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Home > Anti-aging Research > Grains

Grains

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Is white or whole wheat bread 'healthier?' Depends on the person - Science Daily, 6/6/17 - "About half the people had a better response to the processed, white flour bread, and the other half had a better response to the whole wheat sourdough"
  • Whole-Grain Foods May Help You Stay Slim - WebMD, 2/8/17 - "Those on the whole-grain diet absorbed fewer calories and had greater fecal output. Their resting metabolic rate (calories burned at rest) was also higher ... The energy deficit in those eating whole grains compared to refined grains would be equivalent to the calories you would burn if you were to walk about a mile [in] about 20 or 30 minutes ... ''We don't know over the long term if it would translate to weight loss," Karl said, but his team suspects it would. "This would translate to about 5 pounds in a year," ... In a related study in the same issue of the journal, the same group of researchers found that people who ate whole grains had modest improvements in healthy gut environment and certain immune responses. Whole-grain intake has also been linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers"
  • Pasta is not fattening -- quite the opposite, Italian study finds - Science Daily, 7/4/16 - "examined over 23,000 people recruited in two large epidemiological studies ... By analyzing anthropometric data of the participants and their eating habits ... we have seen that consumption of pasta, contrary to what many think, is not associated with an increase in body weight, rather the opposite. Our data show that enjoying pasta according to individuals' needs contributes to a healthy body mass index, lower waist circumference and better waist-hip ratio" - Yeah but I'm sticking with whole grains.  See Annie Chun's Brown Rice Noodle, Maifun, 8-Ounce (Pack of 6) and brown rice pasta at Amazon.com.
  • Whole Grains Help You Live Longer, Study Finds - NBC News.com, 1/5/15 - "each average daily serving of whole grains lowers a person's risk of dying from heart disease by 9 percent and lowers the overall risk of dying from anything by 5 percent over a quarter-century. That's even taking into account that whole grain lovers tend to do other healthy stuff, too ... The benefits probably come from the bran"
  • Replace White Rice With Brown to Cut Obesity and Diabetes - Medscape, 1/16/14 - "randomized 150 adults with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 or greater and no known chronic diseases to a diet based on either white rice or brown rice for 3 months ... Five-day mean glucose concentrations were approximately 20% lower among those consuming a brown-rice–based diet, based on continuous glucose monitoring ... fasting insulin concentrations were 57% lower among those eating the brown-rice–based diet ... With white rice, once you mill it, you can keep it for a couple of years, but the brown rice gets rancid quickly"
  • Low muscle mass in older men: the role of lifestyle, diet and cardiovascular risk factors - J Nutr Health Aging. 2014;18(1):26-33 - "Setting: British Regional Heart Study. Participants: 4252 men aged 60-79 years ... Participants attended a physical examination in 1998-2000, and completed a general questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire. Low muscle mass was assessed by two measures: midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) ... Physical inactivity, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen were associated with significantly increased odds of low MAMC and FFMI after adjustment for body mass index, lifestyle characteristics and morbidity. Those with higher percent energy intake from carbohydrates showed decreased odds of low MAMC (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.96) and FFMI (OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.58-0.99)"
  • Whole Grains, Whole Diet - U.S. News, 9/6/12 - "chock full of fiber ... heart-healthy ... help control diabetes ... packed with nutrients, including protein, B vitamins, calcium, folic acid, iron, zinc, copper, magnesium, and antioxidants ... help ward off cancer ... satiating"
  • White rice increases diabetes risk, scientists say - Fox News, 3/16/12 - "higher white rice consumption was associated with a significantly elevated risk of Type 2 diabetes. This association seems to be stronger for Asians than for Western populations ... compared with brown rice, white rice has a lower content of many nutrients including fiber, magnesium and vitamins, some of which -- especially fiber and magnesium -- are thought to protect against diabetes" - Note:  It doesn't tell you what the percentage of that increased risk is.
  • A diet rich in slowly digested carbs reduces markers of inflammation in overweight and obese adults - Science Daily, 1/11/12 - "Among overweight and obese adults, a diet rich in slowly digested carbohydrates, such as whole grains, legumes and other high-fiber foods, significantly reduces markers of inflammation associated with chronic disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet reduced a biomarker of inflammation called C-reactive protein by about 22 percent ... C-reactive protein is associated with an increased risk for many cancers as well as cardiovascular disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin. This hormone plays a key role in protecting against several cancers, including breast cancer, as well as metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hardening of the arteries"
  • Breakfast fail! Worst supermarket cereals revealed - MSNBC, 1/11/12 - "Eating breakfast pays off—numerous studies indicate that eating in the A.M. is key in losing and maintaining weight. Not only have studies shown that regular breakfast eaters have lower BMIs, but they also typically have lower waist-to-hip ratios than those that skip. Cereal is a great option—it’s a quick and convenient way to get in on those belly-shrinking benefits. That said, not all cereals are equal"
  • Three Whole-Grain Portions Daily May Lower Cardiovascular Risk - Medscape, 1/4/11 - "Daily consumption of 3 portions of whole-grain foods (WGF) is linked to lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy, middle-aged people mainly by lowering blood pressure (BP) ... assigned to continue the refined diet (control) or to switch to a whole-wheat diet or to a whole-wheat plus oat diet, for 12 weeks ... Compared with the control group, the WGF groups had a significant reduction in systolic BP (6 mm Hg) and a significant reduction (3 mm Hg) in pulse pressure ... The observed decrease in systolic blood pressure could decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and stroke by ≥ 15% and 25%, respectively"
