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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 4/15/20

EVMS Critical Care COVID-19 Management Protocol - Eastern Virginia Medical School - "Suggested approach to prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 ... Prophylaxis ... Vitamin C 500 mg BID and Quercetin 250-500 mg BID ... Zinc 75-100 mg/day (acetate, gluconate or picolinate). Zinc lozenges are preferred. After 1-2 months, reduce the dose to 30-50 mg/day ... Melatonin (slow release): Begin with 0.3mg and increase as tolerated to 1-2 mg at night ... Vitamin D3 1000-4000 u/day (optimal dose unknown). Likely that those with baseline low 25-OH vitamin D levels and those > living at 40 degree latitude will benefit the most"

Patients Say Dessicated Thyroid Better Than Standard Therapy - Medscape, 4/13/20 - "one of the major concerns about using DTE is the risk for iatrogenic hyperthyroidism, potentially leading to atrial fibrillation and fractures"

Tofu, Other Isoflavone-Rich Foods May Cut Heart Disease Risk - Medscape, 4/10/20 - "those who consumed tofu more than once a week showed an 18% lower (P = .005) adjusted risk for CHD events than those who ate tofu less than once a month ... The corresponding risk reduction was 13% for consumption of isoflavone"

High-Fiber Foods Linked to Lower Breast Cancer Risk - NYT, 4/6/20 - "Compared with women with the lowest overall fiber intake, those with the highest had an 8 percent reduced risk for breast cancer ... The researchers also found that it was only soluble fiber, the kind that predominates in foods like oatmeal, nuts, beans, peas and lentils, that had a statistically significant association with reduced breast cancer incidence. There was a suggestion that insoluble fiber — the kind found in whole grains and that adds bulk to stool — also reduced the risk, but the effect was not statistically significant. (Both soluble and insoluble fiber are found in varying proportions in most fiber-containing foods.)"

The Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Metformin in Patients With Chronic Liver Disease - Medscape, 4/6/20 - "The pharmacokinetics of metformin are not altered sufficiently in CLD patients to raise concerns regarding unsafe concentrations of metformin. There were no unsafe plasma lactate concentrations observed in CLD patients receiving metformin"

FDA Grants Emergency Authorization for First Rapid Antibody Test for COVID-19 - Medscape, 4/4/20 - "A drop of serum, plasma, or whole blood is placed into a well on a small cartridge, and the results are read 15-20 minutes later; lines indicate the presence of IgM, IgG, or both antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus" - Note:  I've been waiting for this because I'm convinced that I already contracted COVID-19 in early February.  If I'm immune, it could mean all kinds of neat stuff.  They claim that you can donate your plasma and maybe save three COVID-19 patients plus you can donate your time and not have to worry about contracting COVID-19 so someone else doesn't have to put their life on the line.

Higher Protein Intake Linked to Lower Risk of AF - Medscape, 4/3/20 - "the average American eats an estimated 3600 calories/day — 50% from carbohydrates, 35% from fat, and only 15% from protein ... This translates to 540 calories per day from protein, which is 135 g (since 1 g of protein has 4 calories), "which is more than enough protein for the average person ... There does appear to be a 'sweet spot' with regard to protein intake, at around 58 to 74 grams per day, along with a 'ceiling effect' above 74 grams per day, where more protein intake is no longer beneficial ... most people would be far healthier and leaner by reducing their total caloric intake from carbohydrates and fats while eating a proportionally higher protein diet closer to 25% of their total calories."" - Not sure if that quote makes sense.  The average is 135 but best is 58 to 74 so we need to increase it? - See whey protein at Amazon.com.

Gut enzyme IAP found to prevent aging and frailty in animal models - Science Daily, 3/26/20 - "the enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphotase (IAP) helped prevent intestinal permeability and gut-derived systemic inflammation, resulting in less frailty and extended life span. "Oral IAP supplementation in older mice significantly preserved gut barrier function and was associated with preserving the homeostasis of the gut microbiota during aging," said Hodin. "In other words, the enzyme maintained the composition of the gut bacteria and controlled the low-grade chronic inflammation that can happen with aging." ... Because IAP is a naturally occurring enzyme that almost entirely remains in the gut rather than traveling throughout the system, Hodin believes it should prove nontoxic to humans, and those who are found have low levels, especially as they age, will simply be able to supplement. "Because IAP confers anti-inflammatory properties systemically," Hodin said, "it could have implications not only for inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn's and ulcerative colitis, but also for other human conditions that we now know are linked to the gut and inflammation, such as obesity and diabetes." The team is already at work on the next steps toward getting FDA approval for a supplement." -

