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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 10/2/19

Fruit flies live longer with combination drug treatment - Science Daily, 9/30/19 - "lithium as a mood stabiliser, trametinib as a cancer treatment and rapamycin as an immune system regulator ... The three drugs in question act on different proteins of this network to slow the ageing process and delay the onset of age-related death ... Each drug individually extended lifespan by an average of 11%, while pairing two drugs extended lifespan by roughly 30%. When the three drugs were combined, the fruit flies lived 48% longer than flies in a control group that were not given the treatment ... Previous studies in fruit flies have achieved lifespan extensions of about 5-20%, so we found it was quite remarkable that this drug combination enabled them to live 48% longer ... Rapamycin has undesirable effects on fat metabolism, which can be similar to insulin resistance in people, but lithium appeared to cancel out this effect when the two drugs were given together" - See lithium supplements at Amazon.com.

Is Melatonin Safe to Take Every Night? - Time, 10/1/19 - "A 0.5 mg dose may be all that’s needed for sleep-cycle regulation, and should be taken three to five hours before bed, he says. For people who want to take melatonin just before bed, a 5 mg dose is appropriate. “Some people report headaches or stomach problems at higher doses, but those side-effects are uncommon,” he says ... Still, there are other concerns. “Melatonin has an incredible safety record, no doubt about it,” says Dr. Mark Moyad, the Jenkins/Pomkempner director of preventive and alternative medicine at the University of Michigan. “But it’s a hormone, and you don’t want to mess around with hormones until you know what they’re doing.” ... People with existing medical problems should discuss melatonin with their doctor before using it" - Err! That last line raised my blood pressure.  Do doctors even have any training is supplements?  I had a run-in with some doctors over supplements. They’ve been putting out the same line my entire life. It reminds me of my second-grade teacher talking about communism and how their leaders put of the communist line when even they don’t believe it. Most doctors and nurses even take supplements. Things like saying the supplements aren’t tested for impurities when ConsumberLab and CVS test them all the time. Have they read the news on valsartan and Zantac being recalled for cancer causing impurities? - See melatonin at Amazon.com.

Fish Oil Supplements May Do Your Heart Good - WebMD, 9/30/19 - "The most up-to-date review of data from 13 prior studies found daily omega-3 fish oil supplement use tied to a significant lowering of risk for heart attack ... Daily use of the supplement -- typically about 840 milligrams per day -- was also linked to a lower overall risk of dying from heart disease ... the 13 studies involved data on more than 120,000 adults, a sample size that is 64% larger than any other yet conducted ... the researchers pointed out that there was a "dose-response" relationship in the findings: The more omega-3 fish oil a person took in each day, the greater their protection against heart disease" - [Science Daily] - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Vitamin C therapy linked to better survival rates after sepsis - Science Daily, 10/1/19 - "intravenous vitamin C therapy reduced mortality in septic patients from 46% in the placebo group to almost 30% in the vitamin C group at day 28 ... This therapy could potentially transform the way we care for sepsis patients. We may have found a lifesaving therapy" - See American Health Ester-c With Citrus Bioflavonoids 500 Mg, 240 Count.

High-fructose and high-fat diet damages liver mitochondria - Science Daily, 10/1/19 - "high levels of fructose in the diet inhibit the liver's ability to properly metabolize fat. This effect is specific to fructose. Indeed, equally high levels of glucose in the diet actually improve the fat-burning function of the liver. This explains why high dietary fructose has more negative health impacts than glucose does, even though they have the same caloric content ... Fructose makes the liver accumulate fat. It acts almost like adding more fat to the diet. This contrasts the effect of adding more glucose to the diet, which promotes the liver's ability to burn fat, and therefore actually makes for a healthier metabolism ... In the high-fat plus fructose group, these mitochondria are fragmented and they're not able to burn fat as well as the healthy mitochondria. But looking at the high-fat diet plus glucose group, those mitochondria become more normal looking because they are burning fat normally"

No need to cut down red and processed meat, study says - Science Daily, 9/30/19 - "In one review of 12 trials with 54,000 people, the researchers did not find statistically significant or an important association between meat consumption and the risk of heart disease, diabetes or cancer ... In three systematic reviews of cohort studies following millions of people, a very small reduction in risk among those who had three fewer servings of red or processed meat a week, but the association was uncertain" - [WebMD] - [NYT] - [NYT2]

