-paying, less skilled and less prestigious jobs than those who were not regular cannabis smokers." ... These regular and persistent users also experienced more financial, work-related and relationship difficulties, which worsened as the number of years of regular cannabis use progressed ... Regular long-term users also had more antisocial behaviors at work, such as stealing money or lying to get a job, and experienced more relationship problems, such as intimate partner violence and controlling abuse ... Our data indicate that persistent cannabis users constitute a burden on families, communities, and national social-welfare systems"
  • Heavy cannabis use associated with reduced dopamine release in brain - Science Daily, 4/14/16 - "Using positron emission tomography (PET) to track a radiolabelled molecule that binds to dopamine receptors in the brain, the scientists measured dopamine release in the striatum and its subregions, as well as in several brain regions outside the striatum, including the thalamus, midbrain, and globus pallidus. The cannabis users in this study stayed in the hospital for a week of abstinence to ensure that the PET scans were not measuring the acute effects of the drug ... Compared with the controls, the cannabis users had significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum, including subregions involved in associative and sensorimotor learning, and in the globus pallidus ... the bottom line is that long-term, heavy cannabis use may impair the dopaminergic system, which could have a variety of negative effects on learning and behavior"
  • Cannabis use in pregnancy linked to low birthweight and intensive care - Science Daily, 4/5/16 - "recent research has pointed to links between the drug and an increased risk of road traffic accidents, psychosis, HIV, hepatitis, infective endocarditis and TB. Less is known, however, about its possible effects on fetal growth and development ... Analysis of the pooled data showed that mums- to-be who used cannabis were 36% more likely to have anemia than women who didn't use the drug ... Infants exposed to cannabis in the womb were 77% more likely to be under weight at birth and twice as likely to require intensive care as those whose mums had not used cannabis during their pregnancy"
  • Heavy, persistent pot use linked to economic, social problems at midlife - Science Daily, 3/23/16 - "A research study that followed children from birth up to age 38 has found that people who smoked cannabis four or more days of the week over many years ended up in a lower social class than their parents, with lower-paying, less skilled and less prestigious jobs than those who were not regular cannabis smokers. These regular and persistent users also experienced more financial, work-related and relationship difficulties, which worsened as the number of years of regular cannabis use progressed"
  • Alaska legalizes pot, crime explodes in Anchorage - American Thinker, 3/18/16 - "for the first six months of 2015, the number of violent crimes in Anchorage (the only city reporting for Alaska) increased 34% compared to the same period in 2014. Murders were up 167%, and aggravated assaults increased 32% versus the first six months of 2014 ... The increase in violent crimes that occurred at the same time pot was legalized is striking. Between 2006 and 2014, the number of violent crimes was stable. Once marijuana legalization took place in early 2015, the crime rate went up dramatically"
  • February data now in: Crime continues to explode in the legal pot metropolis of Denver - American Thinker, 3/18/16 - "In the first two months of 2016, total reported offenses using the NIBRS definitions are up a further 10.5% over this time last year. Crimes against persons have increased 14.1%, property crimes are up 13.8%, and crimes against society are up 18.4% compared to the same time frame in 2015 ... For comparison, in January and February of 2013 – the last year for these two months before marijuana legalization – there were just 6,791 crimes in the city. During January and February of 2016, there were 9,985, a 47% increase over the same period from 2013"
  • NIH: Nearly 6 Million Americans Suffer From ‘Marijuana Use Disorder’ - CNS News, 3/11/16 - "Nearly six million Americans - or 2.5 percent of adults in the U.S. - suffer from “marijuana use disorder” ... the 6.3 percent of the study participants who smoked pot an average of 274 days per year had “lifetime diagnoses” of marijuana use disorder, which “was associated with other substance use disorders, affective disorders, anxiety, and personality disorders.” ... To be diagnosed with the disorder, individuals must meet at least two of 11 symptoms [listed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders] that assess craving, withdrawal, lack of control, and negative effects on personal and professional responsibilities ... mental disabilities “persist even after remission.”"
  • Crime continuing to rise in Denver in the legal pot era - American Thinker, 3/12/16 - "The latest data shows that reported offenses during January 2016 increased a further 4.5% from the same month in 2015. This continues a consistent trend seen since the state's marijuana legalization process started in mid-2013 ... During 2015, total reported crime increased 4.1% over 2014, with the number of murders up 74%, aggravated assaults up 14%, forcible sexual offenses up 8%, and non-forcible sex offenses up 39% ... In 2012, the year before the legalization framework was brought into force, there were 44,338 total reported crimes in Denver. Last year, this number hit 63,816, an increase of nearly 20,000 crimes per year – 44% higher than in the pre-legal pot era ... what we do know is that the number of crimes in Denver skyrocketed started at the same time the legalized marijuana policy was implemented, and this empirical evidence, combined with what science tells us about the harmful psychological effects of marijuana use, is, while not conclusive, strongly suggestive that the social fabric is starting to unravel in the Mile-High City due to pot legalization"
  • Cannabis in First-Episode Psychosis Linked to Poor Outcomes - Medscape, 3/8/16 - "Cannabis use by patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with significantly worse clinical outcomes over time"
  • Marijuana Use May Lead to Abuse of Other Substances - NBC News, 2/21/16 - "Based on national surveys three years apart, researchers found that adults who reported using pot in the first survey were two to nine times more likely to have a substance abuse problem by the time of the second survey ... These risks should be considered not only by patients and doctors, but also by policymakers in states where marijuana may be up for legalization for recreational or medical use"
  • Marijuana smokers 5 times more likely to develop an alcohol problem - Science Daily, 2/17/16 - "The researchers analyzed data from 27,461 adults enrolled in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions who first used marijuana at a time when they had no lifetime history of alcohol use disorders. The population was assessed at two time points. Adults who had used marijuana at the first assessment and again over the following three years (23 percent) were five times more likely to develop an alcohol use problem, compared with those who had not used marijuana (5 percent). Adult problem drinkers who did not use cannabis were significantly more likely to be in recovery from alcohol use disorders three years later"
  • Pot Smokers Susceptible to Other Addictions - WebMD, 2/17/16 - "Two-thirds of marijuana users had some form of substance use disorder three years later compared to less than 20 percent of those who didn't use marijuana in the previous year"
  • Starting age of marijuana use may have long-term effects on brain development - Science Daily, 2/10/16 - "participants who began using marijuana at the age of 16 or younger demonstrated brain variations that indicate arrested brain development in the prefrontal cortex, the part of the brain responsible for judgment, reasoning and complex thinking. Individuals who started using marijuana after age 16 showed the opposite effect and demonstrated signs of accelerated brain aging ... These three indexes indicate that when participants began using marijuana before age 16, the extent of brain alteration was directly proportionate to the number of weekly marijuana use in years and grams consumed"
  • Long-term marijuana use associated with worse verbal memory in middle age - Science Daily, 2/1/16 - "Past exposure to marijuana was associated with worse verbal memory but does not appear to affect other domains of cognitive function. For every five years of past exposure, lower verbal memory corresponded to an average of 1 of 2 participants remembering one word fewer from a list of 15 words"
  • High-Potency Cannabis Linked to Brain Damage, Experts Warn - Medscape, 12/15/15 - "users of cannabis with a high delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content and daily users experienced a significant increase in mean diffusivity, a measure of white matter integrity, in the corpus callosum. Notably, the changes were seen both in individuals with and without psychosis"
  • Cannabis increases the noise in your brain - Science Daily, 12/3/15 - "Several studies have demonstrated that the primary active constituent of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), induces transient psychosis-like effects in healthy subjects similar to those observed in schizophrenia ... A new study, published in the journal Biological Psychiatry, reports that ∆9-THC increases random neural activity, termed neural noise, in the brains of healthy human subjects. The findings suggest that increased neural noise may play a role in the psychosis-like effects of cannabis ... This interesting study suggests a commonality between the effects on the brain of the major active ingredient in marijuana and symptoms of schizophrenia ... Not only does this finding aid our understanding of the processes underlying psychosis, it underscores an important concern in the debate surrounding medical and legalized access to marijuana"
  • RA: No 'Sound Evidence' to Support Use of Cannabinoids - Medscape, 11/10/15 - "In view of the considerable limitations of the studies examined in this review, including small sample sizes, short duration, only modest efficacy and a high rate of mild to moderate adverse effects, it is not currently possible to recommend this category of treatments as therapy for patients with rheumatic diseases"
  • Relationship between marijuana and other illicit drug use and depression/suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults - Int Psychogeriatr. 2015 Nov 6 - "major depressive episode (MDE) ... Compared to non-users of any illicit drug, the odds of past-year MDE among those who used marijuana only, other illicit drugs only, and marijuana and other illicit drugs were 1.54 (95% CI = 1.17-2.03), 2.75 (95% CI = 1.75-4.33), and 2.12 (95% CI = 1.45-3.09), respectively. Those who used marijuana and other drugs also had higher odds (2.44, 95% CI = 1.58-3.77) of suicidal thoughts than non-users of any illicit drug" - Note:  People take it to get happy but when the short term effect wears off it actually makes them sad. When are people going to wake up to that?