  • Eating mostly whole grains, few refined grains linked to lower body fat - Science Daily, 10/20/10 - "People who consume several servings of whole grains per day while limiting daily intake of refined grains appear to have less of a type of fat tissue thought to play a key role in triggering cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes ... Visceral Adipose Tissue ... VAT volume was approximately 10 % lower in adults who reported eating three or more daily servings of whole grains and who limited their intake of refined grains to less than one serving per day ... Visceral fat surrounds the intra-abdominal organs while subcutaneous fat is found just beneath the skin ... visceral fat is more closely tied to the development of metabolic syndrome ... participants who consumed, on average, three daily servings of whole grains but continued to eat many refined grains did not demonstrate lower VAT volume"
  • Intake of wholegrain products and risk of colorectal cancers in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study - Br J Cancer. 2010 Aug 24;103(5):730-4 - "wholegrain (WG) products ... Higher WG product intake was associated with lower risk of colon cancer and rectal cancer in men. The adjusted IRR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.77-0.94) for colon cancer and 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for rectal cancer per daily 50 g increment in intake. For colon cancer the association was confined to intake of WG bread in particular. No consistent associations between total or individual WG product consumption and colon or rectal cancer risk were observed in women"
  • Replacing white rice with brown rice or other whole grains may reduce diabetes risk - Science Daily, 6/14/10 - "replacing 50 grams of white rice (just one third of a typical daily serving) with the same amount of brown rice would lower risk of type 2 diabetes by 16%. The same replacement with other whole grains, such as whole wheat and barley, was associated with a 36% reduced risk"
  • Whole grain boosts life expectancy of diabetic women: Study - Nutra USA 5/26/10 - "among 7,800 US women followed for 26 years, those with the highest bran intake were 28 percent less likely to die during the review period than those who consumed the least bran ... Also, they were 35 percent less likely to die of cardiovascular disease" - [Abstract]
  • Brown rice and cardiovascular protection -Science Daily, 4/26/10 - "brown rice might have an advantage over white rice by offering protection from high blood pressure and atherosclerosis ("hardening of the arteries") ... a component in a layer of tissue surrounding grains of brown rice may work against angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is an endocrine protein and a known culprit in the development of high blood pressure and atherosclerosis"
  • Whole Grains Take a Bite Out of Type 2 Diabetes Risk - US News and World Report, 3/25/10 - "people who ate five or more servings per week of white rice were 17 percent more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those who ate less than one serving of white rice per month ... people who ate two or more servings of brown rice per week were 11 percent less likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those who ate less than one serving of brown rice per month ... We estimated that replacing 50 grams/day intake of white rice with the same amount of brown rice was associated with a 16 percent lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas the same replacement with whole grains as a group was associated with a 36 percent lower diabetes risk"
  • Whole-Grain, Low-Calorie Diet Reduced Body Fat Compared With Refined-Wheat Low-Calorie Diet - Doctor's Guide, 5/14/09 - "Patients consuming whole-grain foods had a significantly larger drop in body fat percentage (assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning) compared with patients who had eaten refined foods (-6.8% vs -4.8%; P = .03) ... Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels rose by 5% in the refined-wheat group but remained unchanged in the wholemeal-wheat group"
  • Calcium And Vitamin D May Not Be The Only Protection Against Bone Loss - Science Daily, 12/3/08 - "Diets that are high in protein and cereal grains produce an excess of acid in the body which may increase calcium excretion and weaken bones ... When fruits and vegetables are metabolized they add bicarbonate, an alkaline compound, to the body ... bicarbonate had a favorable effect on bone resorption and calcium excretion ... 171 men and women aged 50 and older were randomized to receive placebo or doses of either: potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or potassium chloride for three months. Researchers found that subjects taking bicarbonate had significant reductions in calcium excretion, signaling a decrease in bone resorption"
  • Eating Whole Grains Lowers Heart Failure Risk, According To New Study - Science Daily, 10/27/08 - "whole grain consumption lowered HF risk, while egg and high-fat dairy consumption raised risk. Other food groups did not directly affect HF risk"
  • Rice bran contains high arsenic levels, study - Nutra USA, 8/26/08 - "rice bran and rice bran solubles contain inorganic arsenic levels of around 1mg/kg dry weight, which is around 10-20 times the concentration found in bulk grain ... The tests were conducted on four bran solubles, one defatted bran, one riceo-ex and three bran products ... Out of the bran solubles, testing found the highest inorganic arsenic level of 0.86mg/kg in a sample from Holistic Enterprises, Santa Ana, USA. A sample from NutraCea, USA was found to contain 0.82mg/kg. A sample from Pure Planet Products, Long Beach, CA, USA, contained 0.71mg/kg and one from Integris, RiSO Triene, USA, contained 0.61mg/kg ... The rice bran products tested were from: General Dietary, UK & Eire; The Barry Farm, Ohio, USA; and Tsuno Rice Fine Chemicals Co, Japan. They contained levels of 0.48, 0.64 and 1.65mg/kg respectively ... The defatted bran and the riceo-ex products were again sourced from Japan’s Tsuno Rice, and contained 1.16 and 1.88mg/kg respectively" - That doesn't help me out much.  I've been getting the Tinkyada brown rice noodles at Henry's.