7 ways drinking more water can make you healthier - CNET, 9/25/19 - "You'll feel energized ... You're less likely to get constipated ... You'll be in a better mood ... Keep headaches at bay ... No more mindless snacking ... A lower resting heart rate ... Your kidneys will thank you"

Molecule links weight gain to gut bacteria - Science Daily, 9/27/19 - "Their findings could have far-ranging implications for obesity in affluent countries and malnutrition in impoverished countries ... In the study, published this week by Science, Dr. Lora Hooper and her research team found that the commensal, or good, bacteria that live in the guts of mammals program the metabolic rhythms that govern the body's absorption of dietary fat ... Most mice on that diet become obese. To our surprise, those that had no HDAC3 in their intestinal lining were able to eat a high fat, high sugar diet and stay lean ... disrupting the interactions between the microbiota and the body's clock could make us more likely to become obese. These disruptions happen frequently in modern life when we take antibiotics, work overnight shifts, or travel internationally. But we think that our findings might eventually lead to new treatments for obesity -- and possibly malnutrition -- by altering the bacteria in our guts" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.

Common nutrient supplementation may hold the answers to combating Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 9/27/19 - "when these mice are given high choline in their diet throughout life, they exhibit improvements in spatial memory, compared with those receiving a normal choline regimen ... Choline acts to protect the brain from Alzheimer's disease in at least two ways, both of which are explored in the new study. First, choline blocks the production of amyloid-beta plaques. Amyloid-beta plaques are the hallmark pathology observed in Alzheimer's disease ... Secondly, choline supplementation reduces the activation of microglia. Over-activation of microglia causes brain inflammation and can eventually lead to neuronal death, thereby compromising cognitive function. Choline supplementation reduces the activation of microglia, offering further protection from the ravages of AD ... it is well understood that Alzheimer's disease causes harm to the brain long before clinical symptoms are made evident. And once these symptoms are identified, it is too late -- the disease has become irreversible. In addition to causing disorientation and memory loss, the disease causes loss of motor control in those who are afflicted ... This study shows that the simple addition of choline in the diet throughout life may reduce AD pathology in those most affected by the disease ... The current established adequate intake level of choline for adult women (>19yrs of age) is 425mg/day, and 550mg/day for adult men. A converging line of evidence indicates that even the current recommended daily intake (RDI) may not be optimal for a proper aging process, especially in women ... The tolerable upper limit (TUL) of choline unlikely to cause side effects for adult females and males (>19yrs of age) is 3500mg/day, which is 8.24 times higher than the 425mg/day recommendation for females and 6.36 times higher than the 550mg/day recommendation for males ... vitamin supplements containing choline, for example choline bitartrate and choline chloride, are widely available at affordable costs. The vitamin supplements containing choline are particularly relevant for those who are on plant-based diets" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.

As we age, oral health plays increasing role in overall health - Science Daily, 9/26/19 - "the prevalence of cavities is more than twice as high in older adults than younger adults. The prevalence of periodontitis -- a serious gum infection that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone that supports your teeth -- also increases with age. As many as 64% of older adults in the U.S. have periodontitis ... Periodontitis is associated with a variety of medical conditions including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Patients with replacement heart valves and prosthetic joints should be particularly careful regarding their oral hygiene" - See Gum Go-Betweens at Amazon.com.  I dip them in PerioGard® but they tell you not to rinse with PerioGard® as it will discolor your teeth.  I noticed that if I don't do it every two or three days that when I finally do it, there's blood on the brush.

Omega-3s Recommended as Adjunctive Therapy for Major Depression - Medscape, 9/25/19 - "The guideline notes that there is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as an adjunctive treatment for MDD. The guideline authors also note that omega-3s are safe and effective for accelerating the effect of antidepressants at treatment initiation and for augmenting existing antidepressant therapy when efficacy is inadequate ... With respect to formulation and dosage, the guideline recommends pure eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or a combination of EPA and docosahexaenoic acid, with net EPA starting from at least 1 g/day up to 2 g/day for at least 8 weeks as adjunctive treatment. Importantly, the authors note that the quality of n-3 PUFAs may affect therapeutic activity ... The guideline also endorses n-3 PUFAs as a potential prophylactic treatment for high-risk populations, in addition to standard medical care" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Gum disease linked with higher risk of hypertension - Science Daily, 9/24/19 - "Moderate-to-severe periodontitis was associated with a 22% raised risk for hypertension, while severe periodontitis was linked with 49% higher odds of hypertension"

