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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 8/17/11.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Resveratrol bioavailability boosted by piperine: Study - Nutra USA, 8/16/11 - "Using mice, Prof Ahmad and his co-workers analyzed the level of exposure and maximum blood levels of resveratrol achieved by combining 100 milligrams of resveratrol per kilogram of animal with 10 mg/kg of piperine ... Compared to resveratrol alone, combination with piperine was found to increase the degree of exposure to 229 percent, and the maximum levels in the blood by a whopping 1,544 percent" - [Abstract] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and piperine at Amazon.com.

Green tea is effective in treating genetic disorder and types of tumors, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/16/11 - "blocking GDH with green tea is very effective at killing two different kinds of tumors; glioblastomas, an aggressive type of brain tumor, and tuberous sclerosis complex disorder, a genetic disease that causes non-malignant tumors to grow on a number of organs" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.

Alcohol interferes with the restorative functions of sleep - Science Daily, 8/15/11 - "alcohol interferes with the restorative functions of sleep ... alcohol suppresses the high-frequency power during sleep in a dosage-dependent manner ... Although the first half of sleep after alcohol intake looks good on the EEG, the result of the assessment regarding the autonomic nerve system shows that drinking leads to insomnia rather than good sleep ... More specifically, as alcohol consumption increased, the heart rate increased and the spectral power of HRV measured at each frequency range decreased. Also, the low-frequency/high-frequency ratio that is considered an index of the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems was increased"

Daily TV quota of six hours could shorten life expectancy by five years - Science Daily, 8/15/11 - "every single hour of TV watched after the age of 25 shortened the viewer's life expectancy by just under 22 minutes ... an individual who spends a lifetime average of six hours a day watching TV can expect to live just under five fewer years than someone who does not watch TV ... other research has shown that lifelong smoking is associated with the shortening of life expectancy by more than 4 years after the age of 50, with the average loss of life from one cigarette calculated to be 11 minutes -- equivalent to half an hour of TV watching"

Fat and healthy? Study finds slim isn't always superior - Science Daily, 8/15/11 - "obese people who are otherwise healthy live just as long as their slim counterparts, and are less likely to die of cardiovascular causes ... Kuk's team looked at 6,000 obese Americans over a 16-year span, comparing their mortality risk with that of lean individuals"

Less salt, less strokes, says new research - Science Daily, 8/11/11 - "a reduction of 3 grams of salt intake per day would prevent up to 8,000 stroke deaths and up to 12,000 coronary heart disease deaths per year in the UK ... A similar reduction in the USA would result in up to 120,000 fewer cases of coronary heart disease, up to 66,000 strokes and up to 99,000 heart attacks annually. It would also save up to $24 billion annually in health care costs"

Low vitamin D linked to earlier first menstruation - Science Daily, 8/11/11 - "Researchers from the University of Michigan School of Public Health measured the blood vitamin D levels in 242 girls ages 5-12 from Bogota, Colombia, and followed them for 30 months. Girls low on vitamin D were twice as likely to start menstruation during the study than those with sufficient vitamin D ... Early menstruation is a risk factor for behavioral and psychosocial problems in teens. Also, girls who have an earlier menarche appear to have increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases and cancer -- particularly breast cancer, as adults" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Red meat linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and other lifestyle and dietary risk factors, the researchers found that a daily 100-gram serving of unprocessed red meat (about the size of a deck of cards) was associated with a 19% increased risk of type 2 diabetes. They also found that one daily serving of half that quantity of processed meat -- 50 grams (for example, one hot dog or sausage or two slices of bacon) -- was associated with a 51% increased risk ... Clearly, the results from this study have huge public health implications given the rising type 2 diabetes epidemic and increasing consumption of red meats worldwide ... for an individual who eats one daily serving of red meat, substituting one serving of nuts per day was associated with a 21% lower risk of type 2 diabetes; substituting low-fat dairy, a 17% lower risk; and substituting whole grains, a 23% lower risk ... consumption of processed red meat -- like hot dogs, bacon, sausage, and deli meats, which generally have high levels of sodium and nitrites -- should be minimized and unprocessed red meat should be reduced. If possible, they add, red meat should be replaced with healthier choices, such as nuts, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, fish, or beans"