Marijuana may impair female fertility - Science Daily, 4/2/20 - "In the new study, researchers treated cow oocytes, or female eggs, with concentrations of THC equivalent to therapeutic and recreational doses. The oocytes were collected and matured into five groups: untreated, control, low THC, mid THC and high THC ... The eggs' developmental rates and gene expression were measured. The researchers evaluated the ability of embryos to reach critical stages of development at specific time points. With higher concentrations of THC, they found a significant decrease and delay in the ability of the treated oocytes to reach these checkpoints. "This is a key indicator in determining the quality and developmental potential of the egg," ... THC exposure led to a significant decrease in the expression of genes called connexins, which are present at increased levels in higher quality oocytes. Poorer quality oocytes, with lower connexin expression levels, have been shown to lead to a poorer embryo development. ... Preliminary data also showed THC affected the activity of a total of 62 genes in the treatment groups compared with the non-treated groups. "This implies lower quality and lower fertilization capability, therefore lower fertility in the end,""

REDUCE-IT: CV Benefit of Icosapent Ethyl Directly Related to EPA Levels - Medscape, 4/2/20 - "The REDUCE-IT trial, reported in 2018, enrolled 8179 patients who had elevated cardiovascular risk already treated with statins. It found that a high dose of icosapent ethyl (4 g daily) reduced the rate of cardiovascular events by 25% over a median of 4.9 years of follow-up ... Prior to REDUCE-IT, icosapent ethyl was approved for the treatment of patients with triglycerides above 500 mg/dL, and it was anticipated that it would bring about benefits to a broader population of patients at cardiovascular risk primarily by lowering triglycerides ... However, the current analysis found that the lion's share of the drug's large cardiovascular benefit is driven by achieved EPA levels, and not the lowering of triglycerides" - Note: 4 grams per day of Vascepa runs $355 per month.  I doubt if most insurance companies would cover it.  See fish oil at Amazon.com.

Metformin May Be of Benefit, Even in Advancing Kidney Disease - Medscape, 4/2/20 - "In patients with advanced CKD, if metformin is used carefully while monitoring, it could be suggested as a treatment [for type 2 diabetes] that can slow the progress of kidney disease as well as [having a] cardiovascular benefit" - See metformin at ReliableRX.

Abstracts from this week:

Lactobacillus salivarius Subspecies salicinius SA-03 is a New Probiotic Capable of Enhancing Exercise Performance and Decreasing Fatigue? - Microorganisms 2020, 8(4), 545 - "Probiotics are increasingly being used as a nutritional supplement by athletes to improve exercise performance and reduce post-exercise fatigue. Lactobacillus salivarius is a natural flora in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. Lactobacillus salivarius subspecies salicinius (SA-03) is an isolate from the 2008 Olympic women’s 48 kg weightlifting gold medalist’s gut microbiota. In this study, we investigated its beneficial effects on physical fitness. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group) and orally administered with SA-03 for 4 weeks at 0, 2.05 × 109, 4.10 × 109, or 1.03 × 1010 CFU/kg/day. Results showed that 4 weeks of SA-03 supplementation significantly improved muscle strength and endurance performance, increased hepatic and muscular glycogen storage, and decreased lactate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), ammonia, and creatine kinase (CK) levels after exercise. These observations suggest that SA-03 could be used as a nutritional supplement to enhance exercise performance and reduce" - [Nutra USA] - See Lactobacillus salivarius at Amazon.com.

