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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 7/6/22

REM Sleep Critical to Emotional Health: Study - WebMD, 7/5/22 - "REM sleep is the darling of the sleep world. Short for “rapid eye movement,” REM fascinates us because it’s when we do most of our dreaming – when, supposedly, all of our inner fears, frustrations, and passions play out"

Early Flozin Use Tied to Improved LA Strain in ACS With Diabetes - Medscape, 7/5/22 - "The addition of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin to routine acute coronary syndrome (ACS) medications significantly improved left atrial (LA) reservoir and contractile strain. These changes were not seen in most conventional diastolic function markers or in patients who did not receive the agent ... SGLT2 inhibitors might be unique among glucose-lowering agents in their ability to improve diastolic cardiac remodeling" - See empagliflozin inhousepharmacy.vu.

Lower Hormone Levels Linked to Risk of Sleep Apnea - Medscape, 7/1/22 - "postmenopausal women with double the average estrogen concentration had as much as a 23% decrease in the odds of snoring. Women with double the average progesterone concentration had a 9% decrease in the odds of snoring."

Light during sleep in older adults linked to obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure - Science Daily, 6/27/22 - "In a sample of older men and women ages 63 to 84, those who were exposed to any amount of light while sleeping at night were significantly more likely to be obese, and have high blood pressure and diabetes compared to adults who were not exposed to any light during the night"

Abstracts from this week:

Procyanidins from hawthorn ( Crataegus pinnatifida) alleviate lipid metabolism disorder via inhibiting insulin resistance and oxidative stress, normalizing the gut microbiota structure and intestinal barrier, and further suppressing hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation - Food Funct 2022 Jul 4 - "Recently, lipid metabolism disorder (LMD) has been regarded as a risk factor leading to multiple diseases and affecting human health. Procyanidins have been reported to be a potential therapy for LMD. This study explored the effect and possible mechanism of procyanidins from hawthorn (HPC) in LMD rats fed a high-fat diet. HPC supplementation for 8 weeks significantly relieved lipid accumulation in the serum and liver, and protected the structure of liver in LMD rats. The amelioration of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism related hormones and oxidative stress was also found. Moreover, HPC also regulated the structure of gut microbiota, especially increased the abundances of Akkermansia, Bacteroides and Adlercreutzia, and decreased Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Lachnospiraceae and Subdoligranulum. Additionally, HPC enriched genes were involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis, MAPK, and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis pathways. We found a high LPS level due to the microbiome disorder induced by the high-fat diet, and then western blot results showed that HPC maintained the intestinal barrier and mitigated inflammation and lipid accumulation in the liver via regulating the NF-κB and AMPK pathways, which were related to LMD. This study provided new insights into dietary intervention based on HPC to alleviate LMD via stabilizing the gut-liver axis" - See hawthorn betty extract at Amazon.com.

Non-effectiveness of Ivermectin on Inpatients and Outpatients With COVID-19; Results of Two Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials - Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 Jun 16 - "Our data showed, ivermectin, compared with placebo, did not have a significant potential effect on clinical improvement, reduced admission in ICU, need for invasive ventilation, and death in hospitalized patients; likewise, no evidence was found to support the prescription of ivermectin on recovery, reduced hospitalization and increased negative RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 5 days after treatment in outpatients. Our findings do not support the use of ivermectin to treat mild to severe forms of COVID-19"

Manipulation of Gut Microbiota as a Key Target for Crohn's Disease - Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 Jun 16 - "Other medications often used concomitantly in IBD, such as antibiotics, antidepressants, oral contraceptives, opioids, and proton pump inhibitors, have shown to alter the gut microbiota and account for increased susceptibility to disease onset or worsening of disease progression. In contrast, some environmental modifications through alternative therapies including fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), diet and dietary supplements with prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics have shown potential protective effects by reversing microbiota dysbiosis or by directly promoting beneficial microbes, together with minimal long-term adverse effects" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com, prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com and synbiotic supplements at Amazon.com.

