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Home > Health Conditions > Pregnancy

Pregnancy

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  • Prenatal Vitamins May Lower 2nd Child Autism Risk - WebMD, 2/27/19 - "Whereas other studies have shown that prenatal vitamins reduce the overall likelihood of having a first child with ASD, this new study suggests that mothers who already have a child with ASD can reduce their risk of having another, similarly affected child," he said ... "Although there are already many good reasons for women to begin taking prenatal vitamins … this study lends further support to their potential benefits for women already at increased risk for having another child with ASD," Adesman added ... "If the findings from this study are replicated by other researchers, then something as simple and inexpensive as taking prenatal vitamins prior to conception can significantly reduce the likelihood of a woman having a second child with ASD," - See prenatal vitamins with dha and folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Docosahexaenoic Acid at 0.4% of Dietary Weight Enhances Lean Mass in Young Female Sprague-Dawley Rats - J Nutr. 2019 Feb 15 - "Overall, a 6% increase (P < 0.05) in whole-body and abdominal lean mass was observed in the 0.4%-DHA diet group compared with the control diet group. Moreover, the abdominal visceral fat mass was 31.4% lower in rats in the 0.4%-DHA than in the 1.2%-DHA diet group (P < 0.001). Rats in the 1.2%-DHA diet group showed greater percent differences in whole-body (32.5% and 40.6% higher) and in abdominal (33.9% and 49.4% higher) fat mass relative to the 0.1%- and 0.4%-DHA diet groups, respectively (P < 0.01). Accordingly, serum leptin concentration was lower in the 0.1%-DHA (38.2%) and 0.4%-DHA (43.8%) diet groups (P < 0.01) than in the 1.2%-DHA diet group and positively related to whole-body fat mass" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Could omega-3 fatty acids help prevent miscarriages? - Science Daily, 2/7/19 - "Approximately one in 10 U.S. infants are born before term. Between 10 and 30 percent of preterm births have been attributed to uterine infections with a type of bacteria commonly found in the mouth, F. nucleatum ... Bleeding gums create an entryway for bacteria to leak into the bloodstream. Once in the circulatory system, the bacteria can migrate to the placenta and cause inflammation there, sometimes triggering miscarriage or stillbirth ... We knew from our previous work that uterine inflammation due to infection with this bacteria is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but in order to prevent those outcomes, we needed to determine exactly how these infections trigger inflammation ... We were looking for an anti-inflammatory agent that's safe for pregnant women to use ... The experiments showed that supplements containing omega-3 fatty acids also inhibited inflammation and bacterial growth in pregnant mice, and reduced preterm births, miscarriages, and stillbirths" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Supplement makes (mouse) moms' milk better; pups benefit for life - Science Daily, 1/22/19 - "Mother mice given the NR supplement lost weight faster and produced more milk than mothers not fed NR. In addition to increasing the quantity of milk the moms produced, NR supplementation also increased the quality of the milk, which contained higher levels of a protein factor that promotes brain development ... The advantages to the pups being nursed by NR-supplemented moms were striking and long-lasting. The pups were bigger and had better metabolic health than pups nursed by non-supplemented moms. As adults, they also had better motor coordination, better learning and memory, and were less anxious and more resilient to stress ... NR-supplementation in mice returned liver levels of NAD back to or above normal, and supercharged lactation, so that NR-fed moms produced more milk and the milk contained higher levels of a growth factor called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that enhances brain development" - See nicotinamide riboside at Amazon.com.
  • Women Remain at Risk of Iodine Deficiency during Pregnancy: The Importance of Iodine Supplementation before Conception and Throughout Gestation - Nutrients. 2019 Jan 15;11(1) - "Commencing an I-supp of 150 µg/day prior to conception and continuing throughout pregnancy is required to ensure adequacy. Timely advice regarding the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, including supplementation is needed to reduce the risk of irreversible in utero neurocognitive damage to the foetus" - See iodine at Amazon.com.
  • Link between neonatal vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia confirmed - Science Daily, 12/6/18 - "newborns with vitamin D deficiency had a 44 per cent increased risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia as adults compared to those with normal vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of premature birth - Science Daily, 11/15/18 - "They looked at 70 randomised trials and found that for pregnant women, increasing the daily intake of long-chain omega-3s: ... lowers the risk of having a premature baby (less than 37 weeks) by 11% (from 134 per 1000 to 119 per 1000 births) ... lowers the risk of having an early premature baby (less than 34 weeks) by 42% (from 46 per 1000 to 27 per 1000 births) ... reduces the risk of having a small baby (less than 2500g) by 10%" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Fish-rich diets in pregnancy may boost babies' brain development - Science Daily, 9/20/18 - "Women could enhance the development of their unborn child's eyesight and brain function by regularly eating fatty fish during pregnancy ... Such fatty acids help to shape the nerve cells that are relevant to eyesight and particularly the retina. They are also important in forming the synapses that are vital in the transport of messages between neurons in the nervous system" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil Pills In Pregnancy May Mean Stronger Kids - WebMD, 9/5/18 - "The body composition at age 6 years in children given fish oil supplementation was characterized by a proportional increase in lean, bone and fat mass, suggesting a general growth-stimulating effect" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low plasma levels of omega-3 fatty acids associated with preterm birth - Science Daily, 8/3/18 - "Analysis of the blood samples showed that women who were in the lowest quintile of EPA+DHA serum levels -- with EPA+DHA levels of 1.6% or less of total plasma fatty acids -- had a 10 times higher risk of early preterm birth when compared with women in the three highest quintiles, whose EPA+DHA levels were 1.8% or higher. Women in the second lowest quintile had a 2.7 times higher risk compared with women in the three highest quintiles" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal DHA Status during Pregnancy Has a Positive Impact on Infant Problem Solving: A Norwegian Prospective Observation Study - Nutrients. 2018 Apr 24;10(5) - "DHA status at three months was associated with the infants&rsquo; problem solving at 12 months. The results accentuate the importance for pregnant and lactating women to have a satisfactory DHA status from dietary intake of seafood or other sources rich in DHA" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Researchers link dietary supplement DHA to higher fat-free body mass in children - Science Daily, 3/21/18 - "DHA is a nutrient found in the highest concentrations in oily fish such as salmon and tuna, foods many Americans don't eat a lot of, so they tend to get low intakes ... Because U.S. intakes are low and because DHA is highly concentrated in the brain where it increases dramatically in the last trimester of pregnancy and the first two years of life, I have had a long interest in whether more of this nutrient is needed for optimal health during early development. DHA can be delivered to the fetus by increasing maternal intake during pregnancy and to the breast-fed infant by increasing maternal intake during lactation, which increases DHA in mothers' milk ... Half were randomly assigned to a prenatal DHA supplement of 600 milligrams, and half were given a placebo ... Five years later ... the children whose mothers took the DHA supplement during pregnancy had an average of 1.3 pounds more fat-free mass but the same amount of fat at age 5 compared with the placebo group" - See Docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Female Babies on Soy Formula Show Estrogenic Effects - Medscape, 3/13/18 - "Exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) early in life may affect reproductive development ... In our observational study, when compared to infants who were fed cow’s milk formula, infants who were fed soy formula exclusively since birth demonstrated differences in uterine volume and urogenital epithelial cell characteristics over the first 7 to 9 months of life, consistent with an estrogen response ... These differences were not of clinical concern, and the potential long-term clinical consequences of these changes are unknown ... For mothers who prefer giving formula, AAP does not recommend soy formula for preterm infants, and cites very few indications for use among term infants, including galactosemia, hereditary lactase deficiency, or family preference for a vegetarian diet. Our study provides additional evidence in support of the AAP limited use recommendations"
  • Fish oil and probiotic supplements in pregnancy may reduce risk of childhood allergies - Science Daily, 2/28/18 - "when pregnant women took a daily fish oil capsule from 20 weeks pregnant, and during the first three to four months of breastfeeding, risk of egg allergy in the child was reduced by 30 per cent ... taking a daily probiotic supplement from 36-38 weeks pregnant, and during the first three to six months of breastfeeding, reduced the risk of a child developing eczema by 22 per cent" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Prebiotics in infant formula could improve learning and memory and alter brain chemistry - Science Daily, 1/17/18 - "Starting on the second day of life, piglets were given a cow's milk-based infant formula supplemented with polydextrose (PDX), a synthetic carbohydrate with prebiotic activity, and galactooligosaccharide (GOS), a naturally occurring prebiotic. When the piglets were 25 days old, Fleming took them through several learning, memory, and stress tests. After 33 days, blood, brain, and intestinal tissues were collected for analysis ... Pigs fed PDX and GOS spent more time playing with new objects than pigs who didn't receive the prebiotic supplements. The preference for novel objects, an indication of natural curiosity, is a sign of healthy brain development and points towards positive development of learning and memory" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Eating more foods with choline during pregnancy could boost baby’s brain - Science Daily, 1/4/18 - "half the women received 480 mg/day of choline, slightly more than the adequate intake level, and the other half received 930 mg/day ... While offspring in both groups showed cognitive benefits, information processing speeds were significantly faster for the group of expectant mothers who consumed 930 mg/day when compared with the group that took 480 mg/day over the same period ... Though the study has a small sample, it suggests that current recommendations for daily choline intake may not be enough to produce optimal cognitive abilities in offspring" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Prenatal Vitamins Tied to Lower Autism Risk - WebMD, 1/3/18 - "Women who took supplements prior to pregnancy were 61 percent less likely to have a child diagnosed with autism ... taking supplements during pregnancy was linked to a 73 percent reduced risk of an autism diagnosis"
  • Perinatal Brain Docosahexaenoic Acid Concentration Has a Lasting Impact on Cognition in Mice - J Nutr. 2017 Aug 2 - "Developmental deprivation of brain DHA by dietary ω-3 FA depletion in mice may have a lasting impact on cognitive function if not corrected at an early age" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • High folic acid level in pregnancy may decrease high blood pressure in children - Science Daily, 3/8/17 - "A new article published in the American Journal of Hypertension finds that babies born to mothers with cardiometabolic risk factors were less likely to develop high blood pressure if their mothers had higher levels of folate during pregnancy"
  • Postpartum Varicose Veins: Supplementation with Pycnogenol or Elastic Compression-A 12-Month Follow-Up - Int J Angiol. 2017 Mar;26(1):12-19 - "At 3 and 6 months in the Pycnogenol group the number of veins and incompetent sites were lower. At 6 months there were 13.3% of patients with edema in controls versus 3.2% in the Pycnogenol group. Spider veins decreased in Pycnogenol patients. Cramps and other minor symptoms were less common in the Pycnogenol group. In both groups there was a significant improvement at 6 months with better results in the Pycnogenol group. The need for treatment was limited with a decreased need for sclerotherapy, surgery, and conservative treatments in the Pycnogenol group. The overall satisfaction was higher among Pycnogenol patients, and compliance was optimal" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.  Some say grape seed extract is similar without the patent make-up.  See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Early supplementation may help offset early-life stress on the adult brain - Science Daily, 10/26/16 - "Specifically, using mice, scientists focused on essential micronutrients, including methionine, vitamins B6and B12, and folic acid, none of which are made by the body and need to be ingested through diet. They found that early-life stress reduces the levels of these nutrients in mouse pups, but supplementation prevented the reduction of methionine levels and even prevented some of the lasting negative effects of early-life stress on later learning and memory in adult offspring ... Here we see strikingly beneficial cognitive effects of a sound postnatal diet. The nutrients tested were familiar ones, but the results speak for themselves"
  • Nutritional supplement could prevent thousands of early preterm births - Science Daily, 10/13/16 - "DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) occurs naturally in cell membranes with the highest levels in brain cells, but levels can be increased by diet or supplements ... By using the results of DOMinO and KUDOS, the researchers in both studies found that early preterm births could be reduced to only 1.3 percent in Australia or 1.5 percent of births in the U.S. in demographically similar populations ... These percentages are remarkably similar and may reflect the lowest rate of spontaneous early preterm birth that can be achieved in any population" -  See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of synbiotic supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2016 Sep 29:1-8 - "Patients in the synbiotic group received a daily capsule that contained three viable and freeze-dried strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum (2×109 colony-forming units/g each) plus 800 mg inulin for 6 weeks ... After 6 weeks of intervention, compared with the placebo, synbiotic supplementation led to a significant decrease in serum insulin levels (-1·5 (sd 5·9) v. +4·8 (sd 11·5) µIU/ml, P=0·005), homoeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (-0·4 (sd 1·3) v. +1·1 (sd 2·7), P=0·003) and homoeostatic model assessment for β cell function (-5·1 (sd 24·2) v. +18·9 (sd 45·6), P=0·008) and a significant increase in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0·01 (sd 0·01) v. -0·007 (sd 0·02), P=0·02). In addition, synbiotic intake significantly decreased serum TAG (-14·8 (sd 56·5) v. +30·4 (sd 37·8) mg/dl, P<0·001) and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations (-3·0 (sd 11·3) v. +6·1 (sd 7·6) mg/dl, P<0·001) compared with the placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See synbiotic products at Amazon.com, probiotic products at Amazon.com and inulin at Amazon.com.
