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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 6/12/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - Medscape, 6/11/13 - "Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass that results in a reduction in skeletal muscle function, quality of life and an increased risk of falls. Older muscle has an 'anabolic resistance' to both nutrients and exercise, with the precise underlying mechanism still to be elucidated. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish oil can be incorporated into the membranes of skeletal muscles, where they may have anti-inflammatory effects. This alteration in muscle membrane fatty acid composition may have anabolic effects in aging muscle and, thus, be useful in the treatment of sarcopenia ... The current data presented suggest that n-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in the treatment of sarcopenia" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Genetic Research Clarifies Link Between Hypertension and Vitamin D Deficiency - Science Daily, 6/10/13 - "Low levels of vitamin D can trigger hypertension ... those with high concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) had reduced blood pressure and therefore a reduced risk of hypertension ... for every 10% increase in 25(OH)D concentrations, there was a 8.1% decrease in the risk of developing hypertension" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

High sugar intake linked to low dopamine release in insulin resistant patients - Science Daily, 6/10/13 - "For those who have the metabolic syndrome, a sugar drink resulted in a lower-than-normal release of the chemical dopamine in a major pleasure center of the brain. This chemical response may be indicative of a deficient reward system, which could potentially be setting the stage for insulin resistance ... Insulin resistance is a significant contributor to obesity and diabetes ... insulin resistance and its association with less dopamine release in a central brain reward region might promote overeating to compensate for this deficit"

Hepatitis B Viral Levels May Soar When Vitamin D Drops - Medscape, 6/10/13 - "They analyzed serum samples from treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis who visited the outpatient liver clinic of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital in Frankfurt, Germany from January 2009 to December 2012 ... 25(OH)D3 and HBV DNA serum levels showed a significant, inverse correlation ... HBV DNA was the strongest determinant of low 25(OH)D3 serum concentration in our cohort" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Early Exposure to Bisphenol A Might Damage the Enamel of Teeth - Science Daily, 6/10/13 - "the teeth of rats treated with low daily doses of BPA could be damaged by this"

Heart-Healthy Diet May Be Prostate Cancer Healthy Too - Medscape, 6/10/13 - "our findings support counseling men with prostate cancer to follow a heart-healthy diet in which carbohydrate calories are replaced with unsaturated oils and nuts to reduce the risk of all-cause mortality ... Nuts and vegetable oils (such olive and canola oil) were the 2 sources of vegetable fats associated with reduced overall and disease-specific mortality ... examined the dietary-fat intake of 4577 men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study ... replacing 10% of calories from carbohydrates with vegetable fats was associated with a 29% lower risk for prostate cancer death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; P = .04) and a 26% lower risk for all-cause death"

Food Supplement Linked to Lower PSA in Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 6/10/13 - "A commercially available food supplement that contains pomegranate, broccoli, green tea, and turmeric significantly lowers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ... made headlines around the world and caused the polyphenol-rich supplement, known as Pomi-T (nature Medical Products), to sell out within hours ... to receive the supplement 3 times a day for 6 months or placebo ... At 6-month follow-up, the median increase in PSA was 63.8% lower in the supplement groups than in the placebo group (14.7% vs 78.5; P =.0008). In addition, PSA levels were stable or lower than baseline more often in the supplement group (46% vs 14%" - Note:  I've already been taking most of the ingredients separately plus it probably avoids some of the mark-up.  It seems like you could come up with a reputable formula by reading my Prostate Cancer page and putting the supplements together.

Insulin Sensitizers Halve PAD Risk, Amputations in BARI 2D - Medscape, 6/10/13 - "Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial ... the incidence of any type of new PAD during an average follow-up of 4.6 years was lower among participants who received insulin-sensitizing therapy — metformin or a "glitazone" — than those who received insulin-providing therapy: 16.9% vs 24.1% ... What this suggests is that the use of an insulin-sensitizing medication might slow or reduce the progression of systemwide atherosclerosis in participants who already have fairly advanced coronary disease ... As Many as 1 in 4 High-Risk Patients May Develop PAD"

Diabetes Drug Shows Promise in Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disease - Medscape, 6/7/13 - "Pioglitazone halted the nerve fibre degeneration by preventing the loss of mitochondria, and inhibiting metabolic failure and oxidative stress in the treated mice, and hence also halted locomotor disabilities ... Although X-ALD is a relatively rare disease with a minimum incidence of 1 in 17 000 males, there are other neurodegenerative disorders caused by myelin sheath degeneration, for example multiple sclerosis, and many others where impaired bioenergetics combined with oxidative stress and degeneration of axons are known to be involved. The latter category of disease includes Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Alzheimer's ... It is possible that our findings may be relevant to these conditions as well" - Note:  I've been taking low dose pioglitazone and metformin from overseas pharmacies for years as a preventative measure for a lot of things.  Doctor's say I'm crazy.  Maybe or maybe crazy like a fox.

Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Skin Health - Medscape, 6/7/13 - "Results from cell culture and animal studies showing that lutein and zeaxanthin exhibit positive skin health benefits have considerable merit and suggest an avenue by which these carotenoids may function. The results from one human study demonstrate that orally administered lutein and zeaxanthin can inhibit lipid peroxidation on the surface of the skin and help bolster the skin's photoprotective activity, potentially protecting the skin from exposure to light, particularly UV light. Since the typical diet of people in the United States is about 2 mg of lutein per day, due to the ingestion of foods such as green leafy vegetables that contain the highest levels of diet-derived lutein and zeaxanthin,[15] it may be considered advisable to increase the daily intake of lutein and zeaxanthin for optimal skin health and photoprotection" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.

MRI Study: Breastfeeding Boosts Babies' Brain Growth - Science Daily, 6/6/13 - "The study made use of specialized, baby-friendly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to look at the brain growth in a sample of children under the age of 4. The research found that by age 2, babies who had been breastfed exclusively for at least three months had enhanced development in key parts of the brain compared to children who were fed formula exclusively or who were fed a combination of formula and breastmilk. The extra growth was most pronounced in parts of the brain associated with language, emotional function, and cognition ... the difference [in white matter growth] is on the order of 20 to 30 percent, comparing the breastfed and the non-breastfed kids"

Which Occupations Have the Highest Suicide Rates? - Medscape, 6/6/13 - "veterinarians had the highest rate of suicide, followed by merchant seafarers, hotel porters, pharmacists, hospital porters, dentists, musicians, steel erectors, roofers and glaziers, and doctors. For some of these professions, high suicide rates were explained by easy occupational access to a method of suicide. However, by 2001-2005, significant reductions in suicide rates for some of these occupations were evident, so that veterinarians, pharmacists, dentists, and doctors no longer ranked in the top 30 occupations associated with suicide"

This Is Your Brain on Coffee - NYTimes.com, 6/6/13 - "In one large-scale epidemiological study from last year, researchers primarily at the National Cancer Institute parsed health information from more than 400,000 volunteers, ages 50 to 71, who were free of major diseases at the study’s start in 1995. By 2008, more than 50,000 of the participants had died. But men who reported drinking two or three cups of coffee a day were 10 percent less likely to have died than those who didn’t drink coffee, while women drinking the same amount had 13 percent less risk of dying during the study ... animal experiments show that caffeine may reshape the biochemical environment inside our brains in ways that could stave off dementia ... Close examination of the animals’ brain tissue showed that the caffeine disrupted the action of adenosine, a substance inside cells that usually provides energy, but can become destructive if it leaks out when the cells are injured or under stress ... Participants with little or no caffeine circulating in their bloodstreams were far more likely to have progressed to full-blown Alzheimer’s than those whose blood indicated they’d had about three cups’ worth of caffeine"

FDA on RECORD Readjudication: Avandia Does Not Up CV Risk - Medscape, 6/6/13 - "The conclusion of a recent readjudication of the Rosiglitazone Evaluated for Cardiovascular Outcomes and Regulation of Glycemia in Diabetes (RECORD) trial, that the diabetes drug rosiglitazone (Avandia, GlaxoSmithKline) does not increase the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes ... Readjudication of a total 2223 events revealed no significant event risks for the rosiglitazone group (2220 patients) compared with those receiving sulfonylureas and/or metformin (2227). The hazard ratios were 0.95 for the composite end point of CV death, MI or stroke; 0.90 for CV death; 1.13 for MI; 0.79 for stroke; and 0.86 for all-cause death. None of those were statistically significant"

‘Smart’ drugs: Miracle pills, or too good to be true?  - TODAY.com, 6/5/13 - It's a four minute video mostly on Nuvigil (armodafinil).