New Horizons in the Treatment of Age-Associated Obesity, Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis - Drugs Aging 2022 Jul 4 - "The rapid increase in both the lifespan and proportion of older adults in developed countries is accompanied by the dramatic growth of age-associated chronic diseases, including obesity, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis. Hence, prevention and treatment of age-associated chronic diseases has become increasingly urgent. The key to achieving this goal is a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying their pathophysiology, some aspects of which, despite extensive investigation, are still not fully understood. Aging, obesity, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis are characterized by the creation of a systemic, chronic, low-grade inflammation (SCLGI). The common mechanisms that govern the development of these chronic conditions include a failed resolution of inflammation. Physiologically, the process of inflammation resolution is provided mainly by specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) acting via cognate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Noteworthy, SPM levels and the expression of their receptors are significantly reduced in aging and the associated chronic disorders. In preclinical studies, supplementation of SPMs or their stable, small-molecule SPM mimetics and receptor agonists reveals clear beneficial effects in inflammation-related obesity and sarcopenic and osteoporotic conditions, suggesting a translational potential. Age-associated chronic disorders are also characterized by gut dysbiosis and the accumulation of senescent cells in the adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and bones. Based on these findings, we propose SCLGI resolution as a novel strategy for the prevention/treatment of age-associated obesity, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis. Our approach entails the enhancement of inflammation resolution by SPM mimetics and receptor agonists in concert with probiotics/prebiotics and compounds that eliminate senescent cells and their pro-inflammatory activity" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and prebiotic supplements at Amazon.com.

Effects of licorice root supplementation on liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis, metabolic and oxidative stress parameters in women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized double-blind clinical trial - Phytother Res 2022 Jul 3 - "This study aimed to evaluate the effects of licorice root supplementation on liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis, metabolic and oxidative stress parameters in women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 women with NAFLD were selected and randomly assigned into 2 groups to take 1,000 mg/day powder of licorice root extract or placebo for 12 weeks. In addition, all the patients were advised to follow a weight loss diet and healthy lifestyle ... Through the 12-weeks period of supplementation, women who received powder of licorice root experienced a statistically significant improvement in alanine aminotransferase (p < .001), insulin (p = .002), insulin resistance (p = .003), malondialdehyde (p < .001) serum levels, and ultrasonographic findings of liver steatosis (p < .001), compared to the placebo group. In conclusion, licorice root supplementation in addition to gradual weight loss and lifestyle modification is superior to lifestyle modification alone for the treatment of NAFLD" - See licorice supplements at Amazon.com.

Beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract on inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical trials - Phytother Res 2022 Jul 3 - "This meta-analysis showed that the GBLE could reduce serum inflammatory markers. Therefore, this medicinal herb might be a possible strategy for inflammation control" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.

Lactobacillus reuteri J1 prevents obesity by altering the gut microbiota and regulating bile acid metabolism in obese mice - Food Funct 2022 Jun 20 - "Obesity is closely related to metabolic syndromes such as hyperlipidemia and diabetes and has become a global public health problem. Probiotics are now used as a treatment for obesity, but the mechanism by which probiotics treat obesity remains unclear ... The results revealed that L. reuteri J1 prevented weight gain, lowered fat mass and relieved dyslipidemia, and improved glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity ... These results demonstrated that L. reuteri J1 could treat obesity by inhibiting the FXR signaling pathways and remodeling white adipose tissue, linked with UDCA and LCA which are affected by intestinal microbiota" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com.

Are micronutrient levels and supplements causally associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease? A two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis Food Funct 2022 Jun 20 - "the vitamin D level was causally associated with a decreased risk of AD (IVW, OR: 0.474 ... for minerals, the copper level acted as a causal protective factor for AD risk (IVW, OR: 0.865" - Note: I don't agree with that. There are a lot of supplement associated with reduced risk of AD. What I thought was interesting was that it claims copper reduces the risk when they used to day it increased the risk. I never bought off on that and have always taken my Jarrow Zinc Balance because it contain copper to offset the copper that zinc supplementation inhibits.

Spermidine reduces neuroinflammation and soluble amyloid beta in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model - J Neuroinflammation 2022 Jul 2 - "Deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau along with glial cell-mediated neuroinflammation are prominent pathogenic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In recent years, impairment of autophagy has been identified as another important feature contributing to AD progression ... Our data highlight that the autophagy activator spermidine holds the potential to enhance Aβ degradation and to counteract glia-mediated neuroinflammation in AD pathology" - See spermidine at Amazon.com.

Preclinical studies of the antitumor effect of curcumin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Phytother Res 2022 Jul 1 - "Curcumin, a plant-derived compound, has various well-known biological effects (anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, among others) as well as some important limitations for formulators, such as poor water solubility and low oral bioavailability. Its nanoencapsulation is reported to overcome these drawbacks and to improve its in vivo efficacy. Here, data from preclinical in vivo studies evaluating the antitumor efficacy of curcumin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules are collected, analyzed, and discussed as a systematic review ... The evidence that curcumin-loaded polymeric nanocapsules inhibits tumor growth (SMD: -3.03; 95% CI: -3.84, -2.21; p < 0.00001) and decreases tumor weight (SMD: -3.96; 95% CI: -6.22, -1.70; p = 0.0006) in rodents is established, regardless of the solid tumor model. To assess the quality of the studies included in the review a bias risk analysis was performed using the SYRCLE's RoB tool. Therefore, encapsulation in polymeric nanocapsules represents an important tool to improve the antitumor effects of curcumin, and this systematic review paves the way for future clinical studies and the translation of curcumin formulations into novel nanomedicines for human cancer treatment" - See nano encapsulation curcumin at Amazon.com.

