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Home > Anti-aging Research > Oleic Acid

Omega 9 - Oleic Acid

Note:  Please take a minute to read my essential fatty acids (EFA) page, which will clear up some of the confusion regarding EFAs.

Fatty Acids by Category
Omega-6 Omega-3 Omega-9
polyunsaturated polyunsaturated monounsaturated
LA - Linoleic Acid ALA or LNA - Alpha linolenic acid Oleic acid
GLA - Gamma linolenic acid EPA - Eicosapentaenoic acid  
DGLA - Dihomo gamma-linolenic Acid DHA - Docosahexaenoic acid  
AA - Arachidonic Acid DPA (omega 3) - Docosapentaenoic acid  
DTA - Docosatetraenoic acid
DPA -  (omega 6) Docosapentaenoic    

Related Topics:


General Information:

News & Research:

  • Monounsaturated fat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Monounsaturated fats are found along with saturated fat in natural foods such as red meat, whole milk products, nuts and high fat fruits such as olives and avocados. Olive oil is about 75% monounsaturated fat while tea seed oil is commonly over 80% monounsaturated fat. Canola oil and Cashews are both about 58% monounsaturated fat. Tallow (beef fat) is about 50% monounsaturated fat and lard is about 40% monounsaturated fat. Other sources include macadamia nut oil, grapeseed oil, groundnut oil (peanut oil), sesame oil, corn oil, popcorn, whole grain wheat, cereal, oatmeal, safflower oil, sunflower oil, tea-oil Camellia, and avocado oil"
  • Healthy fats help diseased heart muscle process, use fuel - Science Daily, 9/29/14 - "Oleate, a common dietary fat found in olive oil, restored proper metabolism of fuel in an animal model of heart failure ... As the heart walls grow thick, the volume of blood pumped out diminishes and can no longer supply the body with enough nutrients ... Failing hearts are also unable to properly process or store the fats they use for fuel, which are contained within tiny droplets called lipid bodies in heart muscle cells. The inability to use fats, the heart's primary fuel source, causes the muscle to become starved for energy ... When the researchers perfused failing rat hearts with oleate, "we saw an immediate improvement in how the hearts contracted and pumped blood," ... oleate also restored the activation of several genes for enzymes that metabolize fat"
  • Five Foods for Healthier Skin - ABC News, 3/31/14 - "The main factor responsible for aging, wrinkly skin is ultraviolet radiation, or skin photoaging. A French study on 1,264 women and 1,655 men suggests that the monounsaturated fatty acid in olive oil is protective against severe photoaging. Photodamage, including blotchy pigmentation, wrinkling and skin sagging, is mainly caused by the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to sun exposure. This study suggests that olive oil in the diet increases the ability of the skin to resist damage caused by UV radiation"
  • 5 Foods for Healthy Skin - ABC News, 9/12/13 - "Strawberries ... Olive oil ... Green tea ... Pumpkin ... Pomegranate"
  • Olive Oil Makes You Feel Full - Science Daily, 3/14/13 - "While it is true that they contain fewer calories, people tend to overcompensate by eating more if they do not feel full. Now a study has shown how "natural" oils and fats regulate the sensation of feeling full after eating, with olive oil leading the way ...Over a period of three months, the study participants ate 500 grams of low-fat yoghurt enriched with one of the four fats or oils every day -- as a supplement to their normal diet ... The olive oil group showed a higher concentration of the satiety hormone serotonin in their blood. Subjectively speaking, these participants also reported that they found the olive oil yoghurt very filling ... During the study period, no member of this group recorded an increase in their body fat percentage or their weight ... How long the feeling of satiety lasts after eating depends on a number of factors, but blood sugar level is particularly significant. The faster it falls, that is to say, the faster the somatic cells absorb glucose from the blood, the sooner the person will start to feel hungry again"
  • Healthy oil components may fight pancreatitis - Nutra USA, 1/3/12 - "They found that the oleic acid and hydroxytyrosol – both of which are present in a particularly high concentration in virgin olive oil and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids – offered protection from inflammatory damage from induced pancreatitis in pancreatic cells" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and my olive Oil mayonnaise recipe.
