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Home > Anti-aging Research > N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)

N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)

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  • COVID-19 patients have severely increased levels of oxidative stress and oxidant damage, and glutathione deficiency, study finds - Science Daily, 1/3/22 - "Compared to healthy age-matched individuals whose samples were taken before the pandemic started in 2019, patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had significantly increased levels of oxidative stress and oxidant damage, and markedly reduced levels of glutathione ... GlyNAC, a combination of glutathione precursors previously shown to reduce oxidative stress and oxidant damage and increase glutathione as well as improve health indicators such as inflammation, might be beneficial to COVID-19 patients. However, GlyNAC supplementation has not as yet been studied in association with COVID-19 ... Increased oxidative stress and reduced glutathione levels are associated with a number of conditions including aging, diabetes, HIV infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disorders, neurometabolic diseases, obesity and others ... supplementing GlyNAC, a combination of glutathione precursors, improved these defects in all these populations" - Note: NAC has been know for years to increase glutathione. Taking glutathione doesn't work. Amazon and several others have stopped selling NAC. See the article below. I bought about a three year supply from iHerb.  See glycine products at Amazon.com and NAC at iHerb.
    • GlyNAC improves multiple defects in aging to boost strength and cognition in older humans - Science Daily, 3/29/21 - "supplementation with GlyNAC -- a combination of glycine and N-acetylcysteine as precursors of the natural antioxidant glutathione -- could improve many age-associated defects in older humans to improve muscle strength and cognition, and promote healthy aging ... older humans taking GlyNAC for 24 weeks saw improvements in many characteristic defects of aging, including glutathione deficiency, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, body fat, genomic toxicity, muscle strength, gait speed, exercise capacity and cognitive function. The benefits declined after stopping supplementation for 12 weeks. GlyNAC supplementation was well tolerated during the study period ... Mitochondria generate energy needed for supporting cellular functions by burning fat and sugar from foods, therefore mitochondrial health is critically important for life. Sekhar believes that improving the health of malfunctioning mitochondria in aging is the key ... I am particularly encouraged by the improvements in cognition and muscle strength ... Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are serious medical conditions affecting memory in older people and leading to dementia, and there are no effective solutions for these disorders. We are exploring the possibility that GlyNAC could help with these conditions by conducting two pilot randomized clinical trials to test whether GlyNAC supplementation could improve defects linked to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and in MCI, and possibly improve cognitive function."
    • GLYNAC (NAC & GLYCINE) 60 x 500mg capsules - youthandearth - "GLYNAC is a powerful precursor to Glutathione consisting of two amino acids NAC (N-acetylcysteine) and Glycine ... Supplementation with GLYNAC has been shown to raise Glutathione levels"
    • FDA Requests Information Relevant to the Use of NAC as a Dietary Supplement - fda.gov - "The FDA is asking interested parties to submit such information by January 25, 2022, while the agency continues to evaluate both citizen petitions. The agency will use the information submitted for our analysis and provide a final response to both petitioners directly once we complete our review."
    • Ask the Pharmacist: NAC supplements going away soon - marconews.com, 5/17/21 - "Cysteine is a natural compound and N acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a dietary supplement. That’s how you can find it in health food stores, as “NAC.” But you won’t find it for long, so if you want NAC, you should buy it now. It’s already virtually gone from Amazon! ... There’s a disagreement between the Food and Drug Administration and the dietary supplement industry over how legal it is for dietary supplements to put this amino acid into their supplements. The NAC is also available by prescription. It is forcing Amazon and other selling platforms to take sides on the issue."
  • Lawmaker’s letter to FDA demands clarity on NAC issue - Nutra USA, 10/29/21
  • FDA Requests Information Relevant to the Use of NAC as a Dietary Supplement - fda.gov - "The FDA is asking interested parties to submit such information by January 25, 2022, while the agency continues to evaluate both citizen petitions. The agency will use the information submitted for our analysis and provide a final response to both petitioners directly once we complete our review."
  • Ask the Pharmacist: NAC supplements going away soon - marconews.com, 5/17/21 - "Cysteine is a natural compound and N acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a dietary supplement. That’s how you can find it in health food stores, as “NAC.” But you won’t find it for long, so if you want NAC, you should buy it now. It’s already virtually gone from Amazon! ... There’s a disagreement between the Food and Drug Administration and the dietary supplement industry over how legal it is for dietary supplements to put this amino acid into their supplements. The NAC is also available by prescription. It is forcing Amazon and other selling platforms to take sides on the issue."
  • GlyNAC improves multiple defects in aging to boost strength and cognition in older humans - Science Daily, 3/29/21 - "supplementation with GlyNAC -- a combination of glycine and N-acetylcysteine as precursors of the natural antioxidant glutathione -- could improve many age-associated defects in older humans to improve muscle strength and cognition, and promote healthy aging ... older humans taking GlyNAC for 24 weeks saw improvements in many characteristic defects of aging, including glutathione deficiency, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, body fat, genomic toxicity, muscle strength, gait speed, exercise capacity and cognitive function. The benefits declined after stopping supplementation for 12 weeks. GlyNAC supplementation was well tolerated during the study period ... Mitochondria generate energy needed for supporting cellular functions by burning fat and sugar from foods, therefore mitochondrial health is critically important for life. Sekhar believes that improving the health of malfunctioning mitochondria in aging is the key ... I am particularly encouraged by the improvements in cognition and muscle strength ... Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are serious medical conditions affecting memory in older people and leading to dementia, and there are no effective solutions for these disorders. We are exploring the possibility that GlyNAC could help with these conditions by conducting two pilot randomized clinical trials to test whether GlyNAC supplementation could improve defects linked to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and in MCI, and possibly improve cognitive function." - See glycine products at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant precursor molecule could improve Parkinson's - Science Daily, 7/16/19 - "This study is an important step in understanding how N-acetylcysteine might work as a potentially new avenue for managing Parkinson's patients. The NAC appears to enable dopamine neurons to recover some of their function ... Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) ... Compared to controls, the patients receiving NAC had improvements of 4-9% in dopamine transporter binding and also showed improvements in their UPDRS score of about 14%"
  • Preclinical testing suggests some antioxidants may be effective in treating mitochondrial disease - Science Daily, 3/27/18 - "Mitochondrial disease results from malfunctions in mitochondria, the energy-generating "batteries" powering our cells. The disease is highly variable and may affect potentially any organ and body system ... In the current study, two compounds, the drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E, showed compelling results in mitochondrial disease model animals. The compounds prolonged lifespan in mitochondrial complex I disease worms and protected complex I disease zebrafish from brain damage. NAC also improved survival in the cells obtained from a patient with mitochondrial complex I disease" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com and vitamin E products at Amazon.com.
