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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 12/21/11.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Testosterone Replacement Improves Male Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 12/19/11 - "Testosterone replacement to normal levels in middle-aged and elderly hypogonadal men significantly improved all components of the metabolic syndrome at 24 months ... At the end of the 48-month study period, the average reduction in waist circumference was "quite substantial," at 8.0 cm ... In addition, body weight was reduced by 12.9 kg, from an average of 106.6 to 93.7 kg ... In terms of percent weight change, subjects lost around 5% of their initial weight after about 15 months, and about 10% after 3.5 to 4.0 years of treatment ... People who are on treatment for 1 year may gain 4.5 to 5.0 kg of lean mass and lose 5.0 to 6.0 kg of fat mass — but the overall effect on weight is moderate. These 4-year data were a surprise when we saw people lost 12.9 kg, and the 60-month data suggest this continues — we have not yet reached the plateau, the weight is still declining ... Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also significantly reduced (by 15.2 and 13.3 mm Hg, respectively), dropping from 155/94 to 140/80.8 mm Hg at 48 months ... There was a significant improvement in lipid profiles, with total serum cholesterol dropping from 297.7 to 194.5 mg/dL, triglycerides dropping from 290.4 to 194.2 mg/dL, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol dropping from 160.4 to 118.3 mg/dL ... There was also an initial significant decrease in levels of liver enzymes, with aspartate aminotransferase dropping from 43.9 to 22.0 U/L and alanine aminotransferase dropping from 46.6 to 22.8 U/L over the first 24 months, and then leveling off ... there was a "marked reduction" in C-reactive protein levels over the 4-year period, from 7.1 to 1.6 mg/L ... mean plasma glucose levels declined from 105.8 to 97.0 mg/dL over the 4-year period"

Calcium plus vitamin D may cut body fat levels: RCT data - Nutra USA, 12/16/11 - "Orange juice providing a daily 1050 mg dose of calcium and 300 IU vitamin D was associated with a significant reduction in visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults, compared with adults drinking a non-fortified juice ... For the new study, Dr Kaplan and his co-workers recruited 171 overweight and obese people with an average age of 40 to participate in their two 16-week parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. One trial involved the regular beverage and the second trial involved the reduced-energy (lite) version ... The test groups consumed three 240 mL glasses of the regular or lite orange juice per day. The total daily dose of calcium was 1050 mg and 100 IU vitamin D per serving. The control groups were given the same juices but without the addition of the vitamin and mineral ... the visceral adipose tissue in people consuming the regular fortified orange juice decreased by an average of 12.7 cm2, compared with only 1.3 cm2 in the control regular juice ... the lite fortified juice group displayed visceral adipose tissue reductions of 13.1 cm2 [2.03 square inches], compared with 6.4 cm2 [0.992 square inches] in the lite control group ... On the other hand, no differences between any of the groups were recorded in terms of average weight loss" - [Abstract] - Note: Don't confuse square inches with just inches.  Inches2 doesn't mean inches1.  Picture a two inch cube of water put into some kid of plastic belt that spreads around your waist area.  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Oral bacteria enables breaking bond on blood vessels to allow invaders in - Science Daily, 12/15/11 - "The microbiologist at the dental school has studied the oral bacteria over the past decade and was the first to find direct evidence that linked it to preterm labor and fetal death. But its presence is found in other infections and abscesses in the brain, lungs, liver, spleen and joints ... These junctures are like a hook and loop connection, but for some unknown reason when F. nucleatum invades the body through breaks in the mucous membranes of the mouth, due to injuries or periodontal disease, this particular bacterium triggers a cascade of signals that causes the hook to recede back into the endothelial cell. The oral bacterium leads the way with any other harmful invaders following along ... This cascade knocks out the guard on duty and allows the bacteria to enter the blood and travel like a bus loaded with riders throughout the system. Whenever the F. nucleatum wants to get off the bus at the liver, brain, spleen, or another place, it does ... When it disembarks from its ride through the blood, it begins to colonize. The colony of bacteria induces an inflammatory reaction that has a range of consequences from necrosis of tissue to fetal death" - Note:  The point is that it shows all the problems that can be caused by bad oral health.

Err!!  That guy from the NIH must be back from vacation.  I've already been through about 200 articles today (Wednesday only) and the number keeps slightly increasing:


Study: Statins reduce flu death risk by half - USA Today, 12/14/11 - "Patients on statins were 41 percent less likely to die, the study found, even after adjusting for age, the presence of heart, lung and/or kidney disease, whether or not they had had a flu shot, or whether or not they had received antiviral medications such as Tamiflu ... There's no question that these observations are striking in terms of death from influenza but they can't say why"

Antioxidant has potential in the Alzheimer's fight - Science Daily, 12/14/11 - "When you cut an apple and leave it out, it turns brown. Squeeze the apple with lemon juice, an antioxidant, and the process slows down ... Simply put, that same "browning" process-known as oxidative stress-happens in the brain as Alzheimer's disease sets in ... an antioxidant can delay the onset of all the indicators of Alzheimer's disease, including cognitive decline. The researchers administered an antioxidant compound called MitoQ to mice genetically engineered to develop Alzheimer's. The results of their study were published in the Nov. 2 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience ... Oxidative stress is believed to cause neurons in the brain to die, resulting in Alzheimer's ... The brain consumes 20 percent of the oxygen in the body even though it only makes up 5 percent of the volume, so it's particularly susceptible to oxidative stress ... MitoQ selectively accumulates in the mitochondria" - Note:  I couldn't find the ingredients but it sounds like a form of co-enzyme Q10.  Here's the form I take: ubiquinol products at Amazon.com