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Note:  There seems to be a backlog of abstracts in my RSS feed again.  I haven't received any abstracts in two days.  Usually there are about three hundred on Tuesdays.

Increased pulse pressure linked to dementia: further results from the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial - HYVET - J Hypertens. 2013 Jun 5 - "High blood pressure (BP) has been associated with increased risk of dementia. Concerns have been raised about lowering BP too far in the very elderly and thereby increasing risk. There is some evidence to suggest a potential 'J'-shaped relationship between DBP and risk of cognitive impairment ... trial of antihypertensives in patients aged at least 80 years with an untreated SBP of 160-199 mmHg. Active medication was indapamide sustained release 1.5 mg+/- perindopril 2-4 mg to reach goal pressure of less than 150/80 mmHg ... mean follow-up of 2.2 years ... baseline DBP was inversely related to incident dementia (P = 0.0064). Achieved DBP did not predict later dementia in the placebo group (P = 0.43), but showed a U-shaped relationship in the active treatment group (P = 0.0195). The relationship between incident dementia and DBP did however not differ significantly between the placebo and active treatment groups (P = 0.38). SBP was not associated with incident dementia, at baseline (P = 0.62) or during follow-up (placebo group P = 0.13, active group P = 0.36). Wider achieved pulse pressure (PP) was associated with increased risk of dementia in both treatment groups (placebo P = 0.032, active P = 0.0046). The same tendency was observed for baseline PP ... Wider PP may possibly indicate an increased risk for dementia. Active treatment may act to change the shape of the relationship between DBP and dementia"

Chronic resveratrol consumption improves brachial flow-mediated dilatation in healthy obese adults - J Hypertens. 2013 Jun 5 - "We have previously demonstrated acute dose-dependent increases of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in the brachial artery after resveratrol consumption in mildly hypertensive, overweight/obese adults. Resveratrol supplementation has also been shown to increase cerebral blood flow acutely, without affecting cognition ... Twenty-eight obese but otherwise healthy adults (BMI: 33.3 +/- 0.6 kg/m) were randomized to take a single 75 mg capsule of trans-resveratrol (Resvida) or placebo daily for 6 weeks each in a double-blind crossover supplementation trial ... A single dose of resveratrol (75 mg) following chronic resveratrol supplementation resulted in a 35% greater acute FMD response than the equivalent placebo supplementation. These FMD improvements remained significant after adjusting for baseline FMD ... Daily resveratrol consumption was well tolerated and has the potential to maintain healthy circulatory function in obese adults" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and resvida at Amazon.com.

Hypovitaminosis D and incidence of obesity: a prospective study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun;67(6):680-2 - "In subjects who were non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m(2)) at the second evaluation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D values 17 ng/ml (42.5 nmol/l) were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing obesity in the next 4 years (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.03-5.4, P=0.040 after diverse adjustments). We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Effects of low-fat diet on serum lipids in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Menopause. 2013 Jun 3 - "Ten electronic databases were searched for relevant articles reporting randomized controlled trials through August 31, 2012 ... Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values changed more favorably in participants randomized to low-fat diets than in participants randomized to their usual diets ... Overall results suggest that a low-fat diet is efficacious in reducing the concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C but not in reducing TG and TC-to-HDL-C ratio in women" - Note:  Lowing HDL is a negative.

Clarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact on Sex and Relationships (CLOSER) survey: emotional and physical impact of vaginal discomfort on North American postmenopausal women and their partners - Menopause. 2013 Jun 3 - "Approximately 30% of North American women and men cited vaginal discomfort as the reason they ceased having sex altogether. North American women who used local estrogen therapy to treat their vaginal discomfort reported less painful sex (56%), more satisfying sex (41%), and improved sex life (29%). Most men reported looking forward to having sex (57%) because of their partner's use of local estrogen therapy"

