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Home > Health Conditions > Sarcopenia


Sarcopenia - Wikipedia - "Sarcopenia (from the Greek meaning "poverty of flesh") is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass (0.5-1% loss per year after the age of 25), quality, and strength associated with aging. Sarcopenia is a component of the frailty syndrome. It can be differentiated from cachexia in that cachexia includes malaise and is secondary to an underlying pathosis (such as cancer), whereas sarcopenia may occur in healthy people and does not necessarily include malaise"

Alternative News:

  • High-Protein Foods and Physical Activity Protect Against Age-Related Muscle Loss and Functional Decline - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017 May 25 - "Higher intakes of protein-source foods (red meat, poultry, fish, dairy, and soy, nuts, seeds and legumes) were associated with higher %SMM over 9 years, particularly among women. Men and women with higher intakes of foods from animal sources had a higher % SMM regardless of activity; beneficial effects of plant-based protein foods were only evident in physically active adults. Active subjects with higher intakes of animal or plant protein-source foods had 35% lowest risks of functional decline. Among less active individuals, only those consuming more animal protein-source foods had reduced risks of functional decline (HR: 0.7l" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Recommended daily protein intake too low for the elderly - Science Daily, 5/23/17 - "The RDA you will find on the nutrition labels on your food, however, were set in 1968, and the ones used by researchers and professionals were set in 2003. A recent review published in Frontiers in Nutrition points out that both these values do not do justice to the protein needs of the elderly and critically ill ... A big disservice is being done. The prescribed 0.8 g/kg/day just isn't enough protein for the elderly and people with a clinical condition .... he points out that the quality of proteins should be considered when setting the RDA guidelines and recommending protein supplements. He argues that there should be a stronger focus on leucine; an indispensable amino acid and building block for proteins. The elderly have a higher need for leucine to build muscle proteins, and milk-based proteins (e.g. milk and whey) are a good source for this" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • L-leucine dietary supplementation modulates muscle protein degradation and increases pro-inflammatory cytokines in tumour-bearing rats - Cytokine. 2017 May 8;96:253-260 - "the leucine-supplemented tumour-bearing groups showed improvements in muscle mass and protein content, and in this specific situation, the leucine-rich diet led to an increase on the day in cytokine profile and proteasome subunits mainly on the 14th day, which subsequently had a modulating effect on tumour growth on the 21st day. These results indicate that the presence of leucine in the diet may modulate important aspects of the proteasomal pathway in cancer cachexia and may prevent muscle wasting due to the decrease in the cachexia index" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram) at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol preserves neuromuscular synapses, muscle fibers in aging mice - Science Daily, 3/7/17 - "resveratrol, a compound in the skin of red grapes and red wine, and metformin, a drug often prescribed to fight type 2 diabetes, have many of the neuroprotective benefits of a low-calorie diet and exercise ... resveratrol preserves muscle fibers as we age and helps protect connections between neurons called synapses from the negative effects of aging ... the diabetes drug metformin slowed the rate of muscle fiber aging, but it did not significantly affect aging of neuromuscular junctions. However, the drug may possibly protect synapses in different dosage amounts ... Metformin is an FDA-approved drug to treat diabetes, but our study hints it may also serve the purpose of slowing the motor dysfunction that occurs with aging ... In wine, resveratrol is in such small amounts you could not drink enough of it in your life to have the benefits we found in mice given resveratrol" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com and metformin at IAS.
  • Vitamin D and muscle trophicity - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017 Mar 2 - "Vitamin D deficiencies are associated with reduced muscle mass and strength, and its supplementation seems effective to improve these parameters in vitamin D-deficient study participants. Latest investigations have also evidenced that vitamin D is essential in muscle development and repair. In particular, it modulates skeletal muscle cell proliferation and differentiation ... Recently, it has been demonstrated that vitamin D influences skeletal muscle cell metabolism as it seems to regulate protein synthesis and mitochondrial function" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.  I find that it takes about 8,000 IU average per day to keep my vitamin D around 60 ng/mL but I'm old.  I take 10,000 IU per day because some days I forget to take it.