  • Olive Oil Linked to Reduced Stroke Risk - WebMD. 6/15/11 - "seniors who regularly used this healthy monounsaturated fat had a 41% lower risk of stroke compared to their counterparts who never used olive oil ... So what exactly is it about olive oil that may lower stroke risk? There are several theories, she says. It may be that people choose olive oil over saturated, artery-clogging fats. “Moreover, previous research found that the polyphenols from virgin olive oil account specifically for its ability to lower oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)” or bad cholesterol. High cholesterol levels are a known risk factor for stroke ... Olive oil is a healthy fat and it can reduce cholesterol and inflammation, and has been shown to help reduce the incidence of heart disease" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.  See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Acids and Cognitive Decline in Women - Medscape, 6/13/11 - "In this cohort of older women, greater MUFA intake was associated with less cognitive decline over a 3-year period. Previous studies generally but not invariably support this association. One previous prospective study found greater dietary MUFA intake to be associated with less cognitive decline,[10] a second found a trend in the same direction,[9] a third found a trend in the same direction in restricted analyses,[6] and three others were null.[7,8,11] None of the null studies had multiple measures of diet; one assessed diet using a measure of fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes,[7] but that study assessed cognitive decline exclusively using the Mini-Mental State Examination, which is probably not as sensitive as the neuropsychological test battery used in this study ... MUFA is thought to be one of the major protective components of the traditional Mediterranean diet, in which it is derived primarily from olive oil (median 46 g/d).[10] Two recent prospective studies of the Mediterranean diet have found greater adherence to be associated with less cognitive decline and lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD).[31,32] One of these studies found an effect of the Mediterranean diet on an individual cognitive domain, namely memory.[31] This finding is consistent with the observed protective effect of MUFA on memory in the WHI CCW. In addition, the current study found an association between MUFA and less decline in visual–spatial abilities (copying and matching), a finding not previously made to the knowledge of the authors of the current study. Decline in visuospatial function has been associated with driving errors in older adults[33] and has also been suggested as a potential predictor (along with amnestic impairment) of transition from mild cognitive impairment to AD ... Several pathways may explain the apparent relationship between MUFA intake and cognitive function. MUFA and MUFA derivatives have antiinflammatory effects in vivo,[35,36] which may be important because chronic inflammation appears to be a precursor of symptomatic AD.[37–39] Oxidative stress has also been demonstrated in patients with mild cognitive impairment and AD,[40] and derivatives from MUFA, including low-molecular-weight phenols, have been found to have antioxidant effects.[41] MUFA may also exert their potentially beneficial effects on cognition indirectly by decreasing cardiovascular risk by reducing macrophage uptake of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, and f triglycerides" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.
  • Eating poorly can make you blue: Trans-fats increase risk of depression, while olive oil helps avoid risk - Science Daily, 1/26/11 - "the participants with an elevated consumption of trans-fats (fats present in artificial form in industrially-produced pastries and fast food, and naturally present in certain whole milk products) "presented up to a 48% increase in the risk of depression when they were compared to participants who did not consume these fats," ... In addition, the study demonstrated a dose-response relationship, "whereby the more trans-fats were consumed, the greater the harmful effect they produced in the volunteers," ...Furthermore, the team, ... also analyzed the influence of polyunsaturated fats (abundant in fish and vegetable oils) and of olive oil on the occurrence of depression. "In fact, we discovered that this type of healthier fats, together with olive oil, are associated with a lower risk of suffering depression,""
  • Essential oil pill prevents PMS, study suggests - Science Daily, 1/16/11 - "Women who were given capsules containing 2 grams of a combination of gamma linolenic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, other polyunsaturated acids and vitamin E reported significantly eased PMS symptoms at both 3 and 6 months after they began the treatment" - See borage oil at Amazon.com (GLA) and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.  Oleic acid is omega-9 in which olive oil is a good source.  Linoleic acid is omega-6.  Most Americans get about 10 to 20 times too much omega-6 to begin with.  I don't know why they included it.  It makes me wonder about some of the researchers.  If they are showing a benefit, I would guess it's from the other ingredients and not the omega-6.  Gamma linolenic acid is an omega-6 also but it's a form that most don't get enough of.