Vitamin D and fish oil show promise in prevention of cancer death and heart attacks - Science Daily, 9/24/19 - "Nearly 26,000 U.S. men and women participated in the nationwide VITAL clinical trial. After more than five years of study and treatment, the results show promising signals for certain outcomes. For example, while Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) showed only a small, but nonsignificant, reduction in the primary cardiovascular endpoint of major CVD events, they were associated with significant reductions in heart attacks. The greatest treatment benefit was seen in people with dietary fish intake below the cohort median of 1.5 servings per week but not in those whose intake was above that level. In addition, African-Americans appeared to experience the greatest risk reductions. The heart health benefits are now confirmed by recent meta-analyses of omega-3 randomized trials. ... Similarly, vitamin D supplementation did not reduce major CVD events or total cancer incidence but was associated with a statistically significant reduction in total cancer mortality among those in the trial at least two years. The effect of vitamin D in reducing cancer death is also confirmed by updated meta-analyses of vitamin D trials to date." - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Plain Water Better Than Hand Sanitizer for Influenza A - Medscape, 9/13/19 - "The researchers say the key factor that determines the effectiveness of ethanol-based disinfectants (EBDs) is whether there is wet mucus surrounding the virus. Wet mucus prevents the disinfectant from reaching the virus, which means the virus remained active after 120 seconds of EBD exposure ... By contrast, washing hands under plain water for 30 seconds inactivated the virus, regardless of whether it was initially surrounded by wet or dry mucus"

Low Vitamin D Levels, Shorter Life? - WebMD, 9/20/29 - "Those with low vitamin D levels in their blood were nearly three times more likely to die during the study period than those with adequate levels ... When it came to the cause of death, vitamin D levels were most clearly linked to deaths from diabetes complications ... In fact, a recent study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, yielded disappointing results: Researchers found that vitamin D supplements did not help prevent type 2 diabetes in people at high risk of the disease ... But that may be in part because supplements later in life might not be enough to prevent a disease ... In general, vitamin D concentrations of 50 nmol/L or higher are considered to be high enough for overall health" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Dietary Calcium Intake and Bone Loss Over 6 Years in Osteopenic Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 9/20/19 - "The present demonstration of an absence of an effect of dietary calcium intake on bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women, together with other data reviewed above, suggests that calcium intakes in the range studied here are not a critical factor for maintenance of postmenopausal bone. This should be reflected in the advice provided to the public and in the advocacy undertaken by groups active in bone-health promotion. This finding is of immediate relevance to public health endeavors for osteoporosis prevention and to those counseling patients regarding fracture prevention"

Inulin: Is This Commonly Used Fiber Additive Friend or Foe? - Medscape, 9/19/19 - "The amount of inulin that should be consumed depends on individual tolerance and goals. In adults with specific conditions, the following amounts are recommended[19]: For those with diabetes: 10 g/day for 8 weeks ... For weight loss: 10-30 g/day for 6-8 weeks ... To lower high triglycerides: 14 g/day ... To relieve constipation: 12-40 g/day for 4 weeks" - Note:  I posted my ice cream recipe several times where I substituted have the sugar with inulin.

Weeding Out the Problem: The Impact of Preoperative Cannabinoid Use on Pain in the Perioperative Period - Medscape, 9/19/19 - "Patients who were on preoperative cannabinoids had higher pain numerical rating score (median [25th, 75th percentiles]) at rest (5.0 [3.0, 6.1] vs 3.0 [2.0, 5.5], P = .010) and with movement (8.0 [6.0, 9.0] vs 7.0 [3.5, 8.5], P = .003), and a higher incidence of moderate-to-severe pain at rest (62.3% vs 45.5%, respectively, P = .004; odds ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.25–3.14) and with movement (85.7% vs 75.2% respectively, P = .021; odds ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.10–3.57) in the early postoperative period compared to patients who were not on cannabinoids. There was also a higher incidence of sleep interruption in the early postoperative period for patients who used cannabinoids."

Electric tech could help reverse baldness - Science Daily, 9/19/19 - "Because the devices are powered by the movement of the wearer, they don't require a bulky battery pack or complicated electronics. In fact, they're so low-profile that they could be discreetly worn underneath the crown of an everyday baseball cap ... Small devices called nanogenerators passively gather energy from day-to-day movements and then transmit low-frequency pulses of electricity to the skin. That gentle electric stimulation causes dormant follicles to "wake up." ... Because the electric pulses are incredibly gentle and don't penetrate any deeper than the very outermost layers of the scalp, the devices don't seem to cause any unpleasant side effects. That's a marked advantage over other baldness treatments, like the medicine Propecia, which carries risks of sexual dysfunction, depression and anxiety." - Sounds similar to iRestore.  For what it's worth, iRestore has a higher Amazon rating than Rogaine.