  • Whole Grains Fight Belly Fat - WebMD, 2/25/08 - "Both groups experienced a decrease in body fat, but the whole-grain group lost significantly more body fat from the abdominal region than the refined-grain group. Excessive fat around the midsection is linked to an increased risk of heart disease ... The whole-grain group experienced other benefits. For example, CRP levels dropped by 38% among those who followed a whole-grain diet"
  • Whole Grain Diets Lower Risk Of Chronic Disease, Study Shows - Science Daily, 2/5/08 - "Consumption of whole grains has been associated with a lower body weight and lower blood pressure ... waist circumference and body weight decreased significantly in both groups -- between 8-11 pounds on average -- but weight loss in the abdominal region was significantly greater in the whole grain group ... the whole grain group experienced a 38 percent decrease in C-reactive protein levels ... Participants in the whole grain group also showed an increased intake of fiber and magnesium, both of which may prevent or delay the potential onset of diabetes"
  • Oatmeal's Health Claims Reaffirmed, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/8/08 - "studies conducted during the past 15 years have, without exception, shown: ... total cholesterol levels are lowered through oat consumption ... low-density lipoprotein (LDL, the "bad" cholesterol) is reduced without adverse effects on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, the "good" cholesterol), or triglyceride concentrations"
  • More support for whole grains for healthy hearts - Nutra USA< 1/7/08 - "25 women and 25 men (average age 46, average BMI 35.8 kg per sq. m) were assigned to consume a reduced calorie diet (reduced by 500 kcal/d) with half of the subjects then randomly assigned to obtain all of their grain servings from whole grains or to avoid wholegrain foods for 12 weeks ... CRP levels fell by 38 per cent in the whole-grain"
  • Whole Grains Cut Heart Failure Risk - WebMD, 10/22/07 - "the risk of heart failure among those who ate breakfast cereal at least seven times a week was 29% lower than that the risk among those who never ate cereal, after adjusting for other heart disease risk factors ... When researchers further analyzed the results they found this healthy effect was associated with whole-grain cereals only, not with refined breakfast cereals"
  • Whole Grains vs. High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 8/10/07 - "Compared to women who reported eating less than half a daily serving of whole grains, women who claimed to eat at least four daily servings of whole grains were about 23% less likely to be diagnosed with high blood pressure during the study"
  • Grain Fiber And Magnesium Intake Associated With Lower Risk For Diabetes - Science Daily, 5/14/07 - "those who consumed the most cereal fiber had a 33 percent lower risk of developing diabetes than those who took in the least, while those who consumed the most magnesium had a 23 percent lower risk than those who consumed the least. There was no association between fruit or vegetable fiber and diabetes risk"
  • Health Benefits Of Whole Grains Confirmed - Science Daily, 5/9/07 - "Consuming an average of 2.5 servings of whole grains each day is associated with a 21 percent lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared to consuming only 0.2 servings"
  • Whole-Grain Oats Cut Cholesterol - WebMD, 4/18/07 - "people who ate whole-grain oatmeal had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels compared with those who ate refined grain foods. The average reduction in total cholesterol levels was 7.7 mg/dL and the average reduction in LDL cholesterol levels was 7 mg/dL"
  • Whole Grain Oats May Reduce Risk Factors For Coronary Heart Disease - Science Daily, 4/17/07
  • Whole-Grain Cereals Cut Heart Failure - WebMD, 3/2/07 - "were followed for about 18 years, on average ... Those who reported eating at least seven weekly servings of whole-grain breakfast cereals were 21% less likely to develop heart failure during the study, compared with those who ate no whole-grain breakfast cereals"
  • Starch Intake May Increase Risk for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Medscape, 6/27/06 - "Starch intake was directly associated with increased risk for BPH with an OR of 1.51 ... The main sources of starch in the subjects were white bread, pasta, and rice ... An inverse relationship was observed for polyunsaturated fats (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 - 0.93), linoleic acid (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56 - 0.94), and linolenic acid (OR, 0.71"
  • Wholegrains better than refined grains to lower bad fats - Nutra USA, 3/22/06 - "After eating the refined-grain diet the researchers found that serum levels of both triglycerides and apoCIII were significantly higher than after eating the whole grain diet"
  • How Nice, Brown Rice: Study Shows Rice Bran Lowers Blood Pressure In Rats - Science Daily, 3/3/06 - "adding rice bran to the diets of hypertensive, stroke-prone rats lowered the animals’ systolic blood pressure by about 20 percent and, via the same mechanism, inhibited angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, or ACE"
  • Older Adults May Reduce Risk of Metabolic Syndrome by Eating More Whole Grains - Doctor's Guide, 2/6/06 - "as whole-grain intake increased, fasting blood sugar levels were lower in these subjects. Refined grain intake, on the other hand, was associated with higher fasting blood sugar levels ... people who consumed high amounts of refined grains had twice the risk of having metabolic syndrome than those people who consumed the fewest servings of refined grains"
  • Wholegrains ease metabolic syndrome in older people - Nutra USA, 1/12/06 - "Volunteers in the highest wholegrain intake group (3 servings per day) were statistically half as likely to develop MetS as those who consumed less than half a serving per day"
  • Heart study strengthens interest in wholegrain products - Nutra USA, 7/28/05 - "Women with a history of heart disease who participated in a research study and reported having eaten six or more servings of per week had slower progression of atherosclerosis ... Insufficient milling breakthroughs had, until last year, prevented bakers from making a wholegrain bread with a similar taste and texture to white bread"
  • How whole grains can fight disease - MSNBC, 3/4/05 - "A greater whole-grain consumption than Americans currently have is linked in several studies with lower death rates from both heart disease and cancer ... whole grain consumption can result in 17 to 35 percent fewer deaths from these two diseases"
  • Whole Grains Help Your Heart - WebMD, 12/29/04 - "Eating just 25 grams of whole grains a day reduces the risk of heart disease by about 15%"
  • Eat Whole-Grain Carbs, Gain Less Weight - WebMD, 11/17/04 - "Eating 40 grams of whole grains a day cuts middle-age weight gain by as much as 3.5 pounds ... Whole grains have three parts: bran, germ, and the starchy endosperm ... all three parts of whole grains work together"
  • Research: Refined Grains Expand Girths - Intelihealth, 6/21/04 - "three years they were tracked ... At the end, the white bread group had three times the fiber group's gain at the gut ... I think abdominal fat cells may be more sensitive to insulin's effects than other fat cells in the body"