Subclinical hypothyroidism and indices for metabolic syndrome in Japanese women: One year follow-up study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jun 4 - "Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) increase with age, however their relation remains unclear ... mean age was 48 +/- 9 years ... Serum free T4 (FT4) levels were lower in women than men in most of the age groups, and the prevalence of SCH, 6.3 % in women versus 3.4 % in man, increased with age, reaching 14.6 % in 70 ~ year-old women. Multivariate logistic-regression analyses revealed that waist circumference, and the serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels were significantly higher in subjects with SCH than without among women. Reflecting these findings, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of MetS in patients with SCH was higher than in the euthyroid subjects in women with OR, 2.7 (95% CI, 1.1-5.6; p=0.017), but not in men. Furthermore, progression from euthyroid into SCH resulted in a significant increase in the serum triglyceride level but not LDL-C in women"

Do dietary patterns influence cognitive function in old age? - Int Psychogeriatr. 2013 Jun 4:1-15 - "Our results suggest a pattern of reverse causation or confounding; a higher childhood cognitive ability (and adult socioeconomic status) predicts adherence to a "healthy" diet and better cognitive performance in old age. Our models show no direct link between diet and cognitive performance in old age; instead they are related via the lifelong-stable trait of intelligence"

Health Focus (Acetyl-L-Carnitine):