  • Marijuana Use, Disorders Double in US Adults - Medscape, 10/23/15 - "marijuana use places individuals at risk for vehicle crashes, emergency department visits, psychiatric symptoms, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, and use of other drugs, note the authors in reference to other published studies ... Furthermore, marijuana use disorders are linked to substantial comorbidity and disability"
  • Medical Marijuana: Where's the Evidence? - Medscape, 7/6/15 - "Reviewing the medical literature on medical marijuana, the two papers come to similar conclusions — that some evidence supports the use of marijuana for nausea and vomiting related to chemotherapy, specific pain syndromes, and spasticity from multiple sclerosis. But for most other indications such as hepatitis C, Crohn's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Tourette's syndrome, they found that the evidence supporting its use is of poor quality"
  • Cannabis Harms Brain, Imaging Shows - Medscape, 6/8/15 - "The heavy, long-term use of cannabis is associated with negative changes in parts of the brain not previously implicated ... the investigators showed that heavy chronic cannabis use is associated with lower dopamine release in the associative striatum and the sensory motor striatum, regions involved in cognition ... An exploratory analysis showed a significant association between lower dopamine release capacity in the associative striatum and decreased cognitive measures in probabilistic category learning and working memory tasks"
  • Cannabis Smoking Common, Affects Cognition in MS - Medscape, 5/28/15 - "From 40% to 70% of patients with MS have some impairment in information processing speed, working memory, visual-spatial memory, and/or executive function. Dr Feinstein's own research shows that smoking marijuana can make those deficits worse ... if they start smoking cannabis, the numbers go up; it aggravates preexisting cognitive deficits ... One of his studies showed that persons who had smoked marijuana were about 50% slower on a single-digit test than nonsmokers"
  • Smoking marijuana may cause early puberty and stunts growth in boys - Science Daily, 5/18/15 - "Levels of puberty-related hormones such as testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH) were increased in the marijuana smokers. In contrast, growth hormone levels were decreased in this group. It was also found that non-smoking boys were on average 4 kg heavier and 4.6 inches taller by the age of 20 than the marijuana smokers ... marijuana smokers have significantly higher levels of cortisol than non-smokers ... marijuana use may provoke a stress response that stimulates onset of puberty but suppresses growth rate"
  • The Great Pot Experiment - Time, 5/14/15 - "So she mated her rats, but only after she had waited a month to make sure the drug was no longer in their system. She raised the offspring, along with another group of rats that shared the same life experiences except for the THC ... The rats with drug-using parents pushed the lever more than twice as much. They wanted the heroin more ... This data tells us we are passing on more things that happen during our lifetimes to our kids and grandkids ... She is also continuing to study the behavior of rats whose only exposure to marijuana’s active ingredients came through the DNA passed on to them from their parents or grandparents. That research suggests that THC may have epigenetic effects, which have been found in other drugs like cocaine and heroin, changing the way genes express themselves in the brains of offspring"
  • Cannabis Use Linked to Memory Dysfunction - Medscape, 5/7/15 - "Heavy cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, with reduced activity in brain regions linked to memory processing, and attention, and performance, new research shows ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) performed during the task revealed that there was reduced activity in the lateral and medial temporal lobe, along with other brain regions ... the deficits found bear similarities with alterations observed in psychiatric and neurologic conditions and also with age-related cognitive decline"
  • The dark side of cannabis: Panic attacks, nausea - Science Daily, 5/5/15 - "smoking weed -- can cause acute and chronic harms. These include panic attacks, impaired coordination of movement, and nausea, as Eva Hoch and colleagues show in a topical review article in Deutsches Ärzteblatt International"
  • How Cannabis Causes Paranoia - Medscape, 5/1/15 - "THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia"
  • Common cholesterol drug stimulates the same receptors as marijuana - Science Daily, 4/1/15 - "If you want the benefits of medical marijuana without the "unwanted side effects" of cannabis, new research should leave you on a high note ... fenofibrate, also known by the brand name Tricor®, may benefit a wide range of health issues, such as pain, appetite stimulation, nausea, as well as immune and various psychiatric and neurological conditions. This suggests that fenofibrate may be the starting point for a new class of cannabis-like drugs to treat these types of conditions ... It may be difficult to persuade people in Colorado, Washington, and the District of Columbia that there are people who want the beneficial effects of marijuana without actually getting high ... but there are people who do not want to get stoned just to get the relief that marijuana brings. This new work suggests that possibility"
  • Colorado Marijuana Study Finds Legal Weed Contains Potent THC Levels - NBC News.com, 3/23/15 - "After analyzing more than 600 samples of bud provided by certified growers and sellers, LaFrate said he detected little medical value and lots of contamination ... The 600-plus weed samples generally carried little or no cannabidiol, or CBD — the compound that makes medical marijuana "medical." The average CBD amount: 0.1 percent ... It's disturbing to me because there are people out there who think they're giving their kids Charlotte's Web. And you could be giving them no CBD — or even worse, you could be giving them a THC-rich product which might actually increase seizures ... Three decades of cross-breeding pot strains — done to meet a demand for stronger weed — generally elevated THC and decreased CBD in many marijuana varieties ... just like other industries, now you have a big marijuana industry determined to hide these findings from the public. Where is their outcry?"
  • Teen cannabis users have poor long-term memory in adulthood - Science Daily, 3/12/15 - "Teens who were heavy marijuana users -- smoking it daily for about three years -- had an abnormally shaped hippocampus and performed poorly on long-term memory tasks ... The brain abnormalities and memory problems were observed during the individuals' early twenties, two years after they stopped smoking marijuana ... Young adults who abused cannabis as teens performed about 18 percent worse on long-term memory tests than young adults who never abused cannabis ... The longer the individuals were chronically using marijuana, the more abnormal the shape of their hippocampus"
  • An alternative to medical marijuana for pain? - Science Daily, 3/4/15 - "when animals were given Δ9-THC, they developed complete tolerance to the pain-suppressing effects of THC and with repeated dosing"
  • 2/28/15 Dr. Samadi: Study claiming pot is safer is nonsense, medical marijuana "biggest scam" - YouTube
  • Marijuana: The allergen you never knew existed - Science Daily, 3/3/15 - "Included in the article is information on case reports regarding episodes of allergic reactions, hypersensitivity and even anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction) to cannabis in its various forms. Among other things, cannabis pollen or cannabis smoke exposure has resulted in symptoms of allergic rhinitis (hay fever) conjunctivitis and asthma. Allergic asthma triggered by seasonal and occupational exposure to cannabis has also been reported" - Note:  It seems like every week another negative study comes out on marijuana.
  • Acute use of cannabinoids depresses motor neuron activity - Science Daily, 2/23/15 - "cannabinoids hinder the transmission of information between neurons." A consequence of this fact is, for example, that muscular weakness is produced as "the motor neuron, that is the one that gives the order to the muscle to contract, sees its activity reduced which, as a consequence, would weaken the strength of the muscle contraction," as doctor Moreno points out. All of this could lead to problems speaking, breathing and even swallowing food"
  • More Support for Causal Link Between Marijuana and Stroke - Medscape, 2/20/15 - "81% of cases exhibited a temporal relationship with cannabis use and the index event; the patient sustained a stroke within 24 hours of using cannabis ... In 70%, the evaluation was sufficiently comprehensive to exclude other sources for stroke"
  • 'Skunk-like cannabis' increases risk of psychosis, study suggests - BBC News, 2/16/15 - "Scientists found the risk of psychosis was five times higher for those who use it every day compared with non-users ... Psychosis refers to delusions or hallucinations that can be present in certain psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder ... the availability of skunk-like cannabis was becoming more widespread ... In London, it's very difficult to find anything else ... Someone suffering from psychosis would often be "extremely paranoid and become very suspicious" about the people around them" - [Time Magazine]
  • Marijuana use is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents - Science Daily, 3/23/25 - "43 percent of children with urine drug screens positive for marijuana actually had test results consistent with narcolepsy or abnormal REM sleep patterns" - Note:  It's just one more item to add to the long list of problems such as male breasts and other hormonal problems, DNA damage that's passed on to the unborn child, lower IQ and other brain damage, increased schizophrenia, increased depression, lack of motivation, increased anxiety, increase bipolar disorder, etc.  As far as medical use for pain, I'm seen more promising studies for cherry juice.
  • Significant link between cannabis use and onset of mania symptoms - Science Daily, 2/10/15 - "Mania can also make people feel angry and aggressive with extreme symptoms including becoming delusional or hearing voices ... cannabis use significantly worsened mania symptoms in people who had previously been diagnosed with bipolar disorder ... Cannabis is the most prevalent drug used by the under-18s and during this critical period of development services should be especially aware of and responsive to the problems that cannabis use can cause for adolescent populations"
  • Year One of Colorado's Marijuana Law - RealClearPolitics, 2/8/15 - "The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reported brain abnormalities in chronic users, while (beyond the 2012 study documenting an 8 point IQ loss from heavy use), the Journal of Neuroscience reported that even occasional use produces alterations in the brain ... The British medical journal, The Lancet, showed that the effects of marijuana include increased odds of school drop-out and suicidal propensity, while a 20-year review of research in the journal Addiction confirmed marijuana’s “gateway” effect to other illicit drugs, as well as its link to schizophrenia. Finally, in June the Obama administration’s top addiction scientist, Dr. Nora Volkow, summarized the adverse consequences in the New England Journal of Medicine, emphasizing not only the risk of psychosis, but marijuana’s destructive effects on memory, cognition, and learning"
  • Saying No to Cannabis Improves Bipolar Outcomes - Medscape, 1/19/15 - "quitting cannabis during acute treatment for manic/mixed bipolar episodes and refraining from use during a maintenance treatment period significantly improved function and lowered the risk for recurrence ... Our results also showed that patients who continued to use cannabis had worse outcomes than those who either stopped using cannabis or had never used it ... patients that continued using cannabis had more suicide attempts than those that quit or those who never used cannabis"
  • Cannabis-Related ED Visits Rise in States With Legalized Use - Medscape, 12/16/14 - "emergency department (ED) visits with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition (ICD-9) coding for cannabis use grew 50.4% between 2007 and 2012 in Colorado ― one of the first two states to legalize both medical and recreational use of marijuana"
  • Marijuana Smoke as Damaging to Arteries as Tobacco Smoke - Medscape, 12/3/14 - "When the rats were exposed to marijuana smoke in a laboratory for half an hour, arterial flow-mediated dilation dropped by 50% to 70%"
  • Marijuana Decriminalization Spreads; Public Health Prepares - Medscape, 12/3/14 - "'We've worked for decades to fight against the scourge of cigarette smoking. Why are we embracing this substance?' Yet we don't have the same type of evidence we have with smoking. We never studied it this closely because it's an illegal product ... emerging research already shows the potential short- and long-term effects of marijuana use on public health, with young adults a high-risk group. Young adults who use marijuana heavily as teens are more likely to become addicted, have altered brain development and perform poorly in school ... Then there's the maternal and child health issues. We've heard anecdotally that pregnant women are using marijuana products, so what is the effect on the fetus? ... A total of 4.5 percent of fatal crashes in the first six months of 1994 involved a driver using marijuana, compared with 10 percent of crashes in the last six months of 2011"
  • Marijuana Poisoning Incidents Spike in Washington State - Medscape, 11/19/14 - "Marijuana exposures are defined as any situation where an adult or child suffers an adverse reaction to the consumption of marijuana, such as increased heart rate, paranoia or stomach illness ... Some 210 marijuana exposures were reported in the first nine months of the year, more than in all of 2013 ... Washington legalized recreational marijuana use in 2012, with the first retail stores opening in 2014 ... most exposures among young children are accidental, with parents reporting their children found and ate marijuana-laced items such as cookies and candy bars ... comes amid a lack of clear data about how cannabis affects young brains and bodies"
  • Secondhand Pot Smoke Can Give Your Heart an Unwelcome Buzz - WebMD, 11/17/14 - "That whiff of pot that drifts your way at a rock concert or outdoor event could damage your heart and blood vessels as much as secondhand cigarette smoke does ... Blood vessel function in laboratory rats dropped by 70 percent after a half-hour of exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke ... Reduced blood vessel function can increase a person's risk of developing hardened arteries"
  • Regular marijuana habit changes your brain, study says - CNN.com, 11/11/14 - "new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... compared to nonusers, people who smoked marijuana starting as early as age 14 have less brain volume, or gray matter, in the orbitofrontal cortex. That's the area in the front of your brain that helps you make decisions" - [Web MD] [Science Daily] [Medscape]
  • This Is Your Brain on Drugs - NYTimes.com, 10/29/14 - "What she and fellow researchers at Harvard and Northwestern University found within those scans surprised them. Even in the seven participants who smoked only once or twice a week, there was evidence of structural differences in two significant regions of the brain. The more the subjects smoked, the greater the differences ... All smokers showed abnormalities in the shape, density and volume of the nucleus accumbens, which “is at the core of motivation, the core of pleasure and pain, and every decision that you make,”"
  • Smoking cannabis doesn't make you more creative, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/8/14 - "Smokers who ingested a low dose of THC, or none at all (they were given a placebo), performed best in the thinking tasks that the test candidates had to carry out. A high dose of THC was actually shown to have a negative effect on the ability to quickly come up with as many solutions as possible to a given problem"
  • Cannabis as Addictive as Heroin, New Study Finds - breitbard.com, 10/7/14 - "The paper by Professor Wayne Hall, who is an advisor for the World Health Organisation, says that Cannabis use can have numerous harmful side-effects, including mental illness, impaired driving ability and lower educational attainment"
  • What Are the Effects of Cannabis Use During Pregnancy? - Medscape, 9/12/14 - "Cannabis compounds have a small molecular size and are lipophilic in nature which allows for the drug to readily cross the placental barrier ... In children about 6 years old, lower verbal reasoning scores were associated with heavy cannabis use during the first trimester, and impairment of short-term memory and lower composite and quantitative scores on intelligence testing were associated with heavy cannabis use during the second trimester.[2,9] Evaluation of children born to women who used cannabis throughout pregnancy found significantly higher depressive symptoms and attention problems at 10 years of age and delinquency at 14 years of age compared with those who were not exposed" - Note:  Plus what about the permanent DNA damage to the female egg and/or male sperm even if they quit prior to pregnancy?  Err!!  I've seen young people tout reports from college professors telling them what they want to hear.  I'm convinced you can find what you want to hear on the Internet on any subject if you search long enough.  Things you do in like can affect the offspring several generations later.  Search "generations" on my website.