  • Eating Whole Grains Pays Off - WebMD, 2/19/04 - "greater consumption of whole-grain, cereal fiber, and diets with lower glycemic index were associated with better insulin sensitivity and were less likely to be affected by insulin resistant or the metabolic syndrome"
  • Wholegrain intake associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome - Nutra USA, 2/18/04 - "intakes of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, fruit fiber, and wholegrains were inversely associated, whereas glycemic index and glycemic load were positively associated with insulin resistance"
  • Buckwheat May Be Beneficial For Managing Diabetes - Intelihealth, 11/18/03 - "extracts of the seed lowered blood glucose levels by 12 percent to 19 percent when fed to diabetic rats ... incorporation of buckwheat into the diet could help provide a safe, easy and inexpensive way to lower glucose levels and reduce the risk of complications associated with the disease, including heart, nerve and kidney problems"
  • Higher Whole-Grain Intake Associated With Increased Insulin Sensitivity - Medscape, 11/7/03 - "Given that insulin sensitivity is one of the main predictors of diabetes, our findings support previous reports on the protective effects of whole grains on the risk of developing diabetes in men and women by substantiating one of the underlying mechanisms"
  • Searching for ideal diet in sea of conflicting food advice - USA Today, 4/20/03 - "Dr. Walter Willett, chairman of the nutrition department at Harvard School of Public Health ... Willett has assembled an "ideal" diet of his own that relies on healthier plant oils instead of animal fats, and whole grains and high-fiber carbohydrates (think brown rice and wheat pasta) over refined grains like white rice ... It emphasizes plenty of vegetables and fruits, and healthy protein sources — such as fish, poultry, nuts and legumes — instead of red meat and high-fat dairy products. Willett also recommends a daily multivitamin, moderate alcohol consumption and regular physical activity"
  • Whole-Grain Cereal Lengthens Lives - thesandiegochannel.com, 3/28/03 - "men who ate one serving of whole-grain, high-fiber cereal every day were nearly 30 percent less likely to die from heart disease or other diet-related diseases ... the more whole-grain cereal the men ate, the lower their risk of death from heart disease ... Whole-grain cereals contain the kind of fiber that helps lower cholesterol and blood pressure and improves how the body processes insulin and glucose. Whole grains also have more vitamins, minerals and antioxidants than refined cereal ... To make sure a cereal contains whole grains, check the ingredient list. Whole grain or bran should be listed as the first ingredient ... To be a whole-grain cereal, it must contain at least 2 grams of fiber per serving, preferably more"
  • Breakfast Reduces Diabetes, Heart Disease - WebMD, 3/6/03 - "A daily breakfast may reduce the risk of becoming obese or developing signs that can lead to diabetes -- called insulin resistance syndrome -- by 35% to 50% compared with skipping the morning meal ... Their recommendation: A bowl of whole-grain cereal ... eating whole-grain cereal each day was associated with a 15% reduction in risk for the insulin resistance syndrome ... soluble fiber forms a gel-like material that prevents cholesterol and saturated fats from entering the bloodstream, where they can collect and form plaques on artery walls. The insoluble fiber in these cereals, meanwhile, helps keep bowel movement regular and may help reduce risk of colon problems"
  • Breakfast Cereal and Heart Disease - WebMD, 2/26/03 - "the more whole-grain cereal the men ate, the lower their risk of death from heart disease or any other cause was. For example, men who ate at least one serving of whole-grain breakfast cereal per day had a 27% lower risk of death from any cause compared with those who rarely ate whole-grain cereal ... men who ate the most whole-grain cereals also had a 28% lower risk of death due to heart disease and a 23% lower risk of heart attack than men who ate the least whole-grain cereal ... whole grains are thought to help lower cholesterol and blood pressure and improve how the body processes insulin and glucose. Compared with their highly processed and refined counterparts, whole-grain cereals also contain more beneficial micronutrients, antioxidants, minerals, and fiber"
  • Whole Grain Intake Reduces Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men - New Hope Natural Media, 12/26/02 - "People who consumed the highest amount of whole grains (3.2 servings per day) had a 30% to 40% reduction in risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with those who ate less than 1 serving a day ... The benefits of whole grains may be due to their increased content of fiber, which is mostly removed in process of refining whole grains to white flour. However, some studies suggest that the higher amount of magnesium in whole grains also contributes to the lower risk of diabetes"
  • Stuffing Rich in Antioxidants - WebMD, 11/8/02 - "In the crust, they found eight times more of an antioxidant called pronyl-lysine than in the crumbs. The original flour contained none of the compound ... Pronyl-lysine is formed during baking in both yeast-based and yeast-free bread"
  • Diets High In Whole Grains May Reduce The Risk Of Developing Type 2 Diabetes In Men - Doctor's Guide, 9/4/02
  • Want to Reduce Your Diabetes Risk? - WebMD, 7/25/02 - "those who reported eating the most servings of whole grain foods tended to have lower insulin levels, lower body weights, and lower cholesterol levels ... The study is just the latest to find that foods such as slow-cooking oatmeal, popcorn, brown rice, and certain processed whole grain breads and cereals are protective against type 2 diabetes. Eating whole grain foods has also been shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease ... the wildly popular weight-loss programs that restrict or eliminate carbohydrates from the diet are delivering the false message that all carbohydrates are bad"
  • Diet Rich In Fruits, Vegetables Lowers Risk Of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers - Doctor's Guide, 5/24/02 - "Intake of whole grains and fibre derived from a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can reduce the risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UAT) cancers"
  • Going Against the Grain, Consumers Have a Lot to Learn About Dietary Recommendations - WebMD. 3/14/01 - "the majority also incorrectly believed that 4.3 servings a day was enough. Since 1992, the USDA has recommended 6-11 servings a day, depending on age, gender, and activity level"

Abstracts:

  • Whole Grain Consumption and Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Women - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Apr 27:1-7 - "Whole grain consumption of more than 7 times/week was associated with a 0.49-fold (odds ratio = 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.29, 0.82) lower likelihood of having breast cancer, after adjustments were made" - See brown rice pasta at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Annie Chun's Brown Rice Noodle, Maifun, 8-Ounce (Pack of 6) and I used olive oil to make the pancit along with bean sprouts, fresh spinach and either shrimp, chicken or the leanest cut of pork.