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exert distinct effects on human skeletal muscle function and gene expression - PLoS One. 2017 Feb 15;12(2):e0170665 - "Age-associated decline in muscle function represents a significant public health burden. Vitamin D-deficiency is also prevalent in aging subjects, and has been linked to loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia), but the precise role of specific vitamin D metabolites in determining muscle phenotype and function is still unclear ... These data show that although 25OHD3 has potent actions on muscle gene expression, the circulating concentrations of this metabolite are more closely linked to body fat mass, suggesting that 25OHD3 can influence muscle function via indirect effects on adipose tissue. By contrast, serum 1α,25(OH)2D3 has limited effects on muscle gene expression, but is associated with increased muscle strength and lean mass in women" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy of a novel formulation of L-Carnitine, creatine, and leucine on lean body mass and functional muscle strength in healthy older adults: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study - Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017 Jan 18;14:7 - "Forty-two healthy older adults aged 55-70 years were randomized to receive either a novel L-Carnitine (1500 mg), L-leucine (2000 mg), creatine (3000 mg), Vitamin D3 (10 μg) (L-Carnitine-combination) product (n = 14), L-Carnitine (1500 mg) (n = 14), or a placebo (n = 14) for eight weeks ... Participants supplemented with the L-Carnitine-combination showed a 1.0 kg increase in total lean muscle mass (P = 0.013), leg lean muscle mass (0.35 kg, P = 0.005), and a 1.0 kg increase in lower leg strength (P = 0.029) at week 8. In addition, these increases were significant when compared to the placebo group (P = 0.034, P = 0.026, and P = 0.002, respectively). Total mTOR protein expression was increased in participants in the L-Carnitine-combination group at the end of the study compared to the baseline (P = 0.017). This increase was also significant when compared to the placebo (P = 0.039), suggesting that the increase in muscle mass and strength was due to new protein synthesis and mTOR pathway activation" - [Nutra USA] - See L-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • Leucine supplementation enhances integrative myofibrillar protein synthesis in free-living older men consuming lower- and higher-protein diets: a parallel-group crossover study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;104(6):1594-1606 - "We examined the impact of leucine co-ingestion with mixed macronutrient meals on integrated 3-d rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) in free-living older men who consumed higher protein (HP) (1.2 g · kg-1 · d-1) or LP (0.8 g · kg-1 · d-1) in rested and resistance exercise (REX) conditions ... Leu co-ingestion with daily meals enhances integrated MyoPS in free-living older men in rested and REX conditions and is equally effective in older men who consume daily protein intakes greater than or equal to the RDA" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Can You Regain Muscle Mass After Age 60? - NYT, 12/2/16 - "But in practical terms, who cares? Older muscles will become larger and stronger if you work them, Dr. Bamman says ... The key, he continues, is regular and progressive weight training. If you don’t belong to a gym, consider joining one, and then plan on tiring yourself. In order to initiate the biochemical processes that lead to larger, stronger fibers, Dr. Bamman says, you should push your muscles until they are exhausted"
  • The impact of protein quality on the promotion of resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle mass - Nutr Metab (Lond). 2016 Sep 29;13:64 - "Protein ingestion and the resultant hyperaminoacidemia provides the building blocks (indispensable amino acids - IAA) for, and also triggers an increase in, muscle protein synthesis (MPS), suppression of muscle protein breakdown (MPB), and net positive protein balance (i.e., MPS > MPB). The key amino acid triggering the rise in MPS is leucine, which stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1, a key signalling protein, and triggers a rise in MPS. As such, ingested proteins with a high leucine content would be advantageous in triggering a rise in MPS. Thus, protein quality (reflected in IAA content and protein digestibility) has an impact on changes in MPS and could ultimately affect skeletal muscle mass. Protein quality has been measured by the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS); however, the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) has been recommended as a better method for protein quality scoring. Under DIAAS there is the recognition that amino acids are individual nutrients and that protein quality is contingent on IAA content and ileal (as opposed to fecal) digestibility. Differences in protein quality may have important ramifications for exercise-induced changes in muscle mass gains made with resistance exercise as well as muscle remodelling" - [Nutra USA] - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Preservation of muscular mass and strength in aged subjects with Pycnogenol® supplementation - Minerva Ortopedica E Traumatologica, Oct 16 - "Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improved muscular strength and the general fitness level (also decreasing oxidative stress) in otherwise healthy, older subjects with symptoms of fatigue and signs of muscle mass loss" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com and grape seed extract at Amazon.com (some claim grape seed extract is basically the same thing without the patent mark-up).