Abstracts from this week:

Scutellarin suppresses patient-derived xenograft tumor growth by directly targeting AKT in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2019 Sep 25 - "Scutellarin is a flavonoid compound that is found in scutellaria barbata. It has been reported to exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammation activities ... We found that scutellarin directly binds to the AKT1/2 proteins and inhibits activities of AKT1/2 in vitro. The AKT protein is activated in ESCC tissues and knockdown of AKT significantly suppresses growth of ESCC cells. Scutellarin significantly inhibits anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth and induces G2 phase cell cycle arrest in ESCC cells. The inhibition of cell growth by scutellarin is dependent on the expression of the AKT protein. Notably, scutellarin strongly suppresses patient-derived xenograft ESCC tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. Taken together, our data suggest that scutellarin is a novel AKT inhibitor that may prevent progression of ESCC" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.

Protective effects of vitamin D on neurophysiologic alterations in brain aging: role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) - Nutr Neurosci. 2019 Sep 16:1-10 - "Vitamin D supplementation significantly mitigated the observed aging-related reduction in brain BDNF level and activities of AChE and antioxidant enzymes and elevation in malondialdehyde level and caspase-3 activity compared to control groups. Brain BDNF level correlated positively with serum 25(OH) D level and brain AChE activity and negatively with brain malondialdehyde level and caspase-3 activity in supplemented groups. Conclusion: Restoring vitamin D levels may, therefore, represent a useful strategy for healthy brain aging. Augmenting brain BDNF seems to be a key mechanism through which vitamin D counteracts age-related brain dysfunction" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

  • Brain-derived neurotrophic factor - wikipedia.com - "BDNF acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support the survival of existing neurons, and encourage the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses.[9][10] In the brain, it is active in the hippocampus, cortex, and basal forebrain—areas vital to learning, memory, and higher thinking.[11] BDNF is also expressed in the retina, kidney, saliva, prostate, motor neurons and skeletal muscle.[12][13] ... BDNF itself is important for long-term memory"

Pioglitazone Exposure Reduced the Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Sep 23 - "After adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, Diabetes Complications Severity Index scores, and drugs used, mortality rates were 30.26 and 15.02 per 1000 person-years for pioglitazone nonusers and users, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of mortality was 0.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-0.58, p < 0.001) for pioglitazone users compared with nonusers. The aHRs of CV and non-CV deaths were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.51-1.19) and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.38-0.66), respectively. The aHRs of hospitalized coronary artery disease, hospitalized stroke, and incident heart failure were not significantly different between pioglitazone users and nonusers"

Higher Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Better Attentional Functions: Data from the NorCog Register - J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(8):725-731 - "The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate which cognitive domains are mostly affected in persons with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, defined as 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l and < 25 nmol/l, respectively ... Vitamin D-insufficiency was found in approx. 30 % of the study cohort. After adjustment for relevant covariates, higher serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with higher score on MMSE-NR (p=0.032) and 10-word Memory Test, immediate recall (p=0.038), as well as faster execution of Trail Making Test A and B (p=0.038 and p=0.021, respectively). Other tests were not significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels ... Higher vitamin D levels appear to be associated with better cognition, especially in areas of executive function and mental flexibility" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

A novel Gymnema sylvestre extract protects pancreatic beta-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis - Phytother Res. 2019 Sep 12 - "Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β, TNF-α, and interferon-γ are known to be involved in mediating β-cells death in diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, protecting from β-cells death in patients with DM may be a useful target in alleviating symptoms of hyperglycemia. Traditional plant-based remedies have been used to treat DM for many centuries and may play a role in protecting β-cell from death. An example of these remedies is Gymnema sylvestre (GS) extract ... Om Santal Adivasi (OSA®) maintained cell membrane integrity in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. Om Santal Adivasi significantly protected MIN6 cells and mouse islets from cytokine-induced apoptosis. In the presence of cytokines, OSA® significantly reduced the expression and activity of caspase-3. The antiapoptotic effect of OSA® as shown by microarray analysis is largely mediated by activating pathways involved in cell survival (mainly casein kinase II pathway) and the free radical scavenger system (specifically superoxide dismutase and catalase). This study indicates that the GS isolate OSA® protects against cytokine-induced apoptosis of β-cells by increasing the expression of cell survival pathways and free radical scavenger system" - See Gymnema sylvestre at Amazon.com.