Caffeine study shows sport performance increase - Science Daily, 12/14/11 - "Mayur Ranchordas, a senior lecturer and performance nutritionist at Sheffield Hallam University, carried out studies on footballers using caffeine and carbohydrates combined in a drink ... There is already plenty of research that shows that caffeine and carbohydrate improve endurance, but this study shows that there is also a positive effect on skill and performance ... We found that the combination of carbohydrate and caffeine allowed players to sustain higher work intensity for the sprints, as well as improving shooting accuracy and dribbling during simulated soccer activity"

Vitamin D may slash pancreatic cancer risk: Harvard study - Nutra USA, 12/14/11 - "Data from over 1,500 people collected over 14 years indicated that people with vitamin D insufficiency were at a 30% increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer, compared with people with adequate levels of the sunshine vitamin ... Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading causing of cancer death (about 37,500 per year) in the US" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

My dentist recommended xylitol gum to prevent cavities.  Basically the bacteria eat it thinking it's sugar but end up starving from lack of calories.  The same theory supports using it to prevent halitosis.  Here's some research on:

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Frequent consumption of vegetables predicts lower risk of depression in older Taiwanese - results of a prospective population-based study - Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec 16:1-6 - "In a regression model that controlled for demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and disease/health-related variables but not cognitive status, both fruits (OR = 0.66, 95 % CI 0.45, 0.98, P = 0.038) and vegetables (OR = 0.38, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.86, P = 0.021) were protective against depressive symptoms 4 years later. However, when the same regression model was also adjusted for cognitive status, only vegetables (OR = 0.40, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.95, P = 0.039) were protective against depressive symptoms. Higher consumption of eggs was close to being significant in both regression models (P = 0.087 and 0.069, respectively). Other food categories including meat/poultry, fish, seafood, dairy, legumes, grains and tea showed no significant associations"

Telomerase, telomere length, and coronary artery calcium in black and white men in the CARDIA study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Nov 9 - "Telomerase activity in leukocytes was associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque, and was also a predictor of advancing plaque among persons with short telomeres"

Vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: Pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium - Int J Cancer. 2011 Dec 15 - "To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies ... A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer"

Cardiovascular effects of flavanol-rich chocolate in patients with heart failure - Eur Heart J. 2011 Dec 15 - "Flavanol-rich chocolate (FRC) is beneficial for vascular and platelet function by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and decreasing oxidative stress. Congestive heart failure (CHF) is characterized by impaired endothelial and increased platelet reactivity ... Twenty patients with CHF were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial, comparing the effect of commercially available FRC with cocoa-liquor-free control chocolate (CC) on endothelial and platelet function in the short term (2 h after ingestion of a chocolate bar) and long term (4 weeks, two chocolate bars/day) ... Flow-mediated vasodilatation significantly improved from 4.98 +/- 1.95 to 5.98 +/- 2.32% (P = 0.045 and 0.02 for between-group changes) 2h after intake of FRC to 6.86 +/- 1.76% after 4 weeks of daily intake (P = 0.03 and 0.004 for between groups). No effect on endothelial-independent vasodilatation was observed. Platelet adhesion significantly decreased from 3.9 +/- 1.3 to 3.0 +/- 1.3% (P = 0.03 and 0.05 for between groups) 2 h after FRC, an effect that was not sustained at 2 and 4 weeks. Cocoa-liquor-free CC had no effect, either on endothelial function or on platelet function. Blood pressure and heart rate did not change in either group"

Oral folic acid and vitamin B-12 supplementation to prevent cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults with depressive symptoms--the Beyond Ageing Project: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 14 - "FA + vitamin B-12 improved the TICS-M total (P = 0.032; effect size d = 0.17), TICS-M immediate (P = 0.046; d = 0.15), and TICS-M delayed recall (P = 0.013; effect size d = 0.18) scores at 24 mo in comparison with placebo. No significant changes were evident in orientation, attention, semantic memory, processing speed, or informant reports ... Long-term supplementation of daily oral 400 μg FA + 100 μg vitamin B-12 promotes improvement in cognitive functioning after 24 mo, particularly in immediate and delayed memory performance"

Ginsenoside Rg1 Promotes Glucose Uptake Through Activated AMPK Pathway in Insulin-resistant Muscle Cells - Phytother Res. 2011 Dec 15 - "Ginsenoside Rg1, a protopanaxatriols saponin, is one of the major active constituents from Panax ginseng and possesses various biological activities ... chronic treatment of insulin resulted in reduced glucose uptake in the muscle cells. The treatment of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly enhanced glucose uptake in the differentiated muscle cells and the relative abundance of GLUT4 through the adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase pathway. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 improved the insulin resistance in C2C12 muscle cells, which might be useful for prevention of T2DM and metabolic syndromes" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.

Repeated measurements of serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 14 - "Previous cohort studies examining the association of serum antioxidant levels and risk of colorectal cancer have used a single (baseline) measurement only. In the present study, we assessed the association of serum levels of eight antioxidant nutrients in relation to risk of colorectal cancer, using repeated measurements ... Serum antioxidants measured at baseline generally showed no association with risk of colorectal cancer, although serum β-carotene at baseline showed a non-significant inverse association with colon cancer alone. Furthermore, using the repeated measurements of β-carotene, the average of all measurements was inversely associated with risk of both colorectal and colon cancer: HRs for highest vs lowest tertile 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96, and 0.47, 95% CI 0.25-0.88, respectively. No associations were seen with other antioxidant nutrients in the repeated measure analyses" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.

Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Reduces Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injuries in Rats - Am J Med Sci. 2011 Nov 16 - "renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) ... GSPE reduced histological renal damage and nuclear factor-κB activity. These results suggest that GSPE reduces renal dysfunction and injury caused by renal I/R" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.