Early outcomes of short-course low intensity shockwave therapy (LiSWT) for erectile dysfunction: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled study in Malaysia - Andrologia 2022 Jul 1 - "The International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) and Erection Hardness Score (EHS) questionnaires were used for evaluation. Patients underwent weekly sessions for 4 weeks and were re-assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months post therapy. Fifty one patients were recruited and randomized into sham and treatment arms. The mean IIEF-5 scores were significantly improved in the treatment arm compared to worsening of scores in the sham arm after 1 month (14.1 vs. 9.3 p < 0.001), 3 months (14.9 vs. 8.6, p < 0.001) and 6 months (14.2 vs. 7.9, p < 0.001) post treatment. A significant improvement of EHS was demonstrated at 1 month (2.4 vs. 1.8, p = 0.001, 3 months 2.7 vs. 1.7, p < 0.001) and 6 months (2.7 vs. 1.6, p < 0.001) in the treatment arm compared to sham arm. The success rate based on IIEF score increment more than five points was 26% in treatment arm and 0% in sham arm. Improvement in EHS score ≥3 in the treatment versus sham arm was 63% and 4%, respectively. There was no adverse effect reported. This 4-week LiSWT protocol reflects better treatment compliance, and it prevents further deterioration of erectile function among this cohort of patients. This study proves that LiSWT is a well-tolerated treatment with modest improvements in erectile function and hardness, among patients with vasculogenic ED" - Reminds me of the movie 'War Games' where the General says "I'd  piss on a sparkplug if I thought it would work".

The effect of saffron supplementation on glycemic parameters: An overview of systematic reviews - Phytother Res 2022 Jul 2 - "Almost half of the articles reported significant effects of these supplements on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles. Taken together, results suggest that saffron supplementation may improve glycemic and lipid profile parameters; however, further high-quality studies are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of saffron on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles" - See saffron supplements at Amazon.com.

Mangiferin prevents hepatocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition in liver fibrosis via targeting HSP27-mediated JAK2/STAT3 and TGF-β1/Smad pathway - Phytother Res 2022 Jul 2 - "The suppression of HSP27 expression by MAN may be a novel strategy for attenuating the hepatocyte EMT in liver fibrosis" - See mangiferin at Amazon.com.

Urolithin A improves mitochondrial health, reduces cartilage degeneration, and alleviates pain in osteoarthritis - Aging Cell 2022 Jul 1 - "Urolithin A (Mitopure) is a natural postbiotic compound that promotes mitophagy and mitochondrial function and beneficially impacts muscle health in preclinical models of aging and in elderly and middle-aged humans. Here, we showed that Urolithin A improved mitophagy and mitochondrial respiration in primary chondrocytes from joints of both healthy donors and OA patients. Furthermore, Urolithin A reduced disease progression in a mouse model of OA, decreasing cartilage degeneration, synovial inflammation, and pain. These improvements were associated with increased mitophagy and mitochondrial content, in joints of OA mice. These findings indicate that UA promotes joint mitochondrial health, alleviates OA pathology, and supports Urolithin A's potential to improve mobility with beneficial effects on structural damage in joints" - See urolithin A supplement at Amazon.com.

  • Urolithin A - Wikipedia - "Urolithin A is a metabolite compound resulting from the transformation of ellagitannins by the gut bacteria.[1] It belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzo-coumarins or dibenzo-α-pyrones. Its precursors – ellagic acids and ellagitannins – are ubiquitous in nature, including edible plants, such as pomegranates, strawberries, raspberries, and walnuts"