  • Resveratrol primes the effects of physical activity in old mice - Br J Nutr. 2016 Aug 4:1-10 - "Decrease in muscle mass and performance with ageing is one of the main factors of frailty in the elderly. Maintenance of muscle performance by involving in physical activities is essential to increase independence and quality of life among elderly ... RSV improves muscle performance in mature and old animals but not in young animals. Without showing significant effect by itself, RSV primed the effect of exercise by increasing endurance, coordination and strength in old animals. This effect was accompanied by a higher protection against oxidative damage and an increase in mitochondrial mass. RSV increased catalase and superoxide dismutase protein levels in muscle and primed exercise to reverse the decrease in their activities during ageing. Furthermore, RSV increased the level of mitochondrial mass markers such as cytochrome C, mitochondrial transcription factor A and nuclear respiratory factor-1 in muscle in exercised animals" - See Reserveage Nutrition - Resveratrol with Pterostilbene 500mg, Cellular Age-Defying Formula, 60 veg capsules at Amazon.com.
  • The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan - Nutrients. 2016 Jun 17;8(6) - "Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance ... Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR) 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-6.72) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%). Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8%) were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14-4.83) than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%). Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023) and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025). Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status"
  • Protein Intake and Muscle Health in Old Age: From Biological Plausibility to Clinical Evidence - Nutrients. 2016 May 14;8(5) - "Older persons, in particular, are at high risk of insufficient protein ingestion. Furthermore, the current recommended dietary allowance for protein (0.8 g/kg/day) might be inadequate for maintaining muscle health in older adults, probably as a consequence of "anabolic resistance" in aged muscle. Older individuals therefore need to ingest a greater quantity of protein to maintain muscle function. The quality of protein ingested is also essential to promoting muscle health. Given the role of leucine as the master dietary regulator of muscle protein turnover, the ingestion of protein sources enriched with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, is thought to offer the greatest benefit in terms of preservation of muscle mass and function in old age" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial - J Nutr. 2016 Apr 13 - "Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat  .. The first group received a daily L-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored ... After 3 mo, participants in the LD + MCT group had a 13.1% increase in right-hand grip strength (1.2 ± 1.0 kg,P< 0.01), a 12.5% increase in walking speed (0.078 ± 0.080 m/s,P< 0.05), a 68.2% increase in a 10-s leg open-and-close test performance (2.31 ± 1.68n/10 s,P< 0.001), and a 28.2% increase in peak expiratory flow (53 ± 59 L/min,P< 0.01). No significant improvements in muscle mass, strength, or function were observed in the LD + LCT or control groups" - See BulkSupplements Pure L-Leucine Powder (1 Kilogram).
  • Per meal dose and frequency of protein consumption is associated with lean mass and muscle performance - Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr 7 - "We found that more frequent consumption of meals containing between 30 and 45 g protein/meal produced the greatest association with leg lean mass and strength. Thus, the consumption of 1-2 daily meals with protein content from 30 to 45 g may be an important strategy for increasing and/or maintaining lean body mass and muscle strength with aging"
  • Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice - Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 205 - "Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotic ... few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10) supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile ... LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%). LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001) and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001) and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001), ammonia (p < 0.0001), creatine kinase (p = 0.0118), and glucose (p = 0.0151) after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle) in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects" - [Nutra USA] -Note:  Lactobacillus plantarum is the top probiotic in the Garden of Life Primal Defense Ultra that I take.
  • β-Alanine Supplementation Improved Workload Capacity and Cognitive Function of Middle Age Individuals - FASEB Journal, Mar 2016 - "Sarcopenia, the age induced wasting of skeletal muscle, has been seen to be tightly associated with significantly decreased systemic carnosine stores. β-alanine supplementation has previously been shown to increase systemic carnosine concentrations in young adults. Increasing systemic carnosine may result in enhanced antioxidant and pH buffering capabilities within its main storage sites of skeletal muscle and brain tissue. This enhancement may result in improved submaximal endurance exercise capacity and in the prevention of exercise associated cognitive decline ... Before supplementation, average time-to-exhaustion (TTE) for the β-alanine group and Placebo group was 17.3±10.2 and 22.9±10.2 minutes, respectively. After supplementation, all subjects increased their TTE; with β-alanine supplemented subjects cycling significantly longer than those on Placebo (7.9±1.4 vs 0.9±2.5 minutes, respectively, P<0.01). Placebo subjects were 8.9±2.0 seconds slower in completing the Stroop Test at T4 compared to T3 (P=0.04), while the β-alanine group (1.9±2.0 seconds, P=0.8) was not slower at this time point" - [Nutra USA] - See beta-alanine at Amazon.com.