Resveratrol prevents dexamethasone-induced expression of the muscle atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in cultured myotubes through a SIRT1-dependent mechanism - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Dec 7 - "Results suggest that resveratrol can prevent glucocorticoid-induced muscle wasting and that this effect is at least in part SIRT1-dependent" - Note:  I think what they are saying is that resveratrol may help prevent muscle loss due to high cortisol.  Stress increases cortisol.  Exercise may be partially defeating as far as muscle tone in that it increases cortisol.  That's just my theory.  See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases - Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec;14(12):2316-22 - "Several studies show consistently that subjects who ingest three or more portions of foods per day based on wholegrain cereals have a 20-30 % lower risk of CVD than subjects who ingest low quantities of cereals. This level of protection is not observed with the ingestion of refined cereals, these being even higher than with the intake of fruit and vegetables. Likewise, high intake of wholegrain cereals and their products, such as whole-wheat bread, is associated with a 20-30 % reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Finally, protection against the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps, other cancers of the digestive tract, cancers related to hormones and pancreatic cancer has been associated with the regular consumption of wholegrain cereals and derived products"

Olive oil, an essential component of the Mediterranean diet, and breast cancer - Public Health Nutr. 2011 Dec;14(12):2323-32 - "Diets rich in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) exert a negative modulatory effect on experimental breast cancer to a weak promoting effect, much lower than that obtained with a high-corn oil diet. EVOO confers to the mammary adenocarcinomas a clinical behaviour and morphological features compatible with low tumour aggressiveness. This differential effect, in relation to other dietary lipids, may be related to a lower effect on body weight and sexual maturation. In addition, EVOO induced different molecular changes in tumours, such as in the composition of cell membranes, activity of signalling proteins and gene expression. All these modifications could induce lower proliferation, higher apoptosis and lower DNA damage. These results, together with the favourable effect of olive oil reported in the literature when it is consumed in moderate quantities, suggest a beneficial influence of EVOO on breast cancer risk"

Arterial stiffness as a cause of cognitive decline and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Intern Med J. 2011 Dec 8 - "Aortic stiffness was found to predict cognitive decline in both qualitative review and quantitative analysis"

Genistein Mitigates Radiation-induced Testicular Injury - Phytother Res. 2011 Dec 9 - "Genistein significantly attenuated radiation-induced reduction in testis weight, seminiferous tubular diameter, seminiferous epithelial depth and sperm head count in the testes (p < 0.05 vs vehicle-treated irradiated mice at 21 days post-irradiation). Repopulation and stem cell survival indices of the seminiferous tubules were increased in the genistein-treated group compared with the vehicle-treated irradiation group at 21 days post-irradiation (p < 0.01). The irradiation-mediated decrease in the sperm count and sperm mobility in the epididymis was counteracted by genistein (p < 0.01), but no effect on the frequency of abnormal sperm was evident. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated using DCFDA method and exposure to irradiation elevated ROS levels in the testis and genistein treatment resulted in a significant attenuation of radiation-induced ROS production"

B-DIM Impairs Radiation-Induced Survival Pathways Independently of Androgen Receptor Expression and Augments Radiation Efficacy in Prostate Cancer - Cancer Lett. 2011 Dec 9 - "Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with decreased risk in prostate cancer (PCa). The active compound in cruciferous vegetables appears to be the self dimerized product [3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM)] of indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Nutritional grade B-DIM (absorption-enhanced) has proven safe in a Phase I trial in PCa ... B-DIM inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner in both PC-3 (AR-) and C4-2B (AR+) cell lines. B-DIM was effective at increasing radiation-induced cell killing in both cell lines, independently of AR expression. B-DIM inhibited NF-κB and HIF-1α DNA activities and blocked radiation-induced activation of these transcription factors in both PC-3 and C4-2B cells. In C4-2B (AR+) cells, AR expression and nuclear localization were significantly increased by radiation. However, B-DIM abrogated the radiation-induced AR increased expression and trafficking to the nucleus, which was consistent with decreased PSA secretion. In vivo, treatment of PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice with B-DIM and radiation resulted in significant primary tumor growth inhibition and control of metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes. These studies demonstrate that B-DIM augments radiation-induced cell killing and tumor growth inhibition. B-DIM impairs critical survival signaling pathways activated by radiation, leading to enhanced cell killing. These novel observations suggest that B-DIM could be used as a safe compound to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy for castrate-resistant PCa" - See diindolylmethane at Amazon.com.

Green Tea Extract Suppresses NFκB Activation and Inflammatory Responses in Diet-Induced Obese Rats with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis - J Nutr. 2011 Dec 7 - "Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that exacerbate liver injury ... Adult Wistar rats were fed a low-fat (LF) diet or high-fat (HF) diet containing no GTE or GTE at 1% or 2% (HF+2GTE) for 8 wk. The HF group had greater (P ≤ 0.05) serum alanine (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferases and hepatic lipids than the LF group. Both GTE groups had lower ALT and hepatic lipid than the HF group. In liver and epididymal adipose, the HF group had lower glutathione as well as greater mRNA and protein expression of TNFα and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and NFκB binding activity than the LF group. Compared to the HF group, the HF+2GTE group had greater glutathione and lower protein and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines in both tissues. NFκB binding activities at liver and adipose were also lower, likely by inhibiting the phosphorylation of inhibitor of NFκB. NFκB binding activities in liver and adipose (P ≤ 0.05; r = 0.62 and 0.46, respectively) were correlated with ALT, and hepatic NFκB binding activity was inversely related to liver glutathione (r = -0.35). These results suggest that GTE-mediated improvements in glutathione status are associated with the inhibition of hepatic and adipose inflammatory responses mediated by NFκB, thereby protecting against NASH" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.

