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Home > Health Conditions > Strokes

Stroke

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  • Cardioprotective Effects of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Juice in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease - Phytother Res. 2017 Sep 15 - "Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide ... Pomegranate juice caused significant reductions in the intensity, occurrence, and duration of angina pectoris in patients with unstable angina. Consistently, the test patients had significantly lower levels of serum troponin and malondialdehyde. Other studied parameters did not change significantly. The results of this study suggest protective effects of pomegranate juice against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury" - See pomegranate extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Status and the Risk of Recurrent Stroke and Mortality in Ischemic Stroke Patients: Data from a 24-Month Follow-Up Study in China - J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(7):766-771 - "Compared with the first quartile of serum 25(OH) D levels, the ORs for stroke recurrence and mortality were as follows: second quartile, 0.80 (95% CI, 0.63-0.93) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.65-0.89); third quartile, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31-0.55) and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30-0.52); fourth quartile, 0.12 (95% CI, 0.07-0.19) and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.06-0.15), respectively" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • B-vitamin and choline supplementation increases neuroplasticity and recovery after stroke - Neurobiol Dis. 2017 Jul;103:89-100 - "In supplemented diet mice, we report improved motor function after ischemic damage compared to mice fed a control diet after ischemic damage. Within the perilesional cortex, we show enhanced proliferation, neuroplasticity and anti-oxidant activity in mice fed the supplemented diet" - [Nutra USA] - See Citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and risk of stroke: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul 12 - "When stratified by current smoking status, the inverse association between dietary vitamin C intake and incidence of total stroke observed among non-smokers but not smokers, with respective multivariable hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quintiles of vitamin C of 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.96; P-trend=0.03) among non-smokers; and 1.03 (0.84-1.25; P-trend=0.55) among smokers" - See American Health Products - Ester C W/Citrus Bioflavonoids, 1000 mg, 180 veg tablets at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Protein Intake and Stroke Risk in a General Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study - Stroke. 2017 May 9 - "the risks of total stroke and ischemic stroke significantly decreased by 40% (95% confidence interval, 12%-59%) and 40% (5%-62%), respectively, in subjects with the highest quartile of vegetable protein intake compared with those with the lowest one. In contrast, subjects with the highest quartile of animal protein intake had a 53% (4%-77%) lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage"
  • Longitudinal association between fasting blood glucose concentrations and first stroke in hypertensive adults in China: effect of folic acid intervention - Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan 25 - "A high FBG concentration (≥7.0 mmol/L) or diabetes, compared with a low FBG concentration (<5.0 mmol/L), was associated with an increased risk of first stroke (6.0% compared with 2.6%, respectively; HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.8; P < 0.001). Folic acid treatment reduced the risk of stroke across a wide range of FBG concentrations ≥5.0 mmol/L, but risk reduction was greatest in subjects with FBG concentrations ≥7.0 mmol/L or with diabetes (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.97; P < 0.05). There was a significant interactive effect of FBG and folic acid treatment on first stroke" - See methylfolate at Amazon.com.
  • Stroke-like brain damage is reduced in mice injected with omega-3s - Science Daily, 8/23/16 - "At 24 hours, mice treated with DHA, but not EPA, had a significant reduction in brain injury. In the following weeks, the DHA group also had significantly better results in multiple brain functions compared to the EPA-treated mice and untreated (control) mice" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Inosine treatment helps recovery of motor functions after brain injury - Science Daily, 8/3/16 - "Brain injuries were created in the area controlling each monkey's favored hand. Four monkeys received inosine treatment, while four received a placebo ... While both the treated and placebo groups recovered significant function, three out of four of the treated monkeys were able to return to their pre-operative grasping methods. The placebo group developed a compensatory grasping method for retrieving food rewards unlike the original thumb-and-finger method ... Inosine has also been administered in human clinical trials for multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease and has been proven to be safe in doses up 3000 mg/day. Athletes have used inosine as a nutritional supplement for decades, and inosine supplements are widely available commercially" - See inosine at Amazon.com.
  • Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:2795915 - "17 subjects were treated with 1000 mg/day of gotu kola extract, 17 subjects treated with 750 mg/day of gotu kola extract, and 14 subjects treated with 3 mg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) was conducted at the beginning of treatment and after 6 weeks of therapy. It was found that all trials effectively improved poststroke VCI based on MoCA-Ina scores over the course of the study. There is no significant difference in ΔMoCA-Ina (score at the 6th week of treatment - score at the beginning) mean score among the three groups, indicating that gotu kola is as effective as folic acid in improving poststroke VCI. Gotu kola was shown to be more effective than folic acid in improving memory domain. This study suggested that gotu kola extract is effective in improving cognitive function after stroke" - See gotu kola at Amazon.com.
  • n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Neonatal Hypoxic/Ischemic Brain Injury by Promoting Phosphatidylserine Formation and Akt Signaling - Stroke. 2015 Sep 15 - "n-3 PUFAs robustly protect against H/I-induced brain damage in neonates by activating Akt prosurvival pathway in compromised neurons. In addition, n-3 PUFAs promote the formation of membrane phosphatidylserine, thereby promoting Akt activity and improving cellular survival" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Association between intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium and risk of stroke: 2 cohorts of US women and updated meta-analyses - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 6 - "Pooled multivariate RRs of total stroke for women in highest compared with lowest quintiles were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.97) for total magnesium, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) for total potassium, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.09) for total calcium intake. Pooled RRs for women in highest compared with lowest quintiles of a combined mineral diet score were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.81) for total stroke, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.92) for ischemic stroke, and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.04) for hemorrhagic stroke. In the updated meta-analyses of all prospective studies to date, the combined RR of total stroke was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.92) for a 100-mg/d increase of magnesium intake, 0.91 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.94) for a 1000-mg/d increase of potassium intake, and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.02) for a 300-mg/d increase of calcium intake" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com and potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D status, hypertension and ischemic stroke: a clinical perspective - J Hum Hypertens. 2015 Mar 26 - "Meticulous management of hypertension, regular monitoring of serum 25(OH)D levels and treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency, particularly in hypertensive subjects, could help in effective prevention of stroke" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy of Folic Acid Therapy in Primary Prevention of Stroke Among Adults With Hypertension in China: The CSPPT Randomized Clinical Trial - JAMA. 2015 Mar 15 - "randomly assigned to receive double-blind daily treatment with a single-pill combination containing enalapril, 10 mg, and folic acid, 0.8 mg (n = 10 348) or a tablet containing enalapril, 10 mg, alone (n = 10 354) ... Among adults with hypertension in China without a history of stroke or MI, the combined use of enalapril and folic acid, compared with enalapril alone, significantly reduced the risk of first stroke. These findings are consistent with benefits from folate use among adults with hypertension and low baseline folate levels" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid May Help Ward Off Stroke in People With High Blood Pressure - WebMD, 3/15/15 - "20,000 adults in China with high blood pressure who had not suffered a heart attack or stroke .... Participants were randomly assigned to take a daily pill with folic acid and the high blood pressure drug enalapril (brand name Vasotec) or a pill with enalapril alone ... the risk of stroke was 21 percent lower among those taking enalapril/folic acid" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin D predicts more severe strokes, poor health post-stroke - Science Daily, 2/5/15 - "Stroke patients with low vitamin D levels were found to be more likely than those with normal vitamin D levels to suffer severe strokes and have poor health months after stroke ... Overall, patients who had low vitamin D levels -defined as less than 30 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) -- had about two-times larger areas of dead tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply compared to patients with normal vitamin D levels ... For each 10 ng/mL reduction in vitamin D level, the chance for healthy recovery in the three months following stroke decreased by almost half, regardless of the patient's age or initial stroke severity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Potassium Intake and Stroke Mortality Risks - Medscape, 12/18/14 - "Comparing highest to lowest quartile of potassium intake with multivariate analyses yielded a hazard ratio of 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.95) for all-cause mortality, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.79-0.98) for all stroke, and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.74-0.96) for ischemic stroke" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and risk of incident stroke in U.S. men and women in 2 large prospective cohorts - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;100(6):1437-1447 - "In 2 large prospective cohorts, circulating biomarkers of dairy fat were not significantly associated with stroke"
  • Dietary Fiber Intake Is Inversely Associated with Stroke Incidence in Healthy Swedish Adults - J Nutr. 2014 Dec;144(12):1952-1955 - "High intakes of total fiber and fiber from fruits and vegetables but not from cereals were inversely associated with risk of stroke. After adjustment for other risk factors for stroke, the multivariable RRs of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for total fiber, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95) for fruit fiber, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00) for vegetable fiber, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.04) for cereal fiber" - See fiber supplements at Amazon.com.