  • A Dietary Supply of Docosahexaenoic Acid Early in Life Is Essential for Immune Development and the Establishment of Oral Tolerance in Female Rat Offspring - J Nutr. 2016 Sep 28 - "Feeding additional DHA during suckling had a beneficial programming effect on the ability of immune cells to produce IFN-γ and IL-10, and feeding DHA during weaning resulted in a lower inflammatory response" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com and docosahexaenoic acid at iHerb.
  • Vitamin B levels during pregnancy linked to eczema risk in child - Science Daily, 9/23/16 - "offspring of mothers with higher levels of nicotinamide had a 30 per cent lower chance of developing atopic eczema at 12 months. There was an even stronger association with higher levels of anthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite ... Nicotinamide can improve the overall structure, moisture and elasticity of skin and therefore could potentially alter the disease processes associated with eczema" - See nicotinamide at Amazon.com.
  • Prenatal supplementation with DHA improves attention at 5 y of age: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Sep 7 - "Prenatal exposure to DHA may contribute to improved sustained attention in preschool children" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy and youth on neurodevelopment and cognition in childhood: a systematic review and meta-analysis - The FASEB Journal Apr 2016 - "Omega-3 supplementation during either pregnancy or infancy improves child neurodevelopment. These findings indicate the importance of sufficient polyunsaturated fatty acid intake by pregnant women and young children" - [Nutra USA] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Bit of Chocolate in Pregnancy May Help Mom, Baby - WebMD, 2/4/16 - "Pregnant women who nibble just a small piece of chocolate each day may improve the circulatory health of their unborn child ... The tiny treat may also reduce the risk for preeclampsia ... All were instructed to consume 30 grams of chocolate (a little more than one ounce) each day over a 12-week period. That's equivalent to about one small square of chocolate per day ... Half of the women consumed high-flavanol chocolate, while the other half were given low-flavanol chocolate ... simply consuming a small amount of chocolate -- no matter what the flavanol content -- was associated with notable improvements in all blood circulation and velocity measures compared to the general population" - See Ghirardelli Chocolate Intense Dark Squares, Midnight Reverie, 4.12 oz., 86% Cacao (Pack of 4) at Amazon.com.
  • Prenatal folate, homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels and child brain volumes, cognitive development and psychological functioning: the Generation R Study - Br J Nutr. 2016 Jan 22:1-9 - "Our findings suggest that folate insufficiency in early pregnancy has a long-lasting, global effect on brain development and is, together with homocysteine levels, associated with poorer cognitive performance"
  • Long-Term Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid Feeding on Lipid Composition and Brain Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Expression in Rats - Nutrients. 2015 Oct 22 - "Arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) brain accretion is essential for brain development ... DHA supplementation during lactation maintains high DHA levels in the brains of pups even when they are fed a DHA-deficient diet for three weeks after weaning. We show that boosting dietary DHA levels for three weeks after weaning compensates for a maternal DHA-deficient diet during lactation. Finally, our data indicate that brain fatty acid binding protein (FABP7), a marker of neural stem cells, is down-regulated in the brains of six-week pups with a high DHA:AA ratio. We propose that elevated levels of DHA in developing brain accelerate brain maturation relative to DHA-deficient brains" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Maternal Plasma n-3 PUFA and Lower n-6 PUFA Concentrations in Pregnancy Are Associated with Lower Childhood Systolic Blood Pressure - J Nutr. 2015 Aug 5 - "Higher maternal plasma n-3 PUFA and lower n-6 PUFA concentrations during pregnancy are associated with a lower systolic blood pressure in childhood" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Brain development suffers from lack of fish oil fatty acids, study finds - Science Daily, 4/15/15 - "The findings suggest that women maintain a balanced diet rich in these fatty acids for themselves during pregnancy and for their babies after birth ... These fatty acids are precursors of docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, which plays a key role in the healthy creation of the central nervous system" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake - Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Mar 25 - "Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA ... Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; P < 0.001) and postpartum (95% CI: 6.803-18.14; P < 0.001), respectively" - [Nutra USA] - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Iodine deficiency in pregnant women impairs embryonic brain development - Science Daily, 1/20/15 - "iodine is extremely important for embryonic brain development. Even a mild iodine deficiency can impair the child's intellectual development; recent studies in the UK and Australia have shown that IQs are in fact reduced by a few points ... The most extreme form of iodine deficiency presents itself in the form of a condition known as cretinism, which includes metabolic changes, deformities of the skeleton and underactivity of the thyroid gland" - See iodine at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Linked to Risk of Preterm Birth in Study - WebMD, 1/8/15 - "Women with the lowest levels of vitamin D were about 1.5 times as likely to deliver early compared to those with the highest levels ... In the study, Bodnar and her colleagues grouped women as less than 50 nmol/L, 50 to 74.9 nmol/L, and 75 nmol/L or above" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal Vitamin D Status Tied to Long-term Outcomes in Kids - Medscape, 12/16/14 - "children born to mothers with serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D) levels less than 50 nmol/L at 18 weeks' gestation were at increased risk for impaired lung development at 6 years, neurocognitive problems at 10 years, eating disorders during adolescence, and lower peak bone mass at 20 years" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Could Vitamin D Make Childbirth Less Painful? - WebMD, 10/14/14 - "Women with lower vitamin D levels required more pain medication than those with higher vitamin D levels, according to the study scheduled for presentation Tuesday at the annual meeting of the American Society of Anesthesiologists in New Orleans" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Mothers of children with autism less likely to have taken iron supplements in pregnancy, study shows -- ScienceDaily - Science Daily, 9/22/14 - "Low iron intake was associated with a five-fold greater risk of autism in the child if the mother was 35 or older at the time of the child's birth or if she suffered from metabolic conditions such as obesity hypertension or diabetes ... The association between lower maternal iron intake and increased ASD risk was strongest during breastfeeding, after adjustment for folic acid intake ... Iron deficiency, and its resultant anemia, is the most common nutrient deficiency, especially during pregnancy, affecting 40 to 50 percent of women and their infants ... Iron is crucial to early brain development, contributing to neurotransmitter production, myelination and immune function. All three of these pathways have been associated with autism" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com and folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Talk to Pregnant/Nursing Patients About Iodine Supplements - Medscape, 8/11/14 - "iodine deficiency in the United States is occurring at least marginally in about one third of pregnant women ... this deficiency may be compounded by environmental exposures that are ubiquitous: for example, perchlorate, which may take the place of iodide and thus make iodide less available for the thyroid and for breastmilk ... One reason for the deficiency in iodine is the increased consumption in the United States of processed foods; these don't contain, in general, iodized salt. The second contributor is that the supplements taken in pregnancy or by breastfeeding women, as we mentioned before, don't contain adequate amounts of iodine and are not always labeled correctly ... few supplements contain adequate amounts of iodine and labeling issues persist" - See iodine at Amazon.com.
  • Iodide Supplements Needed by Pregnant, Nursing Women - Medscape, 5/26/14 - "Many women of reproductive age in the United States are marginally iodine deficient, perhaps because the salt in processed foods is not iodized ... Iodine deficiency, per se, can interfere with normal brain development in their offspring; in addition, it increases vulnerability to the effects of certain environmental pollutants, such as nitrate, thiocyanate, and perchlorate. Although pregnant and lactating women should take a supplement containing adequate iodide, only about 15% do so" - Note:  I wasn't even aware that the salt in processed food isn't iodized and I don't use extra salt in my diet.  See iodine at Amazon.com.
  • Postnatal nutritional iron deficiency impairs dopaminergic-mediated synaptic plasticity in the CA1 area of the hippocampus - Nutr Neurosci. 2014 Mar 28 - "Objectives Developmental iron deficiency (ID) has been shown to put children at risk for compromised learning and memory capacity, and it has also been shown to impair hippocampus-dependent forms of memory as well as hippocampal synaptic transmission ... The present study demonstrates that postnatal ID produces long-lasting impairments in dopaminergic-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. These impairments may play a role in the learning and memory deficits known to result from ID"
  • Cannabis during pregnancy endangers fetal brain development - Science Daily, 1/27/14 - "consuming Cannabis during pregnancy clearly results in defective development of nerve cells of the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain that orchestrates higher cognitive functions and drives memory formation. In particular, THC negatively impacts if and how the structural platform and conduit for communication between nerve cells, the synapses and axons, will develop and function. Researchers also identified Stathmin-2 as a key protein target for THC action, and its loss is characterized as a reason for erroneous nerve growth ... these developmental deficits may evoke life-long modifications to the brain function of those affected ... relatively subtle damage can significantly increase the risk of delayed neuropsychiatric diseases ... Even if THC only would cause small changes its effect may well be sufficient to sensitize the brain to later stressors or diseases to provoke neuropsychiatric illnesses in those affected in the future"
  • Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may increase risk of severe preeclampsia - Science Daily, 1/27/14 - "researchers studied blood samples collected from 700 pregnant women who later developed preeclampsia in an effort to examine a woman's vitamin D status during pregnancy and her risk of developing preeclampsia ... also studied blood samples from 3,000 mothers who did not develop preeclampsia ... vitamin D sufficiency was associated with a 40 percent reduction in risk of severe preeclampsia. But there was no relationship between vitamin D and mild preeclampsia" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation Attenuates Fetal Growth Restriction and Enhances Pulmonary Function in a Newborn Mouse Model of Perinatal Inflammation - J Nutr. 2014 Jan 22 - "In a model of severe inflammation, maternal DHA supplementation lessened inflammation and improved lung growth in the offspring. Maternal supplementation with DHA may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce neonatal inflammation" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Imbalance of folic acid and vitamin B12 is associated with birth outcome: an Indian pregnant women study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan 22 - "Imbalance in the maternal micronutrients with increasing ratio of folate to vitamin B12 was associated with an increase in plasma homocysteine (P=0.014), lowering of neonatal birth weight (P=0.009), birth length (P=0.034), head circumference (P=0.018) and chest circumference" - See prenatal vitamins at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Vitamin D Levels in Pregnancy Could Help Babies Become Stronger - Science Daily, 1/3/14 - "Low vitamin D status has been linked to reduced muscle strength in adults and children, but little is known about how variation in a mother's status during pregnancy affects her child ... vitamin D levels were measured in 678 mothers in the later stages of pregnancy ... When the children were four years old, grip strength and muscle mass were measured. Results showed that the higher the levels of vitamin D in the mother, the higher the grip strength of the child, with an additional, but less pronounced association between mother's vitamin D and child's muscle mass" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal Vitamin D Status During Pregnancy and Bone Mass in Offspring at 20 Years of Age: A Prospective Cohort Study - J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Nov 5 - "investigated the association between maternal vitamin D status and peak bone mass of offspring in 341 mother and offspring pairs in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ... Outcomes were total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in offspring at 20 years of age ... Maternal vitamin D deficiency was associated with 2.7% lower total body BMC (mean +/- SE: 2846 +/- 20 vs 2924 +/- 16 g, P = 0.004) and 1.7% lower total body BMD (1053 +/- 7 vs 1071 +/- 5 mg/cm2 , P = 0.043) in the offspring. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is associated with lower peak bone mass in their children. This may increase fracture risk in the offspring in later life" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal fatty acids in pregnancy, FADS polymorphisms, and child intelligence quotient at 8 y of age - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 25 - "These results support the positive role of maternal arachidonic acid and DHA on fetal neural development although the effects on child IQ by 8 y of age were small (0.1 SD) with other factors contributing more substantially. The endogenous synthesis of these FAs by FADS genes, especially FADS2, may also be important" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Lower dietary vitamin E intake during the second trimester is associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia later in pregnancy - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 25 - "Women with singleton pregnancies (n=205) underwent a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test at 30 weeks gestation and were asked to recall second trimester dietary intake ... Higher dietary vitamin E intake was associated with lower fasting glucose, lower HOMA insulin resistance, and higher Matsuda insulin sensitivity index after covariate adjustment including serum adiponectin among women consuming daily multivitamin supplements" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Diet during pregnancy and early life may affect children's behavior and intelligence - Science Daily, 9/13/13 - "Blood samples were taken from 493 schoolchildren, aged between seven and nine years, from 74 mainstream schools in Oxfordshire. All of the children were thought to have below-average reading skills ... Analyses of their blood samples showed that, on average, just under two per cent of the children's total blood fatty acids were Omega-3 DHA (Docosahexaenoic acid) and 0.5 per cent were Omega-3 EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid), with a total of 2.45 per cent for these long-chain Omega-3 combined. This is below the minimum of 4 per cent recommended by leading scientists to maintain cardiovascular health in adults, with 8-12 per cent regarded as optimal for a healthy heart ... levels of Omega-3 fatty acids in the blood significantly predicted a child's behaviour and ability to learn. Higher levels of Omega-3 in the blood, and DHA in particular, were associated with better reading and memory, as well as with fewer behaviour problems as rated by parents and teachers" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal and infant vitamin D status during the first 9 months of infant life-a cohort study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "A total of 107 women aged 24-41 years gave birth to 108 infants. They were followed up three times during 9 months ... At birth, 23% of mothers and 61% of infants had 25OHD <50 nmol/l. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD <25 nmol/l) was present in 66% of the children born by mothers with 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l (P<0.01), whereas only one child was born with deficiency among mothers with 25OHD >50 nmol/l. During follow-up, most of the children (>85%) had 25OHD levels >50 nmol/l, which most likely was attributable to the use of supplements, as more than 95% of the children were given daily vitamin D supplements of 10 μg of vitamin D ... CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in newborn. Maternal 25OHD levels above 50 nmol/l are needed to prevent vitamin D deficiency among newborn" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal milk consumption, birth size and adult height of offspring: a prospective cohort study with 20 years of follow-up - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "809 Danish pregnant women was recruited in 1988-1989, with offspring follow-up at ~ 20 years of age (n=685). Milk consumption was assessed at gestational week 30 using a food frequency questionnaire ... Our findings add to recent observations that maternal milk consumption may have a growth-promoting effect with respect to weight and length at birth. Furthermore, the results provide some suggestion that this effect may even track into early adult age, although further studies with more statistical power are needed for that purpose"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Affects Serum High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women - J Nutr. 2013 Jul 24 - "Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 400 IU/d cholecalciferol supplements (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) for 9 wk ... Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in serum hs-CRP (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -1.41 vs. +1.50 μg/mL; P-interaction = 0.01) and insulin concentrations (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -1.0 vs. +2.6 μIU/mL; P-interaction = 0.04) and a significant increase in the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index score (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: +0.02 vs. -0.02; P-interaction = 0.006), plasma total antioxidant capacity (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: +152 vs. -20 mmol/L; P-interaction = 0.002), and total glutathione concentrations (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: +205 vs. -32 μmol/L; P-interaction = 0.02) compared with placebo. Intake of vitamin D supplements led to a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -0.65 vs. -0.12 mmol/L; P-interaction = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -0.2 vs. +5.5 mm Hg; P-interaction = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -0.4 vs. +3.1 mm Hg; P-interaction = 0.01) compared with placebo" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of Maternal Depression Across the First 6 Years of Life on the Child's Mental Health, Social Engagement, and Empathy: The Moderating Role of Oxytocin - Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Jul 12 - "Maternal depression across the postbirth period has long-term negative consequences for infant development ... The authors recruited a community cohort of women with high or low depression scores 2 days after childbirth and measured depression again at 6 and 9 months. When the child was 6, the authors evaluated the families of 46 chronically depressed mothers and 103 mothers reporting no depression since childbirth. The child was assessed for psychiatric diagnoses, social engagement, and empathy. Mother, father, and child were tested for salivary oxytocin level and variation in the rs2254298 single nucleotide polymorphism on the OXTR gene ... Of the children of the chronically depressed mothers, 61% displayed axis I disorders, mainly anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder, compared with 15% of the children of nondepressed mothers. In the depressed mothers' families, salivary oxytocin was lower in mothers, fathers, and children, and the children had lower empathy and social engagement levels. The rs2254298 GG homozygous genotype was overrepresented in depressed mothers and their families, and it correlated with lower salivary oxytocin. Presence of a single rs2254298 A allele (GA or AA genotype) in depressed mothers markedly decreased risk of child psychopathology ... This suggests a potential for oxytocin-based interventions" - See Oxy Pro (Oxytocin) Nasal Spray at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 - Medscape, 6/28/13 - "Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Findings emphasize importance of vitamin D in pregnancy - Science Daily, 6/22/13 - "While current studies suggest that around a fifth (19 per cent) of a newborn baby's supply or deficiency of vitamin D comes directly from its mother, experts from Kingston's School of Life Sciences have discovered that the figure is, in fact, almost three times as high at 56 per cent ... focused on 120 samples taken from 60 Greek mothers and their babies ... Although the Mediterranean nation enjoys more hours of sunshine than the United Kingdom, the research revealed that many of the mothers had low levels of vitamin D ... the type of vitamin D commonly measured in blood tests was not as reliable an indicator of vitamin D activity as other strands. They went on to discover that two epimer forms, previously thought to be unimportant, influenced levels in babies" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Autism and Folic Acid in Pregnancy - Medscape, 5/7/13 - "The investigators concluded that maternal use of folic acid from 4 weeks before conception through 8 weeks after conception was associated with a lower odds of the offspring being diagnosed with ASD" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Preterm infants may need 800 IU of vitamin D3 per day - Science Daily, 5/5/13 - "Recommendations from medical organizations on how much vitamin D should be given to preemies range from 400 IU to 1000 IU per day. This lack of consensus prompted researchers from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, to conduct the largest study to date on vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants ... The infants then were randomly assigned to receive either 800 IU or 400 IU of oral vitamin D3 ... vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) ... After supplementation, the prevalence of VDI at 40 weeks was 43 percent lower in the 800 IU group than the 400 IU group (38 percent vs. 67 percent). In addition, VDI was significantly lower in the 800 IU group when the infants were 3 months old (12 percent vs. 35 percent)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C may head off lung problems in babies born to pregnant smokers - Science Daily, 5/4/13 - "If a woman absolutely can't kick the habit, taking vitamin C during pregnancy may improve her newborn's lung function and prevent wheezing in the first year of life ... Specifically, 21 percent of infants in the vitamin C group had at least one episode of wheezing compared to 40 percent of those in the placebo group and 27 percent of infants born to nonsmokers. In addition, 13 percent of infants whose mothers were randomized to vitamin C needed medication for their wheezing compared to 22 percent of infants in the placebo group and 10 percent in the nonsmoking group" - Err!!  Why would pregnant women smoke to begin with?  See vitamin C at Amazon.com.
  • Mild iodine deficiency in womb associated with lower scores on children's literacy tests - Science Daily, 4/30/13 - "Although the participants' diet was fortified with iodine during childhood, later supplementation was not enough to reverse the impact of the deficiency during the mother's pregnancy ... inadequate iodine exposure during pregnancy was associated with lasting effects. As 9-year-olds, the children who received insufficient iodine in the womb had lower scores on standardized literacy tests, particularly in spelling. However, inadequate iodine exposure was not associated with lower scores on math tests" - See iodine at Amazon.com.
  • A maternal high-protein diet predisposes female offspring to increased fat mass in adulthood whereas a prebiotic fibre diet decreases fat mass in rats - Br J Nutr. 2013 Apr 8:1-10 - "virgin Wistar dams were fed either a control (C), high-protein (40 %, w/w; HP) or high-prebiotic fibre (21.6 %, w/w; HF) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups consumed the C diet from 3 to 14.5 weeks of age, and then switched to a high-fat/sucrose diet for 8 weeks ... The maternal HP and HF diets had lasting effects on body fat and hepatic TAG accumulation in the offspring, particularly in females. Whereas the HP diet predisposes to an obese phenotype, the maternal HF diet appears to reduce the susceptibility to obesity following a high-energy diet challenge in adulthood"
  • Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of Vitamin D Supplementation in Pregnancy in a Population with Endemic Vitamin D Deficiency - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Apr 4 - "Vitamin D (vD) deficiency in pregnancy is a global health problem and the amount of vD supplementation to prevent vD deficiency is controversial.  Objective: Determine effectiveness and safety of prenatal 2000 IU and 4000 IU/day compared with 400 IU/day vD3 supplementation in a RCT in population where vD deficiency is endemic ... Arab women were randomized at 12-16 weeks of gestation to 400, 2000 and 4000 IU/day vD3 which were continued to delivery ... Vitamin D supplementation of 2000 and 4000 IU/day appeared safe in pregnancy and 4000 IU/day was most effective in optimizing serum 25(OH)D concentrations in mothers and their infants" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D insufficiency linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes - Science Daily, 3/27/13 - "researchers from the University of Calgary in Canada carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of all existing evidence on the effect of vitamin D concentration on pregnancy and birth outcomes ... pregnant women with low levels of 5-OH vitamin D were more likely to develop gestational diabetes (odds ratio of 0.79), had an increased chance of developing preeclampsia (odds ratio of 0.65) and an increased chance of giving birth to a baby small for gestational age (odds ratio of 0.57)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • High-carb intake in infancy has lifelong effects, study finds - Science Daily, 3/19/13 - "Many American baby foods and juices are high in carbohydrates ... Our hypothesis has been that the introduction of baby foods too early in life increases carbohydrate intake, thereby boosting insulin secretion and causing metabolic programming that in turn, predisposes the child to obesity later in life ... the UB researchers administered to newborn rat pups special milk formulas they developed that are either similar to rat milk in composition, (higher in fat-derived calories) or enriched with carbohydrate-derived calories ... At three weeks of age, the rat pups fed the high-carbohydrate (HC) formula were then weaned onto rat chow either with free access to food or with a moderate calorie restriction, so that their level of consumption would be the same as pups reared naturally ... We found that when the HC rat undergoes metabolic reprogramming for development of obesity in early postnatal life, and then is subjected to moderate caloric restriction, similar to when an individual goes on a diet, the programming is only suppressed, not erased ... During this critical period, the hypothalamus, which regulates appetite, becomes programmed to drive the individual to eat more food. We found that a period of moderate caloric restriction later in life cannot reverse this programming effect ... solid foods should not be given before a baby is 4-6 months old"
  • High Intake of Dietary Long-Chain ω-3 Fatty Acids Is Associated With Lower Blood Pressure in Children Born With Low Birth Weight: NHANES 2003-2008 - Hypertension. 2013 Mar 4 - "Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure ... In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4])" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Prenatal DHA reduces early preterm birth and low birth weight - Science Daily, 2/25/13 - "infants of mothers who were given 600 milligrams of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA during pregnancy weighed more at birth and were less likely to be very low birth weight and born before 34 weeks gestation than infants of mothers who were given a placebo ... Previous research has established the effects of postnatal feeding of DHA on infant cognitive and intellectual development, but DHA is accumulated most rapidly in the fetal brain during pregnancy" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • DHA supplementation and pregnancy outcomes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 20 - "We tested the hypothesis that 600 mg/d of the n-3 LCPUFA DHA can increase maternal and newborn DHA status, gestation duration, birth weight, and length ... A supplement of 600 mg DHA/d in the last half of gestation resulted in overall greater gestation duration and infant size. A reduction in early preterm and very-low birth weight could be important clinical and public health outcomes of DHA supplementation" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Choline supplementation during pregnancy presents a new approach to schizophrenia prevention - Science Daily, 1/15/13 - "Choline, an essential nutrient similar to the B vitamin and found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts and eggs, when given as a dietary supplement in the last two trimesters of pregnancy and in early infancy, is showing a lower rate of physiological schizophrenic risk factors in infants 33 days old ... Choline is also being studied for potential benefits in liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and certain types of seizures ... Half the healthy pregnant women in this study took 3,600 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine each morning and 2,700 milligrams each evening; the other half took placebo. After delivery, their infants received 100 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine per day or placebo. Eighty-six percent of infants exposed to pre- and postnatal choline supplementation, compared to 43% of unexposed infants, inhibited the response to repeated sounds, as measured with EEG sensors placed on the baby's head during sleep" - See phosphatidylcholine at Amazon.com.