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Commonly used supplement may improve recovery from spinal cord injuries - Science Daily, 9/28/11 - "in experimental models, severe spinal cord injury can be treated effectively by administering the supplement acetyl-L-carnitine or ALC, a derivative of essential amino acids that can generate metabolic energy, soon after injury ... following spinal cord injury, the mitochondria, or energy-generation components of cells, are overwhelmed by chemical stresses and lose the ability to produce energy in the form of the compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP). [1,2] This leads to cell death at the injury site and, ultimately, paralysis of the body below the injury level ... ALC can preserve the vitality of mitochondria by acting as an alternative biofuel providing energy to cells, thus bypassing damaged mitochondrial enzymes and promoting neuroprotection"
  • Effect of Oral Acetyl L-Carnitine Arginate on Biomarkers in Pre-Diabetics - Medscape, 10/28/09 - "3 g.day−1 of ALCA (n = 14; 31 +/- 3 yrs) or placebo (n = 15; 35 +/- 3 yrs) in a double-blind design, to consume for eight weeks ... slight improvements in glucose (109 +/- 5 to 103 +/- 5 mg.dL−1), HbA1c (6.6 +/- 1.1 to 6.2 +/- 1.2%), and HOMA-IR (3.3 +/- 1.3 to 2.9 +/- 1.2) ... slight improvement in glucose metabolism, as evidenced by minor decreases in blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c (which may have been more pronounced with longer treatment, as HbA1c has a half-life equal to approximately 12 weeks" - See propionyl-l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
  • Protecting the Brain from Aging? - Dr. Weil, 6/22/09 - "Dr. Khalsa is president and medical director of the Alzheimer's Prevention Foundation International and author of the book "The Better Memory Kit" to be published later this year. He tells me that supplemental acetyl-L-carnitine can increase energy in the mitochondria, the power plants of all cells, and thereby helps generally boost physical and mental energy. He describes acetyl-L-carnitine as a superior antioxidant that promotes the production in cells of glutathione, perhaps our most potent free radical scavenger. If you decide to try it, Dr. Khalsa recommends taking 500 to 1,500 mg per day along with 100 mg of Coenzyme-Q-10"
  • L-Acetylcarnitine Curbs ADHD Associated With Fragile X Syndrome - Medscape, 3/12/08 - "L-acetylcarnitine (LAC) may be considered an alternative to stimulants for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with fragile X syndrome, based on results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study"
  • Lipoic acid and carnitine combo show diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 2/18/08 - [Abstract] - "the combination of LA and LCAR increased the mass, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial DNA expression, and fatty acid oxidation in the fat cells ... However, the treatments with LA or ALC alone at the same concentrations showed little effect on mitochondrial function and biogenesis ... Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine have become very hot after our reports on the complementary effects on improving memory and ambulatory activity in old rats"
  • Complementary and Integrative Approaches to Dementia - Medscape, 7/5/05 - "There have been several controlled clinical trials suggesting that ALc slows the progression of AD"
  • Jarrow Formulas’, Inc. Introduces ALCA 500(TM) (Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginate Dihydrochloride) - NPI Center, 3/8/05 - "Acetyl-l-carnitine arginate (ALCA) represents an advancement in the carnitine and arginine fields as this new dietary supplement offers potential benefits in affecting levels of nitric oxide over and above the traditional benefits of carnitine" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
  • Common Nutrient May Ease Diabetic Pain - WebMD, 1/6/05 - "1,000 milligrams three times a day of acetyl-L-carnitine was effective in relieving pain caused by nerve damage associated with the condition"
  • Supplemental Carnitine May Be Helpful in Diabetic Neuropathy - Medscape, 1/3/05 - "Pain as the most bothersome symptom significantly improved with ALC"
  • New uses for carnitine - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 11/04 - "Because L-carnitine is central to the formation of energy from fat, the heart is therefore dependent on L-carnitine for most of its energy production ... L-Carnipure carries long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria where they are oxidised for energy. Its ability to generate energy from fat makes carnitine useful as part of a weight management program ... L-carnitine plus its metabolite, acetyl-L-carnitine, can treat symptoms of male ageing, including sexual dysfunction, depressed mood and fatigue"
  • Carnitine Improves Symptoms of Male Aging - Medscape, 4/14/04 - "Carnitine is more active than testosterone for improving symptoms of male aging such as sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue ... In this trial, 120 patients were randomized to receive testosterone undecanoate 160 mg/day, propionyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day plus acetyl-L-carnitine 2 g/day, or placebo for six months"  - [Abstract] - See acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • Do Anti-aging Supplements Really Work? - Life Extension Magazine, 6/02 - "The National Academy of Sciences has published three new reports showing that aging may be partially reversible with currently available supplements"
  • The Wizard is Oz - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Best-selling author and nutritional guru to the rich and famous, Oz Garcia is singing the praises of the Life Extension Foundation and its products in his newest book, The Healthy High Tech Body, published in September 2001 ... Supplements at the top of Garcia's list of recommendations ... DHA ... NADH ... Alpah Lipoic Acid ... Acetyl-L-Carnitine ... An expanded list of his recommendations includes lycopene, gamma tocopherol, vinpocetine, SAMe, folic acid, carnosine, glutathione, DMAE, Huperzine A, probiotics, MSM, secretagogues, arginine pyroglutamate, IP-6, bioflavonoid formulas and grape skin/seed extracts"
  • Sustain the Brain - Nutrition Science News, 2/01 - "By enhancing membrane stability, energy production, and neurotransmission, ALC may improve mental function. In addition, it may also have anti-inflammatory effects that reduce free radical generation. . . ALC's ability to bind cortisol and increase nerve growth factor production within the hippocampal region may explain its positive effects on neurons."
  • Sperm Booster? - WebMD, 1/1/01
  • Can L-carnitine help reverse Alzheimer's disease? - Nutrition Science News, 8/00
  • The Anti-Aging Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine - Life Extension Magazine, 5/00 - "When acetyl-L-carnitine was administered, their heart rates became almost completely restored to the metabolic function level of young control rats . . . acetyl-L-carnitine is critical to youthful cellular function in the brain, heart, liver, peripheral nerve and immune system.  Supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine becomes an even greater consideration when we realize the potential antiaging effects this amino acid may produce when taken in combination with coQ10 and alpha lipoic acid"
  • Staying Young Forever, Putting new research findings into practice - Life Extension Foundation, 12/99 - "acetyl l-carnitine significantly reversed age-associated mitochondrial decay. It increased cellular respiration, membrane potential and cardiolipin levels"
  • Lower AGE with Acetyl L-Carnitine - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/99 - "Diabetics and others who become susceptible to high levels of glucose in blood serum as they age suffer from the formation of deleterious hybrid protein-sugar complexes known as advanced glycation end products (AGE) ... ALC decreased the glycation by 42%"
  • Anti-Cortisols May Offer New Hope For Retinitis Pigmentosa - Doctor's Guide, 11/17/97 - "According to Sapse, RP can be treated initially with a cocktail of anti-cortisol nutritional compounds including vitamin A, zinc, ginkgo biloba and acetyl-L-carnitine . . ."
  • Top Ten Life Extension Drugs - Life Extension Magazine, 9/95
  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplements Slow Progression of Alzheimer's Disease -The Nutrition Reporter, '95

Abstracts:

  • Acetyl-l-carnitine supplementation reverses the age-related decline in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity in interfibrillar mitochondria without changing the l-carnitine content in the rat heart - Mech Ageing Dev. 2012 Feb 1 - "The aging heart displays a loss of bioenergetic reserve capacity partially mediated through lower fatty acid utilization. We investigated whether the age-related impairment of cardiac fatty acid catabolism occurs, at least partially, through diminished levels of l-carnitine, which would adversely affect carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acyl-CoA uptake into mitochondria for β-oxidation. Old (24-28 mos) Fischer 344 rats were fed+/-acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR; 1.5% [w/v]) for up to four weeks prior to sacrifice and isolation of cardiac interfibrillar (IFM) and subsarcolemmal (SSM) mitochondria. IFM displayed a 28% (p<0.05) age-related loss of CPT1 activity, which correlated with a decline (41%, p<0.05) in palmitoyl-CoA-driven state 3 respiration. Interestingly, SSM had preserved enzyme function and efficiently utilized palmitate. Analysis of IFM CPT1 kinetics showed both diminished V(max) and K(m) (60% and 49% respectively, p<0.05) when palmitoyl-CoA was the substrate. However, no age-related changes in enzyme kinetics were evident with respect to l-carnitine. ALCAR supplementation restored CPT1 activity in heart IFM, but not apparently through remediation of l-carnitine levels. Rather, ALCAR influenced enzyme activity over time, potentially by modulating conditions in the aging heart that ultimately affect palmitoyl-CoA binding and CPT1 kinetics"
  • Propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin in sexual medicine: a nutraceutical approach for erectile dysfunction - Andrologia. 2011 Oct 4 - "In a group of 54 unselected men (35-75 years), consecutively presenting to our ED clinic and naive to other ED treatments, we carried out a single-blind, one-arm study to evaluate the effects of a 3-month supplementation with propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and niacin on their sexual performance ... Analyses on GAQs revealed that treatment improved erections in 40% of cases, with a partial response occurring in up to 77% of enrolled subjects. These preliminary findings indicate that the favourable cardiovascular effects of nutraceuticals might also reflect on male sexual function with possible implication in the treatment and prevention of ED. This study documents a considerable patients' interest toward nutritional supplementation - as first-line or adjunctive treatment to PDE5 inhibitors - that goes beyond the measurable increment in penile rigidity" - See propionyl-l-carnitine products at Amazon.com, niacin at Amazon.com and L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
  • Oral acetyl-L-carnitine therapy reduces fatigue in overt hepatic encephalopathy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb 10 - "Fatigue is frequently reported in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and may be related to hyperammonemia. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) offers neuroprotective benefits and improves mitochondrial energetics and function ... At the end of the study period, the ALC-treated patients in the HE1 group showed significantly better improvement than did the placebo group in mental fatigue score (-1.7 compared with -0.3; P < 0.05), the fatigue severity scale (-6.4 compared with 2.3; P < 0.001), 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire score (17.1 compared with -2.5; P < 0.001), and Short Physical Performance Battery (2.1 compared with 0.2; P < 0.001); the HE2 group showed significantly better improvement in the fatigue severity scale (-8.1 compared with -5.1; P < 0.001) and 6-min walk test (19.9 compared with 2.3; P < 0.05). Significant decreases in NH(4)(+) were observed in both groups (P < 0.001)"
    • Hepatic encephalopathy - NIH - "Hepatic encephalopathy is a worsening of brain function that occurs when the liver is no longer able to remove toxic substances in the blood"
  • Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine and oxfenicine on aorta stiffness in diabetic rats - Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Jul 29 - "Oxfenicine, but not acetyl-L-carnitine, increased total peripheral resistance in diabetes, which paralleled its elevation in plasma levels of free fatty acids. By contrast, acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, resulted in a significant increase in wave transit time and a decrease in wave reflection factor, suggesting that acetyl-L-carnitine may attenuate the diabetes-induced deterioration in systolic loading condition for the left ventricle. This was in parallel with its lowering of MDA/TBARS content in plasma and aortic walls in diabetes. Acetyl-L-carnitine therapy also prevented the diabetes-related cardiac hypertrophy, as evidenced by the reduction in ratio of the left ventricular weight to body weight. Conclusion Acetyl-L-carnitine, but not oxfenicine, attenuates aortic stiffening and cardiac hypertrophy, possibly through its decrease of lipid oxidation-derived MDA/TBARS in the rats with insulin deficiency"
  • Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased Cardiovascular Risk. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy - Hypertension. 2009 Jul 20 - "glucose disposal rate (GDR) ... Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144.0+/-13.6 to 135.1+/-8.4 mm Hg and from 130.8+/-12.4 to 123.8+/-10.8 mm Hg in the lower and higher GDR groups, respectively (P<0.05 for both; P<0.001 overall) and progressively recovered toward baseline over 8 weeks posttreatment. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk"