  • Teen Marijuana Use Linked to Long-term Adverse Outcomes - Medscape, 9/9/14 - "Compared with nonusers, daily users of cannabis before age 17 are more than 60% less likely to complete high school or obtain a university degree, 7 times more likely to attempt suicide, have an 18 times' greater chance of cannabis dependence, and are 8 times as likely to use other illicit drugs down the road ... The associations are "biologically plausible" ... as some research suggests that heavy cannabis use in adolescence can have an effect on central nervous system development. For example, in relation to education, it's feasible that this could decrease cognitive function"
  • Regular marijuana use bad for teens' brains - Science Daily, 8/9/14 - "Frequent marijuana use can have a significant negative effect on the brains of teenagers and young adults, including cognitive decline, poor attention and memory, and decreased IQ ... regular cannabis use, which we consider once a week, is not safe and may result in addiction and neurocognitive damage ... People who have become addicted to marijuana can lose an average of six IQ points by adulthood ... Brain imaging studies of regular marijuana users have shown significant changes in their brain structure ... frequent use of high potency THC can increase risk of acute and future problems with depression, anxiety and psychosis ... marijuana use among teenagers was higher in counties where larger numbers of people voted to legalize medical marijuana in 2004. In addition, teens in counties with more votes for the legalization of medical marijuana perceived marijuana use to be less risky"
  • Study Sheds Light on Cannabis and Paranoia - WebMD, 7/17/14 - "After analyzing the results, the scientists found that THC increased the likelihood of paranoia happening ... Half the participants had paranoid thoughts with THC, compared to just 30% with placebo ... The paranoia declined as the drug left the bloodstream ... The drug also caused a range of other psychological effects: anxiety, worry, lowered mood, negative thoughts about the self, various changes in perception (such as sounds being louder than normal and colors brighter), thoughts echoing, altered perception of time, and poorer short-term memory ... They say it's likely that paranoia creeps in because THC increases negative feelings, and the perceptual changes lead to the rise in paranoia"
  • The Devastation That’s Really Happening in Colorado - The Weekly Standard, 7/10/14 - "There is no indication that Obama is really paying attention to what he has done in Colorado. During our recent visit to the state we found no one is measuring this “experiment” at all. Even more troubling, if this were truly an experiment, the impact of this “laboratory” is on human subjects, many of whom—Colorado adolescents, communities in neighboring states—were hardly approached for “informed consent.” Nor did citizens we talked to vote for what they see happening to them now"
  • In Past Decade, Traffic Fatalities Involving Marijuana Have Spiked - dailysignal.com, 6/12/14 - "Traffic fatalities involving marijuana have tripled in the U.S. over the last decade, increasing from 4 percent in 1999 to 12 percent in 2010 ... Currently, one of nine drivers involved in fatal crashes would test positive for marijuana"
  • Marijuana Tied to Addiction, Long-term Cognitive Dysfunction - Medscape, 6/11/14 - "Marijuana use is associated with substantial adverse events, including addiction and long-term cognitive dysfunction, new research suggests ... as policy shifts toward legalization of marijuana, it is reasonable and probably prudent to hypothesize that its use will increase and that, by extension, so will the number of persons for whom there will be negative health consequences ... They also have less functional connectivity in areas that include processing habits and routines and inhibitory control, as well as a significant decline in IQ ... Regular use of cannabis has also been associated with an increased risk for depression and anxiety; it has been linked to psychoses (especially in those with a preexisting genetic vulnerability), and it exacerbates the illness in patients with schizophrenia ... many of the growing problems could be because the THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) content of marijuana increased from approximately 3% in the 1980s to 12% in 2012"
  • Pot Use Might Be Linked to Abnormal Sperm - WebMD, 6/5/14 - "Although cigarettes and alcohol had little effect, the study revealed that sperm size and shape was negatively affected if the men were younger than age 30 and had smoked marijuana within three months"
  • Research on marijuana's negative health effects summarized in report - Science Daily, 6/5/14 - "older studies are based on the effects of marijuana containing lower THC -- the main psychoactive chemical found in marijuana -- stronger adverse health effects may occur with today's more potent marijuana ... The reviewers consider areas in which little research has been conducted. This includes possible health consequences of secondhand marijuana smoke; the long-term impact of prenatal marijuana exposure; the therapeutic potential of the individual chemicals found in the marijuana plant; and effects of marijuana legalization policies on public health"
  • Marijuana use associated with impaired sleep quality - Science Daily, 6/2/14 - "any history of cannabis use was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting difficulty falling asleep, struggling to maintain sleep, experiencing non-restorative sleep, and feeling daytime sleepiness. The strongest association was found in adults who started marijuana use before age 15; they were about twice as likely to have severe problems falling asleep (odds ratio = 2.28), experiencing non-restorative sleep (OR = 2.25) and feeling overly sleepy during the day (OR = 1.99) ... The most surprising finding was that there was a strong relationship with age of first use, no matter how often people were currently using marijuana. People who started using early were more likely to have sleep problems as an adult"
  • Poor sleep equal to binge drinking, marijuana use in predicting academic problems - Science Daily, 6/2/14 - "sleep problems have about the same impact on grade point average (GPA) as binge drinking and marijuana use. Its negative impact on academic success is more pronounced for freshmen. Among first-year students, poor sleep -- but not binge drinking, marijuana use or learning disabilities diagnosis -- independently predicted dropping or withdrawing from a course"
  • After 5 Months of Sales, Colorado Sees the Downside of a Legal High - nytimes.com, 5/31/14 - "There is the Denver man who, hours after buying a package of marijuana-infused Karma Kandy from one of Colorado’s new recreational marijuana shops, began raving about the end of the world and then pulled a handgun from the family safe and killed his wife, the authorities say. Some hospital officials say they are treating growing numbers of children and adults sickened by potent doses of edible marijuana. Sheriffs in neighboring states complain about stoned drivers streaming out of Colorado and through their towns"
  • Marijuana use involved in more fatal accidents since commercialization of medical marijuana - Science Daily, 5/15/14 - "fatal motor vehicle crashes in Colorado involving at least one driver who tested positive for marijuana accounted for 4.5 percent in the first six months of 1994; this percentage increased to 10 percent in the last six months of 2011. They reported that Colorado underwent a significant increase in the proportion of drivers in a fatal motor vehicle crash who were marijuana-positive after the commercialization of medical marijuana in the middle of 2009. The increase in Colorado was significantly greater compared to the 34 non-medical marijuana states from mid-2009 to 2011"
  • Teen Marijuana Use Linked to Earlier Psychosis Onset - Medscape, 5/14/14 - "youth who used cannabis when aged 15 to 17 years experienced first episode psychosis (FEP) an average of almost 4 years earlier than their counterparts with FEP who did not use cannabis"
  • Cannabis Abuse Rife in College Kids With Mental Illness - Medscape, 5/8/14 - "Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), a 100-point scale with higher scores indicating higher functioning ... Overall, 25% of the study sample was on leave from college. However, the investigators found that those with cannabis use disorder were significantly more likely to be on leave compared with their counterparts who did not have a cannabis use disorder ― 46% vs 13% ... In addition, those with cannabis use disorders had a statistically significant lower GAF compared with those without cannabis use disorders ― 56 vs 66 (P < .01). The investigators also found that 47% of students diagnosed with bipolar disorder also had a cannabis use disorder ... My concern with the move to legalize marijuana is that it may encourage more people to experiment with marijuana, and that may be dangerous for them"
  • Improving air quality in NYC would boost children's future earnings by increasing IQ - Science Daily, 5/8/14 - "polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), a family of chemicals created by burning fossil fuels ... Gains in IQ related to the hypothetical 25% reduction in PAH translated to increased lifetime earnings of $215 million ... The researchers previously reported that children born to nonsmoking mothers exposed to higher levels of airborne PAH during pregnancy had IQs three points lower at age 5 than children whose mothers had lower PAH exposures. The IQ reduction was modest but in the range of that seen with low-level lead ... IQ affects academic performance and earnings" - Note:  Sometimes it just seems like priorities are out of sync.  On the one hand you've got marijuana showing an eight point decrease in IQ and the media seems to be supporting it and that's nearly three times what pollution causes and it's difficult to get rid of cars, heating, manufacturing, etc.  If a three point decline in IQ results in $215 million decrease in lifetime earnings, then an eight point decrease in IQ would interpolate to a $573 million decrease in lifetime earnings assuming it was linear.