  • Decongestant revealed as 'highly effective' in starving cancer cells - Science Daily, 11/21/17 - "Patients taking high dosages of NAC saw their levels of the 'transporter' protein fall by more than 80%, drastically reducing the ability of the cancer cells to feed off neighbouring cells"
  • resh faced: Looking younger for longer - Science Daily, 1/10/14 - "While UVB radiation easily causes sunburn, UVA radiation penetrates deeper, damaging our DNA by generating free radicals which degrades the collagen that gives skin its elastic quality ... the most potent anti-oxidants were those that targeted the batteries of the skin cells, known as the mitochondria. They compared these mitochondrial-targeted anti-oxidants to other non-specific antioxidants such as resveratrol, found in red wine, and curcumin found in curries, that target the entire cell. They found that the most potent mitochondrial targeted anti-oxidant was Tiron which provided 100%, protection of the skin cell against UVA sun damage and the release of damaging enzymes causing stress-induced damage ... Tiron is not a naturally occurring compound and has not yet been tested for toxicity in humans although there have been a few studies on rats ... Antioxidants in our diets from green tea, resveratrol which is found in red wine, turmeric which is used in curries and lycopene found in tomatoes, as well as some components in cosmetic creams, are known to neutralise this damage within the cells. They can slow down the damage and the rate of aging and potentially lower the rate of other sun-induced skin lesions ... Resveratrol, the antioxidant found in red wine, was found to protect against 22% of both the ultraviolet A radiation and stress-induced damage. NAC, a frequently used laboratory-based anti-oxidant, offered 20% protection against oxidative stress and 8% against UVA and curcumin offered 16% protection against oxidative stress and 8% against UVA" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Amino acid offers potential therapeutic alternative in psychiatric disorders - Science Daily, 10/8/13 - "drug discovery is at a near standstill for treating psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and common forms of autism ... According to Professor Berk, there is now an incontrovertible evidence base that these disorders share inflammation and oxidative stress as part of their disease physiology ... The amino acid, NAC, seems to have multiple effects on all these pathways: it boosts glutathione, which is the body’s major antioxidant defence; has anti-inflammatory properties; enhances levels of nerve cell growth proteins and the growth of new neurons; and reduces cell death pathways. It also appears to reduce dysfunction of mitochondria ... NAC reduces the core symptoms of schizophrenia including negative symptoms such as improved apathy, social interaction and motivation. It also appears to reduce depression in people with bipolar disorder and at this meeting ... there is intriguing evidence that it reduces cravings in a number of addictions including cocaine, cannabis and cigarette smoking"
  • Neuron loss in schizophrenia and depression could be prevented, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/13/13 - "It now appears that parvalbumin neurons are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress, a factor that may emerge commonly in development, particularly in the context of psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, where compromised mitochondrial function plays a role. Parvalbumin neurons may be protected from this effect by N-acetylcysteine, also known as Mucomyst, a medication commonly prescribed to protect the liver against the toxic effects of acetaminophen (Tylenol) overdose ... This study raises the possibility that GABA neuronal deficits in psychiatric disorder may be preventable using a drug, N-acetylcysteine, which is quite safe to administer to humans"
  • Antioxidant improves donated liver survival rate to more than 90% - Science Daily, 2/25/13 - "Results indicate that graft survival rates at 3 and 12 months were 93% and 90%, respectively, for patients receiving NAC infused livers; rates were 82% and 70% in the control group. Post-transplant complication rates were 23% for the NAC group and 51% in the control group. Analysis of the 61 patients receiving suboptimal livers the incidence of organ dysfunction was lower in the NAC group compared to controls at 15% and 32%, respectively"
  • Natural antioxidant can protect against cardiovascular disease - Science Daily, 6/16/12 - "The enzyme -- glutathione peroxidase, or GPx3 -- is a natural antioxidant that helps protect organisms from oxidant injury and helps the body naturally repair itself. Researchers have found that patients with high levels of good cholesterol, the GPx3 enzyme does not make a significant difference. However, those patients with low levels of good cholesterol, the GPx3 enzyme could potentially be a big benefit ... The new research, published June 16 by PLoS One, supports the view that natural antioxidants may offer the human body profound benefits ... people with high levels of the GPx3 enzyme and low levels of good cholesterol were six times less likely to develop cardiovascular disease than people with low levels of both"
    • Glutathione supplements pills benefit and side effects - raysahelian.com -  "This antioxidant, made from the combination of three amino acids cysteine, glutamate, and glycine, forms part of the powerful natural antioxidant glutathione peroxidase which is found in our cells ... Supplements that help make glutathione ... Acetylcysteine ... ALA ... Pycnogenol ... The frequent use of acetaminophen (Tylenol) depletes glutathione peroxidase levels" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • N-Acetylcysteine Mucolysis in the Management of COPD : Abstract and Introduction - Medscape, 6/14/12 - "NAC may exert its mucolytic and mucoregulatory action via several mechanisms (Figure 3). First, it works through depolymerization of the mucin glycoprotein oligomers by hydrolyzing the disulfide bonds that link the mucin monomers. This is possible because of the presence of free thiols (sulfhydryl groups). Therefore, NAC decreases the sputum viscosity in vitro [Sheffner, 1963; Davis et al. 1975] and acts as a mucolytic. Second, it plays a mucoregulatory role as it can decrease sputum hypersecretion in experimental rat models [Rogers et al. 1989]. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to inhibit the mucus secretory cell hyperplasia and enhanced expression of the MUC5AC gene in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats [Mata et al. 2003]"
  • Antioxidant shows promise as treatment for certain features of autism - Science Daily, 5/29/12 - "The antioxidant, called N-Acetylcysteine, or NAC, lowered irritability in children with autism as well as reducing the children's repetitive behaviors"
  • N-Acetyl Cysteine Effective for Bipolar Depression - Medscape, 6/10/11 - "oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder ... NAC is a cysteine analogue shown to effectively raise plasma levels of the primary antioxidant, glutathione. NAC also modulates cytokines, glutamates neurotransmission, and enhances neurogenesis ... significant differences (P < .001) were found between baseline and week 8 for all study measures. Minimal side effects occurred" - Note:  That seems like a high dose but I would think most would take a lower lower dose over a longer period of time which may be as effective.