  • Lower Adiponectin Levels at First Trimester of Pregnancy Are Associated With Increased Insulin Resistance and Higher Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - Diabetes Care. 2013 Jan 8 - "Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements"
  • Limiting Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Pregnancy May Influence Body Fat of Children - Science Daily, 1/10/13 - "mothers who have higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in cooking oils and nuts, during pregnancy have fatter children ... assessed the fat and muscle mass of 293 boys and girls at four and six years, who are part of the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS), a large prospective mother-offspring cohort ... the higher the level of n-3 the less fat and more muscle and bone in the baby ... This could suggest that a pregnancy supplementation strategy would be beneficial" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Critical Need for Iodine Supplements During Pregnancy and While Nursing - Science Daily, 12/18/12 - "Iodine levels in the US have been decreasing, which has the potential to negatively impact the mother and unborn child ... Iodine, which is not naturally made in the human body, must be consumed through foods rich in the element or through supplements. Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormone, and adequate thyroid hormone levels are critical for normal fetal neurodevelopment. National and international health organizations currently recommend that pregnant women take at least 150 µg of potassium iodide daily ... There is concern that even mild iodine deficiency in pregnant women could lead to children with lower IQ's" - See iodine at Amazon.com.
  • Mother’s vitamin D level linked to birth weight - Science Daily, 12/10/12 - "We found that a mother's vitamin D level, in the first or second trimester of pregnancy, was related to the normal growth of babies who delivered at term ... If a mother was vitamin D deficient, the birth weight of her baby was 46 g lower after accounting for other characteristics of the mom. Also if moms were vitamin D deficient in the first trimester, they had twice the risk of delivering a baby that suffered from growth restriction during the pregnancy" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • High Vitamin D levels in pregnancy may protect mother more than baby against multiple sclerosis - Science Daily, 11/19/12 - "scientists reviewed information about 291,500 blood samples from 164,000 people collected since 1975 in the northern half of Sweden ... women who had high levels of vitamin D in their blood had a 61 percent lower risk of developing MS, compared to those who had low levels of vitamin D in their blood ... No association was found between the mother's vitamin D level and whether her child would later develop MS ... our study suggests the protective effect may start in later pregnancy and beyond" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Fetal growth, omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: preventing fetal origins of disease? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 14 - "Impaired fetal growth is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood ... Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a slower rate of increase in carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fetus suffers when mother lacks vitamin C - Science Daily, 11/16/12 - "Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the fetal brain. And once brain damage has occurred, it cannot be reversed by vitamin C supplements after birth ... Even marginal vitamin C deficiency in the mother stunts the fetal hippocampus, the important memory centre, by 10-15 per cent, preventing the brain from optimal development" - See vitamin C at Amazon.com.
  • Month of birth effect: Give pregnant women vitamin D supplements to ward off multiple sclerosis, say researchers - Science Daily, 11/14/12 - "The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is highest in the month of April, and lowest in October ... there is now a strong case for vitamin D supplementation of pregnant women in countries where ultraviolet light levels are low between October and March ... The analysis indicated a significant excess risk of 5% among those born in April compared with what would be expected. Similarly, the risk of MS was 5 to 7% lower among those born between October and November, the data indicated" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Prenatal mercury exposure may be linked to risk of ADHD-related behaviors; Fish consumption may be linked to lower risk - Science Daily, 10/8/12 - "Nonoccupational methylmercury exposure comes primarily from eating fish, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have recommended pregnant women limit their total fish intake to no more than two, six-ounce servings per week. However, fish is also a source of nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to benefit brain development, potentially confounding mercury-related risk estimates ... analyzed data from the New Bedford birth cohort, a group of infants born between 1993 and 1998, to investigate the association of peripartum maternal hair mercury levels (n=421) and prenatal fish intake (n=515) with ADHD-related behaviors at age 8 years ... In this population-based prospective cohort study, hair mercury levels were consistently associated with ADHD-related behaviors, including inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. We also found that higher prenatal fish consumption was protective for these behaviors"
  • Vitamin D in Pregnancy May Be Key for Baby's Brain - WebMD, 9/20/12 - "researchers measured the vitamin D levels of pregnant women mainly during their second trimester. At 14 months, their babies underwent an approximately hour-long battery of standardized tests that measured their mental development and their psychomotor skills, or their ability to control their physical movements ... babies whose mothers had an optimal level of vitamin D scored slightly higher than babies of mothers who were D deficient ... Even here in L.A., where it’s often sunny, people don’t get enough sun, because of smog, because they stay indoors, or because they use a lot of sunblock" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient in eggs and meat may influence gene expression from infancy to adulthood - Science Daily, 9/20/12 - "Consuming greater amounts of choline -- a nutrient found in eggs and meat -- during pregnancy may lower an infant's vulnerability to stress-related illnesses, such as mental health disturbances, and chronic conditions, like hypertension, later in life ... More choline in the mother's diet led to a more stable HPA axis and consequently less cortisol in the fetus ... Pressman joined a team led by Marie Caudill, Ph.D., R.D., professor in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell, in studying 26 pregnant women in their third trimester who were assigned to take 480 mg of choline per day, an amount slightly above the standard recommendation of 450 mg per day, or about double that amount, 930 mg per day. The choline was derived from the diet and from supplements and was consumed up until delivery" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal use of Folic Acid and Other Supplements and Risk of Childhood Brain Tumors - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012 Aug 31 - "childhood brain tumors (CBT) ... The odds ratios (ORs) for any maternal use of folic acid, use of folic acid without iron or vitamins B6, B12, C or A, and any vitamin use before pregnancy, were: 0.68 (95% CI 0.46, 1.00), 0.55 (95% CI 0.32, 0.93) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.46, 1.01) respectively ... These results suggest that folic acid supplements before and possibly during pregnancy may protect against CBT. Such associations are biologically plausible through established mechanisms. Impact This study provides evidence of a specific protective effect of prenatal folic acid supplementation against the risk of CBT that is not attributable to the actions of the other micronutrients investigated" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Pregnant? Get Your Choline! - U.S. News, 8/31/12 - "The take-home message is best summarized by a review in the Journal of Pediatrics: Choline in the diet of the pregnant mother and the infant is directly related to permanent changes in brain function. Without enough choline during the critical time of brain growth and development, intelligence, memory, and possibly mood regulation will be damaged permanently. We may not be able to measure the exact impact on IQ or other brain functions, but we know enough at this point to start preaching the choline message" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Folic acid intake during early pregnancy associated with reduced risk of autism in offspring - Science Daily, 6/14/12 - "The study found that women who each day consumed the recommended amount of folic acid (600 micrograms, or .6 milligrams) during the first month of pregnancy experienced a reduced risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder, specifically when the mother and/or her child had a specific genetic variant (MTHFR 677 C>T) associated with less efficient folate metabolism" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Early gut bacteria regulate happiness - Science Daily, 6/12/12 - "UCC scientists have shown that brain levels of serotonin, the 'happy hormone' are regulated by the amount of bacteria in the gut during early life ... normal adult brain function depends on the presence of gut microbes during development. Serotonin, the major chemical involved in the regulation of mood and emotion, is altered in times of stress, anxiety and depression and most clinically effective antidepressant drugs work by targeting this neurochemical ... Scientists at the Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre in UCC used a germ-free mouse model to show that the absence of bacteria during early life significantly affected serotonin concentrations in the brain in adulthood ... Finally, when the scientists colonized the animals with bacteria prior to adulthood, they found that many of the central nervous system changes, especially those related to serotonin, could not be reversed indicating a permanent imprinting of the effects of absence of gut flora on brain function" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • Fever during pregnancy more than doubles the risk of autism or developmental delay - Science Daily, 5/23/12 - "the study is believed to be the first to consider how fever from any cause, including the flu, and its treatment during pregnancy could affect the likelihood of having a child with autism or developmental delay ... flu during pregnancy was not associated with greater risks of having a child with autism or developmental delay. Fever from any cause during pregnancy, however, was far more likely to be reported by mothers of children with autism (2.12 times higher odds) or developmental delay (2.5 times higher odds), as compared with mothers of children who were developing typically. For children of mothers who took anti-fever medication, the risk of autism was not different from the risk in children whose mothers reported no fever ... Other CHARGE evaluations have found that taking prenatal vitamins prior to and during the first month of pregnancy may help prevent autism and that living near a freeway or in areas with high regional air pollution is associated with higher risk of autism in children"
  • Children's body fat linked to Vitamin D insufficiency in mothers - Science Daily, 5/23/12 - "the children who were born to mothers who had low vitamin D status in pregnancy had more body fat when they were six years old. These differences could not be explained by other factors such as mother's weight gain in pregnancy, or how physically active the children were ... An interpretation of our data is that there could be programmed effects on the fetus arising from a lack of maternal vitamin D that remain with the baby and predispose him or her to gain excess body fat in later childhood" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Folic acid may reduce some childhood cancers - Science Daily, 5/21/12 - "Wilms' tumor, a type of kidney cancer, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), a type of brain cancer ... Wilms' tumor rates increased from 1986 to 1997 and decreased thereafter, which is an interesting finding since the downward change in the trend coincides exactly with folic acid fortification ... PNET rates increased from 1986 to 1993 and decreased thereafter. This change in the trend does not coincide exactly with folic acid fortification, but does coincide nicely with the 1992 recommendation for women of childbearing age to consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily ... Here, we are showing that folic acid fortification does not appear to be increasing rates of childhood cancers, which is good news" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Soy-based formula? Neonatal plant estrogen exposure leads to adult infertility in female mice - Science Daily, 5/2/12 - "A paper published May 2 in Biology of Reproduction describes the effects of brief prenatal exposure to plant estrogens on the mouse oviduct, modeling the effects of soy-based baby formula on human infants. The results suggest that exposure to estrogenic chemicals in the womb or during childhood has the potential to affect a woman's fertility as an adult, possibly providing the mechanistic basis for some cases of unexplained female infertility ... part of the National Institutes of Health, previously demonstrated that neonatal exposure to the plant estrogen genistein results in complete infertility in female adult mice. Causes of infertility included failure to ovulate, reduced ability of the oviduct to support embryo development before implantation, and failure of the uterus to support effective implantation of blastocyst-stage embryos ... The team now reports that neonatal exposure to genistein changes the level of immune response in the mouse oviduct, known as mucosal immune response. Some of the immune response genes were altered beginning from the time of genistein treatment, while others were altered much later, when the mouse was in early pregnancy. Together, those changes led to harmfully altered immune responses and to compromised oviduct support for preimplantation embryo development, both of which would likely contribute to infertility ... estrogenic chemical exposure to the female fetus, infant, child, and adolescent all have potential impacts on mucosal immunity in the reproductive tract and, therefore, on adult fertility. The authors present the view that limiting such exposures, including minimizing use of soy-based baby formula, is a step toward maintaining female reproductive health"
  • Low Vitamin D in Pregnancy Linked to Language Problems in Children - WebMD, 2/13/12 - "A new study from Australia suggests that white women who had the lowest stores of vitamin D during their second trimester were nearly twice as likely to have a child with language difficulties than women with the highest blood concentrations" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotic Effects in Infants Last Until 4 Years of Age - Medscape, 2/10/12 - "Infants exposed to Lactobacillus rhamnosus through diet supplements from 35 weeks' gestation through 2 years of age had a significantly lower risk for eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis. The protective effect lasted until the children were at least 4 years of age" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of high doses of folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy on child neurodevelopment at 18 months of age: the mother-child cohort 'Rhea' study in Crete, Greece - Public Health Nutr. 2012 Feb 8:1-9 - "Sixty-eight per cent of the study participants reported high doses of supplemental folic acid use (5 mg/d), while 24 % reported excessive doses of folic acid (>5 mg/d) in early pregnancy. Compared with non-users, daily intake of 5 mg supplemental folic acid was associated with a 5-unit increase on the scale of receptive communication and a 3.5-unit increase on the scale of expressive communication. Doses of folic acid supplementation higher than 5 mg/d were not associated with additional increase in the neurodevelopmental scales"
  • Folic acid supplements in early pregnancy may reduce the risk of severe language delay in children - Science Daily, 10/12/11 - "mothers who took folic acid supplements from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after conception reported a significantly lower prevalence of severe language delay in their children at age 3 ... Unlike the United States, Norway does not fortify foods with folic acid -- a fact that increases the contrast between women who do and do not take folic acid supplements and makes Norway a good place to study this effect"