  • The Marijuana Debate: Time for Reefer Sanity - heritage.org, 4/27/14
  • Colorado 4th-Graders Caught Selling Pot at School - Fox News Insider, 4/24/14 - "the students involved, three 10-year-old boys and a 10-year-old girl ... The marijuana appears to have been legally purchased by adults ... Pot is celebrated and glorified and promoted. Kids are watching adults and this is the way adults are behaving ... a man ate marijuana-infused candy before shooting and killing his wife last week ... Her death followed that of a Wyoming college student who ate well over the recommended dose of a marijuana-laced cookie and jumped to his death from a hotel balcony in Denver"
  • Marijuana Use Linked to Rising Cardiovascular Events - Medscape, 4/23/14 - "Their concerns stem from a review of reports made to the French Addictovigilance Network between 2006 and 2010 indicating that almost 2% of reported events concerned cardiovascular complications. What's more, the average age of the people with CV complications was 34, with the number of cardiovascular complications tripling over the study period ... Vasospasm, which has been linked with cannabis use in experimental settings, "could be a possible common origin for many of the cases we describe in the present study."" - [WebMD] [Science Daily] - Note:  The studies on the detrimental effects of cigarettes started coming out in 1964 yet people ignored them for years.  Look at all the cigarettes in the movie 'Argo' which was loosely based on an event in 1979.  Even in the 80's newspapers had a huge bias in favor of smoking in public and workplaces even from the New York Times who I remember writing too.  I was so mad at them I requested a price quote for a full page ad countering their argument.  Full page cigarette ads were common at the time.  Smoking in the workplace was even still acceptable until the early '90's.
  • Marijuana Use Linked to Rising Cardiovascular Events - Medscape, 4/23/14 - "Their concerns stem from a review of reports made to the French Addictovigilance Network between 2006 and 2010 indicating that almost 2% of reported events concerned cardiovascular complications. What's more, the average age of the people with CV complications was 34, with the number of cardiovascular complications tripling over the study period ... Vasospasm, which has been linked with cannabis use in experimental settings, "could be a possible common origin for many of the cases we describe in the present study.""
  • Articles: The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Violent Crime - americanthinker.com, 4/23/14 - "the plots show apparent reversals or slowing of declining violent crime rates in each MML state at the same time as, or soon after, legalization"
  • More Smoking Equals Lower Quality of Life - Medscape, 4/22/14 - "Smoking cigarettes, even for a short time, is associated with a significantly lower quality of life (QoL)" - Note:  Mark my word people are going to see the same thing with marijuana and it will take 50 years for that conclusion also.
  • Student Jumps to Death at Denver Hotel After Eating Too Much Pot - CNS News, 4/17/14 - "Levy Thamba Pongi, 19, consumed more than one cookie purchased by a friend — even though a store clerk told the friend to cut each cookie into six pieces and to eat just one piece at a time ... Pongi began shaking, screaming and throwing things around a hotel room before he jumped over a fourth-floor railing into the hotel lobby March 11. An autopsy report listed marijuana intoxication as a "significant contributing factor" in the death ... when Pongi felt nothing after about 30 minutes, he ate an entire cookie ... The marijuana concentration in Pongi's blood was 7.2 nanograms of active THC per milliliter of blood. Colorado law says juries can assume someone is driving while impaired if their blood contains more than 5 nanograms per milliliter"
  • Brain changes associated with casual marijuana use in young adults: More 'joints' equal more damage - Science Daily, 4/15/14 - "The team of scientists compared the size, shape, and density of the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala -- a brain region that plays a central role in emotion -- in 20 marijuana users and 20 non-users. Each marijuana user was asked to estimate their drug consumption over a three-month period, including the number of days they smoked and the amount of the drug consumed each day. The scientists found that the more the marijuana users reported consuming, the greater the abnormalities in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. The shape and density of both of these regions also differed between marijuana users and non-users ... This study raises a strong challenge to the idea that casual marijuana use isn't associated with bad consequences"
  • Marijuana Re-Shapes Brains of Users, Study Claims - NBC News, 4/15/14 - "Anytime you find there’s a relationship to the amount of marijuana consumed, and you see differences of core brain regions involved in processing of rewards, the making of decisions, the ability to assess emotions, that is a serious issue ... When we saw that there was a consistent abnormality and that it was directly related to the amount of cannabis one took in, it gave us some significant pause ... Seeing these differences raises a cautionary flag that we need to do more research"
  • Fifty Years On, Half As Many Americans Now Smoke, but… - Medscape, 4/14/14 - "The 1964 report heralded the beginning of a dramatic change in the United States — from smoking being accepted as a social norm to becoming a social stigma" - Note:  I see the same thing happening with marijuana.  When I was a kid, grown-ups thought I was a nut for criticizing tobacco.  Sometimes it seems inconceivable that people ignore what is so obvious.
  • Amanda Bynes' Mother Blames Daughter's Erratic Behavior on Marijuana - breitbart.com, 4/10/14 - "Amanda has no mental illness whatsoever. She has never been diagnosed as schizophrenic or bipolar ... Her mother said Bynes "is very sorry for all the hurtful tweets, statements and actions that occurred while she was under the influence of marijuana.""
  • Blog: Pot Legalization and Crime Rates in Denver, Colorado - americanthinker.com, 4/9/14 - "Over the first two months of 2014, “simple assaults” in Denver are up an astonishing 70% over the same timeframe in 2013. The crime of “intimidation” is up 86%, and all “crimes against persons” have increased 32% compared to 2013. But the real changes are evident in the “all other offenses” category. Here we see that “disorderly conduct/disturbing the peace” has increased 1,144% (from only 18 offenses in 2013 to 224 in 2014), “family offences/nonviolent” are up 97%, “liquor law/drunkeness” is up 1,150%, “violation of a restraining/court order” increased 87%, “criminal trespassing” is up 339%, and the “all other offenses” subcategory have increased 400%"
  • BPA and related chemicals: Human safety thresholds for endocrine disrupting chemicals may be inaccurate - Science Daily, 4/8/14 - "Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds that interfere with animal hormone (or endocrine) systems in various ways. Sometimes, this can lead to developmental problems, including those of the reproductive system. Over the past four decades, human sperm counts have been markedly decreasing and the rate of testicular cancer rates has risen. Meanwhile, the occurance of undescended testicles and abnormally developed male urethras are also thought to be increasing. Evidence suggests that these male reproductive disorders are at least partially due to the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals which are becoming increasingly concentrated and prevalent in the environment and that these EDs act on the testis during fetal development" - Note how the media has been sensationalizing the endocrine disruption of BPA but doesn't seem to want to irritate their readers with the endocrine disruption caused my marijuana which is probably even worse.  I'm against both.
  • 4/6/14 Crimes, deaths linked to Colorado marijuana legalization, black-market still exists - YouTube - 3:58
  • 457 Marijuana Shops File Tax Renewals in L.A. - breitbart.com, 4/3/14 - "the city remains last nationally in job growth, after bankrupt Detroit" - Does anyone believe all those people have medical conditions even if you're one of those that believe it works for medical conditions (which I don't).
  • Medical Marijuana: What the Research Shows - Medscape, 4/2/14 - "Few of these studies, though, followed a controlled clinical trial. This is considered the best type of trial because it compares a drug to another drug, or to a placebo (a "fake" treatment) ... Also, most of the studies had fewer than 200 patients. So doubt continues about marijuana’s value and who it really can help" - Note:  Like I said about doctors getting paid to tell you what you want to here and this wasn't even a medical doctor and don't forget there were medical doctors advertising for cigarette companies in the '60's.