  • Antioxidant Study Suggests Possibility of "Sunburn Pill" - Medscape, 12/11/09 - "The researchers theorize that people at increased risk for melanoma could take NAC as a "sunburn pill" before exposure to large amounts of sunlight. Such an approach, they add, could theoretically reduce a person's lifetime risk of melanoma and also minimize the problems associated with taking a daily medication"
  • Amino Acid May Help Reduce Cocaine Cravings - Science Daily, 10/23/09 - "N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a commonly available and generally nontoxic amino acid derivative, reverses changes in the brain's circuitry associated with cocaine addiction. The reversal appears to lessen the cravings associated with cocaine, thus providing protection against relapse" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Medication Effective For Acute Liver Failure In Early Stages Of Disease, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 10/8/09 - "Researchers found that 52 percent of acute liver failure patients in mild to moderate comas survived when treated with NAC, compared to just 30 percent of those treated with only a placebo. In patients experiencing more severe coma, treatment with NAC did not result in a significant difference in survival rates" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • High-Dose N-Acetylcysteine Reduces Contrast Nephropathy - Medscape, 9/14/09 - "the odds of contrast-induced nephropathy were 54% lower in patients randomized to high-dose N-acetylcysteine, compared to those randomized to a control group"
  • Health Food Supplement May Curb Compulsive Hair Pulling - Science Daily, 7/6/09 - "Patients were given 1,200 mg of N-Acetylcysteine every day for six weeks. For the following six weeks, the dosage was increased to 2,400 mg per day. After nine weeks, those on supplement had significantly reduced hair-pulling. By the end of the 12 week study, 56 percent reported feeling much or very much improved, while only 16 percent on the placebo reported less pulling"
  • New Therapeutic Properties Of N-acetyl-L-cysteine Discovered - Science Daily, 1/19/09 - "N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) combined with mesalamine produces a significant improvement in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine, is a drug normally used for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to minimize the effects of cold and flu. Its hepatic protective properties also make this drug a useful tool in paracetamol intoxications ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine reduced the negative effects caused by azathioprine, a immunosuppressant of clinical use, on the liver"
  • Add-On Therapy Improves Depressive Symptoms In Bipolar Disorder - Science Daily, 9/2/08 - "sought to evaluate whether N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter supplement that increases brain glutathione, might help alleviate depressive symptoms ... Glutathione is the brain’s primary antioxidant defense, and there is evidence of increased oxidative stress in bipolar disorder. Therefore, we studied the potential benefit of NAC treatment in bipolar disorder and found that it impressively remedied residual depressive symptoms" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Before A CT Scan Or Angiogram, Many People Should Take Inexpensive Drug To Protect Kidneys - Science Daily, 2/18/08 - "The inexpensive drug, called N-acetylcysteine, can prevent serious kidney damage that can be caused by the iodine-containing "dyes" that doctors use to enhance the quality of such scans ... N-acetylcysteine is already widely used to clear mucus in cystic fibrosis patients, and to treat overdoses of acetaminophen"
  • Treatment With NAC Is Associated With Better Outcomes For Children With Liver Failure, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/3/08 - "The children who received NAC spent fewer days in intensive care, and in the hospital overall. 43 percent survived with their native liver, compared to 22 percent of children who did not receive NAC. And death rates while awaiting transplant, after transplant, and after ten years were notably lower in children who had received NAC"
  • N-acetyl Cysteine May Aid in Treatment of Schizophrenia - Doctor's Guide, 10/16/07 - "The study showed that NAC improves certain symptoms of schizophrenia, and therefore implicated glutathione deficiency in the pathogenesis"
  • Short-Course N-Acetylcysteine Effective for Acetaminophen Overdose - Medscape, 10/4/07 - "A shortened course of as few as six oral doses of N-acetylcysteine appears to be an effective treatment for certain patients with acute acetaminophen poisoning"
  • Health Food Supplement May Curb Addiction Of Pathological Gamblers - Science Daily, 9/11/07
  • How Vitamin C Stops Cancer - Science Daily, 9/10/07 - "Both of these cancers produce high levels of free radicals that can be suppressed by feeding the mice supplements of antioxidants, either vitamin C or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) ... Some rapidly growing tumors consume enough energy to easily suck out the available oxygen in their vicinity, making HIF-1 absolutely critical for their continued survival. But HIF-1 can only operate if it has a supply of free radicals. Antioxidants remove these free radicals and stop HIF-1, and the tumor, in its tracks" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • One Type Of Antioxidant May Not Be As Safe As Once Thought - Science Daily, 9/4/07 - "The research team administered both NAC and nitrosothiols to mice for three weeks. The NAC was converted by red blood cells into the nitrosothiol, S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNOAC). The normal mice that received NAC and SNOAC developed PAH. Mice missing an enzyme known as endothelial nitric oxide synthase did not convert NAC to SNOAC, and were protected from the adverse effects of NAC, but not SNOAC. This suggests that NAC must be converted to SNOAC to cause PAH ... Could regular use of NAC produce the same effects in humans? The next step is to determine a threshold past which antioxidant use becomes detrimental to heart or lung function"
  • Antioxidant, B vitamin Combo to slow dementia? - Nutra USA, 12/6/04 - "the glutathione precursor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is not only a potent antioxidant but also a source of cysteine. Cysteine is required to generate hydrogen sulphide - an important neuromodulator and vasorelaxant. Levels of hydrogen sulphide levels are severely decreased in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients"
  • No Difference between N-Acetylcysteine and Fenoldopam for Thwarting Contrast-Induced Nephropathy - Doctor's Guide, 11/8/04 - "A randomized study failed to show a significant difference in the ability of oral N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and intravenous fenoldopam (FEN) to prevent the deterioration in renal function"
  • NAC supplement for brain damage in boys - Nutra USA, 5/4/04 - "Because it enhances the production of the enzyme glutathione, NAC is thought to both stave off disease and play an important role in boosting the immune system"
  • Thiol-Containing Antioxidant Shows Promise in Preventing Contrast Nephropathy - Doctor's Guide, 8/25/03 - "Treatment with acetylcysteine, a thiol-containing antioxidant, shows promise in preventing contrast nephropathy in patients with chronic renal insufficiency"
  • High Cysteine Levels Linked to Lower Rates of Breast Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 7/15/03 - "Women in the highest quintile for measured cysteine levels in this study had a 56% lower risk of invasive or in situ breast cancer than women in the lowest quintile ... The findings were more pronounced when only invasive cancer was considered ... Cysteine or its precursors might have the potential to be chemoprotective against breast cancer"
  • N-Acetyl Cysteine Prevents Kidney Damage from Coronary Procedure - New Hope Natural Media, 5/1/03 - "Up to 15% of people undergoing coronary angiography may experience kidney damage from the contrast dye ... randomly assigned to receive either 600 mg of oral NAC twice a day on the day before and the day of the procedure or a similar looking placebo ... Only 4% of those taking NAC, compared with 12% of those taking the placebo, experienced a 25% increase in blood creatinine within 48 hours of receiving the contrast dye"
  • Cardiovascular End Points Reduced With Antioxidant Acetylcysteine In Haemodialysis Patients - Doctor's Guide, 2/28/03 - "They were assigned to receive either acetylcysteine 600 mg twice daily or a placebo ... Primary end point was a composite variable composed of cardiac events that included fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, death from cardiovascular disease, necessity for either coronary angioplasty or by-pass surgery, ischaemic stroke, peripheral vascular disease requiring amputation or need for angioplasty ... A primary end point was established in 18 of the 64 [28%] haemodialysed patients who received acetylcysteine, and 33 of 70 [47%] patients undergoing haemodialysis assigned to the control group" - [Abstract]
  • N-Acetyl Cysteine Improves Insulin Resistance in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - New Hope Natural Media, 12/12/02 - "PCOS ... affects up to 10% of all women of reproductive age ... characterized by enlargement of the ovaries, irregular menstrual cycle, failure to ovulate, obesity, high levels of insulin in the blood and insulin resistance, excessive hair growth (due to increased testosterone) and infertility. More than 50% of all women with PCOS have high insulin levels, which may be a risk factor for diabetes, high blood pressure, blood clots and heart disease ... Women with high initial insulin levels who took NAC had a significant reduction in insulin levels following the glucose tolerance test and also showed improved insulin sensitivity"