  • Fruit, vegetables, and olive oil and risk of coronary heart disease in Italian women: the EPICOR Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 22 - "aimed to investigate the association between consumption of fruit, vegetables, and olive oil and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 29,689 women enrolled between 1993 and 1998 ... A strong reduction in CHD risk among women in the highest quartile of consumption of leafy vegetables (hazard ratio: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.90; P for trend = 0.03) and olive oil (hazard ratio: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.99; P for trend = 0.04) was found. In contrast, no association emerged between fruit consumption and CHD risk"
  • Olive oil protects liver from oxidative stress, rat study finds - Science Daily, 10/29/10 - "researchers separated the rats into a control group, an olive oil group, and 6 groups that were exposed to the herbicide '2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid' with or without either whole olive oil, or one of two oil extracts -- the hydrophilic fraction or the lipophilic fraction. All rats given the herbicide showed signs of significant liver damage. However, extra virgin olive oil and hydrophilic fraction intake induced a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and a decrease in markers of liver damage ... The hydrophilic fraction of olive oil seems to be the effective one in reducing toxin-induced oxidative stress, indicating that hydrophilic extract may exert a direct antioxidant effect on hepatic cells" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Olive oil compounds may boost cardiac fat oxidation: Study - Nutra USA, 10/21/10 - "Obese rats supplemented with olive oil, oleuropein, and cafeic acid had higher oxygen consumption, increased fat-oxidation, and lower carbon dioxide production than non supplemented obese rats" - [Abstract] - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Key mechanism links virgin olive oil to protection against breast cancer - Science Daily, 6/30/10 - "virgin olive oil is associated with higher incidences of benign breast tumours and at the same time with a decrease in the activity of the p21Ras oncogene, which spurs uncontrolled cell proliferation and stimulates the growth of tumours. In addition, olive oil suppresses the activity of some proteins, such as the AKT, essential for the survival of cells since they prevent apoptosis, the cell's "suicide" programme. Between proliferation and apoptosis in tumour cells, these effects tip the balance towards cell death, thereby slowing the growth of tumours" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Olive oil could guard against developing ulcerative colitis - Science Daily, 5/3/10 - "those with the highest intake of oleic acid had a 90 per cent lower risk of developing the disease ... Oleic acid seems to help prevent the development of ulcerative colitis by blocking chemicals in the bowel that aggravate the inflammation found in this illness ... We estimate that around half of the cases of ulcerative colitis could be prevented if larger amounts of oleic acid were consumed. Two-to-three tablespoons of olive oil per day would have a protective effect"
  • Eating Fish, Nuts And Olive Oil May Be Associated With Reduced Risk Of Age-related Blindness - Science Daily, 5/15/09 - "Individuals who consumed higher levels of trans-unsaturated fats—found in baked goods and processed foods—were more likely to have late AMD, whereas those who consumed the most omega-three fatty acids were less likely to have early AMD. "Olive oil intake (100 milliliters or more per week vs. less than 1 milliliter per week) was associated with decreased prevalence of late AMD," the authors write. "No significant associations with AMD were observed for intakes of fish, total fat, butter or margarine.""
  • Source Of Major Health Benefits In Olive Oil Revealed - Science Daily, 4/1/09 - "Scientists have pinned down the constituent of olive oil that gives greatest protection from heart attack and stroke. In a study of the major antioxidants in olive oil, Portuguese researchers showed that one, DHPEA-EDA, protects red blood cells from damage more than any other part of olive oil"
  • For Fats, Longer May Not Be Better - Science Daily, 1/8/09 - "Researchers have uncovered why some dietary fats, specifically long-chain fats, such as oleic acid (found in olive oil), are more prone to induce inflammation. Long-chain fats, it turns out, promote increased intestinal absorption of pro-inflammatory bacterial molecules called lipopolysaccharides (LPS)"
  • New Anti-cancer Components Of Extra-virgin Olive Oil Revealed - Science Daily, 12/17/08 - "Extra-virgin olive oil is the oil that results from pressing olives without the use of heat or chemical treatments. It contains phytochemicals that are otherwise lost in the refining process. Menendez and colleagues separated the oil into fractions and tested these against breast cancer cells in lab experiments. All the fractions containing the major extra-virgin phytochemical polyphenols (lignans and secoiridoids) were found to effectively inhibit HER2"
  • Consuming Extra Virgin Olive Oil Helps To Combat Degenerative Diseases Such As Cancer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/21/08 - "consumption of olive oil rich in polyphenols (natural antioxidants) improves the lives of people suffering from oxidative stress, and is also highly beneficial for the prevention of cell aging and osteoporosis"
  • The impact of olive oil consumption pattern on the risk of acute coronary syndromes: the cardio2000 case-control study - Clin Cardiol. 2007 Mar;30(3):125-9 - "Exclusive use of olive oil during food preparation seems to offer significant protection against CHD, irrespective of various clinical, lifestyle and other characteristics of the participants"
  • Review supports olive oil as natures super food for the heart - Nutra USA, 3/29/07