  • Acute effect of sorghum flour-containing pasta on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in healthy subjects: A randomised controlled trial - Clin Nutr. 2014 Aug 14 - "pasta containing red wholegrain sorghum flour enhanced antioxidant status and improved markers of oxidative stress in healthy subjects" - See sorghum flour at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of the brown rice diet on visceral obesity and endothelial function: the BRAVO study - Br J Nutr. 2013 Aug 12:1-11 - "Brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) produce different glycaemic responses and their consumption may affect the dietary management of obesity ... In study 1, acute postprandial metabolic parameters and flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated dilation (FMD and NMD) of the brachial artery were determined in male volunteers with or without the metabolic syndrome after ingestion of either BR or WR. The increases in glucose and insulin AUC were lower after ingestion of BR than after ingestion of WR (P= 0.041 and P= 0.045, respectively). FMD values were decreased 60 min after ingestion of WR (P= 0.037 v. baseline), but the decrease was protected after ingestion of BR. In study 2, a separate cohort of male volunteers (n 27) with the metabolic syndrome was randomised into two groups with different BR and WR consumption patterns. The values of weight-based parameters were decreased after consumption of BR for 8 weeks, but returned to baseline values after a WR consumption period. Insulin resistance and total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were reduced after consumption of BR" - See brown rice pasta at Amazon.com.
  • Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr 30 - "We used data from the large population-based Scandinavian cohort HELGA consisting of 108,000 Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian persons, of whom 1,123 developed colorectal cancer during a median of 11 years of follow-up. Detailed information on daily intake of whole-grain products, including whole-grain bread, crispbread, and breakfast cereals, was available, and intakes of total whole grains and specific whole-grain species (wheat, rye, and oats) were estimated ... Intake of whole-grain products was associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer per 50-g increment (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.94; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.89, 0.99), and the same tendency was found for total whole-grain intake (IRR pr. 25-g increment, 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.88, 1.01). Intake of whole-grain wheat was associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer (IRR for highest versus lowest quartile of intake, 0.66; 95 % CI, 0.51, 0.85), but no statistical significant linear trend was observed (p for trend: 0.18). No significant association was found for whole-grain rye or oats"
  • Antitumor effects of dietary black and brown rice brans in tumor-bearing mice: Relationship to composition - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012 Dec 23 - "Black and brown rice brans from Oryza sativa LK1-3-6-12-1 and Chuchung cultivars each contained 21 compounds characterized by GC/MS [gas chromatography–mass spectrometry]. Mice fed diets with added rice brans for 2 weeks were intracutaneously inoculated with CT-26 mouse cancer cells and fed the same diet for two additional weeks. Tumor mass was 35 and 19% lower in the black and brown bran-fed groups, respectively" - See brown rice pasta at Amazon.com.
  • White rice consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes - Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 14 - "A population-based cohort study was undertaken in Pizarra, Spain. At baseline and follow-up, participants underwent an interview and a standardized clinical examination which included an oral glucose tolerance test in those subjects without known diabetes ... In subjects who reported rice intake 2-3 times a week, incidence of diabetes after 6 years follow-up was 12.0%, and in those who reported once or less a week, 20.2% (p = 0.04, non adjusted). Subjects who ate rice frequently had lower risk to develop diabetes 6 years later (OR = 0.43, p = 0.04; adjusted for age, sex, obesity, and presence of impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance at baseline)"
  • Changes in bread consumption and 4-year changes in adiposity in Spanish subjects at high cardiovascular risk - Br J Nutr. 2012 Dec 3:1-10 - "We analysed 2213 participants at high risk for CVD from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial to assess the association between changes in the consumption of bread and weight and waist circumference gain over time. Dietary habits were assessed with validated FFQ at baseline and repeatedly every year during 4 years of follow-up ... The present results showed that over 4 years, participants in the highest quartile of change in white bread intake gained 0.76 kg [1.7 pounds] more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend = 0.003) and 1.28 cm [0.5 inches] more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend < 0.001) ... The present results suggest that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread consumption, within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat"
  • Greater Whole-Grain Intake Is Associated with Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Weight Gain - J Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "identified 45 prospective cohort studies and 21 randomized-controlled trials (RCT) between 1966 and February 2012 ... compared with never/rare consumers of whole grains, those consuming 48-80 g whole grain/d (3-5 serving/d) had an ~26% lower risk of T2D [RR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.80)], ~21% lower risk of CVD [RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.85)], and consistently less weight gain during 8-13 y (1.27 vs 1.64 kg; P = 0.001). Among RCT, weighted mean differences in post-intervention circulating concentrations of fasting glucose, total and LDL-cholesterol comparing whole-grain intervention groups with controls indicated significantly lower concentrations after whole-grain interventions [differences in fasting glucose: -0.93 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.65, -0.21), total cholesterol: -0.83 mmol/L (-1.24, -0.42); and LDL-cholesterol: -0.72 mmol/L (-1.34, -0.11)]. Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence to support beneficial effects of whole-grain intake on vascular disease prevention"