The gut microbiota influences skeletal muscle mass and function in mice - Sci Transl Med. 2019 Jul 24;11(502) - "We compared the skeletal muscle of germ-free mice that lacked a gut microbiota to the skeletal muscle of pathogen-free mice that had a gut microbiota. Compared to pathogen-free mouse skeletal muscle, germ-free mouse skeletal muscle showed atrophy, decreased expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, and reduced transcription of genes associated with skeletal muscle growth and mitochondrial function. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry analysis of skeletal muscle, liver, and serum from germ-free mice revealed multiple changes in the amounts of amino acids, including glycine and alanine, compared to pathogen-free mice. Germ-free mice also showed reduced serum choline, the precursor of acetylcholine, the key neurotransmitter that signals between muscle and nerve at neuromuscular junctions. Reduced expression of genes encoding Rapsyn and Lrp4, two proteins important for neuromuscular junction assembly and function, was also observed in skeletal muscle from germ-free mice compared to pathogen-free mice. Transplanting the gut microbiota from pathogen-free mice into germ-free mice resulted in an increase in skeletal muscle mass, a reduction in muscle atrophy markers, improved oxidative metabolic capacity of the muscle, and elevated expression of the neuromuscular junction assembly genes Rapsyn and Lrp4 Treating germ-free mice with short-chain fatty acids (microbial metabolites) partly reversed skeletal muscle impairments" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.

The relationship between vitamin D status and depression in a tactical athlete population - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2019 Sep 10;16(1):40 - "Depression (defined using diagnostic codes) was more prevalent in individuals who were diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency (20.4%) than in individuals who were not (4.2%). After adjustment, vitamin D deficient diagnoses remained significantly associated with depression diagnoses (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.11–1.33, p < 0.001). Furthermore, vitamin D deficient diagnoses were strongly associated with geographic latitude ... These results suggest that service members stationed at installations located at northerly latitudes may be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D deficient service members may be at higher risk for diagnosis of depression. As a number of military service members avoid reporting symptoms or seeking treatment, vitamin D status may be a useful screening tool to identify service members at risk for depression" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study to Examine the Effects of Maritime Pine Extract on Exercise Performance and Postexercise Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Muscle Soreness, and Damage - J Diet Suppl. 2019 Mar 19:1-12 - "The purpose of the present study was to examine whether 14 days of supplementation with maritime pine extract leading up to and following an exercise test would increase performance and reduce biomarkers associated with muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress ... Analysis via ordinal regression demonstrated a significant difference in oxidative stress in the maritime pine extract group compared to placebo (ChiSq = 2.63; p = 0.045). Maritime pine extract was effective at affording protection from oxidative stress postexercise" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.

The effect of ypericum perforatum on postmenopausal symptoms and depression: A randomized controlled trial - Complement Ther Med. 2019 Aug;45:109-113 - "Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) is an herbal plant that has antidepressant activity and contains ingredients such as flavonols derivatives, bioflavonoids, proanthocyanidins, xanthones, phloroglucinol, and naphthodianthrones ... The frequency and intensity of hot flashes and the score of Kupperman scale significantly decreased in the H. perforatum group compared to the control group (p < 0.001). In addition, the intensity of depression significantly decreased in the H. perforatum group compared to the control group. At the end of the study, 80% of women in the intervention group did not have depression compared to only 5.7% in the control group (p < 0.001)" - [Nutra USA] - See St. John's wort at Amazon.com.

Bacopa monnieri, a Neuroprotective Lead in Alzheimer Disease: A Review on Its Properties, Mechanisms of Action, and Preclinical and Clinical Studies - Drug Target Insights. 2019 Jul 31 - "Many traditional plants especially B monnieri have intricate mixtures of chemical compounds, which exhibit various pharmacological and biological activities. They have been used as traditional medicines and for anti-aging. According to the long-established hypothesis, plant compounds are able to maintain the fundamental vitality in the body and have various neuroprotective mechanisms that empower them to be used as part of our well-being. This review reveals the effective use of B monnieri in cognition and neuroprotection and its phytoconstituents that can be used in novel drug discovery"   - [Nutra USA]  - See Bacopa monnieri at Amazon.com. 4.8/5.0 stars with 297 reviews:

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