Legume, Soy, Tofu, and Isoflavone Intake and Endometrial Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Dec 12 - "conducted a prospective analysis of 46 027 nonhysterectomized postmenopausal women who were recruited into the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study between August 1993 and August 1996 and provided detailed baseline information on diet and other endometrial cancer risk factors ... A total of 489 women diagnosed with incident endometrial cancer were identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results tumor registry linkages during a median follow-up period of 13.6 years ... A reduced risk of endometrial cancer was associated with total isoflavone intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥7.82 vs <1.59 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91), daidzein intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥3.54 vs <0.70 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.90), and genistein intake (highest vs lowest quintile, ≥3.40 vs <0.69 mg per 1000 kcal/d, RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.91). No statistically significant association with endometrial cancer risk was observed for increasing intake of legumes, soy, tofu, or glycitein. Truncated age-adjusted incidence rates of endometrial cancer for the highest vs lowest quintile of total isoflavone intake were 55 vs 107 per 100 000 women per year, respectively. The partial population attributable risk percent for total isoflavone intake lower than the highest quintile was 26.7% (95% CI = 5.3% to 45.8%)" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.

A Simple Food Quality Index Predicts Mortality in Elderly Taiwanese - J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15(10):815-821 - "Overall Dietary Index-Revised (ODI-R) and the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) ... During follow-up, 624 subjects died. The survivors had both significantly higher (P <0.001) ODI-R (66.9 vs. 63.6) and DDS (4.69 vs. 4.30) than the deceased. The two indices were correlated (r=0.46). After adjustment for potential covariates, the hazard ratios (HR) (95% CI) were 0.63 (0.42-0.97), 0.71 (0.49-1.04) and 0.53 (0.37-0.76) for those whose ODI-R scores were 60-65, 65-70, >70, respectively, compared to those whose ODI-R scores were > 50 (P for trend <0.001). For DDS, the multi-variable HRs (95% CI) were 0.74 (0.55-1.00), 0.52 (0.38-0.72) and 0.50 (0.31-0.81) for those whose DDS were 4, 5, 6, respectively, compared to those whose DDS were ≤3 (P for trend<0.001). Total cancer, diabetes mortalities and pneumonia were similarly benefited according to trends"

Discovering Pathways of Sarcopenia in Older Adults: A Role for Insulin Resistance on Mitochondria Dysfunction - J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15(10):890-895 - "there is a strong evidence for muscle loss due to insulin resistance as well as mitochondrial dysfunction over aging. Considering that epidemiological studies have underlined that insulin resistance may have a specific role on skeletal muscle fibre atrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction has also been extensively shown to have a pivotal role on muscle loss in older persons, a combined pathway may not be ruled out. Considering that there is growing evidence for an insulin-related pathway on mitochondrial signaling, we hypothesize that a high degree of insulin resistance will be associated with the development of sarcopenia through specific alterations on mitochondrial functioning" - See my Insulin and Aging page.

Dietary Antioxidant Intake is Associated with the Prevalence but not Incidence of Age-Related Hearing Loss - J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15(10):896-900 - "We aimed to examine the link between dietary and supplement intakes of antioxidants, and both the prevalence and 5-year incidence of measured hearing loss ... participants aged 50+ at baseline, examined during 1997-9 to 2002-4 ... Dietary data were collected in a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire ... each standard deviation (SD) increase in dietary vitamin E intake was associated with a 14% reduced likelihood of prevalent hearing loss, odds ratio, OR, 0.86 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.78-0.98). Those in the highest quintile of dietary vitamin A intake had a 47% reduced risk of having moderate or greater hearing loss (>40 dB HL) compared to those in the lowest quintile of intake, multivariable-adjusted OR 0.53 (CI 0.30-0.92), P for trend = 0.04. However, dietary antioxidant intake was not associated with the 5-year incidence of hearing loss"

Antioxidant Micronutrients Improve Intrinsic and UV-Induced Apoptosis of Human Lymphocytes Particularly in Elderly People - J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15(10):912-917 - "The study was a 2 months, double-blind, randomized trial. Three age groups were studied: children, young adults and elderly people. A total of 274 healthy subjects were allocated to a group supplemented with moderate amounts of retinol, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and selenium or placebo ... Young and elderly people have a higher intrinsic apoptosis than children, which was improved by antioxidant supplementation. UV-induced damage was attenuated by the supplementation in all three age groups"

Health Focus (Advance Glycation End Products):

Specific Recommendations:

General Information:

News & Research:

  • AMD-like lesions delayed in mice fed lower glycemic index diet - Science Daily, 11/14/11 - "The dietary glycemic index (DGI) measures the rate at which glucose is delivered to the bloodstream after consuming carbohydrates. Higher GI foods including white bread and white potatoes trigger a rapid delivery of glucose that pushes the body to work overtime to absorb, whereas lower GI foods, like whole grain bread and fruits and vegetables, initiate a slower release of glucose that is more easily processed by cells ... Compared to the mice on the lower GI diet, mice on the higher GI diet demonstrated elevated accumulations of debris known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the whole retina, particularly in the cells of the RPE. The RPE plays a crucial role in maintaining vision and its dysfunction results in the gradual central vision loss that is the hallmark of AMD. AGE accumulation has also been linked to tissue damage in other age-related diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease"
  • Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation on eye lens protein by rutin - Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug 25:1-9 - "Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) plays a key role in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimer's disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and cataract. This raises the possibility of inhibition of AGE formation as one of the approaches to prevent or arrest the progression of diabetic complications. Previously, we have reported that some common dietary sources such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices have the potential to inhibit AGE formation. Flavonoids are abundantly found in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and rutin is one of the commonly found dietary flavonols. In the present study, we have demonstrated the antiglycating potential and mechanism of action of rutin using goat eye lens proteins as model proteins. Under in vitro conditions, rutin inhibited glycation as assessed by SDS-PAGE, AGE-fluorescence, boronate affinity chromatography and immunodetection of specific AGE. Further, we provided insight into the mechanism of inhibition of protein glycation that rutin not only scavenges free-radicals directly but also chelates the metal ions by forming complexes with them and thereby partly inhibiting post-Amadori formation. These findings indicate the potential of rutin to prevent and/or inhibit protein glycation and the prospects for controlling AGE-mediated diabetic pathological conditions in vivo" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Restriction of Advanced Glycation End Products Improves Insulin Resistance in Human Type 2 Diabetes: Potential role of AGER1 and SIRT1 - Diabetes Care. 2011 Jul;34(7):1610-6 - "AGE restriction may preserve native defenses and insulin sensitivity by maintaining lower basal OS"
  • It's not an apple a day after all -- it's strawberries: Flavonoids could represent two-fisted assault on diabetes and nervous system disorders - Science Daily, 6/27/11 - "fisetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid found most abundantly in strawberries and to a lesser extent in other fruits and vegetables, lessens complications of diabetes. Previously, the lab showed that fisetin promoted survival of neurons grown in culture and enhanced memory in healthy mice ... Mice fed a fisetin-enriched diet remained diabetic, but acute kidney enlargement-or hypertrophy-seen in untreated mice was reversed, and high urine protein levels, a sure sign of kidney disease, fell. Moreover, fisetin ingestion ameliorated anxiety-related behaviors seen in diabetic mice ... blood and brain levels of sugars affixed to proteins known as advanced glycation end-products-or AGEs-were reduced in fisetin-treated compared to untreated Akita mice. These decreases were accompanied by increased activity of the enzyme glyoxalase 1, which promotes removal of toxic AGE precursors ... substantial evidence implicates high blood AGE levels with many if not most diabetic complications ... excessively high AGE levels also correlate with inflammatory activity thought to promote some cancers. In fact, studies published by others confirm that fisetin decreases tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells both in culture and in animal models ... humans would have to eat 37 strawberries a day ... Rather than through diet, Maher envisions that fisetin-like drugs could be taken as a supplement"
  • AGE Content of Foods - InHuman Experiment, 9/1/09
  • Serum advanced glycation end products is associated with insulin resistance - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011 Feb 17 - "On multiple regression analysis, serum AGEs remained an independent determinant of HOAM-IR even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, waist, smoking, adiponectin and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation ... CONCLUSIONS: Formation and accumulation of AGEs progress during normal aging. We have demonstrated that circulating level of AGEs is associated with insulin resistance even in non-obese, non-diabetic subjects independent of adiponectin"
  • Inhibition of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) protects pancreatic β-cells - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Nov 24 - "Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) have been linked to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, such as retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. AGEs may induce β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, another complication of diabetes ... Inhibition of RAGE prevented AGE-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, but could not restore the function of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in rat islets. In summary, the results of the present study demonstrate that AGEs are integrally involved in RAGE-mediated apoptosis and impaired GSIS dysfunction in pancreatic β-cells. Inhibition of RAGE can effectively protect β-cells against AGE-induced apoptosis, but can not reverse islet dysfunction in GSIS"
  • Sugar and Your Skin - ABC News, 11/30/10 - It's a video.
  • Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation - Clin Dermatol. 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):409-11 - "The effect of sugars on aging skin is governed by the simple act of covalently cross-linking two collagen fibers, which renders both of them incapable of easy repair. Glucose and fructose link the amino acids present in the collagen and elastin that support the dermis, producing advanced glycation end products or "AGEs." This process is accelerated in all body tissues when sugar is elevated and is further stimulated by ultraviolet light in the skin. The effect on vascular, renal, retinal, coronary, and cutaneous tissues is being defined, as are methods of reducing the glycation load through careful diet and use of supplements"
  • Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet - J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jun;110(6):911-916.e12 - "Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease ... Based on the findings, dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by >10- to 100-fold above the uncooked state across food categories. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally AGE-rich and prone to new AGE formation during cooking. In contrast, carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk contain relatively few AGEs, even after cooking. The formation of new dAGEs during cooking was prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine and significantly reduced by cooking with moist heat, using shorter cooking times, cooking at lower temperatures, and by use of acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar"