  • Leucine partially protects muscle mass and function during bed rest in middle-aged adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Dec 30 - "muscle protein synthesis (MPS) ... leucine supplementation (LEU group: 0.06 g ∙ kg-1 ∙ meal-1) or an alanine control (CON group) during 14 d of bed rest ... Leucine protected knee extensor peak torque (CON compared with LEU group: -15% ± 2% and -7% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) and endurance (CON compared with LEU: -14% ± 3% and -2% ± 4%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05), prevented an increase in body fat percentage (group × time interaction, P < 0.05), and reduced whole-body lean mass loss after 7 d (CON compared with LEU: -1.5 ± 0.3 and -0.8 ± 0.3 kg; group × time interaction, P < 0.05) but not 14 d (CON compared with LEU: -1.5 ± 0.3 and -1.0 ± 0.3 kg) of bed rest. Leucine also maintained muscle quality (peak torque/kg leg lean mass) after 14 d of bed-rest inactivity (CON compared with LEU: -9% ± 2% and +1% ± 3%; group × time interaction, P < 0.05)" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Protein Supplementation at Breakfast and Lunch for 24 Weeks beyond Habitual Intakes Increases Whole-Body Lean Tissue Mass in Healthy Older Adults - J Nutr. 2015 Nov 18 - "lean tissue mass (LTM) ... 60 healthy older men and women (aged 61 ± 5 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 25.8 ± 3.6 consumed either 0.165 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) or an isoenergetic, nonnitrogenous maltodextrin control (CON) at breakfast and midday meals, the lower protein-containing meals of the day, for 24 wk ... LTM increased by 0.45 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.83) kg in the PRO group compared with a decrease of 0.16 (95% CI: -0.49, 0.17) kg in the CON group (P = 0.006). Appendicular LTM accounted for the majority of the difference in LTM, increasing by 0.27 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.48) kg in the PRO group compared with no change in the CON group"
  • Dietary Protein Intake Is Protective Against Loss of Grip Strength Among Older Adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Nov 2 - "Greater protein intake, regardless of source, was associated with less decrease in grip strength (all p for trend ≤.05): participants in the lowest quartiles lost 0.17% to 0.27% per year while those in the highest quartiles gained 0.52% to 0.60% per year. In analyses stratified by age, participants aged 60 years or older (n = 646) had similar linear trends on loss of grip strength for total and animal (all p for trend <.03) but not plant protein, while the trends in participants younger than 60 years (n = 896) were not statistically significant"
  • Does Vitamin-D Intake During Resistance Training Improve the Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophic and Strength Response in Young and Elderly Men? - Medscape, 10/22/15 - "No additive effect of vitamin-D intake during 12 weeks of resistance training could be detected on either whole muscle hypertrophy or muscle strength, but improved muscle quality in elderly and fiber type morphology in young were observed, indicating an effect of vitamin-D on skeletal muscle remodeling" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Magnesium Is Positively Associated with Skeletal Muscle Power and Indices of Muscle Mass and May Attenuate the Association Between Circulating C-Reactive Protein and Muscle Mass in Women - J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Aug 19 - "Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength are risk factors for sarcopenia, osteoporosis, falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Dietary magnesium (Mg) could play a role in prevention of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, power and strength directly through physiological mechanisms or indirectly through an impact on chronic low-grade inflammation, itself a risk factor for loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength ... Our results suggest that dietary magnesium may aid conservation of age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and power in women of all ages" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Key to maintaining muscle strength while we age - Science Daily, 6/2/15 - "Previous research by Steinberg's team has shown that this "metabolic switch" is turned on with exercise as well as commonly-used medications including metformin and salicylate (the active ingredient in Aspirin) ... We know we can turn on the AMPK pathway with intense exercise and commonly-used Type 2 diabetes medications" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 20 - "Compared with the control group, 6 mo of n-3 PUFA therapy increased thigh muscle volume (3.6%; 95% CI: 0.2%, 7.0%), handgrip strength (2.3 kg; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.7 kg), 1-RM muscle strength (4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8%, 7.3%) (all P < 0.05), and tended to increase average isokinetic power (5.6%; 95% CI: -0.6%, 11.7%; P = 0.075) ... Fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults" - [Nutra USA] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of Leucine Supplementation on Exercise Training Induced Anti-Cardiac Remodeling Effect in Heart Failure Mice - Nutrients. 