  • Olive Oil May Prevent Ulcers - WebMD, 2/13/07 - "A new Spanish study suggests virgin olive oil may help prevent and treat H. pylori infections, which are responsible for millions of cases of gastritis and ulcers each year"
  • New Year's Resolution No. 1: Prevent Cancer, Use Olive Oil - Science Daily, 12/12/06
  • Virgin Olive Oil Better for Heart - WebMD, 9/5/06 - "the virgin olive oil higher in polyphenols increased the level of good, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol more than the other two types of olive oil"
  • Olive oil—key to Mediterranean diet's benefits - MSNBC, 3/10/06
  • Olive Oil for Pain Relief? - Dr. Weil, 1/10/06
  • Olive Oil's Heart-Healthy Secret - WebMD, 11/11/05 - "the functioning of the inner lining of the small blood vessels of the fingers of the participants and the concentration of certain healthy components in the blood, such as nitric oxide, improved after the breakfast of high-phenolic olive oil"
  • Olive oil compounds fight colon cancer - Nutra USA, 11/8/05
  • New Clues on Olive Oil's Anticancer Effects - WebMD, 1/10/05
  • Olive Oil Cleared for Heart-Healthy Claim - WebMD, 11/1/04 - "eating about two tablespoons of olive oil a day may reduce the risk of heart disease"
  • Answers to Pressing Questions About Olive Oil - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 4/04
  • New Heart-Healthy Corn Due To Hit Stores Worldwide By 2007 - Intelihealth, 9/11/03
  • Mediterranean diet 'extends life' - bbc.co.uk. 8/24/03 - "The[y] found that quercetin, which is abundant in olive oil, has a similar effect"
  • Mediterranean Diet Eases Rheumatoid Arthritis - WebMD, 2/19/03 - "significant improvement was reported by most of the 26 arthritic patients who followed the well-studied dietary regimen for three months. The Mediterranean diet includes olive and canola oils as the primary dietary sources of fat -- along with plenty of fish, poultry, produce, and legumes ... In addition to being good sources of heart-healthy fats, olive and canola oils are rich in oleic acid and vitamin E. Like vitamin E, oleic acid has an anti-inflammatory effect and is thought to reduce inflammatory protein levels ... Those on the Mediterranean diet first began to experience relief after six weeks (although their cholesterol levels dropped after three) and improvement continued throughout the study ... They lost an average of seven pounds by study's end"
  • Extra-virgin is the oil of choice to protect against LDL oxidation - herbs.org
  • Bad News for Olive Oil: Fats in the 'Mediterranean Diet' May Harm Blood Vessels - WebMD, 6/6/00
  • Best Heart Benefits From Canola and Fish Oils -- Not Olive Oil - WebMD, 3/14/00 - "Most people don't realize that the Lyon diet did not use olive oil ... Ten volunteers, all with normal cholesterol levels, were given three meals composed of canola oil and bread, olive oil and bread, or salmon, with each meal totaling 50 g of fat ... The olive oil meal caused vessels to constrict by 34%, whereas the canola oil and salmon meals caused insignificant changes in blood vessels, Vogel reports. Because such constrictions injure the blood vessels' endothelium, they contribute to heart disease"


  • Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers - Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408988 - "Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function ... particulate matter (PM). ... Forty-two participants (58 ± 1 years of age) received either 3 g/day of OO or FO, or no supplements (naive) for 4 weeks prior to undergoing 2-hr exposures to filtered air and concentrated ambient particulate matter ... Short-term exposure to CAP induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. OO supplementation attenuated CAP-induced reduction of FMD and changes in blood markers associated with vasoconstriction and fibrinolysis, suggesting that OO supplementation may be an efficacious intervention to protect against vascular effects of exposure to PM" - [Nutra USA]
  • Exclusive olive oil consumption has a protective effect on coronary artery disease; overview of the THISEAS study - Public Health Nutr. 2015 Jul 30:1-7 - "Exclusive olive oil consumption was associated with 37 % lower likelihood of developing coronary artery disease, even after taking into account adherence to the Mediterranean diet"
  • An Investigation into the Association between DNA Damage and Dietary Fatty Acid in Men with Prostate Cancer - Nutrients. 2015;7(1):405-422 - "20 men with prostate cancer adhered to a modified Mediterranean style diet for three months ... DNA damage was inversely correlated with dietary adherence (p = 0.013) and whole blood monounsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.009) and oleic acid (p = 0.020). DNA damage was positively correlated with the intake of dairy products (p = 0.043), red meat (p = 0.007) and whole blood omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (p = 0.015). Both the source and type of dietary fat changed significantly over the course of the dietary intervention"
  • Alpha linolenic acid and oleic acid additively down-regulate malignant potential and positively cross-regulate AMPK/S6 axis in OE19 and OE33 esophageal cancer cells - Metabolism. 2014 Jul 25 - "Both oleic acid (OA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) have been proposed to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells ... conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether OA and ALA alone or in combination may regulate malignant potential in OE19 and OE33 esophageal cancer cell lines ... Our novel mechanistic studies provide evidence for an important role for OA and ALA in esophageal cancer, and suggest that OA and/or ALA might be useful agents in the management or chemoprevention of esophageal cancer" - Note:  Oleic acid is an omega-9 for which olive oil is a good source.  Alpha-linolenic acid is the omega-3 from plant sources.