  • n-3 PUFA Induce Microvascular Protective Changes During Ischemia/Reperfusion - Lipids. 2014 Oct 26 - "we may conclude that consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially in the triacylglycerol form, could be a promising therapy to prevent microvascular damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion and its consequent clinical sequelae" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Higher Potassium Intake Linked to Reduced Stroke - Medscape, 9/4/14 - "In the WHI study of older women aged 50-79, those without hypertension who had higher levels of potassium had a 27% reduced risk of stroke than women with low potassium levels ... in general, this population was well below the recommended daily allowance of potassium. In the United States, this is 4700 mg. The women in the WHI study had average intake of 2600 mg, which is very similar to average US intakes. Only 2.8% of women met or exceeded the 4700 mg recommended intake ... The World Health Organization recommends a potassium intake of more than 3510 mg per day, which may be easier to achieve, but still only 16% of women in this cohort met this requirement ... A baked potato contains 900 mg of potassium and a banana contains 420 mg"
  • Plasma Magnesium and Risk of Ischemic Stroke Among Women - Stroke. 2014 Aug 12 - "Conditional on matching factors, women in the lowest magnesium quintile had a relative risk of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.86-2.10; P trend=0.13) for total ischemic stroke compared with women in the highest quintile. Additional adjustment for risk factors and confounders did not substantially alter the risk estimates for total ischemic stroke. Women with magnesium levels <0.82 mmol/L had significantly greater risk of total ischemic stroke (multivariable relative risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.27; P=0.01) and thrombotic stroke (multivariable relative risk, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.65; P=0.03) compared with women with magnesium levels ≥0.82 mmol/L" - See Jarrow Formulas, MagMind at Amazon.com.
  • Protein has the effect of lowering blood pressure, which may play a role in reducing stroke risk - Science Daily, 6/11/14 - "the participants with the highest amount of protein in their diets were 20 percent less likely to develop a stroke than those with the lowest amount of protein in their diets ... For every additional 20 grams per day of protein that people ate, their risk of stroke decreased by 26 percent ... Protein has the effect of lowering blood pressure, which may play a role in reducing stroke risk"
  • Panax notoginseng saponins promotes stroke recovery by influencing expression of Nogo-A, NgR and p75NGF, in vitro and in vivo - Biol Pharm Bull. 2014;37(4):560-8 - "This may be the mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins that contributes to the recovery of nerve function, which plays an important role in brain protection after cerebral infarction" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Potassium-rich diet and risk of stroke: Updated meta-analysis - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Mar 18 - "Pooled analysis of 14 cohorts (overall 333,250 participants and 10,659 events) showed an inverse and significant association between K intake and risk of stroke (Relative Risk: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.72-0.90). Our results indicated a favorable effect of higher K intake on risk of stroke" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Brain saver: Vitamin E supplement helps 'redirect' blood during stroke - Science Daily, 4/29/14 - "brain damage during a stroke can be prevented by triggering the surrounding blood vessels to dilate and redirect the blood flow around a blockage ... The blood vessel "redirect" is the result of 10 weeks' worth of supplementation with a little-known type of vitamin E called tocotrienol. Tocotrienol appears to stimulate arteriogenesis -- or the remodeling of existing blood vessels that can instantaneously expand in response to a demand for oxygen-rich blood. This collateral blood supply can make a major difference in stroke outcomes ... Tocotrienol, found naturally in palm oil, is a vitamin E variant and currently available in stores as an oral nutritional supplement. Because it doesn't appear to interfere with other stroke therapies like blood thinners, or have any other side effects, Rink thinks that the vitamin could someday become a common stroke prevention strategy" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Iron Deficiency May Raise Stroke Risk - WebMD, 2/20/14 - "Those who had an iron deficiency had stickier platelets -- which are small blood cells that trigger clotting when they stick together -- and were more likely to suffer a stroke ... Even those with moderately low iron levels were about twice as likely to suffer a stroke as those with iron levels in the middle of the normal range" - See iron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Can Vitamin C Ward Off Stroke? - WebMD, 2/14/14 - "Vannier's team looked at 65 people who had suffered a hemorrhagic stroke, comparing them with 65 healthy people ... On average, those who had a stroke had depleted levels of vitamin C, while vitamin C levels were normal in the healthy individuals ... Depleted levels of vitamin C was linked to longer hospitalizations, but not a higher risk of death ... Vitamin C levels were significantly lower in people who had brain bleeds, compared with healthy people, but we have not yet calculated an odds risk" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Intakes of Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium and Risk of Stroke - Stroke. 2014 Feb 11 - "36 094 participants aged 21 to 70 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire ... 12 years of follow-up ... magnesium intake was associated with reduced stroke risk (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] per 100 mg/d, 0.80 [0.67-0.97] dietary magnesium; 0.78 [0.65-0.93] total magnesium). Potassium and calcium intakes were not associated with stroke" - See Magtein at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Fatal CVD - Medscape, 12/23/13 - "Even after adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking and physical activity, vitamin D deficiency still conferred a significant 27% increased risk for total CVD, and a 62% increased risk for fatal CVD ... Individuals with low vitamin D levels also had a significant 36% increased risk of total CHD and a nonsignificant 33% increased risk of total stroke" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Tea consumption and cardiovascular disease risk - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Oct 30 - "performed a search in 3 databases for meta-analyses and compared them with studies they subsumed ... In the case of stroke, a consistent, dose-response association with tea consumption on both incidence and mortality was noted with RRs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.98) for flavonoids and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.85) for tea when high and low intakes were compared or the addition of 3 cups/d was estimated" - Note:  Blueberries are one of the highest in flavonoids.  My pick for flavonoids would be Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B Supplements May Lower Stroke Risk - Medscape, 9/18/13 - "Researchers searched for randomized controlled trials published before August 2012 that compared vitamin B supplementation with placebo, very-low-dose B vitamins, or usual care; had a minimum follow-up of 6 months; and included stroke events as a study endpoint ... The researchers noted a reduction in overall stroke events resulting from lowered homocysteine levels following B vitamin supplementation (risk ratio, 0.93"
  • Low Levels of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease Patients: A Post Hoc Analysis from the COURAGE Trial - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Aug 8 - "While low HDL-C level is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular risk, recent data suggest that this may not apply when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is reduced to optimal levels using intensive statin therapy ... performed a post hoc analysis in 2,193 men and women with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) from the COURAGE trial ... In the overall population, the rate of death/MI was 33% lower in the highest HDL-C quartile as compared with the lowest quartile, with quartile of HDL-C being a significant, independent predictor of death/MI (P = 0.05), but with no interaction for LDL-C category (P=0.40). Among subjects with LDL-C levels < 70 mg/dL, those in the highest quintile of HDL-C had a 65% relative risk reduction in death or MI as compared to the lowest quintile, with HDL-C quintile demonstrating a significant, inverse predictive effect" - See niacin at Amazon.com and my niacin page.
  • Garlic intake is an independent predictor of endothelial function in patients with ischemic stroke - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(7):600-4 - "ischemic stroke (ISS) ... 125 Chinese patients with prior ISS due to athero-thrombotic disease were recruited from the outpatient clinics during July 2005 to December 2006 ... validated food frequency questionnaire ... Daily garlic intake is an independent predictor of endothelial function in patients with ISS and may play a role in the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic events" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil-enriched diet protects against ischemia by improving angiogenesis, endothelial progenitor cell function and postnatal neovascularization - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Aug;229(2):295-303 - "C57Bl/6 mice were fed a diet containing either 20% fish oil, rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), or 20% corn oil, rich in n-6 PUFAs. After 4 weeks, hindlimb ischemia was surgically induced by femoral artery removal. We found that blood flow recovery was significantly improved in mice fed a fish oil diet compared to those fed a corn oil diet (Doppler flow ratio (DFR) at day 21 after surgery 78 +/- 5 vs. 56 +/- 4; p < 0.01). Clinically, this was associated with a significant reduction of ambulatory impairment and ischemic damage in the fish oil group. At the microvascular level, capillary density was significantly improved in ischemic muscles of mice fed a fish oil diet. This correlated with increased expression of VEGF and eNOS in ischemic muscles, and higher NO concentration in the plasma. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to have an important role for postnatal neovascularization. We found that the number of EPCs was significantly increased in mice fed a fish oil diet. In addition, oxidative stress levels (DCF-DA, DHE) were reduced in EPCs isolated from mice exposed to fish oil, and this was associated with improved EPC functional activities (migration and integration into tubules). In vitro, treatment of EPCs with fish oil resulted in a significant increase of cellular migration. In addition, the secretion of angiogenic growth factors including IL6 and leptin was significantly increased in EPCs exposed to fish oil" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Low Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate is Associated With Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke Among Women - Stroke. 2013 May 23 - "Between 1989 and 1990, 32 826 women without prior stroke in the Nurses' Health Study, an observational cohort, provided blood samples and were followed up for cardiovascular events ... Conditional on matching factors, the lowest DHEAS quartile exhibited a relative risk of 1.30 for ischemic stroke (95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.94), compared with the highest quartile and marginally unchanged when adjusted for confounders (relative risk=1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-2.02). When modeled as a binary variable dichotomized at the lowest quartile, women with low DHEAS (≤the lowest quartile) had a significantly increased multivariable adjusted risk of ischemic stroke compared with those with higher levels (relative risk=1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.92)" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Reducing salt and increasing potassium will have major global health benefits - Science Daily, 4/4/13 - "increased potassium intake reduces blood pressure in adults, with no adverse effects on blood lipids, hormone levels or kidney function. Higher potassium intake was linked with a 24% lower risk of stroke in adults and may also have a beneficial effect on blood pressure in children, but more data is needed" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fiber Intake and Risk of First Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Stroke. 2013 Mar 28 - "Total dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with risk of hemorrhagic plus ischemic stroke, with some evidence of heterogeneity between studies (I2; relative risk per 7 g/day, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.98; I2=59%). Soluble fiber intake, per 4 g/day, was not associated with stroke risk reduction with evidence of low heterogeneity between studies, relative risk 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.01; I2=21%). There were few studies reporting stroke risk in relation to insoluble fiber or fiber from cereals, fruit, or vegetables" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.