2015 May 15 - "Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle ... Leucine supplementation potentiated AET effects on exercise tolerance, which might be related to its recognized impact on skeletal muscle" - See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Protein and healthy aging - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 29 - "The potential benefits of young and middle-aged adults adopting a diet pattern whereby adequate protein is consumed at each meal as a countermeasure to sarcopenia are presented and discussed. For example, meeting a protein threshold (~25-30 g/meal) represents a promising, yet still largely unexplored dietary strategy to help maintain muscle mass and function. For many older adults, breakfast is a carbohydrate-dominated lower-protein meal and represents an opportunity to improve and more evenly distribute daily protein intake. Although both animal and plant-based proteins can provide the required essential amino acids for health, animal proteins generally have a higher proportion of the amino acid leucine. Leucine plays a key role in stimulating translation initiation and muscle protein anabolism and is the focus of ongoing research. Protein requirements should be assessed in the light of habitual physical activity. An evenly distributed protein diet provides a framework that allows older adults to benefit from the synergistic anabolic effect of protein and physical activity" - Note:  I put a scoop of leucine into an empty jelly jar with about a third cup of water and shake it then swill it every morning just before breakfast.  It's probably the worst thing you'll ever taste but I'm convinced it works for preserving muscles  See Leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Association Between Healthy Diet and Exercise and Greater Muscle Mass in Older Adults J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Apr 27 - "vegetable consumption (odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.30-0.89) and aerobic exercise (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.39-1.00) were inversely associated with low muscle mass. Also, the odds of low muscle mass was lower in women with three or more healthy lifestyle factors versus none (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.23-0.87). In men, there were no associations between food group consumption and exercise and low muscle mass"
  • Caloric restriction: A fountain of youth for aging muscles? - Science Daily, 4/22/15 - "while 14 weeks of calorie restriction did not significantly affect the middle-aged rats, it reduced muscle mass in the young rats. Calorie restriction slowed the glycolytic rate in the muscles and increased the cells' dependency for OXPHOS versus glycolysis in older rats, which was linked to improvement of normalized muscle mass. The team also found that "14 weeks of CR reprogrammed cellular metabolism, where the relative contribution of OXPHOS and glycolysis in muscles of middle-aged rats with CR was similar to that in muscles of young rats"
  • Effects of leucine-rich protein supplements on anthropometric parameter and muscle strength in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis - J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(4):437-46 - "It is concluded that leucine supplementation was found to exert beneficial effects on body weight, body mass index, and lean body mass in older persons in those subjects already prone to sarcopenia, but not muscle strength" - Note:  Here's what I take. I put a scoop and a half of leucine in about a half cup of water in a small jelly jar and shake it and swill it. It's probably the worst think you could taste: Serious Nutrition Solutions Leucine - 500 Grams at Amazon.com.
  • Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS) - oxfordjournals.org - 9/21/14 - "EAAs (with 2.5 g of leucine) and HMB seem to have some effects on muscle mass and muscle function that need to be confirmed in larger trials" - [Nutra USA] - See leucine products at Amazon.com and Core Nutritionals Hmb Dietary Supplement, 90 Gram.