  • Acetylcysteine Can Reduce Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Endstage Renal Disease - Doctor's Guide, 10/1/02 - "therapy with acetylcysteine appears to significantly reduce cardiovascular events among haemodialysis patients" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Getting More Glutathione? - Dr. Weil, 8/29/02 - "To my knowledge, the only supplement that effectively raises glutathione levels in the body is N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). My colleague Kathleen Johnson, a dietician here at the Program in Integrative Medicine, tells me that other glutathione supplements are ineffective because they’re digested before they can get into the bloodstream"
  • Putting Antioxidants To Use In Functional Formulas - Functional Foods & Nutraceuticals, 5/02 - "N-acetylcysteine (NAC), like alpha-lipoic acid, is a potential antioxidant and precursor to glutathione. However, NAC is also a powerful immune stimulant. For example, an Italian study of 262 elderly subjects found that 600mg NAC, taken twice daily, reduced flu symptoms by two-thirds.18 Large dosages of NAC—up to several grams daily—can extend the life expectancy of patients with AIDS,19 and some research suggests that it may also reduce the risk of cancer"
  • Acetylcysteine Prevents Renal Problems After Angiography - Doctor's Guide, 3/18/02 - "Changes in creatinine mean values after 48 hours were -0.4 (+/-0.3) and +0.1 (+/-0.3) mg/dL for treatment and control groups, respectively (p<0.001). The benefit was larger in patients with baseline creatinine levels higher than 2 mg/dL, at -0.4 (+/-0.4) compared to +0.5 (+/-0.3) mg/dL (p<0.001)"
  • Antioxidant Boosts Cognitive Function In Alzheimer's Patients - Intelihealth, 11/15/01 - "the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may improve certain cognitive skills in people with Alzheimer's disease ... Although participants in the NAC group did not outperform placebo patients in day-to-day activities, they did fare significantly better than the placebo group on certain cognitive tests"
  • N-acetylcysteine Improves Blood Vessels - Nutrition Science News, 5/01 - "Researchers suspect this is because NAC enhances the bioavailability of the relaxing substance nitric oxide, but because nitric oxide has a short half-life and cannot be measured by current methodology, they were unable to determine this directly. In addition, NAC may act as an antioxidant that protects nitric oxide destruction"
  • Glutathione: The Eye Healer Within - Nutrition Science News, 4/01 - "Supplementing with glutathione to boost glutathione levels is not well understood. Glutathione is a large molecule that is not easily absorbed, but it is a tripeptide with cysteine—a sulfur-bearing amino acid—in the middle. As cysteine is broken down in the digestive tract, its sulfur is absorbed and utilized to make more glutathione"


  • Glutathione a Potential Biomarker for Postpartum Suicide - Medscpe, 4/7/23 - "reduced serum GSH levels were significantly lower for those with moderate to high suicide risk than for those without suicide risk. Their findings suggest that GSH may be a potential biomarker or etiologic factor among women at risk for suicide, with therapeutic implications" - Note: The best way in increase glutathione is to take NAC. See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • N-acetyl-L-cysteine attenuates oxidative stress-induced bone marrow endothelial cells apoptosis by inhibiting BAX/caspase 3 pathway - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2023 Mar 17 - "Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) play a crucial role in the maintenance of bone homeostasis. The decline in BMECs is associated with abnormal bone development and loss ... In conclusion, this study could improve our understanding of the mechanism of oxidative stress-induced BMECs injury and whether NAC has therapeutic potential in senile osteoporosis"
  • The effects of N-acetylcysteine on ovulation and sex hormones profile in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Nutr 2023 Jan 4 - "Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine diseases characterized by unusual levels of sex hormones and dysfunction of the ovaries. The infertility rate is high among patients with PCOS. Unusual hormonal status can lead to the inability of ovaries to release functional and mature follicles. Clinical trials on the effects of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) supplementation on ovulation and sex hormones profile in women with PCOS have been controversial ... Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects approach in case of significant between-study heterogeneity. Eighteen studies, including 2,185 participants, were included in the present meta-analysis. NAC significantly reduced total testosterone levels (SMD: -0.25 ng/mL; 95% CI: -0.39, -0.10; "P<0.001", I2 =53.9%, p= 0.034), and increased FSH levels (SMD: 0.39 IU/ml; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.71; p= 0.01, I2 = 70.9%, p= 0.002). Estrogen levels also increased after correcting publication bias. However, no significant effect was observed on the number of follicles, endometrial thickness, progesterone, serum LH levels, and SHBG. The results indicated that NAC supplementation decreased total testosterone levels and increased FSH levels. Overall, NAC supplementation might be effective in the improvement of reproductive system function in patients with PCOS"
  • Evaluation the cognition-improvement effects of N-acetyl cysteine in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy in rat - Behav Brain Res 2022 Dec 20 - "Memory impairment is a critical issue in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Neuronal loss within the hippocampus and recurrent seizures may cause cognitive impairment in TLE. N -acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine that is currently being investigated due to its protective effects on neurodegenerative disorders ... These results suggest that NAC improved memory impairment via anticonvulsant and neuroprotective activity and, in all probability, by lowering the level of mTOR."
  • Impact of N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) on Tuberculosis (TB) Patients-A Systematic Review - Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Nov 21 - "Sustained TB infection overproduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a host defense mechanism. Research shows ROS is destructive to lung tissue. Glutathione (GSH) neutralizes ROS, although it is consumed. NAC is a precursor of GSH synthesis, and administering an appropriate dose of NAC to patients with respiratory conditions may enhance lung recovery and replenish GSH ... The use of NAC resulted in increased GSH levels, decreased treatment time, and was safe with minimal adverse events. However, the evidence is currently insufficient to estimate the overall effects of NAC, thus the study warrants more NAC clinical trials to demonstrate its effects in TB treatment" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Taurine and N-acetylcysteine treatments prevent memory impairment and metabolite profile alterations in the hippocampus of high-fat diet-fed female mice - Nutr Neurosci 2022 Oct 12 - "Obesity constitutes a risk factor for cognitive impairment. In rodent models, long-term exposure to obesogenic diets leads to hippocampal taurine accumulation. Since taurine has putative cyto-protective effects, hippocampal taurine accumulation in obese and diabetic models might constitute a counteracting response to metabolic stress ... We tested the hypothesis that treatment with taurine or with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which provides cysteine for the synthesis of taurine and glutathione, prevent high-fat diet (HFD)-associated hippocampal alterations and memory impairment ... NAC and taurine can prevent memory impairment, while only NAC prevents alterations of metabolite concentrations in HFD-exposed female mice" - See Ttaurine at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • The Hunt for N-Acetylcysteine: Medicine or Dietary Supplement? - Medscape, 10/4/22 - "while the FDA investigation continues, the agency will essentially look the other way ... It's a win for the consumer who wants the supplement, and a half-win for the supplement manufacturers and their advocacy organizations who would like NAC to be an official dietary supplement. But just to be clear, the issue is one of a technicality: If NAC had been marketed as a supplement before it was a drug, it would just be a dietary supplement without all the controversy and scrutiny. It was not pulled because of a clinical concern"
  • N-acetylcysteine improves impulse control and attenuates relapse-like alcohol intake in long-term drinking rats - Behav Brain Res 2022 Sep 1 - "In conclusion, our findings continue to support the use of NAC as an adjuvant treatment for the maintenance of abstinence in AUD. Moreover, we provide evidence for NAC's efficacy in improving impulse control following drinking, which warrants further investigation in substance use settings"
  • N-acetylcysteine attenuates atherosclerosis progression in aging LDL receptor deficient mice with preserved M2 macrophages and increased CD146 - Atherosclerosis 2022 Aug 13 - "Early and adequate NAC treatment could effectively attenuate inflammation and atherosclerosis progression with preserved M2 population and increased CD146 level in aging LDLR-/- mice without extreme hyperlipidemia"
  • Efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in Preventing Acute Kidney Injury and Major Adverse Cardiac Events After Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis - Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 Jun 22 - "Results of subgroup analysis results showed that intravenous infusion instead of oral NAC could significantly reduce the incidence of AKI and arrhythmia (RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.71, 0.99, P = 0.03, I 2 = 3% and RR = 0.74" - Note: If the IV worked and the oral didn't, maybe it's a dosage thing?