  • Dietary intake of palmitate and oleate has broad impact on systemic and tissue lipid profiles in humans - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan 15 - "Epidemiologic evidence has suggested that diets with a high ratio of palmitic acid (PA) to oleic acid (OA) increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) ... These results suggest that replacing dietary PA with OA reduces the blood LDL concentration and whole-body fat oxidation by modifying the saturation index of circulating and tissue lipids. In women, these effects are also associated with a higher production and accumulation of acylcarnitines, possibly reflecting a shift in fat catabolism" - Note:  Oleic acid is omega-9.  Olive oil is 76% omega-9.  Palmitic acid is saturated fat.  See:
    • Palmitic acid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common fatty acid (saturated) found in animals, plants and microorganisms.[4] Its molecular formula is CH3(CH2)14CO2H. As its name indicates, it is a major component of the oil from palm trees (palm oil, palm kernel, and palm kernel oil), but can also be found in meats, cheeses, butter, and dairy products"
  • Oleic acid increases hepatic sex hormone binding globulin production in men - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Oct 20 - "Low circulating sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease ... A total of 315 men were included. In these patients, nutrition data and plasma samples for SHBG assessment were obtained. In vitro studies to examine the effects of oleic and linoleic acid on SHBG production using HepG2 cells were performed. We provided evidence that SHBG serum levels were significantly higher in subjects using olive oil for cooking in comparison with subjects using sunflower oil ... MUFA were independently associated with SHBG levels and accounted for the 20.4% of SHBG variance ... Olive oil consumption is associated with elevated SHBG serum levels"
  • Olive oil has a beneficial effect on impaired glucose regulation and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Di@bet.es study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 17 - "A total of 4572 individuals aged 18 years in 100 clusters (health centers) were randomly selected with a probability proportional to population size ... Around 90% of the Spanish population use olive oil, at least for dressing, and slightly fewer for cooking or frying. The preference for olive oil is related to age, educational level, alcohol intake, body mass index and serum glucose, insulin and lipids. People who consume olive oil (vs sunflower oil) had a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.62 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.41-0.93, P=0.02)), impaired glucose regulation (OR=0.49 (95% CI=0.28-0.86, P=0.04)), hypertriglyceridemia (OR=0.53 (95% CI=0.33-0.84, P=0.03)) and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR=0.40 (95% CI=0.26-0.59, P=0.0001))"
  • Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 11 - "Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long-chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it ... Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPLs) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk ... Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFAs); HR [95% CI] = 1.51 [1.06, 2.16] (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); p-trend = 0.003. HRs (Q5 to Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR = 0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); p-trend = 0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated for moderate intakes of linoleic acid (Q2 and Q3 vs. Q1, 1.58 [1.10, 2.28] and 1.70 [1.18, 2.46], respectively), but the increase was not significant for higher intakes (Q4 and Q5). No association varied significantly by tumour aggressiveness (all p-homogeneity > 0.1). Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA, largely attributable to palmitic acid and inversely associated with %PPL monounsaturated fatty acids, largely attributable to oleic acid. Higher risks were also observed for dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fats, primarily linoleic acid"
  • Relationship of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids to blood pressure: the international study of macro/micronutrients and blood pressure - J Hypertens. 2013 Apr 6 - "Dietary monounsaturated fatty acid intake, especially oleic acid from vegetable sources, may contribute to prevention and control of adverse blood pressure levels in general populations"
  • Olive oil intake and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort - Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 25:1-8 - "we studied the association between olive oil and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort study. The analysis included 40,142 participants (38 % male), free of CHD events at baseline, recruited from five EPIC-Spain centres from 1992 to 1996 and followed up until 2004 ... Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the relationship between validated incident CHD events and olive oil intake (energy-adjusted quartiles and each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) increment), while adjusting for potential confounders. During a 10.4-year follow-up, 587 (79 % male) CHD events were recorded. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with CHD risk after excluding dietary mis-reporters (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93; 95 % CI 0.87, 1.00 for each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) and HR 0.78; 95 % CI 0.59, 1.03 for upper v. lower quartile). The inverse association between olive oil intake (per 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)) and CHD was more pronounced in never smokers (11 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0.048)), in never/low alcohol drinkers (25 % reduced CHD risk (P < 0.001)) and in virgin olive oil consumers (14 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0.072)). In conclusion, olive oil consumption was related to a reduced risk of incident CHD events"
  • Beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich olive oil in patients with early atherosclerosis - Eur J Nutr. 2012 Aug 8 - "Eighty-two patients with early atherosclerosis (presence of endothelial dysfunction) were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized trial with 52 completing the study. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of a daily intake of 30 ml simple OO, with 30 ml of EGCG-supplemented OO, on endothelial function as well as on inflammation and oxidative stress after a period of 4 months ... After 4 months, when OO and EGCG-supplemented OO groups were combined, OO significantly improved endothelial function (RHI, 1.59 +/- 0.25-1.75 +/- 0.45; p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in results between the two olive oil groups. Interestingly, with OO supplementation there was a significant reduction in inflammatory parameters: sICAM (196 to 183 ng/mL, p = < 0.001); white blood cells (WBCs) (6.0 × 10(9)/L-5.8 × 10(9)/L, p < 0.05); monocytes (0.48 × 10(9)/L to 0.44 × 10(9)/L, p = 0.05); lymphocytes (1.85 × 10(9)/L to 1.6 × 10(9)/L, p = 0.01); and platelets (242-229 × 10(9)/L, p = 0.047)" - [Nutra USA] - Click here for my method of making olive oil mayonnaise.  Make sure all the ingredients are at room temperature.  Note:  The so called olive oil mayonnaise you see in the store is mostly omega-6. If you read the ingredients, it might have olive oil near the beginning but then you see about three omega-6 oils after it. For example, if it contained 1/3 cup of olive oil and 1/4 cup soy oil and 1/4 cup of palm oil and 1/4 cup of corn oil you’d have over a cup of oil consisting of 1/3 cup omega-9 oils and 3/4 cup of omega-6 oils. The omega-9 is still the top one.