Antioxidant spices, like turmeric and cinnamon, reduce negative effects of high-fat meal - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "Normally, when you eat a high-fat meal, you end up with high levels of triglycerides, a type of fat, in your blood ... If this happens too frequently, or if triglyceride levels are raised too much, your risk of heart disease is increased. We found that adding spices to a high-fat meal reduced triglyceride response by about 30 percent, compared to a similar meal with no spices added ... Antioxidants, like spices, may be important in reducing oxidative stress and thus reducing the risk of chronic disease"

High levels of potentially toxic flame retardants in California pregnant women - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "the flame retardant chemicals, known as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been widely used in furniture foam, plastics, carpets, consumer electronics, wire insulation, and other products since the 1970s. Although California banned manufacture and import of certain PBDEs in 2004, human exposure continues from old products, house dust, food, and other sources. Studies suggest that PBDE exposure during pregnancy may disrupt thyroid function, with adverse effects on normal development of the fetus's brain that persist throughout life, and also have adverse effects on the mother ... In their study of 25 second-trimester pregnant women in California, the researchers found the highest-ever levels of certain PBDEs among pregnant women worldwide. The high exposure most likely was the unintended consequence of California's furniture flammability standards, which manufacturers have met since 1975 by adding PBDE's to foam in upholstered furniture"

Arthritis sufferers are not engaging in physical activity critical to their health - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "Being physically active is one of best ways people with arthritis can improve their health ... more than half of women and 40 percent of men with arthritis are virtually couch potatoes ... fewer than one in seven men and one in 12 women met those guidelines when we had this objective measure, using the accelerometer ... The fact that so many people with arthritis are inactive should be a wake-up call to physicians"

Eating protein throughout the day preserves muscle and physical function in dieting postmenopausal women, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "higher protein intake during weight loss can offset negative effects on muscle mass by maintaining more muscle relative to the amount of weight lost. Women who ate more protein lost 3.9 percent more weight and had a relative gain of 5.8 percent more thigh muscle volume than woman who did not ... 31 healthy, postmenopausal obese women were divided into two groups. Each group followed a 1,400-calorie weight-loss diet based on USDA's My Pyramid, but one group received a powdered whey protein supplement in the morning and again in the afternoon or evening; the other received a placebo that contained carbohydrates ... We hypothesize that more vigorous exercise -- in particular, resistance training -- would preserve even more muscle" - See whey protein at Amazon.com or try the yogurt recipe at the top of my yogurt page.

HGH -- Human Growth Hormone -- Injections Give Couple New Energy, Enjoyment of Life - ABC News, 8/9/11 - "But the practice of injecting hGH is highly controversial and potentially risky" - Note:  I'm convinced that it harms in the long run in that it actually hinders exercise performance and that it bulks you up too much.  I feel it has to do with this statement:

  • Why muscles weaken with age and points to possible therapy - Science Daily, 8/2/11 - "Most investigators in the field of aging have been saying that the way to improve muscle strength is to build muscle mass, using such therapies as testosterone, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1," says Dr. Marks. "But an increase in muscle mass is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in muscle function"

Narcissists look like good leaders, but they aren't - Science Daily, 8/9/11 - "Narcissists rise to the top. That's because other people think their qualities -- confidence, dominance, authority, and self-esteem -- make them good leaders ... Our research shows that the opposite seems to be true ... the narcissists' preoccupation with their own brilliance inhibits a crucial element of successful group decision-making and performance: the free and creative exchange of information and ideas ... in the everyday life of an organization, "communication -- sharing of information, perspectives, and knowledge -- is essential to making good decisions. In brainstorming groups, project teams, government committees, each person brings something new. That's the benefit of teams. That's what creates a good outcome." Good leaders facilitate communication by asking questions and summarizing the conversation -- something narcissists are too self-involved to do ... the research has implications beyond the workplace -- for instance, in politics. "Narcissists are very convincing. They do tend to be picked as leaders. There's the danger: that people can be so wrong based on how others project themselves. You have to ask: Are the competencies they project valid, or are they merely in the eyes of the beholder?"" - Related article:

  • Osama Bin Laden's Evil Charisma Recalls Adolf Hitler, Charles Manson and Jim Jones - ABC News, 5/4/11 - "History is littered with Osama bin Ladens -- former President George W. Bush called them the "evil-doers" -- who wield mesmerizing power over their devoted followers and often possess qualities of grandiosity and charisma ... Agents of influence are effective at what they do. But some people come along who have a personality type and are often described as narcissistic ... "The fact is that Hitler was beloved by his people--not the military, at least not in the beginning, but by the average Germans who pledged to him an affection, a tenderness and a fidelity that bordered on the irrational," said Wiesel in an 1998 essay in Time magazine. "It was idolatry on a national scale. One had to see the crowds who acclaimed him. And the women who were attracted to him. And the young who in his presence went into ecstasy. Did they not see the hateful mask that covered his face? Did they not divine the catastrophe he bore within himself?""

Curry spice could offer treatment hope for tendinitis - Science Daily, 8/9/11 - "Tendons, the tough cords of fibrous connective tissue that join muscles to bones, are essential for movement because they transfer the force of muscle contraction to bones. However, they are prone to injury, particularly in athletes who may overstretch themselves and overuse their joints. Tendinitis (or tendonitis) is a form of tendon inflammation, which causes pain and tenderness near to joints and is particularly common in shoulders, elbows, knees, hips, heels or wrists. Other examples of common tendon disease include tennis and golfer's elbow and Achilles tendinitis ... introducing curcumin in the culture system inhibits NF-kB and prevents it from switching on and promoting further inflammation ... The results follow on from another study by the Nottingham-Munich collaboration, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry earlier this year, demonstrating that a compound found in red wine could have therapeutic potential for osteoporosis related bone loss in elderly patients, post-menopausal women and patients with rheumatoid arthritis ... The research found that resveratrol, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen found in the skin of red grapes, vines and various other fruits and nuts, inhibits inflammation in bone cells. Its effects extended to inhibiting the formation of osteoclasts, giant congregations of blood-derived cells responsible for bone degeneration, especially in osteoporosis in later life. Resveratrol prevented NF-kB from switching on to trigger inflammation" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and curcumin products at Amazon.com.

Tufts-Harvard study builds vitamin D's anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 8/9/11 - "The study included 92 people with an average age of 57 and an average BMI of 32 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D (2000 IU per day) or calcium carbonate (800 mg per day). Participants received either the vitamin D with or without calcium or calcium alone for 16 weeks ... At the end of the study, a measure of the function of beta-cells was improved in the people receiving vitamin D, with the so-called disposition index (a measure of beta cell function in the pancreas that includes measures of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity) improved by about 26 percent, compared with a decline of about 14 percent in the no-vitamin D group" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Weight Loss Improves Erections in Obese Men With Diabetes - Medscape, 8/10/11 - "For the study, researchers recruited obese men who had body mass indexes (BMIs), a number calculated from weight and height, of greater than 30 and waist sizes over 40 inches ... The average age of men in the study was 60 ... men were randomly assigned to either a low-calorie diet, where two daily meals were replaced by weight loss shakes, or to a higher-protein, lower-carbohydrate eating plan ... In the healthy eating plan, which focused on three meals of lean protein, five daily servings of vegetables, and two daily servings of whole grain carbohydrates and fruit, was designed to shave about 600 daily calories off what the men would normally eat ... After eight weeks, the men on the low-calorie meal replacement diets were switched to the healthy eating plan, and all continued to be followed for a year ... After eight weeks on the diets, the men on the low-calorie plan had lost about twice as much weight as the men on the healthy eating plan, 20 pounds vs. 11 pounds ... But they had similar improvements in erectile function, sexual desire, and urinary symptoms ... Of the 17 men with severe erectile dysfunction, Wittert says that after eight weeks, seven had improvements in their symptoms, with some achieving normal function. After a year, 25% had normal erectile function"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