  • Long noncoding RNA-EN_181 potentially contributes to the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice - Br J Nutr 2022 Jun 17 - "N-acetylcysteine (NAC) possesses a strong capability to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced nonalcoholic-fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown ... Overall, lncRNA-EN_181 might be a potential target in NAC-ameliorated NAFLD. This finding enhanced our understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of NAC." - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • N-Acetylcysteine alleviates high fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis and liver injury via regulating the intestinal microecology in mice - Food Funct 2022 Mar 1 - "N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-accepted antioxidant, has been shown to protect against high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of the beneficial role of NAC is still not fully understood ... These results suggested that the homeostasis of the gut microbiota plays an important role in NAC-improved NAFLD by affecting the enterohepatic axis"
  • Cardiorespiratory and metabolic fitness indicators in novice volleyball trainees: effect of 1-week antioxidant supplementation with N-acetyl-cysteine/zinc/vitamin C - J Int Med Res 2021 Dec;49(12) - "This study aimed to determine the effect of 7-day dietary supplementation of N-acetylcysteine (NAC)/zinc/vitamin C on the time-to-exhaustion (TTE), the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) index, and metabolic indicators ... This study enrolled volleyball student trainees (n = 18 men) who took NAC/zinc/vitamin C (750 mg/5 mg/100 mg) for 7 days ... Supplementation improved the TTE and CRF index, and lowered cytochrome c, C-reactive protein, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), total cholesterol, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin values" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com, zinc supplements at Amazon.com and vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • GlyNAC Supplementation Improves Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Inflammation, Aging Hallmarks, Metabolic Defects, Muscle Strength, Cognitive Decline, and Body Composition: Implications for Healthy Aging - J Nutr 2021 Sep 29 - "Supplementation with GlyNAC (combination of glycine and N-acetylcysteine as a cysteine precursor) was found to improve/correct cellular glycine, cysteine, and GSH deficiencies; lower OxS; and improve mitochondrial function, inflammation, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, genotoxicity, and multiple aging hallmarks; and improve muscle strength, exercise capacity, cognition, and body composition ... GlyNAC supplementation could be a novel nutritional approach to improve age-associated defects and promote healthy aging, and existing data strongly support the need for additional studies to explore the role and impact of GlyNAC supplementation in aging" - See glycine products at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • N-acetyl cysteine co-treatment abates perfluorooctanoic acid-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats - Andrologia 2021 Mar 16 - "Perfluorooctanoic acid is a synthetic perfluoroalkyl-persistent in the environment and toxic to humans. N-acetylcysteine is a pro-drug of both amino acid l-cysteine and glutathione-a non-enzymatic antioxidant. N-acetylcysteine serves as an antidote for paracetamol poisoning and alleviates cellular oxidative and inflammatory stressors ... Co-treatment with N-acetylcysteine significantly (p < .05) reversed perfluorooctanoic acid-mediated decreases in reproductive enzyme activities, and adverse effect on testosterone, luteinising and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. N-acetylcysteine treatment alone, improved sperm motility, count and viability, and reduced total sperm abnormalities. Co-treatment with N-acetylcysteine mitigated perfluorooctanoic acid-induced alterations in sperm function parameters. N-acetylcysteine abated (p < .05) perfluorooctanoic acid-induced oxidative stress in experimental rats testes and epididymis, and generally improved antioxidant enzyme activities and cellular thiol levels. Furthermore, N-acetylcysteine suppressed inflammatory responses and remedied perfluorooctanoic acid-mediated histological injuries in rat. Cooperatively, N-acetylcysteine enhanced reproductive function in perfluorooctanoic acid dosed rats, by lessening oxidative and nitrative stressors and mitigated inflammatory responses in the examined organ." - See See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine on the male reproductive system: A systematic review - Andrologia 2020 Nov 9 - "It is undeniable that N-acetyl cysteine as a powerful antioxidant compound can medicate many diseases such as cardiovascular, kidney, liver and reproductive system disorders. With the increasing environmental pollution that has a direct adverse effect on male fertility, the use of this compound is able to positively function on human fertility health. In this study, we have been collected the main data of scientific articles (1994-2020) about N-acetyl cysteine effects. By searching in the scientific databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Wiley and Web of Science, related articles were extracted. As a result, all observations have confirmed that N-acetyl cysteine can improve and normalise the spermatogenesis in the male reproduction system"
  • Effects of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress and inflammation reactions in a rat model of allergic rhinitis after PM 2.5 exposure - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Sep 18 - "As a ROS quenching agent, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can attenuate the accumulation of inflammatory cells and hyper-responsiveness in animal asthma models. To explore the effect of NAC on the oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in AR rats exposed to PM2.5, we analyzed the components of PM2.5 and examined the nasal symptoms, redox level in nasal mucosa, Th1/Th2-related serum cytokines, nasal mucosal histopathology and ultrastructure in AR rat models with NAC intervention after PM2.5 exposure. The results showed that the high concentrations of metal cations and PAHs in PM2.5 could aggravate Th2-dominant allergic inflammation in AR model and cause redox imbalance, accompanied by nasal epithelial cell stripping and eosinophil infiltration, while NAC intervention could alleviate the clinical symptoms of AR model after PM2.5 exposure, correct the redox imbalance, reduce the Th2 cytokines, reduce eosinophil infiltration, and promote the moderate regeneration of epithelial cells. The mechanism of NAC reversing PM2.5-mediated action may be related to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, which may provide some new insights for the prevention of AR exacerbated by exposure to PM2.5." - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Rationale for the use of N-acetylcysteine in both prevention and adjuvant therapy of COVID-19 - FASEB J 2020 Aug 11 - "COVID-19 may cause pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiovascular alterations, and multiple organ failure, which have been ascribed to a cytokine storm, a systemic inflammatory response, and an attack by the immune system. Moreover, an oxidative stress imbalance has been demonstrated to occur in COVID-19 patients. N- Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is a precursor of reduced glutathione (GSH). Due to its tolerability, this pleiotropic drug has been proposed not only as a mucolytic agent, but also as a preventive/therapeutic agent in a variety of disorders involving GSH depletion and oxidative stress. At very high doses, NAC is also used as an antidote against paracetamol intoxication. Thiols block the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 thereby hampering penetration of SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Based on a broad range of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, which are herein reviewed, the oral administration of NAC is likely to attenuate the risk of developing COVID-19, as it was previously demonstrated for influenza and influenza-like illnesses. Moreover, high-dose intravenous NAC may be expected to play an adjuvant role in the treatment of severe COVID-19 cases and in the control of its lethal complications, also including pulmonary and cardiovascular adverse events."