  • Olive oil intake and mortality within the Spanish population (EPIC-Spain) - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "In comparison with nonconsumers, the highest quartile of olive oil consumption was associated with a 26% (95% CI: 13%, 36%) reduction in risk of overall mortality and a 44% (95% CI: 21%, 60%) reduction in CVD mortality. For each increase in olive oil of 10 g ⋅ 2000 kcal(-1) ⋅ d(-1), there was a 7% (95% CI: 3%, 10%) decreased risk of overall mortality and a 13% (95% CI: 6%, 20%) decreased risk of CVD mortality. No significant association was observed between olive oil and cancer mortality"
  • Beneficial effects of combined olive oil ingestion and acute exercise on postprandial TAG concentrations in healthy young women - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jan 23:1-7 - "Foods high in monounsaturated fat, such as olive oil, and endurance exercise are both known to independently reduce postprandial TAG concentrations. We examined the combined effects of exercise and dietary fat composition on postprandial TAG concentrations in nine healthy pre-menopausal females (age 26.8 (sd 3.3) years, BMI 22.3 (sd 2.0) kg/m2). Each participant completed four, 2 d trials in a randomised order: (1) butter-no exercise, (2) olive oil-no exercise, (3) butter-exercise, (4) olive oil-exercise. On day 1 of the exercise trials, participants walked or ran on a treadmill for 60 min. On the no-exercise trials, participants rested on day 1. On day 2 of each trial, participants rested and consumed an olive oil meal (saturated fat 15 % and unsaturated fat 85 %) or a butter meal (saturated fat 71 % and unsaturated fat 29 %) for breakfast ... A significant main effect on physical activity (exercise or control) was obtained for plasma TAG concentration (three-way ANOVA, P = 0.043), and the total area under the concentration v. time curve for TAG was 26 % lower on the olive oil-exercise trial (4.40 (sd 0.40) mmol × 6 h/l) than the butter-no exercise trial (5.91 (sd 1.01) mmol × 6 h/l) (one-way ANOVA, P = 0.029). These findings suggest that the combination of exercise and a preference for monounsaturated dietary fat intake in the form of olive oil may be most beneficial for reducing postprandial TAG concentrations"
  • Substitution of Standard Soybean Oil with Olive Oil-Based Lipid Emulsion in Parenteral Nutrition: Comparison of Vascular, Metabolic, and Inflammatory Effects - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug 10 - "Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions are the only Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid formulation for clinical use in parenteral nutrition (PN). Recently concerns with its use have been raised due to the proinflammatory effects that may lead to increased complications because they are rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ... Soybean oil-PN increased systolic blood pressure compared with olive oil-PN (P < 0.05). Soybean oil PN reduced brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation from baseline (-23% at 4 h and -25% at 24 h, both P < 0.01); in contrast, olive oil PN, lipid free PN, and saline did not change either systolic blood pressure or flow-mediated dilatation. Compared with saline, soybean oil PN, olive oil PN, and lipid free PN similarly increased glucose and insulin concentrations during infusion (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in plasma free fatty acids, lipid profile, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, immune function parameters, or sympathetic activity between soybean oil- and olive oil-based lipid emulsions. Conclusion: The 24-h infusion of PN containing soybean oil-based lipid emulsion increased blood pressure and impaired endothelial function compared with PN containing olive oil-based lipid emulsion and lipid-free PN in healthy subjects. These vascular changes may have significant implications in worsening outcome in subjects receiving nutrition support"
    • Parenteral nutrition - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulas that contain nutrients such as salts, glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins. It is called total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or total nutrient admixture (TNA) when no food is given by other routes"
  • Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: A systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13800 patients and 23340 controls in 19 observational studies - Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Jul 30;10(1):127 - "Dietary fat, both in terms of quantity and quality, has been implicated to cancer development, either positively or negatively. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether olive oil or monounsaturated fat intake was associated with the development of cancer. A systematic search of relevant studies, published in English, between 1990 and March 1, 2011, was performed through a computer-assisted literature tool (i.e., Pubmed). In total 38 studies were initially allocated; of them 19 case-control studies were finally studied (13800 cancer patients and 23340 controls were included). Random effects meta-analysis was applied in order to evaluate the research hypothesis. It was found that compared with the lowest, the highest category of olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of having any type of cancer (log odds ratio = -0.41, 95%CI -0.53, -0.29, Cohran's Q=47.52, p=0.0002, I-sq=62%); the latter was irrespective of the country of origin (Mediterranean or non-Mediterranean). Moreover, olive oil consumption was associated with lower odds of developing breast cancer (logOR=-0,45 95%CI -0.78 to -0.12), and a cancer of the digestive system (logOR=-0,36 95%CI -0.50 to -0.21), compared with the lowest intake.The strength and consistency of the findings states a hypothesis about the protective role of olive oil intake on cancer risk. However, it is still unclear whether olive oil's monounsaturated fatty acid content or its antioxidant components are responsible for its beneficial effects" - Note:  That last sentence has been my question on many of the olive oil studies.  