  • Medicinal Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids in Older Adults - Medscape, 3/28/14 - "There are two oral cannabis-based drugs available in tablet form (dronabinol and nabilone) and one in-mouth spray form (nabiximols). Dronabinol and nabilone (tetrahydrocannabinol) are registered in some countries, including the United States ... The lack of information about the safety and efficacy of cannabis and cannabinoids in older adults warrants further research, especially adequately powered randomized controlled trials to assess the evidence for, and the risk–benefit ratio of, medical cannabis in older individuals. Until then, individual evaluation of the pros and cons is necessary before cannabis can be prescribed to older adults"
  • No Evidence to Support Medical Marijuana Use for Arthritis Pain - Medscape, 3/4/14 - "Smoking of cannabis cannot be recommended medically for a number of reasons, they say. THC content is variable, bioavailability is inconsistent, and dangers range from the immediate effects on cognition, psychomotor function, cardiovascular function, and mood to chronic effects such as drug dependence and potential cancer risk ... Oral administration is even more erratic, and much of the ingested marijuana is eliminated by first-pass metabolism in the liver ... the lack of the most elementary requirements for responsible drug administration must call into question any use of herbal cannabis for rheumatic pain treatment at this time"
  • Prevalence of high school seniors' marijuana use is expected to increase with legalization - Science Daily, 2/27/14 - "Assuming that onset use would occur before or during the senior year, the study's results suggest that this would constitute a 5.6% absolute increase in lifetime prevalence in this age group, rising from 45.6% to 51.2%,"
  • Increase in Child Pot Exposures Linked to Decriminalization - Medscape, 2/11/14 - "the call rate for unintentional marijuana exposure among children younger than 9 years increased by 30.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.5% - 38.5%) in states where laws decriminalizing marijuana use had been passed. The rate was unchanged in states with no marijuana legislation"
  • Fatal Car Crashes Involving Pot Use Have Tripled in U.S., Study Finds - WebMD, 2/4/14 - "Currently, one of nine drivers involved in fatal crashes would test positive for marijuana ... Marijuana proved to be the main drug involved in the increase, contributing to 12 percent of 2010 crashes compared with 4 percent in 1999 ... If a driver is under the influence of alcohol, their risk of a fatal crash is 13 times higher than the risk of the driver who is not under the influence of alcohol ... if the driver is under the influence of both alcohol and marijuana, their risk increases to 24 times that of a sober person"
  • Cannabis during pregnancy endangers fetal brain development - Science Daily, 1/27/14 - "consuming Cannabis during pregnancy clearly results in defective development of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that orchestrates higher cognitive functions and drives memory formation. In particular, THC negatively impacts if and how the structural platform and conduit for communication between nerve cells, the synapses and axons, will develop and function. Researchers also identified Stathmin-2 as a key protein target for THC action, and its loss is characterized as a reason for erroneous nerve growth ... these developmental deficits may evoke life-long modifications to the brain function of those affected ... relatively subtle damage can significantly increase the risk of delayed neuropsychiatric diseases ... Even if THC only would cause small changes its effect may well be sufficient to sensitize the brain to later stressors or diseases to provoke neuropsychiatric illnesses in those affected in the future"
  • Teen pot use could hurt brain and memory, new research suggests - NBC News.com, 12/16/13 - "Research released Monday in the journal Schizophrenia Bulletin showed the brains of young heavy marijuana users were altered in so-called sub-cortical regions — primitive structures that are part of the memory and reasoning circuits. And young people with such alterations performed worse on memory tests than non-using controls, despite the fact that the heavy users had not indulged for more than two years, on average, before the testing"
  • Smoking Pot May Double Risk for Stillbirth - Medscape, 12/9/13 - "Odds of stillbirth were nearly 2 times higher among women whose fetuses tested positive for any drug metabolite (case patients, 7.0%; control patients, 3.7%; odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16 - 3.27). The most common illicit drug was cannabis, which increased the odds of stillbirth by more than twice as much (case patients, 3.9%; control patients, 1.7%; OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.13 - 4.81) ... There was a dose–response relationship between maternal smoking and stillbirth, with odds of stillbirth increasing with higher maternal cotinine levels. Exposure to secondhand smoke (lack of maternal smoking history along with cotinine levels less than 3 ng/mL) increased the odds of stillbirth by twice as much (case patients, 5.0%; control patients, 2.7%; OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.24 - 3.41)"
  • Amino acid offers potential therapeutic alternative in psychiatric disorders - Science Daily, 10/8/13 - "drug discovery is at a near standstill for treating psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and common forms of autism ... According to Professor Berk, there is now an incontrovertible evidence base that these disorders share inflammation and oxidative stress as part of their disease physiology ... The amino acid, NAC, seems to have multiple effects on all these pathways: it boosts glutathione, which is the body’s major antioxidant defence; has anti-inflammatory properties; enhances levels of nerve cell growth proteins and the growth of new neurons; and reduces cell death pathways. It also appears to reduce dysfunction of mitochondria ... NAC reduces the core symptoms of schizophrenia including negative symptoms such as improved apathy, social interaction and motivation. It also appears to reduce depression in people with bipolar disorder and at this meeting ... there is intriguing evidence that it reduces cravings in a number of addictions including cocaine, cannabis and cigarette smoking" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Perception of marijuana as a 'safe drug' is scientifically inaccurate, finds review of teen brain studies - Science Daily, 8/27/13 - "The researchers reviewed over 120 studies that looked at different aspects of the relationship between cannabis and the adolescent brain, including the biology of the brain, chemical reaction that occurs in the brain when the drug is used, the influence of genetics and environmental factors, in addition to studies into the "gateway drug" phenomenon ... Data from epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown an association between cannabis use and subsequent addiction to heavy drugs and psychosis (i.e. schizophrenia) ... When the first exposure occurs in younger versus older adolescents, the impact of cannabis seems to be worse in regard to many outcomes such as mental health, education attainment, delinquency and ability to conform to adult role ... Individuals who will develop cannabis dependence generally report a temperament characterized by negative affect, aggressivity and impulsivity, from an early age. Some of these traits are often exacerbated with years of cannabis use, which suggests that users become trapped in a vicious cycle of self-medication, which in turn becomes a dependence"
  • Marijuana use in adolescence may cause permanent brain abnormalities, mouse study suggests - Science Daily, 7/24/13 - "Previous research has shown that children who started using marijuana before the age of 16 are at greater risk of permanent cognitive deficits, and have a significantly higher incidence of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia ... We wanted to identify the biological underpinnings and determine whether there is a real, permanent health risk to marijuana use ... "In the adult mice exposed to marijuana ingredients in adolescence, we found that cortical oscillations were grossly altered, and they exhibited impaired cognitive abilities ... We also found impaired cognitive behavioral performance in those mice. The striking finding is that, even though the mice were exposed to very low drug doses, and only for a brief period during adolescence, their brain abnormalities persisted into adulthood"
  • Long-Term Cannabis Use May Blunt the Brain's Motivation System - Science Daily, 7/1/13 - "Long-term cannabis users tend to produce less dopamine, a chemical in the brain linked to motivation ... The researchers used PET brain imaging to look at dopamine production in the striatum of 19 regular cannabis users and 19 non-users of matching age and sex ... The lowest dopamine levels were seen in users who meet diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence"
  • Chronic Marijuana Use Linked to Hypopituitarism - Medscape, 5/3/13 - "Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, can suppress multiple hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis pathways, with subsequent effects on multiple organ systems ... Any gland can be affected, including the whole pituitary ... several states have passed laws legalizing marijuana. Use will probably go up, and people won't be so afraid to come forward … We'll probably start finding all kinds of cases like this ... described the symptoms of the 37-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with dyspnea on exertion, increased fatigue, and loss of libido. On physical exam, he was found to have bibasilar rales, gynecomastia, and atrophied testes ... He had low levels of luteinizing hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone, and testosterone (0.2 mIU/mL, 1.8 mIU/mL, and 22 ng/dL, respectively), high prolactin (53.3 ng/mL), and ACTH of 6 pg/mL. He also had abnormal thyroid-function tests, normal growth-hormone levels, and low insulinlike growth factor-1"
  • Marijuana Not Medicine, Addiction Experts Say - Medscape, 4/29/13 - "Illinois should not legalize cannabis, and physicians should not write recommendations for patients to use marijuana for medical purposes, because it is a dangerous, addictive drug and is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), a group of addiction medicine physicians said during a press conference here ... For every disease and disorder for which marijuana has been recommended, there is a better, FDA-approved medication ... There are probably very few patients for whom marijuana is the only drug that makes them feel better. Is it worth the risk to our society to give one person an intoxicant to help them feel better — while not getting better — and put our entire society at risk by making that intoxicant available to all?"
  • Cannabis Use in Teens Linked to Irreparable Drop in IQ - Medscape, 4/26/13 - "Cannabis users who start smoking the drug as adolescents show an irreparable decline in IQ, with more persistent use linked to a greater decline ... Case-control studies show that light to heavy cannabis use can cause enduring neuropsychological problems, but they are retrospective and there are no tests of premorbid functioning ... Between the ages of 8 and 38 years, individuals who began using cannabis in adolescence and continued to use it for years thereafter lost an average of 8 IQ points. In contrast, IQ among individuals who never used cannabis actually rose slightly ... Cessation of cannabis did not restore IQ among teen-onset cannabis users"
  • Cannabis Use Linked to More Severe Schizophrenia - Medscape, 4/10/13 - "Cannabis use not only increases the risk for schizophrenia but new research suggests it is associated with more severe schizophrenic psychosis ... "Those who had schizophrenia after cannabis use had many more hospital days...more than a third [38%] of those who had cannabis use had more than 2 years in total in hospital stay" compared with 21% of nonusers, said Dr. Allebeck. The median number of hospital days was 547 for cannabis users and 184 for nonusers ... After controlling for socioeconomic factors, personality disorders, IQ, and other factors associated with cannabis use, "there was more than 3-fold increased risk of such long hospital days among cannabis users," ... The number of readmissions is also about 3-fold increased of those with many readmissions after the first admission for schizophrenia"
  • Mental illness linked to heavy cannabis use - Science Daily, 4/2/13 - "People with mental illnesses are more than seven times more likely to use cannabis weekly compared to people without a mental illness ... researchers analyzed data from face-to-face interviews with over 43,000 respondents over the age of 18 from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions"
  • Even a Little Pot Use Ups College Dropout Risk - WebMD, 3/22/13 - "students with high levels of marijuana use (more than 17 days a month) were twice as likely as those with minimal use (less than a day a month) to have an enrollment gap while in college. But even students who used pot less often, in the range of three to 12 days a month, were more likely to experience enrollment gaps"
  • Smoking marijuana associated with higher stroke risk in young adults - Science Daily, 2/6/13 - "In a New Zealand study, ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients were 2.3 times more likely to have cannabis, also known as marijuana, detected in urine tests as other age and sex matched patients ... People need to think twice about using cannabis," because it can affect brain development and result in emphysema, heart attack and now stroke"
  • Consider Cannabis as Cause of Stroke in Younger Patients - Medscape, 1/22/13 - "because most cannabis smokers are young, patients under 45 years of age presenting with symptoms of stroke should be asked about cannabis use and have their urine tested for cannabinoids ... The authors note that 59 case reports of cannabis-related stroke (mean age, 33 years) have been described. Most cases were in men, with a male-to-female ratio of 4.9:1 ... although only these few cases of stroke associated with cannabis use have been documented, this is probably just the tip of the iceberg ... Nobody is looking for it, and if you don't look you won't find it. Neurologists are not thinking about cannabis as a possible cause of stroke so they don't ask patients about it ... cannabis appears to be associated with multifocal intracerebral stenosis, which can cause a stroke ... The stenoses are caused by shrinkage of the blood vessels and can occur in several different areas of the brain. It appears that cannabis may cause the arteries to constrict"