  • N-Acetylcysteine and Safranal prevented the brain damage induced by hyperthyroidism in adult male rats - Nutr Neurosci. 2020 Apr 7 - "Hyperthyroidism is associated with impairment in the neurotransmission and severe tissue damage in the brain ... The ameliorative effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 50 mg/kg, oral) and safranal (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) against hyperthyroidism (L-T4 500 µg/kg, subcutaneous) were investigated. All treatments continued daily over three weeks. Hyperthyroidism was manifested by significant elevations in serum fT3 and fT4 levels and a decline in serum TSH level and body weight. It was also characterized by significant elevations in the levels of dopamine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, and monoamine oxidase activity to varying degrees in the brain regions examined and a significant reduction in norepinephrine in hippocampus only. Hyperthyroidism resulted in a significant oxidative stress in brain typified by elevations in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide content and reductions in glutathione level and SOD and catalase activities. This led to elevations in Caspases 9 and 3 and a reduction in Bcl2 resulting in DNA damage and confirmed by the histopathology of brain tissue. The administration of NAC or safranal with L-T4 prevented these deleterious effects by reducing the oxidative load and improving the brain antioxidant status" - See N-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com and Saffron supplements at Amazon.com.
  • The efficacy and safety of nutrient supplements in the treatment of mental disorders: a meta-review of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials - World Psychiatry. 2019 Oct;18(3):308-324 - "The strongest evidence was found for PUFAs (particularly as eicosapentaenoic acid) as an adjunctive treatment for depression. More nascent evidence suggested that PUFAs may also be beneficial for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whereas there was no evidence for schizophrenia. Folate-based supplements were widely researched as adjunctive treatments for depression and schizophrenia, with positive effects from RCTs of high-dose methylfolate in major depressive disorder. There was emergent evidence for N-acetylcysteine as a useful adjunctive treatment in mood disorders and schizophrenia. All nutrient supplements had good safety profiles, with no evidence of serious adverse effects or contraindications with psychiatric medications" - [Full Text] - [Nutra USA] - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com, methylfolate at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • N-Acetylcysteine Rinse for Thick Secretion and Mucositis of Head and Neck Chemoradiotherapy (Alliance MC13C2): A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial - Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 Aug 9 - "Our pilot data showed that N-acetylcysteine rinse was safe and provided strong evidence of potential efficacy for improving thickened saliva and xerostomia by patient-reported outcome"
  • Protective antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine against impairment of spermatogenesis caused by paranonylphenol - Andrologia. 2018 Aug 1:e13114 - "The findings of this study indicate that NAC as a potent antioxidant be able to compensate the adverse effects of p-NP in spermatogenesis, testis and levels of testosterone and MDA in the p-NP + NAC group significantly compared to the p-NP group"
  • Adjunctive nutrients in first-episode psychosis: A systematic review of efficacy, tolerability and neurobiological mechanisms - Early Interv Psychiatry. 2018 Mar 21 - ""first-episode psychosis" (FEP) ... Eleven studies with a total of 451 patients with FEP (from 8 independent randomized controlled trials) were eligible for inclusion. Six studies examined omega-3 fatty acids, with inconsistent effects on psychiatric symptoms. However, mechanistic studies found significant improvements in hippocampal neuronal health and brain glutathione. Antioxidants "n-acetyl cysteine" (n = 1) and vitamin C (n = 2) also improved oxidative status in FEP, which was associated with reduced psychiatric symptoms. No benefits were found for vitamin E (n = 1). Finally, one study trialling the amino acid taurine, showed significant improvements in positive symptoms and psychosocial functioning" - [Nutra USA] - See n-acetyl cysteine, vitamin C and taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Improved Cardiovascular Function in Old Mice after N-Acetyl Cysteine and Glycine Supplemented Diet: Inflammation and Mitochondrial Factors - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018 Mar 10 - "Metabolic, inflammatory and functional changes occur in cardiovascular aging which may stem from oxidative stress and be remediable with antioxidants. Glutathione, an intracellular antioxidant, declines with aging, and supplementation with glutathione precursors, N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) and Glycine (Gly), increases tissue glutathione. Thirty month-old mice were fed diets supplemented with NAC or NAC+Gly and, after seven weeks, cardiac function and molecular studies were performed.The NAC+Gly supplementation improved diastolic function, increasing peak early filling velocity, and reducing relaxation time, left atrial volume, and left ventricle end diastolic pressure. By contrast, cardiac function did not improve with NAC alone. Both diet supplementations decreased cardiac levels of inflammatory mediators; only NAC+Gly reduced leukocyte infiltration. Several mitochondrial genes reduced with aging were upregulated in hearts by NAC+Gly diet supplementation. These Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation enzymes, suggesting improved mitochondrial function, and permeabilized cardiac fibers from NAC+Gly fed mice produced ATP from carbohydrate and fatty acid sources, whereas fibers from control old mice were less able to utilize fatty acids" - See glycine products at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • N-acetylcysteine versus ascorbic acid or N-acetylcysteine plus ascorbic acid in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis - Nephrology (Carlton). 2017 Apr 27 - "In conclusion, the prevention effect of NAC administration and VC or NAC + VC administration on CIN was similar in patients undergoing contrast administration. But NAC administration was associated with a significantly lower serum creatinine levels compared to VC and NAC + VC administration" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • N-Acetylcysteine accelerates amputation stump healing in the setting of diabetes - FASEB J. 2017 Mar 9 - "Compared with controls, mice treated with daily NAC demonstrated improved postamputation stump healing, perfusion, adductor muscle neovascularization, and decreased muscle fiber damage" - Note:  That doesn’t pertain to very many people but it brings up the likelihood that it might benefit other types of surgery.  See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • 'Medical Food' May Slow Brain Atrophy in Patients With Alzheimer's and Related Disorders - Medscape, 10/31/16 - "In a study of 67 participants, those with both HHcy and ADRD who took the L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin, and N-acetyl-cysteine product for 2 years had an adjusted hippocampal atrophy rate more than 4 times slower than that in the participants with ADRD and no HHcy who did not take the prescription medical food. The rate of cortical atrophy was more than 11 times slower in the treatment group ... the reductions in rate of brain tissue loss "were quite dramatic" and he especially didn't expect the cortical finding ... The take-away message…is that elevated homocysteine is common and should be regularly checked for in all persons over 50 years old, and it should be treated when found ... HHcy has a worldwide prevalence of 5.1% to 29% in individuals who are older than 65 years. "Furthermore, the odds of brain atrophy are up to 10 times higher in HHcy patients than in those with normal homocysteine levels,"" - See L-methylfolate, methylcobalamin, and N-acetyl-cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • NACIAM: N-Acetylcysteine Reduces Infarct Size - Medscape, 8/28/16 - "Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging performed within 1 week and again 3 months post-MI showed that patients who received NAC had reductions in infarct size of 33% and 50%, respectively, compared with placebo ... Over 2 years of follow-up, the combination of cardiac readmissions and deaths was less frequent in NAC-treated (three vs 16 patients" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Oral N-acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentrations regardless of lipid or smoking status - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct 7 - "hyperlipidemic group (HYL ... Four weeks of oral NAC treatment significantly decreased plasma tHcy concentrations, irrespective of lipid or smoking status, and lowered systolic blood pressure in both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic men, with significant diastolic blood pressure reductions in the HYL group only. Increased oral intake of cysteine may therefore be considered for primary or secondary prevention of vascular events with regard to the 2 independent risk factors of hyperhomocysteinemia and arterial hypertension"