Vitamin D status, genetic factors, and risk of cardiovascular disease among individuals with type 2 diabetes: a prospective study - Am J Clin Nutr 2022 Jun 30 - "Higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD and IHD among patients with T2D, regardless of genetic susceptibility and genetic variants in VDR. Risk reductions tended to plateau at serum 25(OH)D levels around 50 nmol/L. These findings suggest that maintaining adequate vitamin D status and avoiding deficiency may help to prevent CVD complications among patients with T2D" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Human age reversal: Fact or fiction? - Aging Cell 2022 Jul 2 - "Although chronological age correlates with various age-related diseases and conditions, it does not adequately reflect an individual's functional capacity, well-being, or mortality risk. In contrast, biological age provides information about overall health and indicates how rapidly or slowly a person is aging. Estimates of biological age are thought to be provided by aging clocks, which are computational models (e.g., elastic net) that use a set of inputs (e.g., DNA methylation sites) to make a prediction. In the past decade, aging clock studies have shown that several age-related diseases, social variables, and mental health conditions associate with an increase in predicted biological age relative to chronological age. This phenomenon of age acceleration is linked to a higher risk of premature mortality. More recent research has demonstrated that predicted biological age is sensitive to specific interventions. Human trials have reported that caloric restriction, a plant-based diet, lifestyle changes involving exercise, a drug regime including metformin, and vitamin D3 supplementation are all capable of slowing down or reversing an aging clock. Non-interventional studies have connected high-quality sleep, physical activity, a healthy diet, and other factors to age deceleration. Specific molecules have been associated with the reduction or reversal of predicted biological age, such as the antihypertensive drug doxazosin or the metabolite alpha-ketoglutarate. Although rigorous clinical trials are needed to validate these initial findings, existing data suggest that aging clocks are malleable in humans" - See metformin at ReliableRX, vitamin D at Amazon.com and alpha ketoglutarate at Amazon.com.

Neuroprotective Effects of Hesperidin and Naringin in SK-N-AS Cell as an In Vitro Model for Alzheimer's Disease - J Am Nutr Assoc 2022 Jul 1 - "Hesperidin and naringin are flavonoids that are found in citrus fruits. Our aim was to create an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of hesperidin and naringin in SK-N-AS and AD model cells ... Hesperidin and naringin can be potentially used as neuroprotective agents. Naringin may be more effective than hesperidin in the accumulation of β-amyloid and tau proteins" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com and naringin at Amazon.com.

Quercetin ameliorated cardiac injury via reducing inflammatory actions and the glycerophospholipid metabolism dysregulation in a diabetic cardiomyopathy mouse model - Food Funct 2022 Jun 30 - "Quercetin has multiple protective effects against cardiometabolic diseases, but the biological mechanisms underlying the benefits in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) are unclear ... Such findings showed that quercetin may ameliorate cardiac dysfunction and myocardial fibrosis via reducing inflammatory actions and the glycerophospholipid metabolism dysregulation in DCM" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.

Serum L-Carnitine Levels Are Associated With First Stroke in Chinese Adults With Hypertension - Stroke 2022 Jun 30 - "The mean level of serum L-carnitine in the stroke population was 4.7 μg/mL, which was significantly lower than that of the control group (5.7 μg/mL). When L-carnitine was assessed as quintiles, compared with the reference group (quintile 1, <3.3 μg/mL), the odds of stroke were 0.62 (95% CI, 0.39-1.00) in quintile 2, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.40-1.10) in quintile 3, 0.47 (95% CI, 0.28-0.81) in quintile 4, and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.30-0.84) in quintile 5. The trend test was significant (P=0.01). When quintiles 2 to 5 were combined, the adjusted odds ratio of first stroke was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.38-0.87) compared with quintile 1" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.

Threonine supplementation prevents the development of fat deposition in mice fed a high-fat diet - Food Funct 2022 Jun 29 - "Obesity is the main factor involved in the onset of many diseases. Threonine supplementation has been demonstrated to reduce fat mass and serum triglycerides in already obese mice ... These results suggest that long-term threonine supplementation inhibited fat mass and improved lipid metabolism, making it a potential agent to prevent the development of diet-induced obesity" - See threonine at Amazon.com.

  • Theanine vs Threonine: What You Need To Know - supplementyoursleep.com - "Like theanine, threonine is an amino acid, one you’ve probably eaten today — it exists in high quantities in some meat, eggs, dairy, and leafy greens. Threonine is necessary for the formation of healthy muscle tissue, as well as nervous system and liver function, throughout the body. In contrast, theanine is a non-dietary/non-essential amino acid; there won’t be negative consequences if you don’t get enough of it in your diet ... However, we don’t see threonine (normally l-threonine) as a supplement as commonly because most people get enough of it in their diets. This may not be true for everyone — including some vegans/vegetarians — but it’s simply not that common of a sleep supplement ingredient, at least from what I’ve seen ... Though perhaps less common than theanine supplementation, threonine supplements and medicines DO exist; they’re often used in the treatment of some digestion issues, as well as for anxiety and depression. If you think you may have a medical condition or are experiencing depression, your best bet is to reach out to a healthcare practitioner; sleep supplements are great for aiding and enhancing rest, but they won’t cure anxiety, depression, or other ailments with a few quick pills."

Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia - Hypertension 2022 Jun 29 - "Previous studies found that antihypertensive medications (AHMs) acting on the renin-angiotensin system had the potential to reduce the progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia ... In patients with hypertension and mild cognitive impairment, angiotensin receptor blockers were associated with a lower risk of progression to dementia compared with ACE inhibitors and other classes of AHMs"

Genistein lowers fertility with pronounced effect in males: Meta-analyses on pre-clinical studies - Andrologia 2022 Jun 27 - "Genistein, an isoflavonoid, is found in a plethora of plant-based foods, and has been approved for use in various therapies. A couple of studies in adult men observed a negative correlation between genistein exposure and reproductive parameters ... Pooled analysis showed significant decreases in sperm count in males exposed to genistein during adulthood (Hedges's g = -2.51, p = 0.013) and in utero (Hedges's g = -0.861, p = 0.016) compared with controls. In males exposed to genistein in utero, serum testosterone levels decreased (Hedges's g = -6.301, p = 0.000) and luteinizing hormone (LH) (Hedges's g = 7.127, p = 0.000) and FSH (Hedges's g = 6.19, p = 0.000) levels increased in comparison with controls. In females, the number of corpora lutea (Hedges's g = -2.103, p = 0.019) and the litter size (Hedges's g = -1.773, p-value = 0.000) decreased; however, female reproductive hormones remained unaffected. These meta-analyses show that genistein has detrimental effects on male reproductive system and on the progression and sustenance of pregnancy, with more pronounced adverse impact in males, particularly when exposed in utero"

Circulating Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and COVID-19: A Prospective Cohort Study and Mendelian Randomization Analysis - Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 Jun 16 - "Higher circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially omega-3 fatty acids, have been linked to a better prognosis in patients of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the effects and causality of pre-infection PUFA levels remain unclear ... Mendelian randomization (MR) ... Our observational analysis supported that higher circulating omega-3 PUFAs, especially DHA, may lower the susceptibility to and alleviate the severity of COVID-19. Our MR analysis further supported causal associations of DPA-n3 and AA with a lower risk of severe COVID-19" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Omega-3 fatty acids, subclinical atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular events: Implications for primary prevention - Atherosclerosis 2022 Jun 20 - "coronary artery calcium (CAC) ... In an ethnically diverse population free of clinical CVD, higher plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels were associated with fewer long-term CVD events. The absolute decrease in CVD events with higher omega-3 fatty acid levels was more apparent at higher CAC scores" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Omega-3 fatty acids and metabolic partitioning of fatty acids within the liver in the context of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2022 Jul 1 - "Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent form of liver disease globally, affecting about 25% of the world's adult population. It is more common in those living with obesity, where it may affect as many as 80% of individuals ... triacylglycerols (TAGs) ... Increased intake of EPA and DHA may reduce the likelihood of hepatic TAG accumulation and could be used to reduce liver fat in patients with NAFLD" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Thyroid stimulating hormone levels are associated with genetically predicted nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 Jun 28 - "Multivariable logistic regression model suggested a "dose-response" relationship between TSH (Q4 vs. Q1: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.10 - 1.52; Ptrend = 0.001) and NAFLD. BMI and ALT partially mediated the association between TSH and NAFLD, while the proportion of the mediation effects of BMI and ALT were 39.1% and 22.3%, respectively. In MR analyses, the inverse-variance weighted method was selected as primary method and suggested a putative causal effect of NAFLD on serum TSH levels"

Empagliflozin Improves Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction Irrespective of Age - J Am Coll Cardiol 2022 Jul 5 - "Empagliflozin reduces cardiovascular death (CVD) or heart failure (HF) hospitalization (HFH) in patients with HF and preserved ejection fraction. ... Empagliflozin reduced primary outcomes and first and recurrent HFH and improved symptoms across a broad age spectrum. High age was not associated with reduced efficacy or meaningful intolerability" -  See empagliflozin inhousepharmacy.vu.

Empagliflozin for Heart Failure With Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction With and Without Diabetes - Circulation 2022 Jun 28 - "In patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction enrolled in EMPEROR-Preserved (Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction), empagliflozin significantly reduced the risk of heart failure outcomes irrespective of diabetes status at baseline" - See empagliflozin inhousepharmacy.vu.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

I was watching a YouTube video on cleaning the inside windows of a car and bought this setup for my Tesla:

Health Focus (Grape Seed Extract/Pine Bark/Pycnogenol):