  • Regular Marijuana Use by Teens Continues to Be a Concern - Science Daily, 12/19/12 - "Only 41.7 percent of eighth graders see occasional use of marijuana as harmful; 66.9 percent see regular use as harmful. Both rates are at the lowest since the survey began tracking risk perception for this age group in 1991. As teens get older, their perception of risk diminishes. Only 20.6 percent of 12th graders see occasional use as harmful (the lowest since 1983), and 44.1 percent see regular use as harmful, the lowest since 1979 ... A 38-year NIH-funded study, published this year in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, showed that people who used cannabis heavily in their teens and continued through adulthood showed a significant drop in IQ between the ages of 13 and 38 -- an average of eight points for those who met criteria for cannabis dependence. Those who used marijuana heavily before age 18 (when the brain is still developing) showed impaired mental abilities even after they quit taking the drug ... The risk of addiction goes from about 1 in 11 overall to about 1 in 6 for those who start using in their teens, and even higher among daily smokers"
  • Recreational Marijuana: Are There Health Effects? - WebMD, 12/11/12 - "Smoking marijuana produces a nearly threefold increase of inhaled tar compared with tobacco, according to some studies ... For cigarette smokers who also smoke marijuana, there may be an additive effect ... Some research shows that marijuana smoke has up to 70% more cancer-causing substances than tobacco smoke ... Long-term, heavy use of marijuana can lead to impaired thinking skills and memory problems ... Numerous studies have linked marijuana use with schizophrenia. In this brain disorder, people may think they hear voices and that others are controlling their minds and thoughts"
  • More Evidence Cannabis Use Linked to Schizophrenia - Medscape, 11/8/12 - "Cannabis use causes a temporary cognitive breakdown in nonpsychotic individuals, leading to long-term psychosis ... patients with no history of cannabis use had more normal activation patterns during rest, which is actually a good thing in that this mode has been shown to be important for learning in healthy individuals"
  • Marijuana use implicated in pregnancy problems - Science Daily, 9/12/12 - "abnormal biological signaling by endocannabinoid lipid molecules produced by the body disrupts the movement of early embryonic cells important to a healthy pregnancy, in particular trophoblast cells that form the placenta. Abnormal placental function is common in preeclampsia -- a medical condition of unknown cause that is a danger to mother and child"
  • Marijuana use may increase risk of testicular cancer - Science Daily, 9/10/12 - "looked at the self-reported history of recreational drug use in 163 young men diagnosed with testicular cancer and compared it with that of 292 healthy men of the same age and race/ethnicity ... men with a history of using marijuana were twice as likely to have subtypes of testicular cancer called non-seminoma and mixed germ cell tumors. These tumors usually occur in younger men and carry a somewhat worse prognosis than the seminoma subtype. The study's findings confirm those from two previous reports in CANCER on a potential link between marijuana use and testicular cancer"
  • Adolescent pot use leaves lasting mental deficits; Developing brain susceptible to lasting damage from exposure to marijuana - Science Daily, 8/27/12 - "The persistent, dependent use of marijuana before age 18 has been shown to cause lasting harm to a person's intelligence, attention and memory ... individuals who started using cannabis in adolescence and used it for years afterward showed an average decline in IQ of 8 points when their age 13 and age 38 IQ tests were compared. Quitting pot did not appear to reverse the loss"
  • High potency and synthetic marijuana pose real dangers in first weeks of pregnancy - Science Daily, 8/15/12 - "Marijuana is up to 20 times more potent than it was 40 years ago and most pregnant women who use the drug are totally unaware that it could harm their unborn child before they even know they are pregnant ... Given that marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug by pregnant women worldwide -- one study estimates the rate is as high as 20 per cent -- this is a major issue ... marijuana exposure during pregnancy has been associated with anencephaly, a non-sustaining life condition where a large part of the skull or brain is absent, neurobehavioral deficiencies, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities and memory impairment in toddlers and 10 year olds, as well as neuropsychiatric conditions, including depression, aggression and anxiety, in teens"
  • Marijuana use prior to pregnancy doubles risk of premature birth - Science Daily, 7/17/12 - "Preterm or premature birth -- at least three weeks before a baby's due date -- can result in serious and life-threatening health problems for the baby, and an increased risk of health problems in later life, such as heart disease and diabetes ... A study of more than 3000 pregnant women in Adelaide, Australia and Auckland, New Zealand has detailed the most common risk factors for preterm birth"
  • Effect of Long-term Cannabis Use on Axonal Fiber Connectivity - Medscape, 7/12/12 - "Our results suggest that long-term cannabis use is hazardous to white matter in the developing brain. Given the association between cannabis-related harms and age of onset of regular use, delaying use may minimize such harmful effects. Disturbed brain connectivity in cannabis users may underlie cognitive impairment and vulnerability to psychosis, depression and anxiety disorders (Lim et al., 2002), all of which are significant public health concerns. White matter alterations have been associated with various functional and clinical outcomes in schizophrenia, including illness, symptomatic and cognitive measures (Walterfang et al., 2011), with white matter pathology underlying faulty integration of cortical–cerebellar–thalamic–cortical circuits thought to play a primary role in the observed cognitive deficits (Wexler et al., 2009). Similar connectivity disturbances, particularly in the fimbria of the hippocampus and commissural fibres extending to the precuneus reported in this study, may underlie the memory impairment and other cognitive deficits that are observed in long-term heavy cannabis users"
  • Mothers' teen cannabinoid exposure may increase response of offspring to opiate drugs - Science Daily, 6/5/12 - "The rats with mothers who had adolescent exposure to WIN-55,212-2 were significantly more likely to opt for the morphine-paired chamber than those with mothers who abstained. The results suggest that these animals had an increased preference for opiate drugs ... We acknowledge that we are using rodent models, which may not fully translate to the human condition. Nevertheless, the results suggest that maternal drug use, even prior to pregnancy, can impact future offspring"
  • Dude, Where's My Baby? - The Daily, 6/4/12 - "A 5-week-old boy strapped in a car seat miraculously survived a fall from the roof of his mother’s 2000 Ford Focus when she wheeled away from a pot party early Saturday ... Officers found the baby about an hour later — in the middle of the street — after friends of Clouser and motorists driving by called 911"
  • Cannabis 'does not slow multiple sclerosis' progress - BBC News, 5/29/12
  • More Evidence Links Early Cannabis Use to Psychosis - Medscape, 5/17/12 - "The uniqueness of this study lies in the demonstration of an association between early cannabis use and subsequent schizophrenia-like symptoms that persisted into adulthood and that was not explained by early anxiety or depressive disorders, or exposure to other drug and cigarette use ... cannabis use before the age of 14 years "strongly predicted" schizotypal symptoms in adulthood, independent of early adolescent schizotypy, major depression, anxiety, other drug use, and cigarette use ... what is "truly noteworthy is that cannabis use may play a role in the formation of schizophrenia symptoms beyond psychotic symptoms, such as its characteristic oddness and negative symptoms of low motivation and low social drive.""
  • How cannabis use during adolescence affects brain regions associated with schizophrenia - Science Daily, 5/8/12 - "This is the first study to show that the combined effects of the COMT gene with adolescent cannabis use cause physical changes in the brain regions associated with schizophrenia. It demonstrates how genetic, developmental and environmental factors interact to modulate brain function in schizophrenia and supports previous behavioural research which has shown the COMT gene to influence the effects of adolescent cannabis use on schizophrenia-related behaviours"
  • Obstetric Complications, Cannabis Use Predict Early Psychosis - Medscape, 4/29/12 - "the most significant risk factor, she said, is cannabis"
  • How marijuana impairs memory - Science Daily, 3/1/12 - "A major downside of the medical use of marijuana is the drug's ill effects on working memory, the ability to transiently hold and process information for reasoning, comprehension and learning ... Marijuana's major psychoactive ingredient (THC) impairs memory independently of its direct effects on neurons. The side effects stem instead from the drug's action on astroglia, passive support cells long believed to play second fiddle to active neurons"
  • Smoking pot tied to slacking off at work - msnbc.com, 2/23/12 - "People who reported smoking in the past year generally reported less dedication to work than abstainers ... their work commitment continued to decline into adulthood, and remained significantly below that of never-smoker"
  • Marijuana users twice as likely to cause accident - USATODAY.com, 2/9/12
  • Effects of marijuana ingredients on brain functioning during visual stimuli evaluated - Science Daily, 1/3/12 - "Δ9-THC significantly increased the severity of psychotic symptoms compared with placebo ... CBD may also influence the effect of cannabis use on salience processing -- and hence psychotic symptoms -- by having an opposite effect"
  • Driving Stoned: Safer Than Driving Drunk? - ABC News, 12/2/11 - "traffic fatalities in those states fell nearly 9 percent after medical pot became legal" - Note:  First of all there is no way to tie the 9% drop in accidents to legalizing maryjane and second (just for beginners and just the tip of the iceberg, not counting many other issues) what about the retarded offspring do to DNA damage? So they might (and I emphasize “might”) have improved one problem but they’ve exasperated a multitude of other problems. Talk about warped logic.
  • Smoking Pot Shrinks the Brain - Medscape, 11/11/11 - "It is now accepted by most psychiatrists that smoking cannabis increases an individual's risk of psychosis, and more specifically schizophrenia ... People with a family history of schizophrenia are particularly vulnerable to the psychotomimetic effects of the drug, and are likely at particular elevated risk of developing schizophrenia if they use cannabis ... those participants who had used marijuana showed a reduction in their thalamic volume that was significant on the left side of the thalamus (F = 4.47; P = .04), and highly significant on the right (F = 7.66; P = .008). However, no loss of thalamic volume was noted in those who did not use marijuana during the 2-year period" - Duh!!!  It took all this time to figure out that maryjane shrinks the brain.  I figures that out 45 years ago from observing people that used it.  Yet people must think that American's don't have a small enough brain already so we should legalize it.
  • How cannabis causes 'cognitive chaos' in the brain - Science Daily, 10/25/11 - "While the effects of the drug on individual brain regions were subtle, the drug completely disrupted co-ordinated brain waves across the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, as though two sections of the orchestra were playing out of synch. Both these brain structures are essential for memory and decision-making and heavily implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia ... Marijuana abuse is common among sufferers of schizophrenia and recent studies have shown that the psychoactive ingredient of marijuana can induce some symptoms of schizophrenia in healthy volunteers"
  • Pot smoking may more than double crash risk - USA Today, 10/14/11
  • Smoking cannabis increases risk of depression in the case of genetic vulnerability, study finds - Science Daily, 10/10/11 - "Young people who are genetically vulnerable to depression should be extra careful about using cannabis: smoking cannabis leads to an increased risk of developing depressive symptoms ... Two-thirds of the population have the gene variant that makes one sensitive to depression ... Besides worse performances at school, the use of cannabis also increases the risk of developing schizophrenia and psychosis"
  • Marijuana use may double the risk of accidents for drivers, study finds - Science Daily, 10/6/11
  • New study proposes public health guidelines to reduce the harms from cannabis use - Science Daily, 9/22/11 - "Some of the harmful practices and patterns of use documented in the study include: ... using cannabis from a young age can be associated with a number of problems, including mental illness and dependence ... linked to a variety of health problems, including cognitive and memory performance, or risk for dependence ... there is sufficient scientific basis to recommend abstinence from cannabis use during pregnancy" - Note:  My biggest pet peeve about the people that want to legalize cannabis is the lifetime of problems to the unborn children it could be causing and possible even the offspring that generation.  Google "cannabis damage dna".  Like anything else with the Internet, I'm sure it will also show cannabis websites that tell people what they want to hear.
  • Feds: Pot has no medical purpose - MSNBC, 7/8/11 - "The federal government officially declared that marijuana has no accepted medical use and should remain classified as a dangerous and addictive drug. It will remain in the same class of drugs as heroin" - I never bought off on that "I need it for my medical condition" line.  Maybe I just heard it too many times as a kid when granny on the Beverly Hillbillies would say it referring the her moonshine.