  • Antioxidant treatment ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced depressive-like behavior and reduces oxidative stress in brain and pancreas - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2015 Oct 3 - "This study aimed to evaluate the effects of antioxidants n-acetylcysteine (NAC) and deferoxamine (DFX) on behavior and oxidative stress parameters in diabetic rats. To this aim, after induction of diabetes by a single dose of alloxan, Wistar rats were treated with NAC or DFX for 14 days and then depressive-like behavior was evaluated ... Diabetic rats displayed depressive-like behavior and treatment with NAC reversed this alteration. Carbonyl protein levels were increased in the PFC, hippocampus, and pancreas of diabetic rats, and both NAC and DFX reversed these alterations. Lipid damage was increased in the PFC, hippocampus, amygdala, and pancreas, however treatment with NAC or DFX reversed lipid damage only in the hippocampus and pancreas"
  • Improved oxidative status in major abdominal surgery patients after N-acetyl cystein supplementation - Nutr J. 2015 Jan 6;14(1):4 - "Increased levels of reactive oxygen species during and after surgery may affect inflammatory response, post-operative adhesion molecule formation, and hemodynamic stability. The glutathione redox cycle is an important regulator in oxidative stress and its reduced forms scavenge free radicals. N-acetyl cysteine, a precursor of reduced glutathione, is considered as a potentially therapeutic wide spectrum agent in clinical practice ... Thirty-three patients diagnosed with pancreas, stomach, rectum, colon malignancies, and undergoing major abdominal surgery ... The study demonstrated the clinical importance of N-acetyl cysteine supplementation on antioxidant parameters in abdominal surgery patients. In these patients N-acetyl cysteine and vitamin administration can be considered as an effective method for improvement of oxidative status"
  • Glutathione redox imbalance in brain disorders - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Nov 15 - "we summarize current evidence on how GSH depletion and GSH-related enzyme deficit are involved in the pathology of brain disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease ... The potential therapeutic agents for brain disorders include N-acetylcysteine, liposomes encapsulated with GSH, and whey protein supplement, which can increase the GSH levels in the brain and alleviate oxidative stress-associated damage and may improve the behavior of individuals with brain diseases ... GSH plays an important role during the onset and progression of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. GSH redox imbalance may be a primary cause of these brain disorders and may be used as a biomarker for diagnosis of these diseases. N-acetylcysteine and other agents that can increase the concentration of GSH in the brain are promising approaches for the treatment of these brain disorders"
  • N-acetylcysteine prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress elicited in macrophages by serum albumin drawn from chronic kidney disease rats and selectively affects lipid transporters, ABCA-1 and ABCG-1 - Atherosclerosis. 2014 Sep 30;237(1):343-352 - "NAC may contribute to attenuate the deleterious effects of CKD-albumin on lipid accumulation in macrophages helping to prevent atherogenesis in CKD"
  • N-Acetylcysteine administration prevents nonthyroidal illness syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomized clinical trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Aug 22 - "The acute phase of the non-thyroidal syndrome (NTIS) is characterized by low triiodothyronine (T3) and high reverse T3 (rT3) levels, affecting up to 75% of critically ill patients. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a causative factor of the disturbed peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism ... NAC administration prevents the derangement in thyroid hormone concentrations commonly occurring in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction, indicating that oxidative stress is involved in the NTIS pathophysiology"
  • N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Decreases Osteoclast Differentiation and Increases Bone Mass in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet - J Nutr. 2013 Dec 31 - "Obesity induced by high-fat (HF) diets increases bone resorption, decreases trabecular bone mass, and reduces bone strength in various animal models ... Forty-eight 6-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (n = 12 per group) and fed either a normal-fat [NF (10% energy as fat)] or an HF (45% energy as fat) diet ad libitum with or without NAC supplementation at 1 g/kg diet for 17 wk ... These results show that NAC supplementation increases the bone mass of obese mice induced by an HF diet through elevating glutathione status and decreasing bone resorption"
  • A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Cannabis-Dependent Adolescents - Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Jun 15 - "Participants receiving NAC had more than twice the odds, compared with those receiving placebo, of having negative urine cannabinoid test results during treatment (odds ratio=2.4, 95% CI=1.1-5.2) ... Findings support NAC as a pharmacotherapy to complement psychosocial treatment for cannabis dependence in adolescents"
  • Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 27 - "Compared with younger control subjects, elderly subjects had markedly lower RBC concentrations of glycine (486.7 +/- 28.3 compared with 218.0 +/- 23.7 μmol/L; P < 0.01), cysteine (26.2 +/- 1.4 compared with 19.8 +/- 1.3 μmol/L; P < 0.05), and glutathione (2.08 +/- 0.12 compared with 1.12 +/- 0.18 mmol/L RBCs; P < 0.05); lower glutathione fractional (83.14 +/- 6.43% compared with 45.80 +/- 5.69%/d; P < 0.01) and absolute (1.73 +/- 0.16 compared with 0.55 +/- 0.12 mmol/L RBCs per day; P < 0.01) synthesis rates; and higher plasma oxidative stress (304 +/- 16 compared with 346 +/- 20 Carratelli units; P < 0.05) and plasma F(2)-isoprostanes (97.7 +/- 8.3 compared with 136.3 +/- 11.3 pg/mL; P < 0.05). Precursor supplementation in elderly subjects led to a 94.6% higher glutathione concentration, a 78.8% higher fractional synthesis rate, a 230.9% higher absolute synthesis rate, and significantly lower plasma oxidative stress and F(2)-isoprostanes. No differences in these measures were observed between younger subjects and supplemented elderly subjects ... Glutathione deficiency in elderly humans occurs because of a marked reduction in synthesis. Dietary supplementation with the glutathione precursors cysteine and glycine fully restores glutathione synthesis and concentrations and lowers levels of oxidative stress and oxidant damages. These findings suggest a practical and effective approach to decreasing oxidative stress in aging" - See l-glycine at Amazon.com and n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term dietary antioxidant cocktail supplementation effectively reduces renal inflammation in diabetic mice - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 3:1-8 - "Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlies the development of diabetic complications remains unknown. We hypothesised that dietary antioxidant supplementation with single N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vitamin C combined with either vitamin E or vitamin E and NAC improves diabetic renal inflammation through the modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Experimental animals were treated with alloxan monohydrate to induce diabetes. Mice were divided into five groups and supplemented with single or a combination of antioxidants. Body weights and blood glucose levels were measured once a week. After 8 weeks of dietary antioxidant supplementation, mice were killed and blood urea N (BUN) and plasma creatinine levels were measured to evaluate renal function. NF-κB protein was indirectly demonstrated by the phosphorylated IκBα (pIκBα) level, and the expressions of oxidative stress- and inflammatory response-related proteins were also determined. We demonstrated that dietary antioxidant supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation levels demonstrated by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, BUN and plasma creatinine levels in diabetic kidneys. Moreover, dietary antioxidant cocktail supplementation improved blood glucose levels and selectively regulated the expressions of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, haeme oxygenase-1, pIκBα, inducible NO synthase, cyclo-oxygenase-2 and C-reactive protein in diabetic kidneys effectively. These findings demonstrated that diabetic renal failure was associated with inflammatory responses induced by hyperglycaemia. In addition, results in the study suggest that antioxidant cocktail supplementation may have beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy through selective reduction of blood glucose levels and inflammatory response"