  • Evaluation of the usefulness of a low-calorie diet with or without bread in the treatment of overweight/obesity - Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 30 - "The aim of this study was to compare two nutrition strategies (with or without bread) designed to promote weight loss in overweight/obese women ... 104 women completed the study (48.4 +/- 9 years, 29.8 +/- 3.5 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric and biochemical markers improved after the intervention without significant differences between groups. BREAD group significantly increased total cereal consumption (3.2 +/- 1.3 to 3.7 +/- 0.5 servings/day, P < 0.05) and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates (41.2 +/- 6.4 vs. 45.9 +/- 5.0% P < 0.001) and reduced fat (39.0 +/- 6.6 vs. 32.7 +/- 5.1% P < 0.001). In contrast, NO BREAD group increased the discrepancy with recommended consumption. NO BREAD group had the most dropouts (21.3% vs. 6.6%, P < 0.05) ... The bread inclusion in a low-calorie diet designed for weight loss favoured a better evolution of dietetic parameters and greater compliance with the diet with fewer dropouts"
  • Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases - Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec;14(12):2316-22 - "Several studies show consistently that subjects who ingest three or more portions of foods per day based on wholegrain cereals have a 20-30 % lower risk of CVD than subjects who ingest low quantities of cereals. This level of protection is not observed with the ingestion of refined cereals, these being even higher than with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Likewise, high intake of wholegrain cereals and their products, such as whole-wheat bread, is associated with a 20-30 % reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Finally, protection against the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps, other cancers of the digestive tract, cancers related to hormones and pancreatic cancer has been associated with the regular consumption of wholegrain cereals and derived products"
  • Breakfast cereals and risk of hypertension in the Physicians' Health Study I - Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 23 - "The average age of study participants was 52.4 +/- 8.9 years (range 39.7-85.9) during the initial assessment of cereal intake (1981-1983). During a mean follow up of 16.3 years, 7267 cases of hypertension occurred. The crude incidence rates of hypertension were 36.7, 34.0, 31.7, and 29.6 cases/1000 person-years for people reporting breakfast cereal intake of 0, ≤1, 2-6, and ≥7 servings/week, respectively. In a Cox regression model adjusting for age, smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus, hazard ratios (95% CI) for hypertension were 1.0 (reference), 0.93 (0.88-0.99), 0.88 (0.83-0.94), and 0.81 (0.75-0.86) from the lowest to the highest category of cereal consumption, respectively (p for trend <0.0001). This association was strongest for whole grain cereals and was observed in lean as well as overweight or obese participants"
  • A diet rich in oat bran improves blood lipids and hemostatic factors, and reduces apparent energy digestibility in young healthy volunteers - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "Total cholesterol decreased by 14% during the oat bran period compared with 4% during the control period (P<0.001). Non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 16% in the oat bran period compared with 3% in the control period (P<0.01), as did total triacylglycerol (21 vs 10%, P<0.05) and very-low-density lipoprotein triacylglycerol 33 vs 9%, P<0.01). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and factor VII (fVII) levels decreased more during consumption of oat bran compared with the control period (PAI-1: 30 vs 2.3%, P<0.01; fVII: 15 vs 7.6%, <0.001). Fecal volume and dry matter were greater when consuming the oat bran diet compared with the control (P<0.001), and energy excretion was increased by 37% (1014 vs 638 kJ/day, P<0.001); however, changes in body weight did not differ (oat bran:-0.3+/-0.5 kg; control: 0.0+/-0.7 kg).Conclusions: Addition of oat bran (6 g soluble fiber/day) to a low-fiber diet lowered total and non-HDL cholesterol, as well as hemostatic factors, and may affect energy balance through reduced energy utilization"
  • Foods and Food Groups Associated With the Incidence of Colorectal Polyps: The Adventist Health Study - Nutr Cancer. 2011 May 4:1 - "Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps and 25-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modifying diet and lifestyle habits ... Multivariate analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, and education showed a protective association with higher frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables (OR 1 time/d vs. <5/wk = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97) and dried fruit (OR 3+ times/wk vs. <1 time/wk = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.58-0.99). Consumption of legumes at least 3 times/wk reduced the risk by 33% after adjusting for meat intake. Consumption of brown rice at least 1 time/wk reduced the risk by 40%. These associations showed a dose-response effect. High frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables, dried fruit, legumes, and brown rice was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal polyps"
  • Dietary Fiber Intake and Mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study - Arch Intern Med. 2011 Feb 14 - "During an average of 9 years of follow-up, we identified 20 126 deaths in men and 11 330 deaths in women. Dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly lowered risk of total death in both men and women (multivariate relative risk comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82; P for trend, <.001] in men and 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.85; P for trend, <.001] in women). Dietary fiber intake also lowered the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases by 24% to 56% in men and by 34% to 59% in women. Inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cancer death was observed in men but not in women. Dietary fiber from grains, but not from other sources, was significantly inversely related to total and cause-specific death in both men and women" - See brown rice pasta at Amazon.com (my favorite with turkey meatballs and roasted garlic tomato sauce).