A low-fat high-carbohydrate diet supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA reduces the risk of the metabolic syndrome - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jul 12 - "Clinical intervention study: the patients (n=337) were randomly assigned to one of four diets for 12 weeks each: two high fat diets, one rich in saturated fat (HSFA) and the other rich in monounsaturated fat (HMUFA), and two low fat diets, one high in complex carbohydrates (LFHCC) supplemented with 1.24g/day of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LFHCC n-3) and the other LFHCC diet with placebo (LFHCC) ... An enlarged waist circumference (≥88cm for women and ≥102cm for men) was present among 95% of the participants, 88% had elevated blood pressure (>130/85mm Hg or antihypertensive drugs), 77% had elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.55mmol/L), 51% were hypertriacylglycerolemic (≥1.7mmol/L), and 72% had low HDL cholesterol (<1.0mmol/L for men, and <1.3mmol/L for women). The prevalence of enlarged waist circumference, hypertension and hypertriacylglycerolemia were reduced after the LFHCC n-3 diet (p<0.05). Thus the prevalence of MetS fell by 20.5% after LFHCC n-3 diet compared with the HSFA (10.6%), HMUFA (12%) diet or LFHCC (10.4%) diets (p<0.028)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Estimating health and economic benefits from using prescription omega-3 Fatty acids in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Sep 1;108(5):691-7 - "In patients with severe (≥500 mg/dl) hypertriglyceridemia (SHTG), clinical trials have demonstrated that prescription ω-3 fatty acids (P-OM3s) 4 g/day can decrease triglyceride levels by 45% ... Simulation results for the control arm indicated that subjects with SHTG are at about 2 times higher risk for myocardial infarction than those with normal triglyceride levels. Using estimates from previous epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses with OM3s, the model predicted 29% to 36% decreases in various measurements of adverse cardiac events for the intervention arm. The model also predicted a decrease in ischemic stroke of 24% (95% confidence interval 15 to 33)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Substitution of Standard Soybean Oil with Olive Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion in Parenteral Nutrition: Comparison of Vascular, Metabolic, and Inflammatory Effects - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug 10 - "Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions are the only Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid formulation for clinical use in parenteral nutrition (PN). Recently concerns with its use have been raised due to the proinflammatory effects that may lead to increased complications because they are rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ... Soybean oil-PN increased systolic blood pressure compared with olive oil-PN (P < 0.05). Soybean oil PN reduced brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation from baseline (-23% at 4 h and -25% at 24 h, both P < 0.01); in contrast, olive oil PN, lipid free PN, and saline did not change either systolic blood pressure or flow-mediated dilatation. Compared with saline, soybean oil PN, olive oil PN, and lipid free PN similarly increased glucose and insulin concentrations during infusion (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in plasma free fatty acids, lipid profile, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, immune function parameters, or sympathetic activity between soybean oil- and olive oil-based lipid emulsions. Conclusion: The 24-h infusion of PN containing soybean oil-based lipid emulsion increased blood pressure and impaired endothelial function compared with PN containing olive oil-based lipid emulsion and lipid-free PN in healthy subjects. These vascular changes may have significant implications in worsening outcome in subjects receiving nutrition support"

  • Parenteral nutrition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulas that contain nutrients such as salts, glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins. It is called total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or total nutrient admixture (TNA) when no food is given by other routes"

Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of dietary black sesame meal in pre-hypertensive humans - Nutr J. 2011 Aug 9;10(1):82 - "Twenty-two women and eight men (aged 49.8 +/- 6.6 years) with prehypertension were randomly divided into two groups, 15 subjects per group. They ingested 2.52 g black sesame meal capsules or placebo capsules each day for 4 weeks ... malondialdehyde (MDA) ... The results showed that 4-week administration of black sesame meal significantly decreased systolic BP (129.3 +/- 6.8 vs. 121.0 +/- 9.0 mmHg, P < 0.05) and MDA level (1.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.6 micromol/L, P < 0.05), and increased vitamin E level (29.4 +/- 6.0 vs. 38.2 +/- 7.8 micromol/L, P < 0.01). In the black sesame meal group, the change in systolic BP tended to be positively related to the change in MDA (R = 0.50, P = 0.05), while the change in diastolic BP was negatively related to the change in vitamin E (R = -0.55, P <0.05)" - See sesame seed oil at Amazon.com.  Note:  An 8.3 point drop in systolic seems impressive.  That's about what you get from medication plus it's systolic that most have a problem with.

Catechin-Rich Grape Seed Extract Supplementation Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6J Mice - Ann Nutr Metab. 2011 Aug 9;58(3):250-258 - "The main polyphenol components of CGSE were catechin and epicatechin. CGSE supplementation in the HFD-induced obesity model chronically suppressed the increase in body weight and the weight of fat pads. Furthermore, CGSE improved metabolic parameter abnormalities and upregulated the fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CGSE contains monomeric catechins in high concentrations and ameliorates HFD-induced obesity in C57BL/6J mice" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.

Cancer mortality reduction and metformin. A retrospective cohort study in type 2 diabetic patients - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2011 Aug - "All-cause and cancer-related deaths occurred in: 9.2%, 1.6% of metformin users, 13.1%, 3.0% of sulfonylureas users and 26.8%, 4.8%of insulin users, respectively. In a Cox regression model for competing risks, adjusted for propensity score, metformin users showed a lower cancer mortality risk (HR=0.56;95%CI 0.34-0.94), while insulin was positively associated with other-than-cancer-mortality (HR=1.56; 1.22-1.99). Each 5-year metformin exposure was associated with a reduction in cancer death by 0.73, whereas every 5-year insulin exposure was associated with 1.25-fold increase in other-than-cancer death. Standardized mortality ratios for cancer and other-than-cancer mortality in metformin users were 43.6 (95%CI 25.8-69.0) and 99.1 (79.3-122.5) respectively, in comparison with the general population. Conclusions: Metformin users showed a lower risk of cancer-related mortality than not users or patients on diet only; this may represent another reason to choose metformin as a first-line therapy in T2DP"

Lower endothelial progenitor cell number, family history of cardiovascular disease and reduced HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length in healthy young adults - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Aug 6 - "LTL resulted inversely correlated with family history of CVD (t = 2.70; p = 0.009), age (r = -0.238; p = 0.032), waist circumference (r = -0.256; p = 0.02), triglycerides (r = -0.218; p = 0.049), PAI-1 (r = -0.288; p = 0.009) and directly correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.316; p = 0.004) and EPC number (r = 0.358; p = 0.002). At a multivariate analysis, family history of CVD (p = 0.013), EPC count (p = 0.003), and HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.017) were independently associated with LTL (r = 0.62) ... LTL is independently associated to CV risk factors also in healthy young adults"