  • Urinary and plasma magnesium and risk of ischemic heart disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 13 - "Urinary excretion of magnesium, an indicator of dietary magnesium uptake, might provide more consistent results ... examined 7664 adult participants free of known cardiovascular disease in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study-a prospective population-based cohort study ... median follow-up of 10.5 y ... urinary magnesium excretion had a nonlinear relation with IHD risk (P-curvature = 0.01). The lowest sex-specific quintile (men: <2.93 mmol/24 h; women: <2.45 mmol/24 h) had an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal IHD (multivariable HR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.00) compared with the upper 4 quintiles of urinary magnesium excretion. A similar increase in risk of the lowest quintile was observed for mortality related to IHD (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.61) ... Low urinary magnesium excretion was independently associated with a higher risk of IHD incidence. An increased dietary intake of magnesium, particularly in those with the lowest urinary magnesium, could reduce the risk of IHD" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee and Green Tea May Help Lower Stroke Risk - WebMD, 3/15/13 - "The study looked at the green tea and coffee drinking habits of more than 82,000 Japanese adults, ages 45 to 74, for an average of 13 years ... People who drank at least 1 cup of coffee daily had about a 20% lower risk of stroke compared to those who rarely drank it ... People who drank 2 to 3 cups of green tea daily had a 14% lower risk of stroke, and those who had at least 4 cups had a 20% lower risk, compared to those who rarely drank it ... People who drank at least 1 cup of coffee or 2 cups of green tea daily had a 32% lower risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, compared to those who rarely drank either beverage. Intracerebral hemorrhage happens when a blood vessel bursts and bleeds inside the brain. About 13% of strokes are due to this condition ... Some chemicals in coffee include chlorogenic acid, which is thought to cut stroke risks by lowering the chances of developing type 2 diabetes" - [Abstract] - Note:  Chlorogenic acid is in fruit extracts such as blueberry extract.  See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil component reduces brain damage in newborns, mouse study suggests - Science Daily, 2/20/13 - "the novel use of a component of fish oil reduced brain trauma in newborn mice. The study reports that neonatal brain damage decreased by about 50% when a triglyceride lipid emulsion containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was injected within two hours of the onset of ischemic stroke ... DHA provided protection while EPA did not" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan 30 - "Vegetarians had a 32% lower risk"
  • High dietary fiber intake prevents stroke at a population level - Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec 28 - "In 1647 unselected subjects, dietary fiber intake (DFI) was detected in a 12-year population-based study ... HR for incidence of stroke was lower when the daily intake of soluble fiber was >25 g or that of insoluble fiber was >47 g. In multivariate analyses, using these values as cut-off of DFI, the risk of stroke was lower in those intaking more that the cut-off of soluble (HR 0.31, 0.17-0.55) or insoluble (HR 0.35, 0.19-0.63) fiber. Incidence of stroke was also lower (-50%, p < 0.003 and -46%, p < 0.01, respectively)" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.
  • Total and specific fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of stroke: A prospective study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec 28 - "We prospectively followed 74,961 participants (34,670 women and 40,291 men) who had completed a food frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997 and were free from stroke, coronary heart disease, and cancer at baseline ... 10.2 years of follow-up ... The multivariable relative risk (RR) of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest category of total fruit and vegetable consumption was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.97; P for trend = 0.01). The association was confined to individuals without hypertension (corresponding RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.93; P for trend = 0.01). Among individual fruits and vegetable subgroups, inverse associations with total stroke were observed for apples/pears (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.98; P for trend = 0.02) and green leafy vegetables (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.81-1.04; P for trend = 0.03) ... Particularly consumption of apples and pears and green leafy vegetables was inversely associated with stroke"
  • Red and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 21 - "performed a literature search on PubMed database through June 2012 ... Comparing the highest category of consumption with lowest category, the pooled relative risks (RRs) of total stroke were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.25) for total meat (red and processed meat combined) (n=4), 1.09 (95% CI, 1.01-1.18) for red meat (n=5) and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05-1.25) for processed meat (n=5); the corresponding RRs of ischemic stroke (highest vs lowest quintile) were 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04-1.28), 1.13(95% CI, 1.01-1.25) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.08-1.31). Consumption of red and/or processed meat was not associated with hemorrhagic stroke. In the dose-response analysis, the risk of stroke increased significantly by 10% and 13% for each 100 g per day increment in total and red meat consumption, respectively, and by 11% for each 50 g per day increment in processed meat consumption"
  • Dietary fiber intake and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 17 - "We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to indentify prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to risk of stroke ... The dose-response analysis suggested a 12% (RR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97) reduction in risk of stroke for each 10 g per day increment in dietary fiber intake ... Findings of this meta-analysis indicate a significant inverse dose-response relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of stroke" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.
  • Serum lycopene decreases the risk of stroke in men: A population-based follow-up study - Neurology. 2012 Oct 9;79(15):1540-7 - "The study population consisted of 1,031 Finnish men aged 46-65 years in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor cohort. Serum concentrations of carotenoids retinol and α-tocopherol were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography ... men in the highest quartile of serum lycopene concentrations had 59% and 55% lower risks of ischemic stroke and any stroke, compared with men in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.95, p = 0.036 for any stroke and HR = 0.41; 95% CI 0.17-0.97, p = 0.042 for ischemic stroke). α-Carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and retinol were not related to the risk of strokes" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Tomatoes May Lower Your Risk for Stroke - WebMD, 10/8/12 - "Men who had the highest levels of lycopene in their blood were 55% less likely to have a stroke, compared with men who had the lowest levels of the antioxidant in their blood ... The new study included slightly more than 1,000 men from Finland aged 46 to 65. Researchers measured the level of lycopene in their blood when the study began and followed the men for about 12 years" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Fish consumption and risk of stroke and its subtypes: accumulative evidence from a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3 - "A database was derived from 16 eligible studies (19 cohorts), including 402 127 individuals (10 568 incident cases) with an average 12.8 years of follow-up ... Accumulated evidence generated from this meta-analysis suggests that fish intake may have a protective effect against the risk of stroke, particularly ischemic stroke" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Chocolate: A sweet method for stroke prevention in men? - Science Daily, 8/29/12 - "While other studies have looked at how chocolate may help cardiovascular health, this is the first of its kind study to find that chocolate ... Those eating the highest amount of chocolate had a 17-percent lower risk of stroke, or 12 fewer strokes per 100,000 person-years compared to those who ate no chocolate ... In a larger analysis of five studies that included 4,260 stroke cases, the risk of stroke for individuals in the highest category of chocolate consumption was 19 percent lower compared to non-chocolate consumers. For every increase in chocolate consumption of 50 grams per week, or about a quarter cup of chocolate chips, the risk of stroke decreased by about 14 percent ... The beneficial effect of chocolate consumption on stroke may be related to the flavonoids in chocolate" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.  I'm still betting it covers the flavonoids without the calories or the headache I get from chocolate.