  • Probiotic intake linked to fewer birth complications - Nutra USA, 9/13/11 - "The Norwegian researchers analyzed data from 33,399 women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study ... The intake of lactobacilli-containing milk-based products was determined using a food frequency questionnaire, while pre-eclampsia was determined using the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry ... the daily intake of at least 140 mL of probiotic milk products was associated with a 20% reduced risk of pre-eclampsia ... The effects were more pronounced for severe pre-eclampsia, with daily and weekly intakes of probiotic products associated with a 39% and 25%, respectively" - [Abstract] - See my yogurt recipe at the top of my Yogurt Page.  See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal omega-3 intake may influence childhood allergy - Nutra USA, 9/12/11 - "Omega-3 fatty acids may aid the development of the infant gut and improve how gut immune cells respond to bacteria and foreign substances, making the baby less likely to suffer from allergies in the long term, according to new research in pigs ... These findings suggest that feeding fatty acids of the omega-3 family during pregnancy and lactation impact newborn intestinal barrier function ... such changes “are likely to reduce the risk of developing allergies in later life" ... The end result is that the baby's immune system may develop and mature faster – leading to better immune function and less likelihood of suffering allergies ... the pig intestine is an excellent model of the human gut, however, so they are hopeful that the findings can be extrapolated" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Periconceptional Vitamins Linked to Better Pregnancy Outcome - Medscape, 8/24/11 - "Periconceptional intake of multivitamins is linked with a lower risk for small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants and preterm births (PTBs) ... the relationship of multivitamin supplementation with SGA and PTB might be linked to the timing of supplementation (preconception and/or postconception) and also weight status ... In nonoverweight women (body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m2), regular preconception and postconception multivitamin use was associated with a decreased risk for PTB (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 - 0.95) and preterm labor (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 - 0.94). However, these associations were not present in overweight women ... The adjusted risk for an SGA birth was reduced in multivitamin users regardless of their prepregnancy BMI (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73 - 0.95; P for interaction = .49), with the strongest association in regular multivitamin users in the postconception period"
  • Maternal DHA may boost baby’s immune system - Nutra USA, 8/4/11 - "mothers taking 400 milligrams of a supplement containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had babies which overcame colds faster than babies with mothers not taking DHA ... At one month, the DHA group experienced 26%, 15%, and 30% shorter duration of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, respectively, but 22% longer duration of rash" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • DHA During Pregnancy May Cut Infant Colds - WebMD, 8/1/11 - "researchers compared the effects of 400 milligrams per day of DHA (via an algae-based supplement) or a placebo started from weeks 18 to 22 of pregnancy and continued through childbirth on infant wellness in a group of 851 Mexican women ... The results showed that infants whose mothers took DHA supplements had fewer colds at age 1 month and shorter duration of cold symptoms at 1, 3, and 6 months of age ... at age 1 month, the infants in the DHA group had a shorter duration of cough, phlegm, and wheezing, although they had a longer duration of rash. At age 3 months, the infants in the DHA group spent 14% less time ill, and by 6 months of age these infants had experienced shorter durations of fever, nasal secretion, difficulty breathing, and rash but a longer duration of vomiting" - [Science  Daily] - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Pre-pregnancy diet affects the health of future offspring, mouse study suggests - Science Daily, 7/1/11 - "mice that were fed a low protein diet for ten weeks before conception (but had a normal diet during pregnancy) gave birth to offspring that had lower birth weights, showed catch-up growth after weaning and increased insulin sensitivity ... There is also evidence that male offspring are more likely to develop obesity ... If humans respond in the same way as mice to pre-conception diet as well then women should not only consider what they eat during pregnancy but also before pregnancy if they want to reduce the risk of their future children acquiring lifestyle diseases"
  • Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Double blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Jun 27 - "Vitamin D supplementation of 4,000 IU/day for pregnant women was safe and most effective in achieving sufficiency in all women and their neonates regardless of race while the current estimated average requirement was comparatively ineffective at achieving adequate circulating 25(OH)D, especially in African Americans" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D supplements found to be safe for healthy pregnant women - Science Daily, 6/24/11 - "Dr Hollis' team monitored the pregnancies of 350 women, from a variety of ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds, who were all between 12 and 16 weeks into gestation. The women were randomly assigned to one of three groups. One group received 400 IU of vitamin D per day, the second group received 2,000 IU per day and the third received 4,000 IU daily ... women who received the highest level of supplementation (4,000 IU per day) were more likely to achieve and sustain the desired level of circulating levels of vitamin D throughout their pregnancy. Moreover, the researchers found that pregnant women who received lower levels of vitamin D supplementation did not attain the threshold circulating level of the vitamin" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Undernourishment in pregnant, lactating females found key to next generation's disease - Science Daily, 6/13/11 - "when mothers are even moderately undernourished while pregnant and breastfeeding, their offspring are consistently found to be prediabetic before adolescence. It is the first time that diabetes has been shown to have prenatal origins in a primate model ... We pass more biological milestones before we are born and in the early weeks of life than at any other time ... Poor nutrition at critical periods of development can hinder growth of essential organs such as the pancreas, which sees a significantly decrease in its ability to secrete insulin ... A fetus may also receive fewer nutrients due to teenage pregnancy, where the growing mother competes with her offspring for resources; in pregnancies complicated by maternal vascular disease, which may occur in women who become pregnant later in their reproductive life; and when placental problems exist"
  • B vitamins in mother's diet reduce colorectal cancer risk in offspring, animal study suggests - Science Daily, 6/9/11 - "Using a mouse model of naturally occurring colorectal cancer, the USDA HNRCA scientists examined whether a mothers' B vitamin intake impacts her offspring's cancer risk. Mothers were fed diets containing supplemental, adequate or mildly deficient quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12 and folate prior to conception through weaning after which all of the offspring received the same adequate diet ... Although the tumor incidence was similar between offspring of deficient and adequate mothers, 54% of tumors in the deficient offspring were advanced and had invaded surrounding tissue while only 18% of tumors in the offspring of adequate mothers displayed these aggressive properties" - See prenatal supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Breast cancer research: Mammary gland development of blueberry-fed lab animals studied - Science Daily, 6/7/11 - "several indicators of rat mammary gland health were improved in the offspring (pups) of mothers (dams) that had been fed 5 percent blueberry powder in their rations during pregnancy and during the weeks that they nursed their pups ... In their analysis of several biochemical indicators, the team found, for instance, that the level of the tumor-suppressing protein PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome 10) was significantly higher in mammary tissues of offspring of dams on the 5 percent regimen. That's a plus, because PTEN is thought to help protect against cancer" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Folic acid given to mother rats protects offspring from colon cancer - Science Daily, 5/26/11 - "Folic acid supplements given to pregnant and breast-feeding rats reduced the rate of colon cancer in their offspring by 64 per cent" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • High-fat diet during pregnancy programs child for future diabetes, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/26/11
  • Women who start prenatal vitamins early are less likely to have children with autism, study finds - Science Daily, 5/25/11 - "Women who reported not taking a daily prenatal vitamin immediately before and during the first month of pregnancy were nearly twice as likely to have a child with an autism spectrum disorder as women who did take the supplements -- and the associated risk rose to seven times as great when combined with a high-risk genetic make-up ... The authors postulate that folic acid, the synthetic form of folate or vitamin B9, and the other B vitamins in prenatal supplements, likely protect against deficits in early fetal brain development. Folate is known to be critical to neurodevelopment and studies have found that supplemental folic acid has the potential to prevent up to 70 percent of neural tube defects, the authors said"
  • Dietary Supplement May Help Prevent Preeclampsia - WebMD, 5/19/11 - "women who ate daily food bars containing the amino acid L-arginine and antioxidant vitamins during pregnancy had a much lower incidence of preeclampsia than women who ate bars containing the antioxidant vitamins alone or bars containing neither supplement ... far fewer of the women in the L-arginine plus vitamin group developed preeclampsia (12.7%) than women in the vitamin-alone (22.5%) group and no-supplement (30.2%) group" - See L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D at Birth Linked to Lung Infections - WebMD, 5/10/11 - "At birth, more than a quarter of the infants had low vitamin D -- serum levels of less than 20 ng/mL. During their first year of life, these kids had a sixfold higher risk of RSV lung infection than did the 46% of kids whose vitamin D levels at birth were at least 30 ng/mL ... It's not just the Netherlands. Other Western nations, including the U.S., have similar rates of low vitamin D ... U.S. researchers reported in 2010 that at a single Boston hospital, 58% of infants and 36% of mothers had low vitamin D levels (under 20 ng/mL). Severe vitamin D deficiency (defined as lower than 15 ng/mL) was seen in 38% of the infants and in 23% of the mothers" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 status in pregnancy linked to childhood obesity: Study - Nutra USA, 5/6/11 - "A higher ratio of cord plasma omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was associated with higher subscapular and triceps [skinfold thicknesses] and odds of obesity ... around one fifth expectant mothers ate more than 2 fish meals per week at mid-pregnancy, however only about half of these women achieved the recommend intake of DHA of 200 mg per day ... Only three per cent of pregnant women in the study were found to consume the recommended intake of 200 mg/day of DHA in the last month of pregnancy ... this is the time when large amounts of DHA are transferred from the mother to the infant to support brain development ... the odds of obesity in 3-year-olds were between two and four times higher when cord blood had a high ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ... In contrast, the odds of obesity were 32 per cent lower when maternal consumption of omega-3s was high or if the ratio of omega-3 to omega-6 was at close to recommended levels" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Prenatal DHA Status and Neurological Outcome in Children at Age 5.5 Years Are Positively Associated - J Nutr. 2011 Apr 27 - "Healthy pregnant women from Spain, Germany, and Hungary were randomly assigned to a dietary supplement consisting of either fish oil (FO) (500 mg/d DHA + 150 mg/d EPA), 400 μg/d 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, both, or placebo from wk 20 of gestation until delivery ... We conclude that higher DHA levels in cord blood may be related to a better neurological outcome at 5.5 y of age" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Consumption of a DHA-containing functional food during pregnancy is associated with lower infant ponderal index and cord plasma insulin concentration - Br J Nutr. 2011 Apr 27:1-5 - "DHA consumption during pregnancy may be advantageous with respect to infant body composition at birth and insulin sensitivity" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 consumed during pregnancy curbs risk for postpartum depression symptoms - Science Daily, 4/12/11 - "maternal consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; a prominent omega-3 fatty acid) during pregnancy gives infants a developmental advantage even 9 months after they are born. These findings prompted her to consider the benefits that DHA could holistically have on the maternal-infant dyad ... randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary intervention trial in which 52 pregnant women took either a placebo (corn oil) or a fish oil capsule containing 300 milligrams of DHA 5 days each week from 24-40 weeks of pregnancy ... Although the study did not have enough women to investigate if fish oil consumption resulted in a lower incidence of diagnosable postpartum depression, women in the treatment group had significantly lower total Postpartum Depression Screening Scale scores, with significantly fewer symptoms common to postpartum depression" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Bacteria supplements may affect weight gain: Rat study extends microflora-obesity link - Nutra USA, 4/12/11 - "Early exposure to bacterial strains during pregnancy, breast feeding, and early life has a profound impact on weight gain in the offspring, says a new study with rats ... supplementation of a high-energy-dense diet with the bacterial strain Lactobacillus plantarum resulted in less weight gain, compared to rats fed only the high energy diet ... animals fed the high energy diet and supplemented with less friendly Escherichia coli bacteria experienced significantly higher levels of body fat, compared to the control animals ... the L. plantarum supplemented animals had significantly lower weight gain than both the control and E. coli-supplemented groups. This difference was observed at birth (indicating a potential influence of the mother’s diet) with the L. plantarum pups having an average birth weight of 7.5 grams, compared with 8.2 and 9.6 grams for the control and E.coli animals, respectively ... After six months, a similar trend was observed, with L. plantarum animals having an average weight of 304 grams, compared with 340 and 352 grams for the control and E.coli animals, respectively" - [Abstract] - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Brain histological changes in young mice submitted to diets with different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids during maternal pregnancy and lactation - Clin Nutr. 2011 Apr 1 - "N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are essential for brain development and function, but the appropriate quantity of dietary n-3 PUFAs and ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs have not been clearly determined ... The feeding regimens began two months before mouse conception and continued throughout lactation for new pups. As compared with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet, both the flaxseed oil n-3 PUFA diets and the flaxseed/fish oil n-3 PUFA diets significantly increased the expression levels of brain neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein, somewhat dose-dependently, in new pup mice at 21 d and 42 d of age. The expression of PPAR-γ in the brains of pup mice was increased only at 7 d of age with the n-3 PUFA diet, and no changes in the expression of PPAR-α and PPAR-β were found among all the diet groups. These results suggest that the higher intake amount of n-3 PUFAs with a low ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs at about 1-2:1, supplied during both maternal pregnancy and lactation, may be more beneficial for early brain development, and PPAR-γ may act in one of the pathways by which n-3 PUFAs promote early brain development" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Mothers' hard work pays off with big brains for their babies - Science Daily, 3/28/11 - "brain growth in babies is determined by the duration of pregnancy and how long they suckle"
  • Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 9 - "The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood ... Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory ... To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Ritalin may ease early iron deficiency damage - Science Daily, 2/2/11 - "When children are deprived of iron at any point during the last trimester of pregnancy or the first six months of life -- a critical period of brain development -- they suffer brain damage at least through early adulthood, and possibly beyond. In particular, their motor function can be impaired as well as their ability to focus ... Iron-deficient adults often have restless leg syndrome. People who become iron deficient after three years of age can recover by taking iron supplements ... iron deficiency has a major hit on dopamine systems" - See Slow Fe Slow Release Iron Tablets 90-Count Box at Amazon.com.