  • Curcumin counteracts loss of force and atrophy of hindlimb-unloaded rat soleus by hampering nNOS untethering from sarcolemma - J Physiol. 2014 Apr 7 - "curcumin represents an effective and safe tool to upregulate Grp94 muscle levels and to maintain muscle function during unweighting" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids and protein metabolism: enhancement of anabolic interventions for sarcopenia - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Mar;17(2):145-50 - "The metabolic derangements and other consequences associated with sarcopenia can be slowed or even prevented by specific nutritional interventions. New evidence is available about the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplementation to improve protein metabolism and counteract anabolic resistance through indirect effects. Studies show that the anabolic stimuli from substrates (e.g. amino acids or proteins), hormones (e.g. insulin) and/or physical activity in skeletal muscle can be enhanced by long-term fish oil administration" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Protein Distribution Positively Influences 24-h Muscle Protein Synthesis in Healthy Adults - J Nutr. 2014 Jan 29 - "The consumption of a moderate amount of protein at each meal stimulated 24-h muscle protein synthesis more effectively than skewing protein intake toward the evening meal"
  • Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 27 "40 men (21 ± 1 y) completed unilateral knee-extensor resistance exercise before the ingestion of 25 g whey protein (W25) (3.0 g leucine), 6.25 g whey protein (W6) (0.75g leucine), 6.25 g whey protein supplemented with leucine to 3.0 g total leucine (W6+Low-Leu), 6.25 g whey protein supplemented with leucine to 5.0 g total leucine (W6+High-Leu), or 6.25 g whey protein supplemented with leucine, isoleucine, and valine to 5.0 g total leucine ... A low-protein (6.25 g) mixed macronutrient beverage can be as effective as a high-protein dose (25 g) at stimulating increased MPS rates when supplemented with a high (5.0 g total leucine) amount of leucine. These results have important implications for formulations of protein beverages designed to enhance muscle anabolism" - See leucine products at Amazon.com
  • Low muscle mass in older men: the role of lifestyle, diet and cardiovascular risk factors - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(1):26-33 - "Setting: British Regional Heart Study. Participants: 4252 men aged 60-79 years ... Participants attended a physical examination in 1998-2000, and completed a general questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. Low muscle mass was assessed by two measures: midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) ... Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen were associated with significantly increased odds of low MAMC and FFMI after adjustment for body mass index, lifestyle characteristics and morbidity. Those with higher percent energy intake from carbohydrates showed decreased odds of low MAMC (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.96) and FFMI (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99)" - Note:  See my macaroni and cheese recipe on my grains page.
  • Methylcobalamin promotes proliferation and migration and inhibits apoptosis of C2C12 cells via the Erk1/2 signaling pathway - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Dec 13 - "Methylcobalamin (MeCbl) is a vitamin B12 analog that has some positive effects on peripheral nervous disorders ... Our results suggest that MeCbl has beneficial effects on the muscle in vitro. MeCbl administration may provide a novel therapeutic approach for muscle injury or degenerating muscle after denervation" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary protein and muscle in older persons - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Jan;17(1):5-11 - "Results from muscle protein anabolism, appetite regulation and satiety research support the contention that meeting a protein threshold (approximately 30g/meal) represents a promising strategy for middle-aged and older adults concerned with maintaining muscle mass while controlling body fat"
  • Exercise as a remedy for sarcopenia - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Jan;17(1):25-31 - "Resistance exercise training is more effective in increasing muscle mass and strength, whereas endurance exercises training is superior for maintaining and improving maximum aerobic power. Based on these evidences, recommendations for adult and frail older people should include a balanced program of both endurance and strength exercises, performed on a regular schedule (at least 3 days a week) ... Regular exercise is the only strategy found to consistently prevent frailty and improve sarcopenia and physical function in older adults"
  • Urine melatonin levels are inversely associated with sarcopenia in postmenopausal women - Menopause. 2013 Jun 10 - "Seventy-eight Korean postmenopausal women participated ... Our study shows an inverse association between urine melatonin and sarcopenia, suggesting that melatonin may have a protective role in the pathophysiology of sarcopenia" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - Medscape, 6/11/13 - "Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass that results in a reduction in skeletal muscle function, quality of life and an increased risk of falls. Older muscle has an 'anabolic resistance' to both nutrients and exercise, with the precise underlying mechanism still to be elucidated. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish oil can be incorporated into the membranes of skeletal muscles, where they may have anti-inflammatory effects. This alteration in muscle membrane fatty acid composition may have anabolic effects in aging muscle and, thus, be useful in the treatment of sarcopenia ... The current data presented suggest that n-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in the treatment of sarcopenia" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on lean body mass during 10 days of bed rest in older adults - Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 4 - "Loss of muscle mass due to prolonged bed rest decreases functional capacity and increases hospital morbidity and mortality in older adults ... In healthy older adults, HMB supplementation preserves muscle mass during 10 days of bed rest" - See HMB at Amazon.com.