Effect of the Lactococcus Lactis 11/19-B1 Strain on Atopic Dermatitis in a Clinical Test and Mouse Model - Nutrients. 2020 Mar 14 - "Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to improve atopic dermatitis (AD) through the regulation and stimulation of the host immune system. In this study, we found that ingestion of yogurt containing Lactococcus lactis 11/19-B1 strain (L. lactis 11/19-B1) daily for 8 weeks significantly improved the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) system score from 38.8 ± 14.4 to 24.2 ± 12.0 in children suffering from AD ... AD-like skin lesions on the dorsal skin and ear were most improved by L. lactis 11/19-B1 intake among the five LAB species. In addition, analysis of CD4+ T cell subsets in Peyer's patches (PPs) and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) indicated that the intake of L. lactis 11/19-B1 generally suppressed all subsets related to inflammation, i.e., Th1, Th2 and Th17, instead of activating the suppressive system, Treg, in the AD mouse model. Histological observations showed ingestion of L. lactis 11/19-B1 significantly suppressed severe inflammatory findings, such as inflammatory cell filtration, epidermal erosion and eosinophil infiltration. These results suggest that the immunomodulatory effects of L. lactis 11/19-B1 contribute to improvements in AD pathology" - [Nutra USA]

Early Vascular Ageing in Chronic Kidney Disease: Impact of Inflammation, Vitamin K, Senescence and Genomic Damage - Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2020 Mar 1 - "Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a clinical model of premature ageing characterized by cardiovascular disease, persistent uraemic inflammation, osteoporosis muscle wasting and frailty. The accelerated early vascular ageing (EVA) process mediated by medial vascular calcification (VC) is a hallmark of senescence as well as a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the CKD population ... An accumulating body of evidence indicates that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage-induced cellular senescence and 'inflammaging' may largely contribute to such pathological conditions characterized by accelerated EVA. Growing evidence shows that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) signalling and vitamin K play a crucial role in counteracting oxidative stress, DNA damage, senescence and inflammaging, whereby NRF2 activation and vitamin K supplementation may provide a novel treatment target for EVA. In this review we discuss the link between senescence and EVA in the context of CKD, with a focus on the role of NRF2 and vitamin K in DNA damage signalling, senescence and inflammaging" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.

Sustained Cerebrovascular and Cognitive Benefits of Resveratrol in Postmenopausal Women - Nutrients. 2020 Mar 20;12(3) - "Postmenopausal women aged 45–85 years (n = 129) were randomized to take placebo or 75 mg trans-resveratrol twice daily for 12 months ... Compared to placebo, resveratrol improved overall cognitive performance (P < 0.001) and attenuated the decline in CVR to cognitive stimuli (P = 0.038). The latter effect was associated with reduction of fasting blood glucose (r = −0.339, P = 0.023). This long-term study confirms that regular consumption of resveratrol can enhance cognitive and cerebrovascular functions in postmenopausal women, with the potential to slow cognitive decline due to ageing and menopause" - [Nutra USA] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Association of pulse pressure with all-cause and cause-specific mortality - J Hum Hypertens. 2020 Apr 7 - "The association of PP with all-cause and other causes of mortality was significant, and the adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 1.16 (1.06-1.28), and 1.18 (1.00-1.40), respectively. On subgroup analyses, PP was positively associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants <65 years or males and positively associated with other causes of mortality in males. The risk of all-cause and other causes of mortality increased with increasing PP in a rural Chinese population. Higher PP may increase the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality for males and people <65 years as well as the risk of other causes of mortality for males in rural Chinese people"

Association between pulse pressure and aortic calcification: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2014 - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2020 Apr 6 - "abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) ... PP was a predictor of the presence of AAC in fully adjusted models in adults <60 years of age (OR 1.31, P < .05) and ≥60 years of age (OR 1.33, P < .05). PP was also associated with the magnitude of AAC in the overall sample but did not retain significance after separating by age-groups and additionally adjusting for antihypertensive medication. In conclusion, PP is associated with the presence of AAC as measured by DXA in a nationally representative sample of US adults"

Association between Polyphenol Intake and Breast Cancer Risk by Menopausal and Hormone Receptor Status - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 3;12(4) - "No associations were found between total intake of polyphenols and BC risk. However, inverse associations were found between stilbenes and all BC risk (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.70, 95%CI: 0.56-0.89, Ptrend = 0.001), the consumption of hydroxybenzaldehydes (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.59-0.93, Ptrend = 0.012) and hydroxycoumarins (ORQ4 vs. Q1: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.57-0.93; Ptrend = 0.005) were also inversely associated. The intake of stilbenes, hydroxybenzaldehydes and hydroxycoumarins can contribute to BC reduction risk on all menopausal and receptor statuses"

Effects of alpha lipoic acid as a supplement in obese children and adolescents - Cytokine. 2020 Apr 4 - "Obesity is significantly associated with inflammatory process and oxidative stress. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant that has been reported for reducing weight in animals and obese adults in several studies but no data are available in pediatrics ... Eighty obese children and adolescents were randomized into two groups; the treatment group (n = 40) who received 300 mg of ALA twice daily for 3 months and the control group (n = 40) who received placebo for 3 months ... ALA treatment group had a significant reduction of the weight, BMI, MDA, TNF-α, and leptin levels but a significant increase of adiponectin level (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. However, it had no effect on FBG or lipid profile" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.