  • Low Vitamin D in Diet Linked to Increased Stroke - Medscape, 6/20/12 - "Study participants included 7385 Japanese-American men who enrolled in the Honolulu Heart Program, a long-running, prospective, population-based observational study, between 1965 and 1968. They were 45 and 68 years old at the baseline examination and were followed through 1999 for stroke ... Age-adjusted rates of stroke were significantly higher in the lowest dietary vitamin D quartile (0 - 1.12 µg/day) compared with the highest quartile (4.13 - 211.60 µg/day)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Dietary Vitamin D Predicts 34-Year Incident Stroke: The Honolulu Heart Program - Stroke. 2012 May 24 - "The Honolulu Heart Program is a prospective population-based cohort study of 8006 Japanese-American men in Hawaii who were 45 to 68 years old at the baseline examination in 1965 to 1968 ... 34 years of follow-up ... Age-adjusted rates of incident stroke were significantly higher in the lowest dietary vitamin D quartile compared with the highest (all stroke: 6.38 versus 5.14 per 1000 person-years follow-up, P=0.030; thromboembolic stroke: 4.36 versus 3.30, P=0.033). Using Cox regression, adjusting for age, total kilocalories, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, pack-years smoking, physical activity index, serum cholesterol, and alcohol intake, those in the lowest quartile had a significantly increased risk of incident stroke (all stroke hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47; P=0.038; thromboembolic stroke hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01-1.59; P=0.044) with the highest as the reference. We found no significant associations between dietary vitamin D and hemorrhagic stroke" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fibre intake and ischaemic heart disease mortality: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heart study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 23 - "average follow-up of 11.5 years ... The calibrated intake of dietary fibre was inversely related with IHD mortality; each 10 g/day was associated with a 15% lower risk (relative risk (RR) 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.99, P=0.031). There was no difference in the associations of the individual food sources of dietary fibre with the risk of IHD mortality; RR for each 5 g/day higher cereal fibre intake was 0.91 (CI: 0.82-1.01), RR for each 2.5 g/day fruit fibre intake was 0.94 (CI: 0.88-1.01) and RR for each 2.5 g/day vegetable fibre intake was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.76-1.07).  Conclusion: A higher consumption of dietary fibre is associated with a lower risk of fatal IHD with no clear difference in the association with IHD for fibre from cereals, fruits or vegetables"
  • Citicoline Enhances Neuroregenerative Processes After Experimental Stroke in Rats - Stroke. 2012 May 10 - "Animals treated with citicoline showed a significantly better neurological outcome at Days 10, 21, and 28 after ischemia, which could not be attributed to differences in infarct volumes or glial scar formation. However, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, subventricular zone, and peri-infarct area was significantly increased by citicoline. Furthermore, enhanced neurological outcome after citicoline treatment was associated with a shift toward excitation in the perilesional cortex" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonoid compound found in foods and supplements may prevent the formation of blood clots, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/8/12 - "It's not always fully appreciated that the majority of Americans will die as the result of a blood clot in either their heart or their brain ... The study focused on protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) which is found in all cells. Investigators in BIDMC's Division of Hemostasis and Thrombosis had previously shown that PDI is rapidly secreted from both platelets and endothelial cells during thrombosis, when a clot forms in a blood vessel, and that inhibition of PDI could block thrombosis in a mouse model ... Among the more than 5,000 compounds that were screened, quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin) emerged as the most potent agent ... Surprisingly, studies of the rutin molecule demonstrated that the same part of the molecule that provides rutin with its ability to inhibit PDI also prevents the compound from entering cells ... "That finding explained how this compound can be both a potent inhibitor of PDI and a safe food supplement," ... Rutin proved to be the most potently anti-thrombotic compound that we ever tested in this model ... This discovery suggests that a single agent can treat and prevent both types of clots" - See rutin products at iHerb.
  • Levothyroxine Treatment of Subclinical Hypothyroidism, Fatal and Nonfatal Cardiovascular Events, and Mortality - Arch Intern Med. 2012 Apr 23 - "Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) ... We used the United Kingdom General Practitioner Research Database to identify individuals with new SCH (serum thyrotropin levels of 5.01-10.0 mIU/L and normal free thyroxine levels) recorded during 2001 with outcomes analyzed until March 2009 ... Treatment of SCH with levothyroxine was associated with fewer IHD events in younger individuals, but this was not evident in older people" - See thyroid hormones at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Low-Fat Dairy May Help Lower Stroke Risk - WebMD, 4/19/12 - "The study researchers, who tracked the diets of nearly 75,000 men and women over 10 years, found that those who ate the most low-fat dairy foods and beverages were 12% less likely to have a stroke than those who ate the least ... The most plausible explanation is that low-fat dairy food lowers blood pressure ... consuming full-fat dairy products such as whole milk was not associated with risk of stroke ... those who ate a daily average of four servings of low-fat cheeses, yogurts, and milk significantly lowered their risk of stroke compared to those who did not include any low-fat dairy in their diet"
  • Prospective observational study of isoflavone and the risk of stroke recurrence: potential clinical implications beyond vascular function -J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16(4):383-8 - "Stroke recurrence and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were documented. Brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution ultrasound. Isoflavone intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Results: Median isoflavone intake was 6.9 (range: 2.1 - 14.5) mg/day. Isoflavone intake was independently associated with increased FMD (Pearson R=0.23, p=0.012). At 30 months, there were 10 stroke recurrence and 12 MACE. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with isoflavone intake higher than median value had significantly longer median stroke recurrence-free survival time (19.0 [range: 10.4 - 27.6] mth versus 5.0 [range: 4.1 - 5.9] mth, p=0.021) and MACE-free survival time (19.0 [range: 10.4 - 27.6] mth versus 4.0 [range: 2.4 - 5.6] mth, p=0.013). Using multivariate cox regression, higher isoflavone intake was an independent predictor for lower risk of stroke recurrence (hazards ratio 0.18 [95%CI: 0.03 - 0.95], risk reduction 82%, p=0.043) and MACE (hazards ratio 0.16 [95%CI: 0.03 - 0.84], risk reduction 84%, p=0.030)" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Eating citrus fruit may lower women's stroke risk - Science Daily, 2/23/12 - "Women who ate high amounts of the compound had a 19 percent lower risk of ischemic stroke than women who consumed the least amount"
  • Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: The JACC study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jan 28 - "Dietary magnesium intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered between 1988 and 1990 ... median 14.7-year follow-up ... Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men and with mortality from total and ischemic strokes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and total cardiovascular disease in women. The multivariable hazard ratio (95% CI) for the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of magnesium intake after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factor and sodium intake was 0.49 (0.26-0.95), P for trend=0.074 for hemorrhagic stroke in men, 0.68 (0.48-0.96), P for trend=0.010 for total stroke, 0.47 (0.29-0.77), P for trend<0.001 for ischemic stroke, 0.50 (0.30-0.84), P for trend=0.005 for coronary heart disease, 0.50 (0.28-0.87), P for trend=0.002 for heart failure and 0.64 (0.51-0.80), P for trend<0.001 for total cardiovascular disease in women" - See Jarrow Formulas, Magnesium Optimizer Citrate, 100 Easy-Solv Tablets at iHerb.
  • Dietary Protein Sources and the Risk of Stroke in Men and Women - Stroke. 2011 Dec 29 - "During 26 and 22 years of follow-up in women and men, respectively, we documented 2633 and 1397 strokes, respectively. In multivariable analyses, higher intake of red meat was associated with an elevated risk of stroke, whereas a higher intake of poultry was associated with a lower risk. In models estimating the effects of exchanging different protein sources, compared with 1 serving/day of red meat, 1 serving/day of poultry was associated with a 27% (95% CI, 12%-39%) lower risk of stroke, nuts with a 17% (95% CI. 4%-27%) lower risk, fish with a 17% (95% CI, 0%-30%) lower risk, low-fat dairy with an 11% (95% CI, 5%-17%) lower risk, and whole-fat dairy with a 10% (95% CI, 4%-16%) lower risk. We did not see significant associations with exchanging legumes or eggs for red meat"
  • Dietary magnesium intake and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 28 - "Seven prospective studies, with 6477 cases of stroke and 241,378 participants were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. We observed a modest but statistically significant inverse association between magnesium intake and risk of stroke. An intake increment of 100 mg Mg/d was associated with an 8% reduction in risk of total stroke (combined RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97), without heterogeneity among studies (P = 0.66, I(2) = 0%). Magnesium intake was inversely associated with risk of ischemic stroke (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.96) but not intracerebral hemorrhage (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.10) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (RR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.14)" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Vegetables, fruits, grains reduce stroke risk in women - Science Daily, 12/1/11 - "They used a standard database to determine participants' total antioxidant capacity (TAC), which measures the free radical reducing capacity of all antioxidants in the diet and considers synergistic effects between substances ... For women with no history of cardiovascular disease who had the highest TAC, fruits and vegetables contributed about 50 percent of TAC ... Other contributors were whole grains (18 percent), tea (16 percent) and chocolate (5 percent) ... Women without cardiovascular disease with the highest levels of dietary TAC had a statistically significant 17 percent lower risk of total stroke compared to those in the lowest quintile ... Women with history of cardiovascular disease in the highest three quartiles of dietary TAC had a statistically significant 46 percent to 57 percent lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke compared with those in the lowest quartile"
  • Fish Consumption and Ischemic stroke in Southern Sweden - Nutr J. 2011 Oct 11;10(1):109 - "Stroke risk decreased with fat fish intake ([greater than or equal to] 1/week versus <1/month) in both men and women; adjusted pooled Odds Ratio (OR) 0.69, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.54-0.89. However, stroke risk for women increased with intake of lean fish; adjusted OR 1.63 (95% CI: 1.17-2.28), whereas there was no association with men's lean fish intake; adjusted OR 0.97(95% CI: 0.73-1.27). Fish intake was self-reported retrospectively, yielding uncertain exposure assessment and potential recall bias. The findings regarding lean fish would be explained by recall bias if an individual's inclination to report lean fish consumption depended on both disease status and sex. The fact that the association between fat fish intake and stroke was similar in men and women does not support such a differential in recall ... The results suggest fat fish intake to decrease ischemic stroke risk and lean fish intake to increase women's stroke risk. The inconsistent relationship between fish intake and stroke risk reported in previous studies is further stressed by the results of this study"
  • Oxytocin Mediates Social Neuroprotection After Cerebral Ischemia - Stroke. 2011 Sep 29 - "In the present study, adult male mice were socially isolated (housed individually) or socially paired (housed with an ovariectomized female); social pairing increased hypothalamic OT gene expression. To determine whether a causal relationship exists between increased OT and improved stroke outcome, mice were treated with exogenous OT or OT receptor antagonist beginning 1 week before induction of experimental stroke via middle cerebral artery occlusion ... Relative to social isolation, social housing attenuated infarct size, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress following experimental stroke; the neuroprotective effect of social housing was eliminated by receptor antagonist treatment. In contrast, administration of OT to socially isolated mice reproduced the neuroprotection conferred by social housing. We further report evidence for a direct suppressive action of OT on cultured microglia, which is a key instigator in the development of neuroinflammation after cerebral ischemia" - See Oxytocin 6x5iu tablets at International Antiaging Systems.