  • Study: You Are What Your Dad Ate - Time Magazine, 12/27/10 - "placed male mice on a low-protein diet from the time they were weaned until they reached sexual maturity. They then studied the offspring those males produced and found some striking changes: the second-generation mouse pups had hundreds of genetic mutations — particularly in the liver — and this had a severe impact on their metabolic functioning. One gene that changed in offspring, for example — known as Ppara — is essential in cholesterol management and the liver's role in converting lipids ... Previous research has suggested that it is this third tier of a family that is most affected by epigenetic changes — or those alterations in a genome that accumulate throughout an animal's life"
  • Newborns with low vitamin D levels at increased risk for respiratory infections - Science Daily, 12/27/10
  • Effect of a low glycaemic index diet on blood glucose in women with gestational hyperglycaemia - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Nov 19 - "Diet GI on control (58, 95% CI: 56,60) was significantly higher than on low-GI (49, 95% CI: 47,51; p=0.001). Glycaemic control improved on both diets, but more postprandial glucose values were within target on low-GI (58.4% of n=1891) than control (48.7% of n=1834; p<0.001). SMBG post-breakfast was directly related to pre-pregnancy BMI in the control, but not the low-GI group (BMI*diet interaction; p=0.021). Participants accepted the study foods and were willing to consume them post-intervention ... A low-GI diet was feasible and acceptable in this sample and facilitated control of postprandial glucose. A larger study is needed to determine the effect of a low-GI diet on maternal and infant outcomes"
  • Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep 15 - "In this meta-analysis, we observed no important association between caffeine intake during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth for cohort and case-control studies"
  • Long-Term Effects of Prenatal Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake on Visual Function in School-Age Children - J Pediatr. 2010 Aug 25 - "This study demonstrates beneficial effects of DHA intake during gestation on visual system function at school age. DHA is particularly important for the early development and long-term function of the visual parvocellular pathway" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics use in mothers limits eczema in their babies - Science Daily, 7/20/10 - "compared mothers who drank one glass of probiotic milk a day to women who were given a placebo. Use of the probiotic milk -- which the mothers drank beginning at week 36 in their pregnancy up through to three months after birth -- reduced the incidence of eczema by 40 percent in children up to age two, the researchers found"
  • Probiotics in pregnancy could have diabetes benefits: Study - Nutra USA, 7/16/10 - "those women who had taken probiotics had a reduced frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): 13 percent for the diet/probiotics group, compared to 36 percent for the diet/placebo group and 34 percent for the control group ... In addition, the dietary counseling during pregnancy reduced the risk of fetal overgrowth, which is thought to predispose to later obesity" - [Abstract] - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study - Br J Nutr. 2010 Jun;103(12):1792-9 - "Firstly, probiotic intervention reduced the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); 13 % (diet/probiotics) v. 36 % (diet/placebo) and 34 % (control); P = 0.003. Secondly, the safety of this approach was attested by normal duration of pregnancies with no adverse events in mothers or children. No significant differences in prenatal or postnatal growth rates among the study groups were detected. Thirdly, distinctive effects of the two interventions were detected; probiotic intervention reduced the risk of GDM and dietary intervention diminished the risk of larger birth size in affected cases; P = 0.035 for birth weight and P = 0.028 for birth length. The results of the present study show that probiotic-supplemented perinatal dietary counselling could be a safe and cost-effective tool in addressing the metabolic epidemic. In view of the fact that birth size is a risk marker for later obesity, the present results are of significance for public health in demonstrating that this risk is modifiable" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Supplement may prevent alcohol-related brain, skull defects - Science Daily, 5/27/10 - "The dietary supplement CDP-choline, sold as a brain-boosting agent and under study for stroke and traumatic brain injury, may block skull and brain damage that can result from alcohol consumption early in pregnancy ... 25 percent of mouse embryos exposed to alcohol during that critical period had defects in the fibrous joints that connect the skull ... When they added ceramide-neutralizing CDP-choline to the mouse cells, cell death and ceramide levels were reduced" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Folate prevents alcohol-induced congenital heart defects in mice, study finds - Science Daily, 5/24/10 - "A new animal study has found that high levels of the B-vitamin folate (folic acid) prevented heart birth defects induced by alcohol exposure in early pregnancy"
  • Researchers discover additional benefit of vitamin A - Science Daily, 5/12/10 - "Children of mothers who received vitamin A supplementation before, during and after pregnancy had significantly improved lung function when compared to those whose mothers received beta-carotene supplementation or placebo"
  • Many pregnant women not getting enough vitamin D: Prenatal vitamins help, but are not enough for everyone - Science Daily, 5/11/10 - "out of every ten pregnant women in the United States are not getting enough Vitamin D" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Widespread Vitamin D Deficiency in Urban Massachusetts Newborns and Their Mothers - Pediatrics. 2010 Mar 22 - "Overall, 58.0% of the infants and 35.8% of the mothers were vitamin D deficient" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Probiotics for mum during pregnancy may cut obesity in child: Study - Nutra USA, 2/16/10
  • Vitamin D for Mom May Lower Baby’s MS Risk - WebMD, 2/9/10 - "We also found the risk of MS among daughters whose mothers were in the top 20% of vitamin D intake during pregnancy was 45% lower than daughters whose mothers were in the bottom 20% for vitamin D intake during pregnancy" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Pomegranate extract stimulates uterine contractions - Science Daily, 1/28/10
  • Maternal folic acid may slash heart problems in children - Nutra USA, 12/3/09 - "Children of women who took additional folic acid, defined as a daily single supplement or as a multivitamin Containing a folic acid dose of at least 400 micrograms, were found to have an 18 per cent lower risk of CHDs" - [Abstract]
  • Protective effect of periconceptional folic acid supplements on the risk of congenital heart defects: a registry-based case-control study in the northern Netherlands - Eur Heart J. 2009 Dec 1 - "Our results support the hypothesis that additional periconceptional folic acid use reduces CHD risk in infants. Use of periconceptional folic acid supplements was related to approximately 20% reduction in the prevalence of any CHD. Given the relatively high prevalence of CHD worldwide, our findings are important for public health"
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Problems Associated With Low Folate Levels In Pregnant Women - Science Daily, 10/28/09 - "A study published in an upcoming issue of The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry finds that low maternal folate levels is linked to the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems in children at age seven to nine years"
  • Eating Licorice In Pregnancy May Affect A Child's IQ And Behavior - Science Daily. 10/6/09 - "Expectant mothers who eat excessive quantities of licorice during pregnancy could adversely affect their child's intelligence and behavior ... They were also more likely to have poor attention spans and show disruptive behavior such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) ... It is thought that a component in licorice called glycyrrhizin may impair the placenta, allowing stress hormones to cross from the mother to the baby"
  • Supplementing Babies' Formula With DHA Boosts Cognitive Development, Study Finds - Science Daily, 9/15/09 - "children who were breast fed as infants have superior cognitive skills compared to those fed infant formula, and it's thought that this is due to an essential fatty acid in breast milk called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ... because infants who display superior performance on the means-end problem-solving task tend to have superior IQ and vocabulary later in childhood, it's possible that the beneficial effects of DHA extend well beyond infancy"
  • Vitamin C Deficiency Impairs Early Brain Development, Guinea Pig Study Finds - 9/4/09 - "guinea pigs subjected to moderate vitamin C deficiency have 30 per cent less hippocampal neurones and markedly worse spatial memory than guinea pigs given a normal diet. Like guinea pigs, human beings are dependent on getting vitamin C through their diet, and Jens Lykkesfeldt therefore speculate that vitamin C deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women may also lead to impaired development in foetuses and new-born babies"
  • Low Choline Levels In Pregnant Women Raise Babies' Risk For Brain And Spinal-cord Defects, Study Shows - Science Daily, 8/16/09 - "Choline, an essential nutrient found in egg yolks, soy, wheat germ and meats, was the only nutrient measured whose blood levels were linked to risk of neural tube defects" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise Is Healthy For Mom And Child During Pregnancy, Report States - Science Daily, 8/3/09
  • Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life impairs spatial memory and reduces the number of hippocampal neurons in guinea pigs - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul 29 - "Our data show that vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life results in impaired neuronal development and a functional decrease in spatial memory in guinea pigs. We speculate that this unrecognized effect of vitamin C deficiency may have clinical implications for high-risk individuals, such as in children born from vitamin C-deficient mothers"
  • Folic acid in pregnancy better than thought - MSNBC, 6/1/09 - "Baby-protecting folic acid is getting renewed attention: Not only does it fight spina bifida and some related abnormalities, new research shows it also may prevent premature birth and heart defects"
  • Vitamin D Insufficiency Linked To Bacterial Vaginosis In Pregnant Women - Science Daily, 5/21/09 - "Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in US women of childbearing age, and is common in pregnant women. BV occurs when the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria ... Overall, women with BV had lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than those without BV (P < 0.01). The prevalence of BV decreased as vitamin D concentration increased to 80 nmol/L (P < 0.001). Compared with 75 nmol/L, serum 25(OH)D concentrations of 20 nmol/L and 50 nmol/L were associated with 65% and 26% increases, respectively, in the likelihood of BV. In summary, these findings suggest that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with BV in the first 4 mo of pregnancy. Further, poor vitamin D status may contribute to the strong racial disparity in the prevalence of BV in US women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Preconceptional Folic Acid Supplements Are Associated With Reduced Risk Of Premature Birth - Science Daily, 5/11/09
  • Study In Pregnant Women Suggests Probiotics May Help Ward Off Obesity - Science Daily, 5/7/09 - "One year after giving birth, women were less likely to have the most dangerous kind of obesity if they had been given probiotics from the first trimester of pregnancy, found new research that suggests manipulating the balance of bacteria in the gut may help fight obesity ... Central obesity, where overall obesity is combined with a particularly fat belly, is considered especially unhealthy ... We found it in 25% of the women who had received the probiotics along with dietary counselling, compared with 43% in the women who received diet advice alone" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Iron Deficiency In Womb May Delay Brain Maturation In Preemies - Science Daily, 5/4/09
  • Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: a longitudinal study - Br J Nutr. 2009 Mar 31:1-6 - "Women reporting use of vitamin D-containing supplements had higher vitamin D status, however, vitamin D insufficiency was still evident even in the face of supplement use. Given the potential consequences of hypovitaminosis D on health outcomes, vitamin D supplementation, perhaps at higher doses than currently available, is needed to improve maternal vitamin D nutriture" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Levels Of Vitamin B12 May Increase Risk For Neural Tube Defects - Science Daily, 3/2/09
  • Prenaatal Vitamins Should Contain Only Potassium Iodide, Not Other Sources Of Iodine, Scientists Urge - Science Daily, 2/25/09
  • Zinc Supplements During Pregnancy May Counteract Damage From Early Alcohol Exposure - Science Daily, 2/2/09 - "Animal research has shown that binge drinking – even just once – during early pregnancy can cause numerous problems for the fetus, including early postnatal death. Fetal zinc deficiency may explain some of the birth defects and neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with alcohol exposure. New rodent findings are the first to show that dietary zinc supplements throughout pregnancy can reduce some alcohol-related birth defects"
  • Genetic Study Shows Direct Link Between Vitamin D And MS Susceptibility 'Gene' - Science Daily, 2/5/09 - "The research suggests that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and the early years may increase the risk of the offspring developing MS later in life"