Oral hydroxycitrate supplementation enhances glycogen synthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle - Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug 9:1-8 - "Glycogen stored in skeletal muscle is the main fuel for endurance exercise. The present study examined the effects of oral hydroxycitrate (HCA) supplementation on post-meal glycogen synthesis in exercised human skeletal muscle. Eight healthy male volunteers (aged 22.0 (se 0.3) years) completed a 60-min cycling exercise at 70-75 % \dot {>V}O_{2\hairsp max} and received HCA or placebo in a crossover design repeated after a 7 d washout period. They consumed 500 mg HCA or placebo with a high-carbohydrate meal (2 g carbohydrate/kg body weight, 80 % carbohydrate, 8 % fat, 12 % protein) for a 3-h post-exercise recovery. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from vastus lateralis immediately and 3 h after the exercise. We found that HCA supplementation significantly lowered post-meal insulin response with similar glucose level compared to placebo. The rate of glycogen synthesis with the HCA meal was approximately onefold higher than that with the placebo meal. In contrast, GLUT4 protein level after HCA supplementation was significantly decreased below the placebo level, whereas expression of fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36 mRNA was significantly increased above the placebo level. Furthermore, HCA supplementation significantly increased energy reliance on fat oxidation, estimated by the gaseous exchange method. However, no differences were found in circulating NEFA and glycerol levels with the HCA meal compared with the placebo meal. The present study reports the first evidence that HCA supplementation enhanced glycogen synthesis rate in exercised human skeletal muscle and improved post-meal insulin sensitivity" - See hydroxycitrate at Amazon.com.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

Health Focus (Nuts):

News & Reserch:

Abstracts:

  • Alternative Healthy Eating Index and mortality over 18 y of follow-up: results from the Whitehall II cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 25 - "Indexes of diet quality have been shown to be associated with decreased risk of mortality in several countries. It remains unclear if the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), designed to provide dietary guidelines to combat major chronic diseases, is related to mortality risk. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between adherence to the AHEI and cause-specific mortality over 18 y of follow-up in a British working population. Design: Analyses are based on 7319 participants (mean age: 49.5 y; range: 39-63 y; 30.3% women) from the Whitehall II Study. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed to analyze associations of the AHEI (scored on the basis of intake of 9 components: vegetables, fruit, nuts and soy, white or red meat, trans fat, polyunsaturated or saturated fat, fiber, multivitamin use, and alcohol) with mortality risk. Results: After potential confounders were controlled for, participants in the top compared with the bottom third of the AHEI score showed 25% lower all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR): 0.76; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.95] and >40% lower mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD; HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.91). Consumption of nuts and soy and moderate alcohol intake appeared to be the most important independent contributors to decreased mortality risk. The AHEI was not associated with cancer mortality or noncancer/non-CVD mortality. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the encouragement of adherence to the AHEI dietary recommendations constitutes a valid and clear public health recommendation that would decrease the risk of premature death from CVD"
  • Arecoline N-Oxide: Its Mutagenicity and Possible Role as Ultimate Carcinogen in Areca Oral Carcinogenesis - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 3 - "The areca nut is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in Taiwan, India, and Southeast Asia. It is considered to be an environmental risk factor for the development of oral submucous fibrosis and cancer. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nut, has been known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various systems. However, the active compound accounting for arecoline-induced damage in normal human oral cells is still uncharacterized. The present study was undertaken to identify the active metabolite of arecoline that might induce damage in human oral tissues and cause mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA 100 and TA 98. It is interesting to find that the major metabolite of arecoline, arecoline N-oxide, is moderately mutagenic to these Salmonella tester strains. This mutagenicity was potently inhibited by sulfhydryl compounds, namely, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, and cysteine, whereas methionine is inactive in this inhibition. The mutagenicity of arecoline N-oxide was strongly inhibited by the N-oxide reducing agent titanium trichloride. The possible role of arecoline N-oxide in the induction of oral carcinogenesis by areca nut chewing is discussed"
  • Nut consumption, weight gain and obesity: Epidemiological evidence - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jan 7 - "Consumption of nuts was not associated with a higher risk of weight gain in long-term epidemiologic studies and clinical trials"
  • Effects of pistachio nuts consumption on plasma lipid profile and oxidative status in healthy volunteers - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2006 Apr;16(3):202-9 - "These results indicated that consumption of pistachio nuts decreased oxidative stress, and improved total cholesterol and HDL levels in healthy volunteers"

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