I still use my olive oil mayonnaise made with the extra light plus I take the olive oil extract capsules.  I'm not going to suffer through the taste of the extra virgin olive oil.  See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces mortality in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain) - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 17:1-11 - "Epidemiological studies show that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) increases longevity; however, few studies are restricted to Mediterranean populations or explore the effect of a MD pattern that directly incorporates olive oil. Therefore the relationship between adherence to the MD and mortality was studied within the the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain) ... Risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality was assessed according to the level of adherence to a relative MD (rMED) score, measured using an 18-unit scale incorporating nine selected dietary components. A high compared with a low rMED score was associated with a significant reduction in mortality from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) 0.79; 95 % CI 0.69, 0.91), from CVD (HR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.49, 0.89), but not from overall cancer (HR 0.92; 95 % CI 0.75, 1.12). A 2-unit increase in rMED score was associated with a 6 % (P < 0.001) decreased risk of all-cause mortality. A high olive oil intake and moderate alcohol consumption contributed most to this association. In this Spanish cohort, following an olive oil-rich MD was related to a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, and reduced the risk of mortality from CVD. These results support the important role that the MD pattern has on reducing mortality in Mediterranean countries" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.
  • Oleate-enriched diet improves insulin sensitivity and restores muscle protein synthesis in old rats - Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 21 - "Twenty-four 25-month-old rats were fed either a control diet (OC), an oleate-enriched diet (HFO) or a palmitate-enriched diet (HFP) for 16 weeks. MPS using labeled amino acids and mTOR activation were assessed after AA and insulin anabolic stimulation to mimic postprandial state ... IR and systemic and adipose tissue inflammation (TNFα and IL1β) were improved in the HFO group. Muscle genes controlling mitochondrial β-oxidation (PPARs, MCAD and CPT-1b) were up-regulated in the HFO group. AA and insulin-stimulated MPS in the HFO group only, and this stimulation was related to activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway ... The age-related MPS response to anabolic signals was improved in rats fed an oleate-enriched diet. This effect was related to activation of muscle oxidative pathways, lower IR, and a decrease in inflammation"
    • Oleate - dictionary.com - "a salt or ester of oleic acid" - Note:  Oleic acid is omega-9 like in olive oil.
    • Palmitate definition - medterms.com - "An antioxidant and a vitamin A compound that is added to low-fat and fat-free milk to replace the vitamin Content lost through the removal of milk fat. Palmitate (more formally known as retinyl palmitate) contains palmitic acid, a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, which is the major fatty acid found in palm oil. The palmitic acid is attached to the alcohol form of vitamin A, called retinol, to make vitamin A stable in milk. The name "palmitate" comes from the French "palmitique" from palmite, the pith of the palm tree"
  • Effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoproteins B, A-I, and their ratio: A randomized, controlled trial - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 6 - "Apolipoprotein (Apo)B, ApoA-I, and their ratio could predict coronary heart disease (CHD) risk more accurately than conventional lipid measurements. Our aim was to assess the effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) on apolipoproteins ... Participants assigned to a low-fat diet (control) (n=177), or TMDs (TMD+virgin olive oil (VOO), n=181 or TMD+nuts, n=193) received nutritional education and either free VOO (ad libitum) or nuts (dose: 30g/day). A 3-month evaluation was performed ... Both TMDs promoted beneficial changes on classical cardiovascular risk factors. ApoA-I increased, and ApoB and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio decreased after TMD+VOO, the changes promoting a lower cardiometabolic risk. Changes in TMD+VOO versus low-fat diet were -2.9mg/dL (95% CI, -5.6 to -0.08), 3.3mg/dL (95% CI, 0.84 to 5.8), and -0.03mg/dL (-0.05 to -0.01) for ApoB, ApoA-I, and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, respectively ... Individuals at high-cardiovascular risk who improved their diet toward a TMD pattern rich in virgin olive oil, reduced their Apo B and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and improved ApoA-I concentrations" - The question is; is it the polyphenols or the omega-9 or both in the virgin olive oil responsible for the benefit? See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Intake of Cholesterol Is Positively and Use of Cholesterol-Lowering Medication Is Negatively Associated with Prevalent Age-Related Hearing Loss - J Nutr. 2011 May 25 - "After multivariable adjustment, the likelihood of prevalent hearing loss increased from the lowest (reference) to the highest quartile of dietary cholesterol intake (P-trend = 0.04). Among persons self-reporting statin use (n = 274), a 48% reduced odds of prevalent hearing loss was observed after multivariable adjustment [OR = 0.52 (95% CI = 0.29-0.93)]. Participants in the second and 3rd quartiles of dietary monounsaturated fat intake compared with those in the first quartile (reference) had a significantly reduced risk of hearing loss progression 5 y later [multivariable-adjusted OR = 0.39 (95% CI = 0.21-0.71)] and [OR = 0.51 (95% CI = 0.29-0.91)], respectively. Our results suggest that a diet high in cholesterol could have adverse influences on hearing, whereas treatment with statins and consumption of monounsaturated fats may have a beneficial influence"