  • Marine, but not plant, omega-3s may boost heart health for women: Study - Nutra USA, 9/7/11 - "High intakes of long chain omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) was associated with a 38% reduction in the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women, but not men ... Much attention has been paid to the conversion of ALA to the longer chain EPA, with many stating that this conversion is very small. Indeed, between 8 and 20 per cent of ALA is reportedly converted to EPA in humans, and between 0.5 and 9 per cent of ALA is converted to DHA ... high intakes of long chain omega-3s ranging from 0.45 to 11.2 grams per day were associated with a 38% reduction in IHD risk for women only" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary {alpha}-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and n-3 long-chain PUFA and risk of ischemic heart disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 24 - "α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3)  ... Four hundred seventy-one cases of IHD were observed during a median follow-up period of 23.3 y. Higher intake of ALA was not significantly associated with decreased risk of IHD among women or men. Although the HR of IHD was stepwise decreased with increasing ALA intake in men [0.84 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.14) in the medium compared with the lowest tertile (reference) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.24) in the highest compared with the lowest tertile], this change was far from significant (P-trend: 0.39). No evidence of effect modification by n-3 LC-PUFA or LA was observed. High n-3 LC-PUFA intake, in comparison with low intake, was inversely associated with risk of IHD; this trend was significant in women (P = 0.04; HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.97) but not in men (P = 0.15; HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.51, 1.06). No associations were observed between intake of LA and risk of IHD" - Note:  α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) is the form of omega-3 found in things like vegetable and flax seeds, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) is what's in most vegetable oils like corn and soy. - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3s reduce stroke severity, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/24/11 - "the extent of brain damage following a stroke was reduced by 25% in mice that consumed DHA type omega-3s daily ... the effects of stroke were less severe in mice that had been fed a diet rich in DHA for three months than in mice fed a control diet. In mice from the DHA group, they saw a reduction in the concentrations of molecules that stimulate tissue inflammation and, conversely, a larger quantity of molecules that prevent the activation of cell death ... This is the first convincing demonstration of the powerful anti-inflammatory effect of DHA in the brain ... This protective effect results from the substitution of molecules in the neuronal membrane: DHA partially replaces arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid known for its inflammatory properties ... this anti-inflammatory effect is likely transferable to humans" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Accumulation of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Brain Attenuates Acute Immune Response and Development of Postischemic Neuronal Damage - Stroke. 2011 Aug 18 - "We show that a 3-month DHA treatment prevented microglial activation after ischemic injury, reduced the ischemic lesion size, and increased levels of the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl-2 in the brain. Additional analysis revealed a significant decrease in the levels of COX2 and IL-1β, but not in other proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, long-term DHA supplementation significantly changed the n-3:n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in the brain ... Collectively, these data indicate that diet-induced accumulation of DHA in the brain protects against postischemic inflammation and injury. Because DHA is widely available at low cost and has an excellent safety profile, our data suggest that increased DHA intake may provide protection against acute immune response/brain damage in ischemic stroke" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Less salt, less strokes, says new research - Science Daily, 8/11/11 - "a reduction of 3 grams of salt intake per day would prevent up to 8,000 stroke deaths and up to 12,000 coronary heart disease deaths per year in the UK ... A similar reduction in the USA would result in up to 120,000 fewer cases of coronary heart disease, up to 66,000 strokes and up to 99,000 heart attacks annually. It would also save up to $24 billion annually in health care costs"
  • Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium Intakes and Stroke Risk (printer-friendly) - Medscape, 8/2/11 - "In conclusion, findings from this prospective cohort study of women suggest that potassium and magnesium intakes are inversely associated with risk of cerebral infarction among women with hypertension. We observed no protective effect of calcium intake on stroke risk"
  • 'Gifted' natural vitamin E tocotrienol protects brain against stroke in 3 ways - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "This is one of the first studies to provide evidence that a safe nutrient - a vitamin - can alter microRNA biology to produce a favorable disease outcome ... Here, a natural nutritional product is simultaneously acting on multiple targets to help prevent stroke-induced brain damage. That is a gifted molecule" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Preventive use of one form of natural vitamin E may reduce stroke damage - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "Vitamin E occurs naturally in eight different forms, and this work led by Ohio State University scientists is focused on the tocotrienol form, also known as TCT. The commonly known form of vitamin E belongs to a variety called tocopherols. TCT is not abundant in the American diet but is available as a nutritional supplement. It is a common component of a typical Southeast Asian diet ... In the study, 24 hours after a stroke, lesions indicating brain tissue damage were about 80 percent smaller in dogs that received supplementation than were the lesions in dogs that received no intervention. Imaging tests showed that the treated animals' brains had better blood flow at the stroke site as compared to untreated dogs' brains, a difference attributed to tiny collateral blood vessels' ability to improve circulation in the brain when blood flow stopped in more substantial vessels ... In the study, 20 dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: those receiving a placebo pill, and those receiving 200 milligrams of mixed tocotrienols ... Additional examination of the affected brain tissue showed that the TCT supplementation appeared to support arteriogenesis, a process by which collateral arteries remodel themselves into larger vessels so they can bypass the site of blockage" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Olive Oil Linked to Reduced Stroke Risk - WebMD. 6/15/11 - "seniors who regularly used this healthy monounsaturated fat had a 41% lower risk of stroke compared to their counterparts who never used olive oil ... So what exactly is it about olive oil that may lower stroke risk? There are several theories, she says. It may be that people choose olive oil over saturated, artery-clogging fats. “Moreover, previous research found that the polyphenols from virgin olive oil account specifically for its ability to lower oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)” or bad cholesterol. High cholesterol levels are a known risk factor for stroke ... Olive oil is a healthy fat and it can reduce cholesterol and inflammation, and has been shown to help reduce the incidence of heart disease" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.  See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Link between phosphate intake and heart disease demonstrated in new study - Science Daily, 6/7/11 - "cholesterol deposits in the wall of arteries are increased following a higher phosphate diet. This leads to narrowing of the arteries, which is the cause of most heart attacks and strokes ... Food high in phosphate includes biscuits, cakes, sweets, dairy products and meats such as offal and veal" - Note:  They left out soda which is high in phosphate.
  • Coffee drinking linked to reduced stroke risk in women - Science Daily, 3/10/11 - "Drinking more than a cup of coffee a day was associated with a 22 percent to 25 percent lower risk of stroke, compared with those who drank less ... The food frequency questionnaire made no distinction between regular and decaffeinated coffee but decaffeinated coffee consumption in the Swedish population is low ... Potential ways that coffee drinking might reduce the risk of stroke include weakening subclinical inflammation, reducing oxidative stress and improving insulin sensitivity"
  • Boost Potassium Intake to Cut Stroke by 20% - Medscape, 2/28/11 - "Potassium intake may be increased by well-described dietary changes, mainly an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, as recommended by all guidelines to prevent vascular diseases ... those that are very rich in potassium--including bananas, tomatoes, oranges, apricots, and most legumes--is probably best ... The researchers identified 11 studies on the association between habitual dietary potassium intake and incidence of vascular events over the past 30 years ... In the pooled analysis, a 1.64-g (42 mmol)/day higher potassium intake--which Strazzullo says is equivalent to around three pieces of fruit high in potassium--was associated with a 21% lower risk of stroke (risk ratio 0.79; p=0.0007), with a trend toward lower risk of CHD and total CVD that attained statistical significance after the exclusion of a single cohort (RR 0.93; p=0.03 and RR 0.74; p=0.0037)" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality from ischaemic heart disease: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heart study - Eur Heart J. 2011 Jan 18 - "average of 8.4 years ... Participants consuming at least eight portions (80 g each) of fruits and vegetables a day had a 22% lower risk of fatal IHD [relative risk (RR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.95] compared with those consuming fewer than three portions a day. After calibration of fruit and vegetable intake to account for differences in dietary assessment between the participating centres, a one portion (80 g) increment in fruit and vegetable intake was associated with a 4% lower risk of fatal IHD (RR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92-1.00, P for trend = 0.033). Conclusion Results from this large observational study suggest that a higher intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of IHD mortality. Whether this association is causal and, if so, the biological mechanism(s) by which fruits and vegetables operate to lower IHD risks remains unclear"
  • Immunomodulatory effect of Hawthorn extract in an experimental stroke model - J Neuroinflammation. 2010 Dec 30;7(1):97 - "middle cerebral artery occlusion-(MCAO) induced stroke ... In summary, Hawthorn extract helped alleviate pro-inflammatory immune responses associated with I/R-induced injury, boosted IL-10 levels, and increased Foxp3-positive Tregs in the brain, which may have aided in suppression of activated inflammatory cells. Such treatment also minimizes apoptotic cell death by influencing STAT-3 phosphorylation and Bcl-xL expression in the brain. Taken together, the immunomodulatory effect of Hawthorn extract may play a critical role in the neuroprotection observed in this MCAO-induced stroke model" - See hawthorn products at Amazon.com.