  • Efficacy of a Vitamin/Nutriceutical Formulation for Early-stage Alzheimer's Disease: A 1-Year, Open-Label Pilot Study With an 16-Month Caregiver Extension - Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008 Dec 1 - "We examined the efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation (folate, vitamin B6, alpha-tocopherol, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, and acetyl-L-carnitine) in a 12-month, open-label trial with 14 community-dwelling individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Participants improved in the Dementia Rating Scale and Clock-drawing tests (Clox 1 and 2). Family caregivers reported improvement in multiple domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and maintenance of performance in the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Sustained performance was reported by caregivers for those participants who continued in an 16-month extension. Performance on the NPI was equivalent to published findings at 3 to 6 months for donepezil and exceeded that of galantamine and their historical placebos. Participants demonstrated superior performance for more than 12 months in NPI and ADL versus those receiving naproxen and rofecoxib or their placebo group. This formulation holds promise for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease prior to and/or as a supplement for pharmacological approaches"
  • Role of Acetyl-L-Carnitine in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (November) - Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Oct 21 - "acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) ... Data on treatment of DPN with ALC support its use. It should be recommended to patients early in the disease process to provide maximal benefit. Further studies should be conducted to determine the effectiveness of ALC in the treatment and prevention of the worsening symptoms of DPN"
  • R-alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L: -carnitine complementarily promote mitochondrial biogenesis in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes - Diabetologia. 2008 Jan;51(1):165-74 - "Treatments with the combination of LA and ALC at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 mumol/l for 24 h significantly increased mitochondrial mass, expression of mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial complexes, oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. These changes were accompanied by an increase in expression of Pparg, Ppara and Cpt1a mRNA, as well as increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1 alpha (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2 (Nrf1 and Nrf2). However, the treatments with LA or ALC alone at the same concentrations showed little effect on mitochondrial function and biogenesis" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com and acetyl l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of L-carnitine and/or L-acetyl-carnitine in nutrition treatment for male infertility: a systematic review - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl:383-90 - "the administration of LC and/or LAC may be effective in improving pregnancy rate and sperm kinetic features in patients affected by male infertility"
  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine Improves Pain, Nerve Regeneration, and Vibratory Perception in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Neuropathy: An analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials - Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28(1):89-94 - "ALC treatment is efficacious in alleviating symptoms, particularly pain, and improves nerve fiber regeneration and vibration perception in patients with established diabetic neuropathy"
  • Carnitine versus androgen administration in the treatment of sexual dysfunction, depressed mood, and fatigue associated with male aging - Urology. 2004 Apr;63(4):641-6 - "Carnitines proved significantly more active than testosterone in improving nocturnal penile tumescence and International Index of Erectile Function score. Testosterone significantly increased the prostate volume and free and total testosterone levels and significantly lowered serum luteinizing hormone; carnitines did not"
  • Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: Partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2356-2361 - "Electron microscopic studies in the hippocampus showed that ALCAR and/or LA reversed age-associated mitochondrial structural decay"
  • Mitochondrial decay in aging. Reversal through supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine and N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenyl-nitrone - Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:214-23 - "ALCAR supplementation (1 month) resulted in significant increases in cellular respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cardiolipin values"
  • Acetyl L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer's disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach - Int Psychogeriatr. 1998 Jun;10(2):193-203 - "ALC slows the progression of Alzheimer's disease in younger subjects, and the use of the trilinear approach to estimate the average rate of change may prove valuable in pharmacological trials"
  • Acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer disease: a short-term study on CSF neurotransmitters and neuropeptides - Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1995 Fall;9(3):128-31 - "beta-endorphins significantly decreased after treatment; plasma cortisol levels matched this reduction. Since both CSF beta-endorphins and plasma cortisol decreased, one possible explanation is that ALCAR reduced the AD-dependent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis hyperactivity"
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