  • Unhealthy lifestyle is associated with sexual dysfunction - Science Daily, 7/6/11 - "A new study published in The Journal of Sexual Medicine reveals that several unhealthy lifestyle factors, such as weight problems, physical inactivity, high alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, and hard drugs are associated with sexual dysfunctions in men. Additionally, an unhealthy lifestyle is more common in persons who are sexually inactive ... Among those who had a sexual partner, risk of experiencing sexual dysfunction was greater in men who lead unhealthy lives by 71% in those with substantially increased waist circumference and more than 800% in men using hard drugs. Women who used hashish had almost 3 times increased risk of anorgasmia (difficulties or inability to reach climax during sexual activity with a partner) compared to non-users"
  • Drug use involved in 25% of fatal crashes, study finds - USATODAY.com. 6/23/11 - "Among drivers who tested positive for drugs, 22% were positive for marijuana, 22% for stimulants and 9% for narcotics"
  • Cannabis Use in Early Adolescence Especially Neurotoxic - Medscape, 6/16/11 - "there were no differences in IQ, vocabulary, or block design results when comparing the early-onset, late-onset, and control groups. However, they note, "the early-onset, but not the late-onset, group performed poorly on selected executive tasks compared with controls. In addition, the early-onset group performed poorly on the Frontal Assessment Battery compared with both the late-onset and the control groups." ... The study also showed that the early-onset group had poor performance on the Stroop Test and perseverative responding as measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. These findings suggest that "exposure to cannabis in early adolescence may lead to lower flexibility." ... The authors note that it is unclear whether starting cannabis use at a later age affects cognition"
  • Chronic marijuana smoking affects brain chemistry, molecular imaging shows - Science Daily, 6/6/11 - "With this study, we were able to show for the first time that people who abuse cannabis have abnormalities of the cannabinoid receptors in the brain ... Results of the study show that receptor number was decreased about 20 percent in brains of cannabis smokers when compared to healthy control subjects with limited exposure to cannabis during their lifetime. These changes were found to have a correlation with the number of years subjects had smoked. Of the original 30 cannabis smokers, 14 of the subjects underwent a second PET scan after about a month of abstinence. There was a marked increase in receptor activity in those areas that had been decreased at the outset of the study, an indication that while chronic cannabis smoking causes downregulation of CB1 receptors, the damage is reversible with abstinence"
  • Cannabis use precedes the onset of psychotic symptoms in young people, study finds - Science Daily, 3/1/11
  • Marijuana Use Linked to Risk of Psychotic Symptoms - Science Daily, 3/1/11 - "Those participants who had no psychotic symptoms and had never tried marijuana when the study began and then started using marijuana had nearly double the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms in the future"
  • Cannabis use may worsen sexual dysfunction, rat study suggests - Science Daily, 2/22/11 - "While it was previously known that cannabis could affect certain receptors in the brain, it's now believed that these receptors also exist in the penis. Cannabis use may have an antagonizing effect on these receptors in the penis, making it more difficult for a man to achieve and maintain an erection"
  • Smoking pot may hasten onset of mental illness - MSNBC, 2/7/11 - "in the subjects who had been pot smokers, the psychotic symptoms began nearly 3 years earlier than in those who had not been marijuana users ... no one's been able to prove that smoking marijuana actually causes psychotic disorders like schizophrenia, but the new research adds to "growing evidence" that it does, at least in some people ... Why was there disagreement in the past over whether this effect really exists? The reasons lie in the way the individual studies might have been done ... One study found that compared to people who didn't use marijuana, people over 18 who did use it had twice the risk of mental illness, but kids under 15 had five times the risk" - Note:  Regarding the second to the last statement, people will find the study they wish to believe.
  • Cannabis compounds found to trigger unique immune cells which promote cancer growth - Science Daily, 11/24/10 - "research, published in the European Journal of Immunology, reveals why cannabis users are more susceptible to certain types of cancers and infections ... cannabinoids can trigger a massive number of MDSCs through activation of cannabinoid receptors. This research reveals, for the first time, that marijuana cannabinoids may suppress the immune system by activating these unique cells"
  • Early Cannabis Use May Contribute to Psychosis-Related Outcomes in Young Adults - Medscape, 5/7/10 - "twice as likely to develop a nonaffective psychosis, 4 times as likely to have high scores on the PDI, and 3 times as likely to develop hallucinations ... This study adds to the body of emerging literature identifying early cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia ... The concordance between this study and previous epidemiologic studies strengthens the argument that adolescent cannabis use is a risk factor for the development of psychosis ... The general perception that cannabis is a 'soft' drug may not be true. There is now evidence that cannabis may affect the adolescent brain[, permanently altering] its developmental trajectory"
  • Teen Marijuana Use Might Have Lasting Effects on Mood, Anxiety - US News and World Report - U.S. News, 12/31/09
  • Daily Pot Smoking May Hasten Onset of Psychosis - Science Daily, 12/20/09 - "The researchers analyzed data from 109 hospitalized patients who were experiencing their first psychotic episode. The results showed that patients who had a history of using marijuana, or cannabis, and increased to daily pot smoking experienced both psychotic and pre-psychotic symptoms at earlier ages"
  • Cannabis damages young brains more than originally thought, study finds - Science Daily, 12/17/09 - "The damaging effects of this illicit drug on young brains are worse than originally thought ... daily consumption of cannabis in teens can cause depression and anxiety, and have an irreversible long-term effect on the brain"
  • Teen Use of Marijuana Tied to Later Depression - Medscape, 12/8/09 - "Among subjects who had used cannabis more than 10 times, the odds ratio was 1.33, indicating a dose-dependent relationship ... A possible biological explanation for this association is that "receptors such as the cannabinoid receptors may act as moderators,""
  • What Proportion Of Psychotic Illness Is Due To Cannabis? - Science Daily, 9/29/09
  • Active Ingredients In Marijuana Found To Spread And Prolong Pain - Science Daily, 8/13/09 - ""endocannabinoids," which are made within the human body, can actually amplify and prolong pain rather than damping it down"
  • Marijuana Damages DNA And May Cause Cancer, New Test Reveals - Science Daily, 6/15/09 - "Using a highly sensitive new test, scientists in Europe are reporting "convincing evidence" that marijuana smoke damages the genetic material DNA in ways that could increase the risk of cancer"
  • Daily Consumption Of Cannabis Predisposes To Appearance Of Psychosis And Schizophrenia, Study Finds - Science Daily, 3/25/09 - "66% of the patients with psychosis who participated in the study and had a normal neurodevelopment admitted to have consumed cannabis daily or almost every day, whereas 43% of the participants with markers of an abnormal neurodevelopment (those already indicated: bad previous social and academic behaviour, a family history and a "clumsier" attitude when they carry out tasks of motor coordination and complex motor acts) were drug users too"
  • Marijuana Use Linked To Increased Risk Of Testicular Cancer - Science Daily, 2/9/09 - "being a marijuana smoker at the time of diagnosis was associated with a 70 percent increased risk of testicular cancer. The risk was particularly elevated (about twice that of those who never smoked marijuana) for those who used marijuana at least weekly and/or who had long-term exposure to the substance beginning in adolescence"
  • Marijuana testicular cancer link - BBC News, 2/9/09 - "being a regular marijuana user doubled the risk compared to those who never smoked it"
  • Marijuana Use Takes Toll On Adolescent Brain Function, Research Finds - Science Daily, 10/15/08 - "chronic, heavy marijuana use during adolescence – a critical period of ongoing brain development – is associated with poorer performance on thinking tasks, including slower psychomotor speed and poorer complex attention, verbal memory and planning ability"
  • Schizophrenia Linked To Dysfunction In Molecular Brain Pathway Activated By Marijuana - Science Daily, 7/7/08 - "The use of marijuana in individuals with schizophrenia appears to worsen this deficit in GABA synthesis"
  • Cannabis 'can harm foetal brain' - BBC News, 6/16/08 - "Smoking cannabis while pregnant could harm the developing foetal brain ... the backbones of higher cognitive functions - do not develop normally when endocannabinoid signalling is disturbed"
  • Marijuana Use May Shrink the Brain - WebMD, 6/2/08 - "the hippocampus, which is thought to regulate memory, was an average of 12% smaller among marijuana users, compared with people who didn't smoke pot. The amygdala, involved in emotion and memory, was an average of 7% smaller ... The study also suggests that long-term marijuana users were more likely to report symptoms associated with mental disorders"
  • Marijuana Users Have Increased apoC3, Triglycerides - Medscape, 5/19/08 - "Heavy, chronic use of marijuana causes increased levels of apolipoprotein C3 (apoC3), which in turn results in a major increase in triglyceride levels"
  • Take this Marijuana Message to Heart - WebMD, 5/13/08 - "the active chemical in marijuana, THC, causes the body to overproduce a protein called ApoC-111. ApoC-111 is linked to high triglycerides (blood fats) because of problems with the breakdown of blood fats in the body"
  • Teen Marijuana Use Linked to Later Illness - washingtonpost.com, 5/8/08 - "Teenagers who smoke marijuana put themselves at risk for future mental illness and higher rates of depression ... studies show links between marijuana use and risk of mental illness later in life, and that use could increase the risk by as much as 40 percent ... teenagers who smoke marijuana at least once a month are three times more likely to have suicidal thoughts than non-users"
  • Sex, Drugs, and Cancer? - WebMD, 3/11/08 - "Head and neck cancers that were positive for HPV 16 were associated with having more oral sex partners and smoking more marijuana ... Head and neck cancers that were negative for HPV 16 weren't linked to sex or marijuana. Instead, they were tied to smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol, and having poor oral hygiene"
  • Daily Cannabis Smoking Linked With Increased Steatosis Severity - Medscape, 3/5/08
  • Pot Use May Hamper Thinking in MS - WebMD, 2/13/08 - "Marijuana smokers had slower average reaction times on a test that challenged them to process information quickly. And they were more likely to report a history of psychiatric diagnoses, most of which were depression or anxiety diagnoses"
  • Marijuana Linked to Early Gum Disease - WebMD, 2/5/08 - "Compared with people who smoked no pot at all, heavy marijuana users were three times more likely to have at least one gum site with evidence of severe gum disease and 60% more likely to show evidence of mild gum disease"
  • Lung Cancer Risk Increases With Cannabis Use - oncologystat.com, 1/29/08 - "smoking a single joint is the same as smoking 20 cigarettes in terms of lung cancer risk ... cannabis smoke contains higher levels of carcinogens than cigarette smoke ... cannabis smokers are more likely to inhale more smoke deeply and hold it in their lungs longer, allowing for more carcinogens to be deposited in the lungs. Marijuana cigarettes do not usually have proper filters and are smoked to the tip, which also increases the amount of smoke inhaled ... smoking 1 joint daily for 10 years or 2 joints daily for 5 years increased the risk of lung cancer 5.7 times"
  • Marijuana Withdrawal As Bad As Withdrawal From Cigarettes - Science Daily, 1/25/08 - "overall withdrawal severity associated with marijuana alone and tobacco alone was of similar frequency and intensity. Sleep disturbance seemed to be more pronounced during marijuana abstinence, while some of the general mood effects (anxiety, anger) seemed to be greater during tobacco abstinence"