  • Effects of whole grains on coronary heart disease risk - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010 Nov;12(6):368-76 - "Whole grains high in viscous fiber (oats, barley) decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure and improve glucose and insulin responses. Grains high in insoluble fiber (wheat) moderately lower glucose and blood pressure but also have a prebiotic effect. Obesity is inversely related to whole grain intake, but intervention studies with whole grains have not produced weight loss. Visceral fat, however, may be affected favorably"
  • Rye Whole Grain and Bran Intake Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases Urinary C-Peptide, Plasma Insulin, and Prostate Specific Antigen in Men with Prostate Cancer - J Nutr. 2010 Oct 27 - "Seventeen participants were provided with 485 g rye whole grain and bran products (RP) or refined wheat products with added cellulose (WP), corresponding to ~50% of daily energy intake, in a randomized controlled, crossover design ... We conclude that whole grain and bran from rye resulted in significantly lower plasma PSA compared with a cellulose-supplemented refined wheat diet in patients with prostate cancer. The effect may be related to inhibition of prostate cancer progression caused by decreased exposure to insulin, as indicated by plasma insulin and urinary C-peptide excretion"
  • Whole- and refined-grain intakes are differentially associated with abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in healthy adults: the Framingham Heart Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep 29 - "visceral adipose tissue (VAT) ... Increasing whole-grain intake is associated with lower VAT in adults, whereas higher intakes of refined grains are associated with higher VAT"
  • Interactions of dietary whole grain intake with fasting glucose- and insulin-related genetic loci in individuals of European descent: a meta-analysis of 14 cohort studies - Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug 6 - "Greater whole grain food intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin concentrations independent of demographics, other dietary and lifestyle factors, and BMI (beta [95% CI] per 1-serving greater whole grain intake: -0.009 mmol/L glucose [-0.013, -0.005], p <0.0001 and -0.011 pmol/L (ln) insulin [-0.015, -0.007], p =0.0003) ... Our results support the favorable association of whole grain intake with fasting glucose and insulin and suggest potential interaction between variation in GCKR and whole grain intake in influencing fasting insulin concentrations"
  • Effect of increased consumption of whole-grain foods on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy middle-aged persons: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4 - "randomly allocated volunteers to a control (refined diet), wheat, or wheat + oats group for 12 w ... Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were significantly reduced by 6 and 3 mm Hg, respectively, in the whole-grain foods groups compared with the control group ... Daily consumption of 3 portions of whole-grain foods can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk in middle-aged people mainly through blood pressure-lowering mechanisms. The observed decrease in systolic blood pressure could decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and stroke by ge 15% and 25%, respectively"
  • Whole Grains Are Associated with Serum Concentrations of High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein among Premenopausal Women - J Nutr. 2010 Jul 28 - "Whole grain intake was inversely associated with hs-CRP concentrations after adjusting for age, race, BMI, illness, and antiinflammatory drug use. Consumers of between 0 and 1 serving/d of whole grains had, on average, 11.5% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) and consumers of >/=1 serving/d had 12.3% lower hs-CRP concentrations (P = 0.02) compared with nonconsumers"
  • Whole-Grain Intake and Cereal Fiber Are Associated with Lower Abdominal Adiposity in Older Adults - J Nutr. 2009 Sep 2 - "After adjustment for covariates, whole-grain intake was inversely associated with BMI [26.8 kg/m(2) (25.7-28.1) vs. 25.8 kg/m(2) (24.6-27.1), (95% CI); P-trend = 0.08], percent body fat [34.5% (32.7-36.3) vs. 32.1% (30.1-34.1); P-trend = 0.02], and percent trunk fat mass [43.0% (40.4-45.5) vs. 39.4% (36.7-42.1); P-trend = 0.02] in the lowest compared with the highest quartile category of whole-grain intake. Refined grain intake was not associated with any measure of body fat distribution. Cereal fiber was inversely associated with BMI [27.3 kg/m(2) (26.1-28.6) vs. 25.4 kg/m(2) (24.3-26.7); P-trend = 0.012], percent body fat [34.7% (32.8-36.6) vs. 31.5% (29.4-33.5); P-trend = 0.004], and percent trunk fat mass [42.8% (40.2-45.4) vs. 37.8% (35.0-40.6) ... Higher intakes of cereal fiber, particularly from whole-grain sources, are associated with lower total percent body fat and percent trunk fat mass in older adults"
  • Whole grains and incident hypertension in men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul 1 - "whole-grain intake was inversely associated with risk of hypertension, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87) in the highest compared with the lowest quintile (P for trend < 0.0001). In the multivariate model, total bran was inversely associated with hypertension, with a relative risk (RR) of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.92) in the highest compared with the lowest quintile"
  • Intake of plant foods and associated nutrients in prostate cancer risk - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):216-24 - "Plant foods and associated nutrients may impact prostate cancer (PC) risk and survival ... Reduced PC risk was associated with the highest tertile of cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.75), fiber (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.35-0.89), vitamin C (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.41-0.88), and fruits and/or fruit juices (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.31-0.68), with significant linear trends. Increased risk of PC was associated with the highest tertile of protein (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.05-3.79) and daily servings of grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.23-3.22) with significant linear trends"
  • The effects of a whole grain enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome - J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):79-90 - "Both hypocaloric diets were effective means of improving CVD risk factors with moderate weight loss. There were significantly (P < 0.05) greater decreases in CRP and percentage body fat in the abdominal region in participants consuming whole grains than in those consuming refined grains"
  • Whole- and refined-grain intakes and the risk of hypertension in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug;86(2):472-9 - "Higher whole-grain intake was associated with a reduced risk of hypertension in middle-aged and older women"
  • Whole-grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of noncardiovascular, noncancer death attributed to inflammatory diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1606-14 - "The reduction in inflammatory mortality associated with habitual whole-grain intake was larger than that previously reported for coronary heart disease and diabetes. Because a variety of phytochemicals are found in whole grains that may directly or indirectly inhibit oxidative stress, and because oxidative stress is an inevitable consequence of inflammation, we suggest that oxidative stress reduction by constituents of whole grain is a likely mechanism for the protective effect"