  • Three Whole-Grain Portions Daily May Lower Cardiovascular Risk - Medscape, 1/4/11 - "Daily consumption of 3 portions of whole-grain foods (WGF) is linked to lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy, middle-aged people mainly by lowering blood pressure (BP) ... assigned to continue the refined diet (control) or to switch to a whole-wheat diet or to a whole-wheat plus oat diet, for 12 weeks ... Compared with the control group, the WGF groups had a significant reduction in systolic BP (6 mm Hg) and a significant reduction (3 mm Hg) in pulse pressure ... The observed decrease in systolic blood pressure could decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and stroke by ≥ 15% and 25%, respectively"
  • Fish consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 29 - "Fish consumption was significantly inversely associated with risk of total stroke but not cerebral infarction or hemorrhagic stroke. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of fish consumption (<1.0 servings of fish/wk), the multivariable RR of total stroke for women in the highest quintile (>3.0 servings of fish/wk) was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.98; P for trend = 0.049). Consumption of lean fish but not of other fish types was inversely associated with risk of stroke. The multivariable RR of total stroke was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.93; P for trend = 0.07) for ≥3 servings of lean fish/wk compared with that for no consumption"
  • Docosahexaenoic acid: brain accretion and roles in neuroprotection after brain hypoxia and ischemia - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Dec 21 - "DHA is a major n-3 fatty acid in the mammalian central nervous system and enhances synaptic activities in neuronal cells ... DHA attenuates brain necrosis after hypoxic ischemic injury, principally by modulating membrane biophysical properties and maintaining integrity in functions between presynaptic and postsynaptic areas, resulting in better stabilizing intracellular ion balance in hypoxic-ischemic insult. Additionally, DHA alleviates brain apoptosis, by inducing antiapoptotic activities such as decreasing responses to reactive oxygen species, upregulating antiapoptotic protein expression, downregulating apoptotic protein expression, and maintaining mitochondrial integrity and function" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Citicoline in Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia After Stroke - Stroke. 2010 Dec 16 - "Stroke doubles the risk of dementia and is a major contributor to vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia ... Citicoline has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in acute stroke and has been shown to improve cognition in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease and in some patients with Alzheimer disease. A recent trial lasting 6 months in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke showed that citicoline prevented cognitive decline after stroke with significant improvement of temporal orientation, attention, and executive function. Experimentally, citicoline exhibits neuroprotective effects and enhances neural repair. Citicoline appears to be a safe and promising alternative to improve stroke recovery and could be indicated in patients with vascular cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease with significant cerebrovascular disease" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Whey supplements lower blood pressure: Low-cost protein gets big results in people with elevated blood pressure - Science Daily, 12/8/10 - "Beverages supplemented by whey-based protein can significantly reduce elevated blood pressure, reducing the risk of stroke and heart disease ... daily doses of commonly available whey brought a more than six-point reduction in the average blood pressure of men and women with elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressures ... blood-pressure reductions like those seen by Fluegel can reduce cardiovascular disease and bring a 35 to 40 percent reduction in fatal strokes" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil component given up to 5 hours after stroke limits brain damage, study finds - Science Daily, 11/8/10 - "DHA has potent anti-inflammatory effects. Since inflammation is at the root of many chronic diseases, DHA treatment has been widely demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with coronary heart disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, sepsis, cancer, dry eye disease, and age-related macular degeneration ... To determine how DHA might be effective in stroke treatment and recovery, the LSUHSC research team administered either DHA or saline intravenously at 3, 4, 5, and 6 hours after the onset of stroke. MRIs showed that neurological deficits were reduced by the administration of DHA. DHA treatment reduced swelling and facilitated neurobehavioral recovery. The volume of the area of destroyed tissue was reduced by an average of 40% when DHA was administered at 3 hours, 66% at 4 hours, and 59% at 5 hours. Further analysis showed it triggered production of Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a naturally occurring neuroprotective molecule in the brain derived from DHA ... only did DHA treatment salvage brain tissue that would have died, its repair mechanisms rendered some areas indistinguishable from normal tissue by 7 days" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Frequent chocolate consumption could reduce CHD risk, US study - Nutra USA, 9/21/10 - "dark chocolate intake was associated with a 39 per cent lower risk of myocardial infarction and stroke combined ... In the fully adjusted model, consumption of chocolate more than five times a week was associated with 57 per cent lower prevalent CHD compared with subjects who did not consume chocolate ... Exclusion of subjects with prevalent diabetes and those who were on a weight loss diet made the association stronger ... the inability to distinguish the different types of chocolate might have led to an underestimation of the true association between cocoa/chocolate polyphenol consumption and CHD in the study"
  • Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Confers Long-Term Neuroprotection Against Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Through Anti-Inflammatory Actions - Stroke. 2010 Aug 12 - "neonatal hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) ... : Female rats were treated with or without an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-enriched diet from the second day of pregnancy until 14 days after parturition ... Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation significantly reduced brain damage and improved long-term neurological outcomes up to 5 weeks after neonatal H/I injury. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in microglia both in an in vivo model of H/I and in in vitro microglial cultures subjected to inflammatory stimuli by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation and subsequent release of inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids confer potent neuroprotection against neonatal H/I brain injury through, at least partially, suppressing a microglial-mediated inflammatory response" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • How dark chocolate may guard against brain injury from stroke - Science Daily, 5/5/10
  • How red wine may shield brain from stroke damage: researchers discover pathway in mice for resveratrol's apparent protective effect - Science Daily, 4/21/10 - "Two hours after feeding mice a single modest dose of resveratrol, a compound found in the skins and seeds of red grapes, the scientists induced an ischemic stroke by essentially cutting off blood supply to the animals' brains. They found that the animals that had preventively ingested the resveratrol suffered significantly less brain damage than the ones that had not been given the compound ... his study suggests that resveratrol increases levels of an enzyme (heme oxygenase) already known to shield nerve cells in the brain from damage. When the stroke hits, the brain is ready to protect itself because of elevated enzyme levels. In mice that lacked the enzyme, the study found, resveratrol had no significant protective effect and their brain cells died after a stroke" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B3 shows early promise in treatment of stroke - Science Daily, 2/24/10 - "An early study suggests that vitamin B3 or niacin, a common water-soluble vitamin, may help improve neurological function after stroke ... Niacin is known to be the most effective medicine in current clinical use for increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), which helps those fatty deposits ... Niacin essentially re-wires the brain which has very exciting potential for use in humans" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonols may slash stroke risk in women: Study - Nutra USA, 2/9/10 - "the researchers noted that a high intake of flavonols, predominantly from tea in the Dutch population and from tea, onions, apples, and broccoli in US studies, was associated with a 20 per cent reduction in stroke risk" - [Abstract]
  • Dietary Flavonol Intake May Lower Stroke Risk in Men and Women - J Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "A high intake of flavonols compared with a low intake was inversely associated with nonfatal and fatal stroke with a pooled relative risk of 0.80"
  • How one form of natural vitamin E protects brain after stroke - Science Daily, 1/11/10 - "Our research suggests that the different forms of natural vitamin E have distinct functions. The relatively poorly studied tocotrienol form of natural vitamin E targets specific pathways to protect against neural cell death and rescues the brain after stroke injury ... Vitamin E occurs naturally in eight different forms. The best-known form of vitamin E belongs to a variety called tocopherols. The form of vitamin E in this study, tocotrienol or TCT, is not abundant in the American diet but is available as a nutritional supplement. It is a common component of a typical Southeast Asian diet" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Has a Role in Heart Risk - WebMD, 1/7/10 - "Darker-skinned people produce less vitamin D from the sun than those with lighter skin, and studies show that blacks are far more likely to have lower levels of the vitamin than whites ... Several recent studies also suggest that low levels of vitamin D are associated with an increased risk for heart attack and stroke ... Compared to everyone else in the study, the quarter with the lowest vitamin D levels had a 40% higher risk of dying from heart attacks, strokes, and other heart-related events ... Blacks were 38% more likely to die of cardiovascular causes than non-Hispanic whites, and the researchers concluded that most of this excess was related to their lower vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Inadequate levels of vitamin D may significantly increase risk of stroke, heart disease and death - Science Daily, 11/16/09 - "a new study by researchers at the Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center in Salt Lake City suggests that Vitamin D contributes to a strong and healthy heart as well -- and that inadequate levels of the vitamin may significantly increase a person's risk of stroke, heart disease, and death, even among people who've never had heart disease ... patients with very low levels of Vitamin D were 77 percent more likely to die, 45 percent more likely to develop coronary artery disease, and 78 percent were more likely to have a stroke than patients with normal levels. Patients with very low levels of Vitamin D were also twice as likely to develop heart failure than those with normal Vitamin D levels ... Recently, studies have also linked Vitamin D to the regulation of many other bodily functions including blood pressure, glucose control, and inflammation, all of which are important risk factors related to heart disease" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin May Prevent Clogged Arteries - WebMD, 7/20/09 - "The current study suggests curcumin may thwart the development of atherosclerosis, or clogged arteries, a key risk factor for heart attacks and strokes ... Researchers in France fed 20 mice a diet supplemented with curcumin or a comparison diet not supplemented with curcumin. After 16 weeks, mice fed on the curcumin-based diet had a 26% reduction in fatty deposits in their arteries compared to mice on the comparison diet ... In addition, curcumin appeared to alter the genetic signaling involved in plaque buildup at the molecular level" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Low HDL-cholesterol is associated with the risk of stroke in elderly diabetic individuals: Changes in the risk for atherosclerotic diseases at various ages - Diabetes Care. 2009 Jun 9 - "IHD and CVD occurred in 1.59% and 1.43% of participants over 2-year period. The relation of lower HDL-cholesterol and/or higher LDL-cholesterol to occurrence of IHD in subjects<65 y.o. was significant. Lower HDL-cholesterol was also significantly related to CVD in subjects >=65y.o. and especially those>=75 y.o. (n=1016; odds ratio, 0.511*; 95%CI, 0.239- 0.918, *P<0.05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis with onset of CVD as a dependent variable showed same result. Conclusion: Lower HDL-cholesterol is an important risk factor for not only IHD but also CVD, especially in the diabetic elderly" - See niacin at Amazon.com (niacin increases HDL).