  • Marijuana Smokers Face Rapid Lung Destruction -- As Much As 20 Years Ahead Of Tobacco Smokers - Science Daily, 1/23/08 - "the mean age of marijuana-smoking patients with lung problems was 41, as opposed to the average age of 65 years for tobacco-smoking patients"
  • Pot Slows Cancer in Test Tube - WebMD, 12/26/07 - "The researchers are quick to point out that much more study is needed to find out whether these test-tube results apply to tumor growth in animals and in humans"
  • Marijuana Smoke Contains Higher Levels Of Certain Toxins Than Tobacco Smoke - Science Daily, 12/17/07 - "ammonia levels were 20 times higher in the marijuana smoke than in the tobacco smoke, while hydrogen cyanide, nitric oxide and certain aromatic amines occurred at levels 3-5 times higher in the marijuana smoke"
  • Study Shows Toxins in Marijuana Smoke - WebMD, 12/14/07 - "Ammonia levels were up to 20 times higher in marijuana smoke than in tobacco smoke. Levels of hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen-related chemicals were three to five times higher in marijuana smoke than in tobacco smoke"
  • Cannabis Smoking Contributes to Pulmonary Disease - Medscape, 12/13/07 - "Cannabis smoking was associated with an increased risk of wheeze, chest tightness, and cough ... Cannabis smokers had twice the risk of chronic bronchitis and a 70% increased risk of asthma diagnosed after age 16 years ... Cannabis and tobacco smoking were both associated with a reduction in the FEV1/FVC ratio ... An increased percentage of low density lung tissue was associated with cannabis smoking ... one joint was pathologically equivalent to 2.5 to 5 tobacco cigarettes"
  • Study: Marijuana may increase psychosis risk - USA Today, 7/26/07 - "even infrequent use could raise the small but real risk of this serious mental illness by 40% ... The scientists found a more disturbing outlook for "heavy users" of pot, those who used it daily or weekly: Their risk for psychosis jumped to a range of 50% to 200%"
  • Cannabis 'disrupts brain centre' - BBC News, 4/30/07 - "those who took THC showed reduced activity in an area of the brain called the inferior frontal cortex, which keeps inappropriate thoughts and behaviour, such as swearing and paranoia in check"
  • Twin Study Adds Fuel To Marijuana Debate - Psychiatric Times, 3/21/03 - "Findings from a new study of more than 300 sets of twins show that early use of marijuana, independent of genetic background and environment, is associated with later drug use and abuse"

Abstracts:

  • Association Between Use of Marijuana and Male Reproductive Hormones and Semen Quality - Medscape, 10/8/15 - "Regular marijuana smoking more than once per week was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval (CI): −48, −1) lower sperm concentration and a 29% (95% CI: −46, −1) lower total sperm count after adjustment for confounders. The combined use of marijuana more than once per week and other recreational drugs reduced the sperm concentration by 52% (95% CI: −68, −27) and total sperm count by 55%"
  • Cannabis use and quality of life of adolescents and young adults: findings from an Australian birth cohort - J Psychoactive Drugs. 2015 Apr-Jun;47(2):107-16 - "After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and for QOL pre-cannabis use, participants who used cannabis more frequently had a lower QOL at the 21-years follow-up. Frequent use of cannabis does not appear to enhance the user's QOL and appears to be associated with a reduced QOL into young adulthood"
  • Long-term effects of marijuana use on the brain - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 10 - "in 48 marijuana users and 62 age- and sex-matched nonusing controls. The results showed that compared with controls, marijuana users had significantly less bilateral orbitofrontal gyri volume, higher functional connectivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) network, and higher structural connectivity in tracts that innervate the OFC (forceps minor) as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA). Increased OFC functional connectivity in marijuana users was associated with earlier age of onset. Lastly, a quadratic trend was observed suggesting that the FA of the forceps minor tract initially increased following regular marijuana use but decreased with protracted regular use. This pattern may indicate differential effects of initial and chronic marijuana use that may reflect complex neuroadaptive processes in response to marijuana use"
  • Effects of cannabis on cognition in patients with MS: A psychometric and MRI study - Neurology. 2014 Apr 30 - "Patients with MS who smoke cannabis are more cognitively impaired than nonusers. Cannabis further compromises cerebral compensatory mechanisms, already faulty in MS"
  • Cannabis use is quantitatively associated with nucleus accumbens and amygdala abnormalities in young adult recreational users - J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 16;34(16):5529-38 - "Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, but little is known about its effects on the human brain, particularly on reward/aversion regions implicated in addiction, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. Animal studies show structural changes in brain regions such as the nucleus accumbens after exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, but less is known about cannabis use and brain morphometry in these regions in humans. We collected high-resolution MRI scans on young adult recreational marijuana users and nonusing controls and conducted three independent analyses of morphometry in these structures ... Gray matter density analyses revealed greater gray matter density in marijuana users than in control participants in the left nucleus accumbens extending to subcallosal cortex, hypothalamus, sublenticular extended amygdala, and left amygdala, even after controlling for age, sex, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking. Trend-level effects were observed for a volume increase in the left nucleus accumbens only. Significant shape differences were detected in the left nucleus accumbens and right amygdala. The left nucleus accumbens showed salient exposure-dependent alterations across all three measures and an altered multimodal relationship across measures in the marijuana group. These data suggest that marijuana exposure, even in young recreational users, is associated with exposure-dependent alterations of the neural matrix of core reward structures and is consistent with animal studies of changes in dendritic arborization"
  • Juvenile cannabinoid treatment induces frontostriatal gliogenesis in Lewis rats - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Jan 18 - "Cannabis abuse in adolescence is associated with a broad array of phenotypical consequences, including a higher risk for schizophrenia and other mental disturbances related to dopamine (DA) imbalances ... These results indicate that, in Lewis rats, juvenile cannabinoid exposure leads to alterations in frontostriatal gliogenesis, as well as select behavioral alterations time-locked to high DAergic metabolism, but not overt schizophrenia-related deficits"
  • Effects of cannabis and familial loading on subcortical brain volumes in first-episode schizophrenia - Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013 Nov;263 - "Patients fulfilling the criteria for cannabis abuse at admission showed an increased area of the CC2 segment compared to those who did not fulfill the criteria. Patients with a family history of schizophrenia combined with previous cannabis abuse showed lower volumes of the bilateral caudate nucleus compared to all other patients, implicating an interaction between the genetic background and cannabis abuse as environmental factor"
  • Marijuana use and risk of lung cancer: a 40-year cohort study - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jul 12 - "Cannabis (marijuana) smoke and tobacco smoke contain many of the same potent carcinogens, but a critical-yet unresolved-medical and public-health issue is whether cannabis smoking might facilitate the development of lung cancer ... military conscription in Sweden in 1969-1970. Participants were tracked until 2009 for incident lung cancer outcomes in nationwide linked medical registries ... such "heavy" cannabis smoking was significantly associated with more than a twofold risk (hazard ratio 2.12, 95 % CI 1.08-4.14) of developing lung cancer over the 40-year follow-up period, even after statistical adjustment for baseline tobacco use, alcohol use, respiratory conditions, and socioeconomic status"
  • Metabolic Effects of Chronic Cannabis Smoking - Diabetes Care. 2013 Mar 25 - "studied cannabis smokers (n = 30; women, 12; men, 18; 27 +/- 8 years) and control subjects (n = 30) ... Self-reported cannabis use was: 9.5 (2-38) years; joints/day: 6 (3-30) [median (range)] ... cannabis smokers had a higher percent abdominal visceral fat (18 +/- 9 vs. 12 +/- 5%; P = 0.004). Cannabis smokers had lower plasma HDL cholesterol (49 +/- 14 vs. 55 +/- 13 mg/dL; P = 0.02)" - Note:  So you still get the beer belly even without the beer.
  • Marijuana use and long-term mortality among survivors of acute myocardial infarction - Am Heart J. 2013 Feb;165(2):170-5 - "Compared with nonusers, the mortality rate was 29% higher (95% CI 0.81-2.05, P = .28) among those reporting any marijuana use"
  • A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Cannabis-Dependent Adolescents - Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Jun 15 - "Participants receiving NAC had more than twice the odds, compared with those receiving placebo, of having negative urine cannabinoid test results during treatment (odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI=1.1-5.2) ... Findings support NAC as a pharmacotherapy to complement psychosocial treatment for cannabis dependence in adolescents" - See NAC products at iHerb.
  • Cannabis Use, Ischemic Stroke, and Multifocal Intracranial Vasoconstriction: A Prospective Study in 48 Consecutive Young Patients - Stroke. 2011 Apr 21 - "Multifocal angiopathy associated with cannabis consumption could be an important cause of ischemic stroke in young people"
  • Cannabis Use and Earlier Onset of Psychosis: A Systematic Meta-analysis - Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Feb 7
  • Early endothelial dysfunction as a marker of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction in young habitual cannabis users - Int J Impot Res. 2008 Nov-Dec;20(6):566-73 - "We conclude that early endothelial damage may be induced by chronic cannabis use (and endocannabinoid system activation); insulin resistance may be the hallmark of early endothelial dysfunction and may concur to determine vascular ED in the absence of obesity"
  • Atrial fibrillation and marijuana smoking - Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Nov 21 - "Marijuana smoking affects the circulatory system triggering various cardiovascular events. Of note, recent case reports indicate a possible association with atrial fibrillation (AF). In this article, we provide a brief systematic review of all reported cases implicating marijuana smoking in AF development and we concisely discuss the potential underlying mechanisms as well as the clinical implications of this emerging association"
  • Cannabis and psychosis - Lancet. 2007 Nov 3;370(9598):1540
  • Genetic effects of marijuana - Int J Addict. 1990-1991;25(1A):19-33 - "Marijuana and its constitutive cannabinoids--tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD)--markedly affect mammalian cells. Cytogenetic studies have revealed that cannabinoids induce chromosome aberrations in both in vivo and in vitro studies. These aberrations include chromosomal breaks, deletions, translocations, errors in chromosomal segregation, and hypoploidy, and are due to the clastogenic action of cannabinoids or to cannabinoid-induced disruption of mitotic events or both. Conflicting reports of the cytogenetic effects of cannabinoids are partially explained by the different experimental protocols, cell types, and animals used by investigators. Cannabinoids also suppress macromolecular synthesis (DNA, RNA, and protein) as well as reduce the level of histone gene expression. In general these studies show that cannabinoids are detrimental to the health of an individual"
  • Effects of administration of cannabis resin during pregnancy on emotionality and learning in rats' offspring - Percept Mot Skills. 1980 Apr;50(2):359-65 - "Injection of cannabis resin as a saline-Tween 80 solution to pregnant rats resulted in pups having lower body weight, higher emotionality, poorer learning capacity, and paradoxically higher brain weight and DNA content. The cannabis appeared directly to have caused the inferior growth rate of the pups which in turn affected emotionality and learning"

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