Increased Consumption of Plant Foods Is Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Density - J Nutr Health Aging. 2020;24(4):388-397 - "Participants were recruited from the Sydney Adventist hospital and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia ... principle component analysis (PCA) ... In a healthy middle aged population with normal BMD, an increase in plant food consumption, either alone or in combination with a diet containing meat, is associated with improved bone mineralisation markers. This positive relationship is most likely due to the extensive range of micronutrients and phytochemicals packaged within plants"

Protective Effect of a Mixture of Astragalus membranaceus and Lithospermum erythrorhizon Extract against Hepatic Steatosis in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Mar 19 - "The present study aimed to evaluate the potential synergistic and protective effects of ALM16, a mixture of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Lithospermum erythrorhizon (LE) extract in a ratio of 7 : 3, against hepatic steatosis in high fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mice. Forty-eight mice were randomly divided into eight groups and orally administered daily for 6 weeks with a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet alone (HFD), HFD with AM (HFD + 100 mg/kg AM extract), HFD with LE (HFD + 100 mg/kg LE extract), HFD with ALM16 (HFD + 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg ALM16), or HFD with MT (HFD + 100 mg/kg Milk thistle extract) as a positive control. ALM16 significantly decreased the body and liver weight, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, including triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL), and serum glucose levels, compared to the HFD group. Moreover, ALM16 significantly ameliorated the HFD-induced increased hepatic injury markers, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT)-1. Furthermore, as compared to the mice fed HFD alone, ALM16 increased the levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (p-ACC), thereby upregulating the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 and downregulating the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and fatty acid synthase (FAS)" - See Astragalus at Amazon.com and Lithospermum erythrorhizon at Amazon.com.

Number of high-protein containing meals correlates with muscle mass in pre-frail and frail elderly - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020 Apr 7 - "Protein intake and number of meals with either ≥20 g or ≥30 g of protein were significantly associated (after controlling for confounding factors) with greater total and appendicular lean mass and vastus lateralis CSA ... We found that not only total protein intake but also the number of high-protein containing meals are associated with muscle mass in frail and pre-frail elderly"

Higher serum vitamin D concentrations are longitudinally associated with better global quality of life and less fatigue in colorectal cancer survivors up to 2 years after treatment - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2020 Apr 3 - "At diagnosis, 45% of patients were vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L). After treatment, 25OHD3 concentrations increased on average with 3.1 nmol/L every 6 months. In confounder-adjusted models, 20 nmol/L increments in 25OHD3 were longitudinally associated with increased global quality of life (β 2.9; 95%CI 1.5,4.3) and reduced fatigue (EORTC-QLQ-C30 subscale: β -3.5; 95%CI -5.3,-1.8 and CIS: β -2.8; 95%CI -4.7,-0.9). Observed associations were present both within and between individuals over time" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

N-Acetylcysteine and Safranal prevented the brain damage induced by hyperthyroidism in adult male rats - Nutr Neurosci. 2020 Apr 7 - "Hyperthyroidism is associated with impairment in the neurotransmission and severe tissue damage in the brain ... The ameliorative effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 50 mg/kg, oral) and safranal (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) against hyperthyroidism (L-T4 500 µg/kg, subcutaneous) were investigated. All treatments continued daily over three weeks. Hyperthyroidism was manifested by significant elevations in serum fT3 and fT4 levels and a decline in serum TSH level and body weight. It was also characterized by significant elevations in the levels of dopamine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, and monoamine oxidase activity to varying degrees in the brain regions examined and a significant reduction in norepinephrine in hippocampus only. Hyperthyroidism resulted in a significant oxidative stress in brain typified by elevations in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide content and reductions in glutathione level and SOD and catalase activities. This led to elevations in Caspases 9 and 3 and a reduction in Bcl2 resulting in DNA damage and confirmed by the histopathology of brain tissue. The administration of NAC or safranal with L-T4 prevented these deleterious effects by reducing the oxidative load and improving the brain antioxidant status" - See N-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com and Saffron supplements at Amazon.com.