  • N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action - J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2010 Nov 1;35(6):100057 - "This review outlines the current literature regarding the use of NAC in disorders including addiction, compulsive and grooming disorders, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. N-acetylcysteine has shown promising results in populations with these disorders, including those in whom treatment efficacy has previously been limited. The therapeutic potential of this acetylated amino acid is beginning to emerge in the field of psychiatric research"
  • N-Acetylcysteine interacts with copper to generate hydrogen peroxide and selectively induce cancer cell death - Cancer Lett. 2010 Jul 26 - "NAC/Cu(II) significantly alters growth and induces apoptosis in human cancer lines, yet NAC/Zn(II) and NAC/Fe(III) do not. We further confirmed that this cytotoxicity of NAC/Cu(II) is attributed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings indicate that the combination of Cu(II) and thiols generates cytotoxic ROS that induce apoptosis in cancer cells. They also indicate a fourth class of anti-neoplastic metal-binding compounds, the "ROS generators""
  • Effects of N-acetylcysteine on Semen Parameters and Oxidative/Antioxidant Status - Urology. 2009 May 8 - "To examine whether a beneficial effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on semen parameters and oxidative/antioxidant status in idiopathic male infertility exists ... NAC had significant improving effects on the volume, motility, and viscosity of semen" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • N-acetylcysteine versus AScorbic acid for Preventing contrast-Induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography NASPI study-a prospective randomized controlled trial - Am Heart J. 2009 Mar;157(3):576-583 - "High-dose NAC seems more beneficial than ascorbic acid in preventing contrast-induced renal function deterioration in patients, especially diabetic patients, with renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography"
  • Effect of alpha-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine and omeprazole on esophageal adenocarcinoma formation in a rat surgical model - Int J Cancer. 2008 Oct 20 - "oxidative stress subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux is an important driving force of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) formation in the esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA) rat model. This study investigated the possible tumor inhibitory effects of 2 antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol (389 and 778 ppm), N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 500 and 1,000 ppm), and their combination (389 and 500 ppm, respectively), as well as an antacid therapeutic agent, omeprazole (1,400 ppm) ... alpha-Tocopherol dose-dependently decreased the incidence of EAC (p = 0.03), with 778 ppm alpha-tocopherol reducing the incidence of EAC to 59% (16/27) in comparison with 84% (26/31) in the control group (p = 0.04). Supplementation of alpha-tocopherol also increased the serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol. NAC at 500 and 1,000 ppm did not significantly decrease EAC incidence; however, the combination of alpha-tocopherol 389 ppm and NAC 500 ppm significantly reduced the incidence of EAC to 55% (15/27) (p = 0.02). alpha-Tocopherol alone or in combination with NAC significantly reduced the number of infiltrating cells positively stained for 4-hydroxynonenal. Omeprazole showed only a slight nonsignificant inhibitory effect at the dose given"
  • Efficacy of a Vitamin/Nutriceutical Formulation for Early-stage Alzheimer's Disease: A 1-Year, Open-Label Pilot Study With an 16-Month Caregiver Extension - Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2008 Dec 1 - "We examined the efficacy of a vitamin/nutriceutical formulation (folate, vitamin B6, alpha-tocopherol, S-adenosyl methionine, N-acetyl cysteine, and acetyl-L-carnitine) in a 12-month, open-label trial with 14 community-dwelling individuals with early-stage Alzheimer's disease. Participants improved in the Dementia Rating Scale and Clock-drawing tests (Clox 1 and 2). Family caregivers reported improvement in multiple domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and maintenance of performance in the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Sustained performance was reported by caregivers for those participants who continued in an 16-month extension. Performance on the NPI was equivalent to published findings at 3 to 6 months for donepezil and exceeded that of galantamine and their historical placebos. Participants demonstrated superior performance for more than 12 months in NPI and ADL versus those receiving naproxen and rofecoxib or their placebo group. This formulation holds promise for treatment of early-stage Alzheimer's disease prior to and/or as a supplement for pharmacological approaches"
  • N-Acetylcysteine prevents ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats - Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 18 - "NAC markedly reduces the severity of renal dysfunction induced by ifosfamide with a significant decrease in elevations of serum creatinine (57.8+/-2.3 vs 45.25+/-2.1 mumol l(-1)) as well as a reduced elevation of beta(2)-microglobulin excretion (25.44+/-3.3 vs 8.83+/-1.3 nmol l(-1)) and magnesium excretion (19.5+/-1.5 vs 11.16+/-1.5 mmol l(-1)). Moreover, NAC significantly improved the ifosfamide-induced glutathione depletion and the decrease of glutathione S-transferase activity, lowered the elevation of lipid peroxides and prevented typical morphological damages in renal tubules and glomeruli" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Long Term N-Acetylcysteine and L-Arginine Administration Reduces Endothelial Activation and Systolic Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Diabetes Care. 2008 Feb 11 - "The NAC+ARG administration seems to be a potential well-tolerated antiatherogenic therapy since it improves the endothelial function in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes by improving NO bioavailability via reduction of the oxidative stress and increase of NO production. Our study's results give prominence to its potential use in the primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention in these patients"
  • N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study - Eur Heart J. 2008 Feb 8 - "The result of this study indicates that NAC treatment decreases the incidence of postoperative AF" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of folic acid and N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease - Acta Cardiol. 2007 Dec;62(6):579-85 - "either folic acid 5 mg or NAC 600 mg or placebo daily for eight weeks ... endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) ... Folic acid and NAC therapies decreased plasma homocysteine (from 21.7 +/- 8.7 micromol/l to 12.5 +/- 2.5 micromol/l, P < 0.001; from 20.9 +/- 7.6 micromol/l to 15.6 +/- 4.3 micromol/l, P = 0.03, respectively), and increased EDD (6.7 +/- 6.1% P = 0.002, 4.4 +/- 2.6% P < 0.001, respectively) compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in improving EDD between the folic acid and the NAC group"
  • Telmisartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Inhibits Advanced Glycation End-product (AGE)-induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in Mesangial Cells Through Downregulation of Receptor for AGEs via Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma Activation - J Int Med Res. 2007 Jul-Aug;35(4):482-9 - "Candesartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, did not suppress AGEs-induced superoxide generation. Telmisartan and the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, completely inhibited AGEs-induced MCP-1 overproduction by mesangial cells"
  • Acetylcysteine for Prevention of Acute Deterioration of Renal Function Following Elective Coronary Angiography and Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial - JAMA, 2/5/03 - "Acetylcysteine protects patients with moderate chronic renal insufficiency from contrast-induced deterioration in renal function after coronary angiographic procedures, with minimal adverse effects and at a low cost" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.