  • Metformin restores impaired HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux due to glycation - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Mar 19 - "In the presence of metformin or aminoguanidine (100mM), glycated HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was restored to 97.5+/-4.3% and 96.9+/-3.1%, respectively"
  • Advanced glycation end products and diabetic foot disease - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008 May-Jun;24 Suppl 1:S19-24 - "recent clinical studies have shown that the AGE-breakers may be able to decrease adverse vascular effects of glycation with few side effects"
  • Advanced glycation end products in senile diabetic and nondiabetic patients with cataract - J Diabetes Complications. 2008 May 26 - "The AGE distribution in the senile groups corroborates the hypothesis that the advanced glycation process might have a role in cataract formation, which in diabetic patients occurs vigorously as compared with nondiabetic cataract patients"
  • When It Comes To Living Longer, It's Better To Go Hungry Than Go Running, Mouse Study Suggests - Science Daily, 5/14/08 - "at least two studies which examined people who engage in high-volume exercise versus people who restricted their calorie intake, had a similar outcome: caloric restriction has physiological benefits that exercise alone does not ... One theory is that exercise places stress on the body, which can result in damage to the tissues and DNA. Another theory is that caloric restriction leads to physiological changes which benefit the body" - I still think it boils down to the ravages of higher insulin and blood sugar which increase advanced glycation end products a major cause of aging.
  • Telmisartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Inhibits Advanced Glycation End-product (AGE)-elicited Hepatic Insulin Resistance via Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma Activation - J Int Med Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;36(2):237-43 - "Candesartan, another ARB, did not affect AGEs-induced serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 at serine-307 residues in Hep3B cells. Our study suggests that telmisartan could improve AGE-elicited insulin resistance in Hep3B cells by inhibiting serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, at least in part, via activation of PPAR-gamma" - Note:  That might be another reason for considering telmisartan as a first line treatment for hypertension.  See telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Effect of Rosiglitazone on Cardiac Fibroblast Proliferation, Nitric Oxide Production and Connective Tissue Growth Factor Expression Induced by Advanced Glycation End-products - J Int Med Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;36(2):329-35 - "AGEs significantly accelerated proliferation, increased CTGF expression and decreased nitric oxide production in cardiac fibroblasts. These effects of AGEs were inhibited by RGZ in a dose-dependent manner"
  • Increased serum Advanced Glycation End products is a distinct finding in lean women with PCOS - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008 Mar 20 - "PCOS women exhibited statistically higher AGEs levels"
  • How Diabetes Drives Atherosclerosis - WebMD, 3/13/08 - "Abe's team showed that molecules called advanced glycation end products (AGEs), produced in greater levels by patients with diabetes, interfere with ERK5 cardioprotection. Glycation reactions cause the release of oxidizing side products like hydrogen peroxide (H202) that drive free radical production, inflammation and cell damage in many diseases" - I was always under the impression that it was advanced glycation end products in the first place.  I guess I was right before they discovered it.
  • DHEA Restores Oxidative Balance in Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 12/11/07 - "DHEA significantly reduced oxidative stress parameters in both plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the report indicates, and its administration was followed by a 50% decrease in levels of pentosidine (a marker of AGE formation)" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Face facts: Too much sugar causes wrinkles - MSNBC, 10/21/07 - "At blame is a natural process that's known as glycation, in which the sugar in your bloodstream attaches to proteins to form harmful new molecules called advanced glycation end products (or, appropriately, AGEs for short). The more sugar you eat, the more AGEs you develop. "As AGEs accumulate, they damage adjacent proteins in a domino-like fashion," ... Supplement your diet with at least 1 mg of vitamins B1 and B6 a day. These vitamins proved to be potent AGE inhibitors in a number of published studies"
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone administration counteracts oxidative imbalance and AGE formation in type 2 diabetic patients - Diabetes Care. 2007 Aug 17 - "Data indicate that DHEA treatment ameliorates the oxidative imbalance induced by hyperglycaemia, down-regulates the TNFalpha/TNFalpha receptors system and prevents AGE formation, suggesting a beneficial effect on the onset and/or progression of chronic complications in type 2 diabetic patients"
  • Telmisartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Inhibits Advanced Glycation End-product (AGE)-induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in Mesangial Cells Through Downregulation of Receptor for AGEs via Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma Activation - J Int Med Res. 2007 Jul-Aug;35(4):482-9 - "Candesartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, did not suppress AGEs-induced superoxide generation. Telmisartan and the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, completely inhibited AGEs-induced MCP-1 overproduction by mesangial cells"
  • Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Advanced Glycation Endproducts-Induced Injury in Neuronal Cells - Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Aug;30(8):1369-73 - "Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are believed to be secondary factors in the selective neuronal injury associated with several neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major monomer of green tea polyphenols, against AGEs-induced damage in neuron cells. The results showed that EGCG treatment protected against glyceraldehyde-derived AGE-induced neurotoxicity" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Thiazolidinedione increases serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products in type 2 diabetes - Diabetologia. 2007 Jul 18 - "At 6 months, both rosiglitazone and sulfonylurea resulted in a significant reduction in HbA(1c), fasting glucose and AGE"
  • Cooking to Fight Inflammation? - Dr. Weil, 7/12/07 - "You can reduce your intake of AGEs by steaming or boiling foods or by making stews – the key is to cook at low heat and to maintain the water content of food"
  • Advanced glycation endproducts: what is their relevance to diabetic complications? - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):233-45 - "AGEs may potentiate the development of diabetic complications by activation of cell responses by AGE-modified proteins interacting with specific cell surface receptors, activation of cell responses by AGE free adducts, impairment of protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions by AGE residue formation, and increasing resistance to proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins. The formation of AGEs is suppressed by intensive glycaemic control, and may in future be suppressed by thiamine and pyridoxamine supplementation, and several other pharmacological agents"