  • Safranal - Wiki - "Safranal is an organic compound isolated from saffron, the spice consisting of the stigmas of crocus flowers (Crocus sativus). It is the constituent primarily responsible for the aroma of saffron"

DA-9801, a standardized Dioscorea extract, improves memory function via the activation of nerve growth factor-mediated signaling - Nutr Neurosci. 2020 Mar 27 - "Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin that plays a critical role in mammalian learning and memory functions ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin that plays a critical role in mammalian learning and memory functions. NGF also regulates neuronal cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth by activating ERK/CREB signaling. This present study examined the effects of a standardized Dioscorea extract (DA-9801) ... Mice were orally treated with DA-9801 (10 and 100 mg/kg/day) once daily for 7 days. They were subjected to passive avoidance test to evaluate memory functions ... DA-9801 treatment increased the NGF contents and neurite length, respectively. Mice with DA-9801 administration showed memory enhancement in the passive avoidance test. DA-9801 also increased newborn cell differentiation, neurite length, NGF secretion, and ERK/CREB phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus" - See Dioscorea extract at Amazon.com.

Epigallocatechin Gallate Induces Hepatic Stellate Cell Senescence and Attenuates Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2020 Apr 6 - "Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly morbid condition with lack of effective treatment options. HCC arises from chronically inflamed and damaged liver tissue; therefore, chemoprevention may be a useful strategy to reduce HCC incidence. Several reports suggest that Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), extracted from green tea, can suppress liver inflammation and fibrosis in animal models ... male Wistar rats were injected with DEN at 50 mg/kg for 18 weeks to induce cirrhosis and HCC, and EGCG was given in drinking water at a concentration of 0.02%. Clinically achievable dosing of EGCG was well tolerated in DEN-injured rats and was associated with improved serum liver markers including ALT, AST, and total bilirubin, and reduced HCC tumor formation. Transcriptomic analysis of DEN-injured hepatic tissue was notable for increased expression of genes associated with the Hoshida high risk HCC gene signature, which was prevented with EGCG treatment. EGCG treatment also inhibited fibrosis progression, which was associated with inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and induction of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)" - See Epigallocatechin gallate at Amazon.com.

Effects of Lutein and Astaxanthin Intake on the Improvement of Cognitive Functions among Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials - Nutrients. 2020 Feb 27 - "Five studies using lutein and two studies using astaxanthin met the inclusion criteria. Consumption of lutein and its isomer showed consistent results in selective improvement of visual episodic memory in young and middle-aged adults while inhibition was observed in middle-aged and older adults. One of the two included astaxanthin studies reported a significant improvement of verbal episodic memory performance in middle-aged adults. Conclusion: This SR showed that the 10 mg lutein per day for twelve months can lead to improvement of cognitive functions. Due to the small number of studies, it is difficult to conclude whether astaxanthin would have a positive effect on cognitive functions" - [Nutra USA] - See lutein at Amazon.com.

Efficacy and Tolerability of Ashwagandha Root Extract in the Elderly for Improvement of General Well-being and Sleep: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study - Cureus. 2020 Feb 23 - "Participants were randomized to receive Ashwagandha root extract at a dose of 600 mg/day (n = 25) orally, or identical placebo capsules with the same dose (n = 25) for 12 weeks. Efficacy was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, sleep quality, mental alertness on rising, and Physician's Global Assessment of Efficacy to Therapy (PGAET) ... Statistically significant (P<0.0001) improvement was observed in the Ashwagandha treatment group compared to the placebo. The mean (SD) total score of WHOQOL-BREF improved from 140.53 (8.25) at the baseline to 161.84(9.32) at the end of the study. The individual domain scores were also improved. At baseline, the sleep quality and the mental alertness on rising were comparatively low in both the groups. However, upon intervention, a significant increase in the quality of sleep (P<0.0001) and mental alertness (P<0.034) was observed in the Ashwagandha treatment group when compared to the placebo group. Overall improvement was observed for the general wellbeing, sleep quality, and mental alertness in the study population" - [Nutra USA] - See ashwagandha at Amazon.com.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

I've tried over half a dozen face masks. This type is the most comfortable.  That's probably why you see government officials in California on the news wearing them.



Health Focus (Macular Degeneration):