  • Whole-grain intake and carotid artery atherosclerosis in a multiethnic cohort: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1495-502 - "carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) ... common carotid artery (CCA) ... Whole-grain intake is inversely associated with CCA IMT, and this relation is not attributable to individual risk intermediates, single nutrient constituents, or larger dietary patterns"
  • Blood glucose lowering effects of brown rice in normal and diabetic subjects - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2006 May-Jun;57(3-4):151-8 - "The total sugar released in vitro was 23.7% lower in brown rice than in milled rice. In healthy volunteers, the glycemic area and glycemic index were, respectively, 19.8% and 12.1% lower (p < 0.05) in brown rice than milled rice, while in diabetics, the respective values were 35.2% and 35.6% lower. The effect was partly due to the higher amounts of phytic acid, polyphenols, dietary fiber and oil in brown compared to milled rice and the difference in some physicochemical properties of the rice samples such as minimum cooking time and degree of gelatinisation"
  • Whole-grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects - J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1401-7 - "substitution of whole grains (mainly based on milled wheat) for refined-grain products in the habitual daily diet of healthy moderately overweight adults for 6-wk did not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation"
  • Fiber and Magnesium Intake and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study and Meta-analysis - Arch Intern Med. 2007 May 14;167(9):956-65 - "Higher cereal fiber and magnesium intakes may decrease diabetes risk"
  • Muesli with 4 g oat beta-glucans lowers glucose and insulin responses after a bread meal in healthy subjects - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Apr 4 - "Muesli enriched with 4 g of beta-glucans reduces postprandial glucose and insulin levels to a breakfast based on high glycaemic index products. A total of 4 g of beta-glucans from oats seems to be a critical level for a significant decrease in glucose and insulin responses in healthy people"
  • Whole-grain diets reduce blood pressure in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women - J Am Diet Assoc. 2006 Sep;106(9):1445-9 - "Systolic pressure was lower after the wheat/rice and half-and-half diets. Diastolic and mean arterial pressures were reduced by all whole-grain diets"
  • Whole grains, bran, and germ in relation to homocysteine and markers of glycemic control, lipids, and inflammation 1 - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):275-283 - "Whole-grain intake was inversely associated with homocysteine and markers of glycemic control ... Inverse associations were also observed with total cholesterol (P = 0.02), HDL cholesterol (P = 0.05), and LDL cholesterol ... Whole-grain intake was most strongly inversely associated with markers of glycemic control in this population"
  • Cereal fiber and whole-grain intake are associated with reduced progression of coronary-artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease - Am Heart J. 2005 Jul;150(1):94-101 - "Intakes of total, fruit, and vegetable fiber, and number of servings of refined grain, fruits, or vegetable were not associated with progression ... Higher intakes of cereal fiber and whole-grain products are associated with less progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with established CAD"
  • Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov;80(5):1237-45 - "an increase in whole-grain intake was inversely associated with long-term weight gain (P for trend < 0.0001). A dose-response relation was observed, and for every 40-g/d increment in whole-grain intake from all foods, weight gain was reduced by 0.49 kg. Bran that was added to the diet or obtained from fortified-grain foods further reduced the risk of weight gain (P for trend = 0.01), and, for every 20 g/d increase in intake, weight gain was reduced by 0.36 kg"
  • Whole-grain intake and insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):965-71 - "Higher intakes of whole grains were associated with increases in insulin sensitivity"
  • Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms - Proc Nutr Soc 2003 Feb;62(1):129-34 - "First, whole grains are concentrated sources of dietary fibre, resistant starch and oligosaccharides, carbohydrates that escape digestion in the small intestine and are fermented in the gut, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). SCFA lower colonic pH, serve as an energy source for the colonocytes and may alter blood lipids. These improvements in the gut environment may provide immune protection beyond the gut. Second, whole grains are rich in antioxidants, including trace minerals and phenolic compounds, and these compounds have been linked to disease prevention. Additionally, whole grains mediate insulin and glucose responses. Although lower glycaemic load and glycaemic index have been linked to diabetes and obesity, risk of cancers such as colon and breast cancer have also been linked to high intake of readily-available carbohydrate. Finally, whole grains contain many other compounds that may protect against chronic disease. These compunds include phytate, phyto-oestrogens such as lignan, plant stanols and sterols, and vitamins and minerals."
  • Whole grains protect against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - Proc Nutr Soc 2003 Feb;62(1):135-42 - "Generous intake of whole grains also provides protection from development of diabetes and obesity. Diets rich in wholegrain foods tend to decrease serum LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels as well as blood pressure while increasing serum HDL-cholesterol levels. Whole-grain intake may also favourably alter antioxidant status, serum homocysteine levels, vascular reactivity and the inflammatory state. Whole-grain components that appear to make major contributions to these protective effects are: dietary fibre; vitamins; minerals; antioxidants; phytosterols; other phytochemicals. Three servings of whole grains daily are recommended to provide these health benefits"
  • Whole-grain and fiber intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes - AJCN, 3/1/03 - "Whole-grain consumption was associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The relative risk (adjusted for age, sex, geographic area, smoking status, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of vegetables, fruit, and berries) between the highest and lowest quartiles of whole-grain consumption was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.36, 1.18; P for trend = 0.02). Cereal fiber intake was also associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The relative risk between the extreme quartiles of cereal fiber intake was 0.39"
  • Is intake of breakfast cereals related to total and cause-specific mortality in men? - AJCN, 3/1/03 - "Compared with men who rarely or never consumed whole-grain cereal, men in the highest category of whole-grain cereal intake ( 1 serving/d) had multivariate-estimated relative risks of total and CVD-specific mortality of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.94; P for trend < 0.001) and 0.80"
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