  • Inverse association between serum phospholipid oleic acid and insulin resistance in subjects with primary dyslipidaemia - Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 30 - "oleic acid (OA) ... By adjusted logistic regression, including the proportions of other fatty acids known to relate to IR, the odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals) for IR were 0.75 (0.62-0.92) for 1% increase in OA and 0.84 (0.71-0.99) for 1% increase in linoleic acid. Other fatty acids were unrelated to IR. When using the alternate definition of IR, OA remained a significant predictor (0.80 [0.65-0.99]) ... Higher phospholipid proportions of OA relate to less IR, suggesting an added benefit of increasing olive oil intake within the Mediterranean diet" - Note: I saw olive oil mayonnaise advertised and I thought that would be a good way to increase the omega-9 in my diet. When I read the label in the store, olive oil was the main ingredient however it had three omega-6 oils listed after that so I’m sure it had much more omega-6 than omega-9. Bottom line, I started making my own omega-9 mayo. See the recipe at http://allrecipes.com//HowTo/making-mayonnaise/Detail.aspx.
  • Effects of olive oil and its minor phenolic constituents on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes Nutr J. 2010 Oct 19;9(1):46 - "The present study demonstrated for the first time that olive-oil, oleuropein and cafeic-acid enhanced fat-oxidation and optimized cardiac energy metabolism in obesity conditions. Olive oil and its phenolic compounds improved myocardial oxidative stress in standard-fed conditions" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Exclusive Olive Oil Consumption Is Associated with Lower Likelihood of Developing Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: The Hellenic Heart Failure Study - Ann Nutr Metab. 2009 Nov 27;56(1):9-15 - "70% of the LVSD patients and 76% of the non-LVSD patients reported exclusive olive oil consumption. Multi-adjusted analysis revealed that exclusive olive oil consumption in post-ACS patients with a first cardiac episode was associated with a 65% (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.87) lower likelihood of developing LVSD after adjusting for various confounders. No significant association was observed among participants with a previous history of ACS. Conclusions: Exclusive, long-term olive oil consumption seems to offer significant protection against the development of LVSD in post-ACS patients" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Fat consumption and its association with age-related macular degeneration - Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 May;127(5):674-80 - "Higher trans-unsaturated fat intake was associated with an increased prevalence of late AMD; the odds ratio comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of trans fat was 1.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-3.37; P = .02). Higher omega-3 fatty acid intake (highest quartile vs lowest quartile) was inversely associated with early AMD (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.02; P = .03). Olive oil intake (> or =100 mL/week vs <1 mL/week) was associated with decreased prevalence of late AMD (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-1.04; P = .03). No significant associations with AMD were observed for intakes of fish, total fat, butter, or margarine" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Moderate Consumption of Olive Oil by Healthy European Men Reduces Systolic Blood Pressure in Non-Mediterranean Participants J Nutr. 2007 Jan;137(1):84-87 - "General linear models showed that the administration of the sequence of the 3 olive oils was responsible for a 3% decrease in systolic BP (SBP) (P < 0.05), but not in diastolic BP, in the non-Mediterranean subjects"
  • Olive oil consumption and risk of breast cancer in the Canary Islands: a population-based case-control study - Public Health Nutr. 2006 Feb;9(1A):163-7 - "Our results support the protective role of olive oil consumption on breast cancer among Canaries women"
  • Postprandial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extra virgin olive oil - Atherosclerosis. 2006 Feb 17 - "A significant decrease in inflammatory markers, namely TXB(2) and LTB(4), after 2 and 6h after EVOO (but not OO or CO) consumption and a concomitant increase of serum antioxidant capacity were recorded"
  • Dietary supplementation with olive oil leads to improved lipoprotein spectrum and lower n-6 PUFAs in elderly subjects - Med Sci Monit. 2004 Mar 23;10(4):PI49-PI54 - "The supplement was taken for 6 weeks and involved daily consumption of 2 tablespoons ... There was also a significant decline in the total-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratios"
  • Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Mar;77(3):605-11 - "Olive oil induced lower triacylglycerol concentrations and higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did butter, without eliciting significant changes in glucose, insulin, or fatty acids" - Olive oil is 76% omega-9.
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