  • Low magnesium levels may increase stroke risk - Nutra USA, 4/22/09 - "Blood levels of magnesium were negatively associated with the risk of stroke, they said, with levels of 1.6, 1.7, and 1.8 mEq/L linked to a 22, 30, and 25 per cent reduction in stroke, respectively, compared to 1.5 mEq/L "
  • Green, Black Tea Can Reduce Stroke Risk, Research Suggests - Science Daily, 3/4/09 - "By drinking three cups of tea a day, the risk of a stroke was reduced by 21 percent. It didn't matter if it was green or black tea ... the effect appears to be linear ... researchers have speculated that the antioxidant epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) or the amino acid theanine may be what helps. Antioxidants are believed to help prevent coronary artery disease ... we do know that theanine is nearly 100-percent absorbed .... It gets across the blood-brain barrier and it looks a lot like a molecule that's very similar to glutamate, and glutamate release is associated with stroke" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com and theanine at Amazon.com.
  • B Vitamins May Cut Stroke Risk - WebMD, 2/20/09 - "people who took the vitamins were 25% less likely to suffer a stroke over the study period than those who took placebo"
  • Coffee Cuts Stroke Risk in Women - WebMD, 2/16/09 - "women who drank four or more cups of coffee a day had a 20% reduced risk of stroke compared to women who had less than one cup per month. Drinking two to three cups per day reduced risk by 19%. Drinking a cup five to seven times a week reduced risk by 12%"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Increases Risk of Cardiovascular Disease - Doctor's Guide, 12/10/08 - "a review article published in the December 9 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology ... patients with vitamin D levels below 15 ng/mL were twice as likely to experience a heart attack, stroke, or other CV event within the next 5 years compared with those with higher levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Too Little Vitamin D Puts Heart at Risk - WebMD, 12/1/08 - "people with low vitamin D levels were twice as likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or other heart-related event during follow-up, compared with those with higher vitamin D levels ... Sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 blocks approximately 99% of vitamin D synthesis by the skin ... The safe upper limit of vitamin D consumption is 10,000 IU per day ... Vitamin D supplements are available in two different forms: Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3. Although both appear effective in raising vitamin D blood levels, Vitamin D3 supplements appear to result in a longer-lasting boost" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Ginkgo Extract May Reduce Stroke Damage - Medscape, 10/10/08 - "They found that mice pretreated with EGb761 had smaller brain infarcts and less neurologic dysfunction than their untreated counterparts ... Treatment with EGb761 after the stroke (4.5 hours post-reperfusion) was also associated with a significant reduction in infarct size" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Isoflavone Dietary Supplement Improves Functioning Of Arteries In Stroke Patients - Science Daily, 9/23/08 - "A dietary supplement containing isoflavone – a chemical found in soybeans, chickpeas, legumes and clovers – can improve artery function in stroke patients ... 12 weeks of isoflavone supplement, at a dose of 80 mg a day, significantly improved brachial FMD and, therefore, vascular endothelial dysfunction in patients who had suffered an ischaemic stroke (a stroke caused by blood clots or other obstructions)"
  • Indian Spice In Turmeric Reduces Size Of Hemorrhagic Stroke - Science Daily, 9/22/08 - "This active ingredient of the Indian curry spice, turmeric, not only lowers your chances of getting cancer and Alzheimer's disease, but may reduce the size of a hemorrhagic stroke ... significantly decreases the size of a blood clot" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish May Boost Memory, Prevent Stroke - WebMD, 8/4/08 - "Researchers reporting in tomorrow’s issue of Neurology have found that older adults whose diets include three or more weekly helpings of baked or broiled tuna and other fish high in omega-3 fatty acids are less likely to develop "silent" brain lesions that can lead to cognitive decline and vascular stroke" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Independent Predictor of Fatal Stroke - Medscape, 7/24/08 - "Low levels of vitamin D appear to be an independent predictor of fatal stroke — a finding that suggests supplementation may be a promising approach for stroke prevention" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Predict Stroke in Patients Referred to Coronary Angiography - Stroke. 2008 Jul 17 - "Low levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D are independently predictive for fatal strokes, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation is a promising approach in the prevention of strokes" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fiber May Predict Stroke Severity and Outcome - Medscape, 2/29/08 - "Higher dietary-fiber intake may result in less severe stroke and improve stroke outcomes"
  • Fruit, Vegetable Eaters Have Fewer Strokes - WebMD, 1/9/08 - "Specifically, vitamin C levels may prove to be a good predictive indicator of stroke risk, independent of known risk factors such as age, smoking history, blood pressure, and cholesterol, they write"
  • Plasma vitamin C concentrations predict risk of incident stroke over 10 y in 20 649 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk prospective population study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):64-9 - "persons in the top quartiles of baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations had a 42% lower risk (relative risk: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.78) than did those in the bottom quartile"
  • Vitamin C linked to lower stroke risk: study - WebMD, 1/7/08 - "The highest average blood levels of vitamin C (greater than 66 micromoles per litre) were associated with a 42 per cent lower risk of stroke, compared to the lowest average blood levels (less than 41 micromoles per litre)" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Folic Acid and Stroke--Finally Some Good News - Medscape, 1/3/08 - "the results of this trial were notable for a 25% relative reduction in the risk for stroke among participants receiving folate and B vitamins vs placebo"
  • Not Enough 'Good' Cholesterol Makes It Harder To Recover From Stroke - Science Daily, 11/26/07 - "People with low levels of HDL, high levels of homocysteine, and diabetes are twice as likely as those without such problems to have poorer cognitive function and greater disability after stroke"
  • Intensive Nutritional Supplementation After Stroke Improves Patient Outcomes - Doctor's Guide, 10/11/07
  • Carnosine Is Neuroprotective Against Permanent Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice - Stroke. 2007 Oct 4 - "Carnosine is neuroprotective in focal cerebral ischemia and appears to influence deleterious pathological processes that are activated after the onset of ischemia" - See l-carnosine products at iHerb.
  • B Vitamin Plasma Levels and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in a German Cohort - Stroke. 2007 Sep 20 - "Our data suggest that low vitamin B12 plasma levels, particularly in combination with low folate levels, increase the risk of cerebral ischemia. This effect may be mediated at least partly through elevations of homocysteine levels"
  • Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis - Lancet. 2007 Jun 2;369(9576):1876-82 - "Folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stroke by 18%"
  • Folic acid 'reduces stroke risks' - BBC News, 5/31/07 - "They found the vitamin reduced the relative risk of stroke by an average of 18% ... An even greater risk reduction - 30% - was seen when the treatment lasted more than 36 months" - See iHerb folic acid products.