  • Advanced glycation end-products and arterial stiffness in hypertension - Am J Hypertens. 2007 Mar;20(3):242-7 - "Concentration of plasma AGEs is significantly higher in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects and related to aortic stiffness independent of age and blood pressure"
  • Benfotiamine prevents macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress following a meal rich in advanced glycation end products in individuals with type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2006 Sep;29(9):2064-71 - "Our study confirms micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction accompanied by increased oxidative stress following a real-life, heat-processed, AGE-rich meal in individuals with type 2 diabetes and suggests benfotiamine as a potential treatment"
  • Effect of valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, on markers of oxidation and glycation in Japanese type 2 diabetic subjects: Blood pressure-independent effect of valsartan - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 May 29 - "low-dose valsartan treatment decreased serum AGEs level, whereas blood pressure level was unchanged. The effect of valsartan on AGEs might be a blood pressure-independent effect in type 2 diabetic subjects"
  • Antiglycation properties of aged garlic extract: possible role in prevention of diabetic complications - J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3):796S-9S - "S-Allylcysteine, a key component of aged garlic, is a potent antioxidant and can inhibit AGEP formation"
  • Phase II Data Show Alagebrium Reduces Arterial Stiffness in Elderly With Isolated Systolic Hypertension - Medscape, 11/23/05
  • Drug Compound Restores Youth To Aging Arterial Cells In Elderly Hypertensives, Hopkins Study Shows - Science Daily, 11/23/05 - "alagebrium, formally known as ALT-711 or 4,5-dimethyl-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)-thiazolium chloride, reduced stiffening in the vessel wall in the main artery of the neck (carotid artery) by as much as 37 percent. The drug also improved endothelial function, the ability of the vessels' inner lining to relax and dilate in response to increased stress from blood flow, by 102 percent"
  • Simvastatin's Benefits May Extend to Atherosclerotic Plaque Stabilisation in Diabetics - Doctor's Guide, 10/25/04 - "Simvastatin-dependent plaque stabilisation in patients with type 2 diabetes arises from the drug's ability to decrease expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and thence to reduce metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and promote plaque stabilisation"
  • New Class of Antihypertensive Agents Continues in Development - Medscape, 8/19/03 - "ALT-711 did not demonstrate statistical significance compared with placebo against the prespecified primary endpoint of reduction of SBP by office cuff pressure measurement at the highest of 4 dose levels (210 mg/day)"
  • Eating Food Cooked At High Temperature Accelerates Aging - Life Extension Magazine, 5/03 - "consuming foods high in glycotoxins might be responsible for the induction of a low-grade, but chronic state of inflammation. In addition, the glycotoxins in food cooked at high temperatures also promote the formation of glycotoxins in our living tissues. The implication of these findings is profound ... Inflammatory cytokine production can be suppressed with the proper supplementation of fish oil, DHEA, vitamin K and nettle leaf extract ... It is also important to avoid over consumption of foods high in arachidonic acid (beef, egg yolk, dairy, etc.) ... Consuming at least 1000 mg a day of carnosine, and/or 300 mg of the European drug aminoguanidine can inhibit pathological glycation reactions in the body" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon carnosine products.
  • Ramipril Reduces Advanced Glycation End Products In Non-Diabetic Nephropathy - Doctor's Guide, 4/21/03 - "Ramipril also mildly decreased levels of advanced glycation end products"
  • Vitamin C May Aid People with Diabetes - New Hope Natural Media, 2/13/03 - "Vitamin C inhibits all three of the biochemical reactions that are believed to contribute to the development of these complications: (1) the production of oxygen-derived free radicals, (2) the accumulation of sorbitol within cells, and (3) a tissue-damaging reaction called glycosylation" - [J. Hypertension/Medline]- See iHerb or Vitacosticon vitamin C products.
  • Preserving Clear Vision - Life Extension Magazine, 2/03 - "It is likely that glycation plays a role in aging in non-diabetics as well, especially those who eat diets high in sugars and refined carbohydrates or those who have blood sugars higher than normal but not high enough to merit a diabetes diagnosis ... Carnosine's best-known effect, however, is its ability to prevent the formation of advanced glycated end products (protein crosslinks). Carnosine competes with proteins for the binding sites they would occupy on sugar molecules, making it the best glycation preventative currently recognized in the world of nutrition research" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon carnosine products.
  • The Anti-Aging Effects of Carnosine - Life Extension Magazine, 1/03 - "Carnosine quenches the most destructive protein-oxidizing agent (the hydroxyl radical). One study showed carnosine was the only antioxidant to significantly protect cellular chromosomes from oxidative damage.2 Antioxidants cannot completely protect proteins. Nature's second line of defense is to repair or remove damaged proteins.3 This is where carnosine demonstrates its most profound anti-aging effect ... Studies show that carnosine is effective against cross-linking and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE).6,7 Glycated proteins produce 50-fold more free radicals than nonglycated proteins and carnosine may be the most effective anti-glycating agent known" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon carnosine products.
  • High-Heat Foods Could Be Bad For You - CBS News, 11/28/02 - "browned, crispy foods, like that Thanksgiving turkey you just ate, are loaded with proteins called AGEs which interact with sugar in the body to cause hardening of the arteries ... AGEs are deposited everywhere over time — in the kidneys, in the vessels of the eyes and they have been implicated in all of these major complications from diabetes"
  • Diabetic Heart Disease Risk Studied - Intelihealth, 11/12/02
  • Three Of 12 Patients Taking Pyridorin (Pyridoxamine Dihydrochloride) Convert From Macro- To Microalbuminuria - Doctor's Guide, 11/3/02 - "all dose levels of Pyridorin were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported and no discontinuations due to an adverse event ... Patients taking Pyridorin experienced an average decrease from baseline 24-hour urinary albumin excretion of 32 percent at day 45" - Sounds like Pyridorin by BioStratum is a competitor to pimagedine by Alteon.  Pyridorin and pimagedine are advanced glycation end product (AGE) inhibitors  Alteon is also working on ALT-711, which is an advanced glycation end product (AGE) reverser.  Carnosine and acetyl-l-carnitine are supplements believed to be advanced glycation end product (AGE) inhibitors. - Ben
  • Why Antioxidants Aren't Enough - Life Extension Magazine, 1/02
  • Oxidative Marker Found In Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Tissue - Doctor's Guide, 6/12/02 - "Raised AGE levels have been found in the serum and synovial fluid of patients with RA"
  • Glycation Levels Could Affect Progression Of Osteoarthritis - Doctor's Guide, 12/7/01