  • Beef up: Middle-aged men may need more to maintain muscle mass - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "Canada's Food Guide now suggests that consuming about 3oz (0.80 g/kg/d) of meat per serving is adequate to provide protein at the recommended level ... However, our work shows that the quantity of beef needed to maximize the renewal of new muscle proteins was at least 6oz in middle-aged men. Our findings have clear ramifications for the current recommendations regarding protein to prevent muscle loss in aging"
  • The association between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia in older, non-obese Korean adults: the fourth Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES IV) 2009 - Endocr J. 2013 Jan 26 - "The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between daily calcium intake and sarcopenia. We analyzed data for older adults (over 60 years) from the fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted in 2009 ... assessed using a nutrition survey that used a 24-hour recall method ... We found that daily calcium intake was negatively correlated with total body fat percentage and positively correlated with appendicular skeletal mass (p<0.001). Participants with sarcopenia appear to have significantly lower daily calcium intakes than participants without sarcopenia (p<0.001). The unadjusted prevalence of sarcopenia according to daily calcium intake tertiles were 6.3%, 4.3%, and 2.7% in tertiles 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, total energy intake, and lifestyle factors, compared with those in the lowest tertile of daily calcium intake, participants in the highest tertile had an odds ratio for sarcopenia of 0.295 (95% confidence interval, 0.087-0.768; p for trend = 0.014)"
  • Which nutritional factors help preserve muscle mass, strength and performance in seniors? - Science Daily, 1/18/13 - "The authors propose an intake of 1.0-1.2 g/kg of body weight per day as optimal for skeletal muscle and bone health in elderly people without severely impaired renal function ... adequate vitamin D should be ensured through exposure to sunlight and/or supplementation if required. Vitamin D supplementation in seniors, and especially in institutionalized elderly, is recommended for optimal musculoskeletal health ... Excess intake of acid-producing nutrients (meat and cereal grains) in combination with low intake of alkalizing fruits and vegetables may have negative effects on musculoskeletal health. Modifying the diet to include more fruits and vegetables is likely to benefit both bones and muscles ... Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin B12 and/or folic acid play a role in improving muscle function and strength" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com, folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.

Other News:

  • Higher alcohol consumption leads to greater loss of muscle tissue in postmenopausal women - Science Daily, 6/7/17 - "Both aging and menopause are known to affect sarcopenia, which is a loss of muscle mass and strength, which in turn affects balance, gait, and overall ability to perform tasks of daily living ... the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be nearly four times greater for the high-risk, alcohol-drinking group than the low-risk group"
  • Sarcopenic obesity, weight loss, and mortality: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing - Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 May 24 - "The risk of all-cause mortality was significantly greater in participants who experienced weight loss over 4 y (HR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.32, 3.71) and/or reduced hand grip strength (HR: 1.53; 95% CI: 10.07, 2.17) than in those with stable weight and grip strength, with the highest risk in those with both weight loss and reduced strength (HR: 3.77; 95% CI: 2.54, 5.60).Conclusions: Sarcopenic obesity did not confer any greater risk than sarcopenia alone. Weight loss combined with sarcopenia presented the greatest risk of mortality"
  • Deli Dilemma: Meat and Cheese Linked to Earlier Death - ABC News, 3/4/14 - "The study of more than 6,000 American adults found those between the ages of 50 and 65 with diets high in animal protein were 74 percent more likely to meet an untimely end than those who consumed less animal protein or got their protein from non-animal sources ... For deaths due to cancer, the risk was four times higher ... Why did the effect disappear with older people? As we age, our demand for protein increases. So getting more of it from a host of sources after 65 is important in extending our longevity ... The patients whose diets were packed with protein were more than 25 percent less likely to meet an early death ... What we know for sure is older people have a problem getting enough protein ... The condition is known as sarcopenia, and is estimated to affect nearly half of seniors by the time they reach eighty years of age" - [Fox video segment on this which gets into the percentages of protein]
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