  • Folic Acid May Lower Stroke Risk - WebMD, 5/31/07
  • New Stroke Guidelines Underscore Importance of Aspirin for Women - Doctor's Guide, 5/17/06 - "aspirin was associated with a 17% reduction in the overall risk of stroke (P = 0.04) and a 24% reduction in the risk of ischemic stroke ... The guidelines do not recommend the use of aspirin for prevention of a first stroke in men"
  • Mittens May Aid Stroke Recovery - WebMD, 2/21/06
  • Fruits, Veggies Cut Stroke Risk - WebMD, 1/26/06 - "People who reported eating more than five daily servings of fruits and vegetables had the lowest stroke risk. They were 26% less likely to have a stroke over 13 years than those who ate fruits and vegetables fewer than three times daily"
  • Level of Activity Key to Cutting Stroke Risk - WebMD, 8/4/05 - "Being moderately to highly active during leisure time can slash stroke risk ... This means vigorous activity (like running, swimming, or heavy gardening) for more than three hours a week"
  • Antioxidant-rich Diets Reduce Brain Damage From Stroke In Rats - Science Daily, 7/1/05 - "rats fed diets preventatively enriched with blueberries, spinach or an algae known as spirulina experienced less brain cell loss and improved recovery of movement following a stroke"
  • Recovering from a Stroke? - Dr. Weil, 4/14/05
  • A New Paradigm for Stroke Prevention - Life Extension Magazine, 4/05
  • Fruits, Vegetables May Cut Stroke Risk - WebMD, 6/3/04
  • Best Way to Avoid a Stroke? - Dr. Weil, 2/26/04 - "Can tocotrienol and/or isoflavone supplements help reverse plaque buildup in the carotid artery? ... Your physician may have prescribed one of the statin drugs to lower cholesterol. You should adhere to a low-fat diet emphasizing lots of fruits and vegetables, particularly purple fruits, berries and red wine (if you drink alcohol) ... I would also include omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Higher Fruit, Vegetable Intake Associated With Lower Stroke Risk - Medscape, 9/18/03 - "Investigators observed a protective effect for infarction and a clearer one for hemorrhage associated with daily fruit and vegetable consumption; risk reduction for intracerebral hemorrhage was 32% in men and 30% in women"
  • More Physical Therapy Aids Stroke Rehab - WebMD, 8/14/03
  • Chinese Herb [Gastrodine (also called gastrodin)/Gastrodia elata]  May Treat Vascular Dementia - WebMD, 6/11/03 - "Patients who took gastrodine three times a day for 12 weeks did better on tests of mental function and behavior than patients who took Duxil"
  • Aspirin As Effective As Ticlopidine In African American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study - Doctor's Guide, 6/11/03
  • Aspirin May Be Better Than Ticlopidine for Recurrent Stroke Prevention... - Medscape, 6/10/03 - "Ticlopidine (Ticlid; Roche) does not appear to be superior to aspirin in preventing recurrent strokes in African-American patients"
  • Low Vitamin B6 but Not Homocyst(e)ine Is Associated With Increased Risk of Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in the Era of Folic Acid Grain Fortification - Stroke 2003 May 8 - "Low B6 but not tHcy was strongly associated with cerebrovascular disease in this postfortification, folate-replete sample"
  • Exercise Can Help Dissolve Blood Clots - WebMD, 5/8/03
  • Ginseng May Improve Memory After Stroke - WebMD, 2/14/03
  • Moderate Drinking Decreases Stroke Risk - WebMD, 2/6/03
  • Study in 43,000 men touts benefits of even a little fish - USA Today, 12/24/02 - "Men who ate about 3 to 5 ounces of fish one to three times a month were 43% less likely to have a stroke during 12 years of follow-up ... Omega-3 fatty acids, found in most fish, have been shown to lower levels of blood fats linked to cardiovascular disease and to help keep blood from clotting"
  • Folic Acid for Your Heart - WebMD, 11/22/02 - "By increasing folic acid intake and thus decreasing homocysteine, the researchers say the risk of heart disease would drop by 16%, blood clots in the legs by 25%, and stroke by 24%" - See iHerb folic acid products.
  • Argument Strengthens For Folic Acid To Reduce Homocysteine Level - Doctor's Guide, 11/26/02 - "A decrease in serum homocysteine of 3 micromol/l, which can be achieved by a daily intake of about 0.8 mg folic acid, should reduce the risk of ischaemic heart disease by 16 percent, deep vein thrombosis by 25 percent, and stroke by 24 percent" - See iHerb folic acid products.
  • Strokes: New Routes to Recovery? - Dr. Weil, 10/3/02
  • Antioxidant Reduces Stroke Damage - WebMD, 10/1/02 - "A new study shows the antioxidant, known as AEOL 10150, neutralized hazardous free radicals and prevented cell death in a mouse model of stroke. Researchers say the antioxidant is designed to mimic a natural antioxidant, but it works against a wider range of free radicals and also lasts longer in the body" - That last sentence is why I take as large a variety of anti-oxidants as possible though out the day.  I had a good article on my home page that explained why different anti-oxidants were required by various free radicals but the link went dead.
  • Low Dietary Or Serum Potassium Risk Factor For Stroke - Doctor's Guide, 8/27/02 - "Diuretic users had an increased risk for stroke which was associated with lower serum potassium (relative risk 2.5;P<0.0001). People who did not use diuretics had an increased risk for stroke if they had low dietary potassium intake (relative risk 1.5;P<0.005)"
  • Fatty Acid Lowers Stroke Risk - WebMD, 8/1/02 - "a fatty acid found in corn, sunflower, and safflower oils and soybeans may help prevent strokes ... the fatty acid known as linoleic acid may reduce the risk of strokes, especially those caused by blood clots ... for every 5% increase in the level of linoleic acid, there was a 28% reduction in the risk of either type of stroke, a 34% drop in the risk of clot-related strokes, and 19% decline in hemorrhagic strokes"
  • Dietary Folate May Reduce Stroke Risk - Medscape, 7/5/02
  • Natural Chemical May Treat Strokes - WebMD, 6/21/02 - "Testing in humans could begin early next year for inosine, which appears to help the brain "rewire" itself after injury ... In newly reported studies involving rats, inosine was shown to promote the growth of nerve cells in areas of the brain that remained undamaged following stroke. This new nerve growth, in turn, took over some of the functions of the stroke-damaged parts of the brain. The findings are reported in the June 25 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences" - See inosine at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin C Increases Stroke Risk - WebMD, 6/7/02
  • Foods Rich In Folate May Reduce Risk Of Stroke - Intelihealth, 5/3/02
  • Folate Fights Stroke and Heart Disease - WebMD, 5/2/02 - "people who consumed at least 300 mcg of folate every day had a 20% lower risk of stroke and a 13% lower risk of cardiovascular disease than those consuming less than 136 mcg of folate per day ... Folate is also thought to offset risk of cardiovascular disease, by reducing levels of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is linked with higher risk of atherosclerosis because it damages arteries, but vitamins B-6 and B-12, as well as folic acid, have been found to prevent that damage from occurring"
  • Healthful Habits Key In Curbing Stroke Among Elderly - Doctor's Guide, 2/12/02
  • Choline Precursors Lower Stroke Death and Disability Rates, Meta-analysis Indicates - Doctor's Guide, 2/11/02 - "Choline precursors are a group of molecules that get converted to phospholipids in the brain. Phospholipids perform many functions, including serving as crucial nerve cell membrane components and acting as neurotransmitters. Choline precursors include drugs like lecithin and citicoline ... Death and disability rate was 54.6 (611/1119) percent for patients treated with choline precursors compared to 66.4 (561/844) percent for those on placebo ... choline precursors might improve ischemic brain damage in two ways, by neuroprotection or by enhancement of neurorepair processes" - Note:  Phosphatidylserine (PS) supplements contain mixture of phospholipids.  The best supplier of PS is Degussa Bioactives, which used to be Lucas-Meyer but they broke up into two companies.  See their phospholipids page.  Taking PS supplements has the added benefit of lowering cortisol.
  • Healthful Habits Key In Curbing Stroke Among Elderly - Doctor's Guide, 2/12/02 - "In women, risk of cerebral occlusion decreased significantly with increasing duration and recency of estrogen use ... Hypertension, diabetes, heart attack, and smoking were significant stroke risk factors in both women and men ... Exercise reduced stroke risk in general, and antioxidant vitamin supplements decreased risk of cerebral occlusion ...major emphasis should be directed in this population toward the reduction of modifiable predictors: hypertension, smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet"
  • Strokes Linked to Chiropractic Treatment - WebMD, 2/8/02
  • 'D' Good News for Stroke Patients - WebMD, 7/9/01 - "These patients often have dramatic responses to vitamin D therapy ... Patients who are so weak that they are in a wheelchair will gain significant muscle strength and walk in a few months."
  • Modified Diet As Useful As Many Other Drugs For Reducing Stroke Risk - Doctor's Guide, 2/19/01

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