  • Study: DHA supplements may help premature baby girls - USATODAY.com, 1/13/09 - "premature girls given the high-DHA diet scored about 5 points higher on a 100-point test, which translates to a 55% reduction in the proportion of girls with a "mild mental delay" and an 80% reduction in the proportion of girls with "significant" mental delay" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Associated With Greater Rates Of Cesarean Sections - Science Daily, 12/23/08 - "pregnant women who are vitamin D deficient are also at an increased risk for delivering a baby by caesarean section as compared to pregnant women who are not vitamin D deficient ... 28 percent of women with serum 25(OH)D less than 37.5 nmol/L had a caesarean section, compared to only 14 percent of women with 25(OH)D greater than 37.5 nmol/L"
  • Why Iron Deficiency Is Important in Infant Development - J Nutr. 2008 Dec;138(12):2534-2536 - "Rodent studies also show effects of iron deficiency during gestation and lactation that persist into adulthood despite restoration of iron status at weaning. These studies indicate that gestation and early lactation are likely critical periods when iron deficiency will result in long-lasting damage"
  • Canola Oil May Affect Breast Cancer Risk - WebMD, 11/18/08 - "Could the type of oil a woman consumes during pregnancy influence her daughter's breast cancer risk years later? ... pregnant women may be better off choosing canola oil over most other vegetable oils ... Corn oil has 50% omega-6 and almost no omega-3, while canola oil has 20% omega-6 and 10% omega-3,""
  • More fish during pregnancy boosts child development: Study - Nutra USA, 9/22/08 - "The children of mothers who had higher intakes of fish during pregnancy were found to have higher development scores than children of women with low fish intake" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Associations of maternal fish intake during pregnancy and breastfeeding duration with attainment of developmental milestones in early childhood: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):789-96 - "Higher maternal fish intake and greater duration of breastfeeding were associated with higher child developmental scores at 18 mo [odds ratio: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.38) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of fish intake, and 1.28 (1.18, 1.38) for breastfeeding for > or =10 mo compared with breastfeeding for < or =1 mo]. Associations were similar for development at 6 mo. ... Maternal fish intake during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding are independently associated with better early child development. Future research and consumption guidelines, incorporating nutritional benefits as well as contaminant risks, should consider the overall effect of prenatal fish consumption on child development" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Eating Fish While Pregnant, Longer Breastfeeding Lead to Better Infant Development - Doctor's Guide, 9/10/08 - "Both higher fish consumption and longer breastfeeding are linked to better physical and cognitive development in infants" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Eating Fish While Pregnant, Longer Breastfeeding, Lead To Better Infant Development, Research Finds - Science Daily, 9/9/08
  • Calcium During Pregnancy Reduces Harmful Blood Lead Levels, Study Finds - Science Daily, 9/9/08
  • Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008 Sep 2 - "180 women (Indian Asian, Middle Eastern, Black and Caucasian) were recruited at 27 weeks gestation and randomised into three treatment groups: a single oral dose of 200,000 IU vitamin D, a daily supplement of 800 IU vitamin D from 27 weeks until delivery and a no treatment group ... The final maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly higher in the supplemented group (daily dose (median) 42 (IQR 31-76) nmol/l, stat dose (median 34 (IQR 30-46) nmol/l vs. median 27 (IQR 27-39) nmol/l in the no treatment; p<0.0001) and significantly fewer women with secondary hyperparathyroidism in the supplemented group ... Single or daily dose improved 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels significantly. However, even with supplementation, only a small percentage of women and babies were vitamin D sufficient. Further research is required to determine the optimal timing and dosing of vitamin D in pregnancy" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • HbA1C, but not serum glycated albumin, is elevated in late pregnancy due to iron deficiency - Diabetes Care. 2008 Jul 3 - "HbA(1C) levels were elevated in late pregnancy due to iron deficiency. Serum GA may offer a better index for monitoring glycemic control in pregnancy"
  • Vitamin D Status During Pregnancy Affects Baby's Dental Health - [Science Daily] - Doctor's Guide, 7/3/08 - "Low maternal vitamin D levels during pregnancy may affect primary tooth calcification, leading to enamel defects, which are a risk factor for early childhood tooth decay"
  • Babies, Tots Low on Vitamin D - WebMD, 6/2/08 - "Forty percent of those kids had suboptimal blood levels of vitamin D, including 12% who had vitamin D deficiency. And X-rays showed that a third of kids with vitamin D deficiency had bone demineralization, a sign of thinner bones ... Breastfed babies were particularly likely to be low in vitamin D"
  • Women's awareness of the importance of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption during pregnancy: knowledge of risks, benefits and information accessibility - Public Health Nutr. 2008 May 29:1-8 - "Pregnant women lack knowledge of LC n-3 PUFA and health-care services do not provide pregnant women with adequate information on the importance of eating foods high in LC n-3 PUFA during pregnancy"
  • Vitamin D Important In Brain Development And Function - Science Daily, 4/21/08 - "there is ample biological evidence to suggest an important role for vitamin D in brain development and function, and that supplementation for groups chronically low in vitamin D is warranted" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com
  • Good Nutrition Starts Before Conception: Maternal Diet Critical To Health Of Offspring - Science Daily, 4/14/08
  • Omega-3 Intake During Last Months Of Pregnancy Boosts An Infant's Cognitive And Motor Development - Science Daily, 4/9/08 - "Tests conducted on these infants at 6 and 11 months revealed that their visual acuity as well as their cognitive and motor development were closely linked to DHA concentration in the umbilical cord blood at the time of their birth ... These results highlight the crucial importance of prenatal exposure to omega-3s in a child's development" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Mom's fish intake may boost child's brain power - MSMBC, 4/1/08 - "Preschoolers whose mothers regularly ate low-mercury fish during pregnancy may have sharper minds than their peers ... Oily fish such as tuna, salmon and sardines contain omega-3 fatty acids, which are important in fetal and child brain development. The problem is that fatty fish are more likely to be contaminated with mercury, a metal that is toxic to brain cells, particularly in fetuses and young children"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency May Be To Blame For Soft Bones In Baby's Skull - Science Daily, 3/26/08 - "Softening of the skull bones in normal-looking babies might reflect vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy"
  • Vitamin D requirement during pregnancy and lactation - J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec;22 Suppl 2:V39-44 - "Current research has shown that the actual dietary requirement during pregnancy and lactation may actually be as high as 6000 IU/d" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Essential n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women and early visual acuity maturation in term infants - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Mar;87(3):548-57 - "More infant girls in the placebo than in the DHA intervention group had a visual acuity below average (P = 0.048). Maternal red blood cell ethanolamine phosphoglyceride docosatetraenoic acid was inversely related to visual acuity in boys (rho = -0.37, P < 0.05) and girls (rho = -0.48, P < 0.01)" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Typical North American Diet Is Deficient In Omega-3 Fatty Acids - Science Daily, 3/7/08 - "the typical North American diet of eating lots of meat and not much fish is deficient in omega-3 fatty acids and this may pose a risk to infant neurological development ... the women who ate lots of meat and little fish were deficient in omega-3 fatty acids, and their babies didn't do as well on eye tests as babies from mothers who weren't deficient. The results were noticeable as early as two months of age" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin B12 in Pregnancy Linked to Insulin Resistance in Offspring - Medscape, 2/15/08 - "Low plasma vitamin B12 in the first trimester and high folate levels in the second trimester of pregnancy predispose offspring to insulin resistance ... An imbalance in the vitamin B12 and folic acid levels produces the "undesirable effects,""
  • CDC to Young Women: Take Folic Acid - WebMD, 1/10/08 - "All women, especially younger women ages 18-24 years, need to consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily through supplements, fortified foods, or both in addition to a folate-rich diet to prevent serious birth defects"
  • Low Antioxidant Level May Damage Fetal Neurons - Science Daily, 12/20/07 - "Fetal neurons that have low levels of a vital antioxidant, glutathione, are the first to die when exposed to alcohol in cell culture and possibly in the living brain"
    • Getting More Glutathione? - Dr. Weil, 8/29/02 - "To my knowledge, the only supplement that effectively raises glutathione levels in the body is N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). My colleague Kathleen Johnson, a dietician here at the Program in Integrative Medicine, tells me that other glutathione supplements are ineffective because they’re digested before they can get into the bloodstream" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Maternal omega-3 consumption boosts offspring's coordination - Nutra USA, 12/20/07 - "Our results suggest that prenatal DHA availability, which can be influenced by maternal dietary DHA intake during pregnancy, can have an effect on quality of movement in later life" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Relationship between long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids at birth and motor function at 7 years of age - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec 19 - "Our results suggest that prenatal DHA availability, which can be influenced by maternal dietary DHA intake during pregnancy, can have an effect on quality of movement in later life" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • How Embryos Regulate Vitamin A Derivatives: Too Much Or Too Little Linked To Birth Defects - Science Daily, 11/19/07
  • Folic Acid in Preconceptual Period May Have a Preventive Effect on Congenital Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 11/6/07 - "The recent increase in folic acid intake has resulted in a decrease in the prevalence of infants born with severe congenital heart disease (CHD), supporting the idea that folic acid taken preconceptually may prevent CHD"
  • Is it justifiable to administrate vitamin A, E and D for 6 months in the premature infants? - Arch Pediatr. 2007 Oct 24 - "We recommend to increase oral administration of vitamin A to 5000 IU/day, at least for the first month of life and, thereafter to administer 3000 IU for 5 months. As for vitamin E and vitamin D, the doses used in this study are sufficient but should be administered for 6 months"
  • Baby Formula WIth Fish Oil Added May Help Infants - Science Daily, 10/11/07 - "The researchers noticed that in the piglets that were fed the control formula, fewer proteins were produced in their body over time and, at the same time, their insulin became less effective at lowering blood sugar levels. But piglets that drunk the test formula showed increased protein production and their insulin was as effective at using the proteins in the test formula for their growth as when they were born"
  • Is vitamin D deficiency to blame for the asthma epidemic? - J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Oct 3 - "higher vitamin D intake by pregnant mothers reduces asthma risk by as much as 40% in children 3 to 5 years old" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Coalition splits over fish guideline for pregnant women - USATODAY.com, 10/10/07 - "Clearly, when these studies come out that are funded by industry that completely dismiss the potentially harmful effects of mercury on mothers and fetus, one certainly has to question the validity of their findings"
  • Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1104-1110 - "gestational age (SGA) ... large-for-gestational age (LGA) ... Milk intake in pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight for gestational age, lower risk of SGA, and higher risk of LGA"
  • FDA Fish Recommendations Challenged - WebMD, 10/4/07
  • Scientists to Advise Pregnant Women to Eat Fish - washingtonpost.com, 10/3/07
  • New Reasons to Watch What You Eat - US News and World Report, 9/22/07
  • Omega-3 Can Prevent Blindness In Premature Mice: Hospital Treatment Soon? - Science Daily, 8/18/07 - "Mice that ate omega-3 initially lost fewer blood vessels in their retinas than mice that ate omega-6, and they evinced only half as much abnormal vessel growth. Their retinas also showed lower inflammatory activity"
  • Correlation between vitamin D(3) deficiency and insulin resistance in pregnancy - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007 Jul 2 - "Total prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<25 nmol/L) was found in 70.6% of pregnant women ... These results show that a positive correlation of 25(OH) vitamin D concentrations with insulin sensitivity and vitamin D deficiency could be a confirmative sign of insulin resistance"
  • Pregnancy Diet May Affect Kids' Asthma - WebMD, 5/21/07
  • Eating Apples And Fish During Pregnancy May Protect Against Childhood Asthma And Allergies - Science Daily, 5/20/07
  • Vitamin pills prevent low-weight babies - CNN, 4/4/07