  • What constitutes a glycation-reduced diet? - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Glycation of proteins has been shown to play a prominent role in the development of many diseases related to diabetes, atherosclerosis and cataract formation. Glycation also occurs as a result of general aging. A glycation reduction diet would be one that is low in simple sugars and carbohydrates. There are also certain supplements that help reduce glycation, such as carnosine. Carnosine is the most effective natural anti-glycating agent ... Other supplements include alpha lipoic acid, chromium picolinate and calcium pyruvate"
  • Alteon's ALT-711 Found to 'Remodel' Cardiovascular System in Preclinical Study - Alteon, 9/24/01 - "released results of a new preclinical study that demonstrated the ability of ALT-711 to decrease the thickening of the heart that may occur as a result of hypertension, and to improve the function of the endothelium ... ALT-711 normalized left ventricular fibrosis, or the thickening of the left ventrical of the heart, and improved the function of the endothelium, the part of the cardiovascular system that regulates both the relaxation and contraction of blood vessels and contributes to the maintenance of the vascular structure. The authors suggest that ALT-711 may be effective for improving cardiovascular remodeling in hypertension"
  • AGE Breakers - Life Extension Magazine, 8/01 - "If ALT-711 is ever approved by the FDA, it will enable aging humans to reverse the effects of glycation, one of the most devastating consequences of aging"
  • Experimental Drug Decreases Age-Related Blood Vessel Stiffening - Doctor's Guide, 9/5/01 - "In a group of older people with vascular stiffening, the drug, ALT-711, significantly reduced arterial pulse pressure, defined as the difference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. It also improved the blood vessels' ability to stretch by about 14 percent"
  • Aminoguanidine: AGE Inhibitor - Phil Micans PharmB/IAS - "the membrane surface area of the rats was reduced by 30%. Furthermore, the collagen content of their arterial walls was increased by 24-30%. Aminoguanidine is therefore acting to improve overall heart and arterial condition and not just by preventing or slowing proteins from cross-linking, but also by decreasing the AGE-induced cross-linking of the extra-cellular matrix ... 11 patients with peripheral vascular disease were treated with aminoguanidine. Their blood vessels were so clogged that they couldn't walk for more than 500 yards. But after treatment with aminoguanadine the patients blood flow improved on average by 30% and the patients exercise abilities improved by 50% to 105%."
  • Alteon Initiates Phase IIb 'SAPPHIRE' Trial of ALT-711 in Systolic Hypertension - Alteon, 7/9/01 - "By "breaking" the pathological bonds that cause tissues, organs and vessels to stiffen and lose function over time, ALT-711 has demonstrated the ability to reverse certain age-related and diabetes-related conditions"
  • New Concepts Of Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis And Management Guidelines - Doctor's Guide, 6/14/01 - "With age, there is increased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which results in increased cross-linking of cartilage matrix and activation of cytokines"
  • Carnosine Nature's pluripotent life extension agent - Life Extension Magazine, 1/01 - "Carnosine distinctly improved the appearance of the aged mice, whose coat fullness and color remained much closer to that of young animals.  Significantly more carnosine-treated mice had glossy coats (44% vs. 5%), while significantly fewer had skin ulcers (14% vs. 36%) . . . .The sharpest contrast between the treated and untreated mice was seen in their behavior. Only 9% of the untreated mice displayed normal behavioral reactivity, compared to 58% of the carnosine treated mice."
  • Staying Young Forever, Putting new research findings into practice - Life Extension Foundation, 12/99 - "The formation of AGE happens in everyone and is a major factor in the aging process itself. These damaged proteins may lead to premature signs of aging (wrinkles and brown spots) and in the long run to damaging effects on most organ systems within the body . . . The amino acid carnosine is a natural AGE inhibitor found in high concentrations in the brain, muscle tissue and the lens of the human eye. It is also known to be an antioxidant capable of protecting cell membranes and other cell structures. In vitro studies demonstrated that carnosine inhibits glycosylation and crosslinking of proteins induced by reactive aldehydes, and that it is effective in reducing AGE formation by competing with proteins for binding with the sugars. The authors suggest that this nontoxic compound should be explored in the treatment of such conditions as diabetic complications, inflammatory disorders, alcoholic liver disease and possibly Alzheimer's disease."
  • Drug (ALT-711) Decreases Blood Vessel Stiffness in Older Primates - Medscape, 1/31/01 - "could be a new treatment for high blood pressure, heart failure, and certain vascular complications of diabetes. The treatment significantly decreased the stiffness of blood vessels"
  • Saving Yourself from AGE - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/00
  • Arginine for Muscles, Memory, Sex and More - Life Enhancement Magazine, 12/99 - "Free arginine has been shown to help prevent a destructive process known as cross-linking, which is associated with accelerated aging. Excessive cross-linking reactions inevitably damage the kidneys, necessitating dialysis in advanced age"
  • Pimagedine Has Potential For Prevention Of Diabetic Complications - Doctor's Guide, 11/8/01
  • Lower AGE with Acetyl L-Carnitine - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/99 - "Diabetics and others who become susceptible to high levels of glucose in blood serum as they age suffer from the formation of deleterious hybrid protein-sugar complexes known as advanced glycation end products (AGE) ... ALC decreased the glycation by 42%"
  • Business and Science Unite to Fight Aging - Life Extension Magazine, 10/98 - "One feature of aging and of diabetes is increased stiffness of blood vessels, such as the carotid artery in the neck. Egan showed that in rats, the distensibility of the carotid artery falls by more than 50 percent between 24 and 30 months of age in control animals, but falls by less than 7 percent in animals that received 50 mg/kg of Pimagedine in their drinking water. Further, over the same age interval, the rat heart-weight-to-body-weight ratio rose by about 50 percent in control animals, indicating heart failure; but the same ratio rose by less than about 7 percent in animals treated with Pimagedine. Pimagedine also normalized left ventricular stiffness and the amount of sugar attached to collagen (connective tissue protein). These are huge anti-aging effects. 

    But as good as Pimagedine is, ALT-711 may be a great deal better. ALT-711 is something called an "alpha dione cleaving agent." While Pimagedine prevents permanent glucose-protein crosslinks from forming, ALT-711 reverses glucose-protein crosslinks after they have formed. Still better, ALT-711 acts like an artificial enzyme, breaking crosslink after crosslink without itself being consumed in the reaction. It is as if ALT-711 were a "reverse free radical," setting up a chain reaction of positive, rather than negative, chemical reactions.""
  • Advanced Glycation End Products - DrMirkin.com - "cooking proteins with sugars in the absence of water/ forms advanced glycation products that can damage tissues in the body ... The frightening new news is that eating foods with these advanced glycation products raises blood and tissue levels and increases nerve damage"


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