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Widespread During Pregnancy - Doctor's Guide, 3/1/07 - "Our study shows that current vitamin D dietary intake recommendations are not enough to meet the demands of pregnancy" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Current vitamin D levels not enough in pregnancy, study - Nutra USA, 2/28/07
  • Prenatal Vitamins May Prevent Common Childhood Cancers - Doctor's Guide, 2/22/07 - "prenatal supplementation of multivitamins containing folic acid is associated with a 47% protective effect for neuroblastoma, 39% for leukemia and 27% protective effect for brain tumours"
  • Flip-Flopping Fish Advice - washingtonpost.com, 2/20/07
  • Fish Diet in Pregnancy May Hone Kids' IQ - Intelihealth, 2/16/07
  • Folate levels in young American women fall, could lead to rise in birth defects - USA Today, 1/4/07 - "But a CDC study released Thursday found an 8% to 16% decline in folate levels in U.S. women of childbearing age, according to large blood-drawing surveys done between 1999 and 2004"
  • Fish Oil for Moms May Benefit Babies - WebMD, 12/21/06 - "children of mothers who took fish oil supplements scored significantly higher on tests of hand-eye coordination than those who took olive oil supplements" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary intake of B-vitamins in mothers born a child with a congenital heart defect - Eur J Nutr. 2006 Nov 21 - "The CHD risk doubled if vitamin B(12) intake in these mothers reduced by 50%"
  • Mom's Diet May Affect Generations - WebMD, 11/13/06 - "supplements given to pregnant mice not only affected the coloring of their offspring, but their offspring's offspring as well"
  • Supplementation of n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation reduces maternal plasma lipid levels and provides DHA to the infants - J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006 Jul;19(7):397-406 - "Maternal supplementation with n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation provides more DHA to the infant and reduces maternal plasma lipid levels compared to supplementation with n-6 fatty acids"
  • Planning a Pregnancy? Eat Your Fiber - WebMD, 9/27/06
  • Moms' Vitamins Cuts Kids' Brain Tumors - WebMD, 9/22/06 - "Women who take multivitamins before and during pregnancy may be less likely to have children who develop brain tumors by age 5 years"
  • Pregnancy Diet May Affect Kids' Asthma - WebMD, 9/1/06
  • Recommended Iron Levels for Pregnant Women Found to Be too High - Doctor's Guide, 5/31/06
  • Expectant Moms Need Milk's Vitamin D - WebMD, 4/24/06 - "by not drinking milk, mothers got far too little vitamin D. And data analysis shows that it was vitamin D -- not calcium or any other milk-related nutrient -- that accounted for the infants' lower weight"
  • Kids' Asthma Linked to Maternal Nutrition - HealthDay, 3/4/06 - "expectant mothers who take higher amounts of vitamin D may decrease their child's risk for asthma ... Vitamin D deficiency is common in areas where asthma is also widespread, raising the suspicion that the two are linked"
  • Oily fish makes 'babies brainier' - BBC News, 1/20/06 - "mothers with the lowest intake of the essential fatty acid had children with a verbal IQ six points lower than the average ... Low intake of the crucial fatty acid also appeared to lead to more problems of social interactions - such as an inability to make friends" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Pregnant? Vitamin D May Aid Baby's Bones - Doctor's Guide, 1/6/06
  • L-Carnipure supplements may help reduce diabetes during pregnancy - Nutra USA, 8/29/05
  • Why Embryos Need A Good Diet - Science Daily, 5/12/05 - "People's protein intake has decreased since humans evolved, meaning that carbohydrate and fat intake must have increased to compensate. The resulting deficit of important amino acids as well as more starch and fat could lead to poorer health in offspring who develop under those conditions"
  • Type 2 Diabetes May Begin With Grandma's Diet - Science Daily, 5/12/05 - "the insulin resistance typical of type 2 diabetes can be "programmed" across two generations by poor nutrition during a grandmother's pregnancy and lactation"
  • Omega-3 Boosts Mood Throughout Pregnancy - Clinical Psychiatry News, 5/05 - "In a small, open-label, flexible-dose study of 15 patients using doses up to 2.8 g/day of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, patients showed a mean decrease on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) of 39% and a mean decrease of 34% on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Breast Cancer Protection Starts in the Womb - WebMD, 4/20/05 - "Mothers who choose foods packed with omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy and while nursing and then feed their kids such a diet after weaning may reduce the risk of breast cancer in their daughters by nearly 90%, early research in mice indicates"
  • Vitamin C Supplementation May Reduce Rate of Premature Rupture of Membranes - Medscape, 4/15/05
  • Fatty Acids DHA and ARA Significantly Aid Infant Development, Two New Studies Show - Doctor's Guide, 4/15/05 - "The groups receiving supplemental DHA and ARA also had higher mental and psychomotor development scores at 118 weeks ... women who are breastfeeding can take a DHA dietary supplement to ensure adequate levels of DHA in their breast milk. This is particularly important because pregnant and nursing women in the U.S. do not typically receive enough DHA through their diets to pass on the necessary amount to their developing infants"
  • Essential fatty acids, DHA and human brain - Indian J Pediatr. 2005 Mar;72(3):239-42 - "It is recommended that the pregnant and nursing woman should take at least 2.6g of omega-3 fatty acids and 100-300 mg of DHA daily to look after the needs of her fetus and suckling infant. The follow-up studies have shown that infants of mothers supplemented with EFAs and DHA had higher mental processing scores, psychomotor development, eye-hand coordination and stereo acuity at 4 years of age. Intake of EFAs and DHA during preschool years may also have a beneficial role in the prevention of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and enhancing learning capability and academic performance" - See DHA at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary assessment of pregnant women--vitamin and mineral supplementation--justified or not? - Przegl Lek. 2004;61(7):769-75 - "The results of the study support the need of supplementation in the pregnant women diets with microelements and vitamins"
  • Green tea mechanism urges caution for pregnant women - Nutra USA, 3/17/05
  • Dietary intake of vitamin C and vitamin E and the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy - Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005 Mar 1;119(1):67-71 - "Low vitamin E intake was associated with a significant increase in the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy"
  • Poor Prenatal Nutrition Permanently Damages Function Of Insulin-producing Cells In The Pancreas - Science Daily, 3/3/05
  • N-3 fatty acids and pregnancy outcomes - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2005 Mar;8(2):161-166 - "Children whose mothers received docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and lactation scored better in mental processing tests carried out at 4 years than children whose mothers received placebo" - See DHA at Amazon.com.  My favorite is Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Research Studies Effects Of Soy Baby Formula On Intestinal Development - Science Daily, 12/27/04 - "Two studies by University of Illinois food science and human nutrition professor Sharon Donovan show that the soy isoflavone genistein, in amounts present in commercial soy infant formulas, may inhibit intestinal cell growth in babies"
  • Soy formula may inhibit intestinal development in babies - Nutra USA, 12/22/04 - "in newborn piglets fed a formula supplemented with genistein at the level found in soy formula, the number of proliferating cells in the intestine was 50 per cent lower than in piglets fed cow's milk formula alone"
  • Maternal diet impacts leukaemia risk in child? - Nutra USA, 8/23/04
  • Vitamin B12 may also prevent birth defects - Nutra USA, 8/19/04
  • Antioxidants During Pregnancy May Help Prevent Birth Defects Tied To Alcohol - Science Daily, 6/21/04
  • Eating Oily Fish in Pregnancy May Protect Child Against Asthma - Doctor's Guide, 5/26/04
  • DHA from mother boosts infant development, further findings - Nutra USA, 5/5/04
  • Research Links Nutrient in Eggs to Improved Memory - WebMD, 3/12/04
  • Pregnant & Nauseous? Try Ginger - WebMD, 1/9/04
  • Early Pregnancy Risk With Ginseng - WebMD, 9/24/03
  • Acupuncture Reduces Pain During Labor - New Hope Natural Media, 8/21/03
  • Early Infant Mortality Reduced with Vitamin A Supplementation Within 24 Hours of Birth - Doctor's Guide, 8/4/03
  • Optimal Nutrition During Pregnancy - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 7/2/03
  • Hormone [progesterone] Reduces Preterm Deliveries - WebMD, 6/11/03
  • Probiotic At Birth May Decrease Risk Of Atopic Eczema In Early Childhood - Doctor's Guide, 5/29/03 - "Children receiving the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus around the time of birth have been found to be 40% less likely to develop atopic eczema at 4 years of age, compared with controls"
  • Fish May Fight Pregnancy Depression Risks - Intelihealth, 5/21/03 - "the more omega-3 fatty acids a woman consumed in seafood during the third trimester, the less likely she was to show signs of major depression at that time and for up to eight months after the birth"
  • Multivitamin Supplements Reduce Risk of Birth Defects in Offspring of Diabetic Mothers - Doctor's Guide, 5/9/03 - "Results show that infants of women with diabetes had an increased risk of having selected birth defects only if the mother did not use multivitamins during the periconception period"
  • Pregnant African American Teens Need More Calcium For Healthy Fetal Bone Development - Doctor's Guide, 5/5/02
  • Pelvic Exercises During Pregnancy Prevent Urinary Incontinence - New Hope Natural Media, 4/24/03
  • Folic Acid May Fight Down Syndrome - WebMD, 4/17/03 - "there might be a link between the Down syndrome and neural tube defects, and folic acid supplements may be an effective way to prevent both" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Wetter, Better Births? - Dr. Weil, 4/16/03
  • Maternal Diuretics In Pregnancy May Be Linked To Schizophrenia In Offspring - Doctor's Guide, 3/14/03
  • Ginger Effective for Pregnancy Morning Sickness - New Hope Natural Media, 10/31/02
  • Low Folic Acid Linked to Miscarriage - WebMD, 10/15/02
  • Prenatal Vitamins Cut Child's Tumor Risk - WebMD, 8/30/02
  • Prenatal Zinc May Impair Infant Mental Development - Doctor's Guide, 7/25/02
  • Biotin Supplement Needed During Pregnancy - New Hope Natural Media, 6/20/02
  • Women Unaware of Folic Acid Benefits - WebMD, 6/4/02 - "only 31% of women between the ages of 18 and 45 take a folic acid supplement every day, despite the fact that the vitamin has been shown to dramatically reduce the risk of serious birth defects ... In fact, only 10% of women realize that the B vitamin folic acid must be taken prior to pregnancy to prevent birth defects of the brain and spine known as neural tube defects ... it takes about a month for the vitamin to provide the maximum benefit"
  • Light May Lift Pregnancy Depression - WebMD, 4/22/02
  • Ginger Gets to the 'Root' of Morning Sickness - WebMD, 4/18/02 - "experts say ginger is a highly effective antinausea agent. And a new study shows it's strong enough to combat even nasty cases of morning sickness in pregnant women"
  • Exercise Encouraged During Pregnancy - Intelihealth, 3/4/02
  • Fish Oil Consumption May Prevent Pre-Term Birth - Doctor's Guide, 2/21/02 - "Low consumption of fish oils appears a strong risk factor for pre-term delivery and low birth weight ... A study among 8,729 pregnant Danish women indicates that long chain omega n.3 fatty acids in amounts above 2 g a day may delay spontaneous delivery and prevent recurrence of pre-term delivery"
  • Pregnancy Vitamins Cut Leukemia in Kids - WebMD, 12/6/01 - "Moms who used both folic acid and iron supplements in pregnancy were 60% less likely to have a child develop leukemia"
  • Folic Acid Doesn't Increase Miscarriage Risk - WebMD, 9/6/01
  • Pharmaceutical Drugs Deplete Folic Acid - Nutrition Science News, 9/01
  • Many Women Still Don't Take Folic Acid Before Conception - WebMD, 9/5/01
  • Doctors to Pregnant Women: Be Cautious With Herbs - WebMD, 8/31/01
  • Ginger Gets to the 'Root' of Morning Sickness, Study Shows Spice Calms Nausea and Vomiting - WebMD, 4/18/01
  • Folic Acid Strikes Again, Study Shows Vitamin Protects Against Birth Defects Linked to Common Drugs - WebMD, 11/29/00
  • Low Calcium May Equal High Lead Levels in Pregnant Women - WebMD, 11/8/00
  • Folic Acid Reduces Defects - Intelihealth, 10/3/00
  • Couples Seeking to Conceive Should Avoid St. John's Wort and Others - WebMD, 8/9/00
  • Acupuncture Helps Relieve Pregnancy's Low Back Pain - WebMD, 7/6/00
  • Prenatal Nutrition - Nutrition Science News, 2/00
  • Eat right before pregnancy and boost your baby's health - CNN, 11/29/99
  • Folic Acid May Fight Down Syndrome - Intelihealth, 9/29/99
  • Exercise during pregnancy: Should you or shouldn't you? - CNN, 5/18/99
  • Eating right before, during, and after pregnancy - CNN, 5/17/99
  • A Smart Start - Nutrition Science News, 3/99
  • Zinc Found to Reduce Infant Mortality Risk - Intelihealth, 4/26/99
  • Folate May Not Be Recommended In Women Taking Anti-Epileptics - Doctor's Guide, 4/23/99 - "Expectant mothers who were taking more than one anti-epileptic drug -- valproate and carbamazepine in particular -- had a 22 percent risk of having a child with birth defects"
  • March of Dimes promotes B vitamin to curb birth defects - CNN, 1/28/99
  • Folic Acid During Pregnancy Does Not Cause Multiple Births - Doctor's Guide, 1/22/99
  • Early Nutrition In Babies May Have Long-Term Effects On The Brain - Doctor's Guide, 11/26/98
  • Report Urges Supplemental Folic Acid For Women of Childbearing Age - Doctor's Guide, 4/8/98
  • ZENATE Prenatal Multivitamin Now Available - Doctor's Guide, 8/26/96

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