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Home > Anti-aging Research > Meat

Meat & Poultry

News & Research:

  • Eat More Dairy, Less Red Meat to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 9/20/22 - "Significant increases in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes were found for consumption of 100 g/day of total meat (RR, 1.20; 20% increase) and red meat (1.22, 22% increase) and with 50 g/day of processed meats (1.30, 30% increase). A borderline increased risk was also seen for 50 g/day of white meat (1.04, 4% increase) ... The opposite was found for dairy foods. Inverse associations for type 2 diabetes development were found for an intake of 200 g/day of total dairy (0.95, 5% reduction), low-fat dairy (0.96, 4% reduction), milk (0.90, 10% reduction), and for 100 g/day of yogurt (0.94, 6% reduction) ... Neutral (nonsignificant) effects were found for 200 g/day of full-fat dairy (0.98) and for 30 g/day of cheese (0.97). Fish consumption also had a neutral association with type 2 diabetes risk (1.04 for 100 g/day) as did one egg per day (1.07), but evidence quality was low ... processed meats also contain nitrates, nitrites, and sodium that can contribute to pancreatic cell damage and vascular dysfunction, thus affecting insulin sensitivity"
  • Science Reveals How Red Meat Harms the Heart - WebMD, 12/29/21 - "Researchers found that particular gut bacteria, more abundant in red-meat eaters, are key in turning a dietary nutrient called carnitine into a foe: a chemical known as TMAO, which helps promote blood-clotting and clogged arteries ... The traditional suspect was saturated fat, found almost exclusively in animal products. Saturated fat can boost "bad" LDL cholesterol, which contributes to cardiovascular disease ... But, Hazen said, research has shown that any ill effects of saturated fat are not enough to explain the excess heart disease risks linked to heavy red-meat consumption. There had to be other mechanisms ... Hazen, too, said he is a "big supporter" of using diet to change the gut microbiome, rather than adding certain bugs via probiotic supplements ... "Changing your diet changes the soil" that feeds gut microbes ... The researchers also analyzed stool samples from people who took part in the 2019 diet study. They found that when participants were eating a lot of red meat, their stool harbored more of the culprit E. timonensis microbes; when they switched to non-meat protein sources, those microbial levels dropped ... fermented foods like yogurt and kimchi, which contain certain microbes, can be good choices. But again, she stressed, overall diet is what's key in supporting a healthy gut" - What about prebiotics is your goal is to change the soil?
  • Eating red meat and processed meat hikes heart disease and death risk, study finds - Science Daily, 2/3/20 - "After a controversial study last fall recommending that it was not necessary for people to change their diet in terms of red meat and processed meat, a large, carefully analyzed new study links red and processed meat consumption with slightly higher risk of heart disease and death ... Eating two servings of red meat, processed meat or poultry -- but not fish -- per week was linked to a 3 to 7% higher risk of cardiovascular disease, the study found. Eating two servings of red meat or processed meat -- but not poultry or fish -- per week was associated with a 3% higher risk of all causes of death"
  • No need to cut down red and processed meat, study says - Science Daily, 9/30/19 - "In one review of 12 trials with 54,000 people, the researchers did not find statistically significant or an important association between meat consumption and the risk of heart disease, diabetes or cancer ... In three systematic reviews of cohort studies following millions of people, a very small reduction in risk among those who had three fewer servings of red or processed meat a week, but the association was uncertain" - [WebMD] - [NYT] - [NYT2]
  • From fish to bacon, a ranking of meats in order of healthiness - Washington Post, 7/3/19 - "According to the World Cancer Research Fund, you should not eat more than 12 to 18 ounces of red meat each week, or roughly three servings — but some experts suggest less is more. “Many trials have shown decreased progression or reversal of chronic diseases, cancer, obesity and metabolic syndrome, including diabetes, hypertension and high cholesterol, when you avoid processed red meats and greatly limit red meat consumption,” Laster said. A recent study published in the BMJ showed that increased red meat consumption leads to a higher risk of mortality."
  • Increasing red meat intake linked with heightened risk of early death - Science Daily, 6/12/19 - "After adjusting for age and other potentially influential factors, increasing total red meat intake (both processed and unprocessed) by 3.5 servings a week or more over an eight year period was associated with a 10% higher risk of death in the next eight years ... Similarly, increasing processed red meat intake, such as bacon, hot dogs, sausages and salami, by 3.5 servings a week or more was associated with a 13% higher risk of death, whereas increasing intake of unprocessed red meat was associated with a 9% higher risk."
  • Red and white meats are equally bad for cholesterol - Science Daily, 6/4/19 - "Contrary to popular belief, consuming red meat and white meat such as poultry, have equal effects on blood cholesterol levels"
  • Grilling and other high-temperature cooking may raise risk of high blood pressure - Science Daily, 3/21/18 - "Among participants who reported eating at least two servings of red meat, chicken or fish a week, the analysis revealed that the risk of developing high blood pressure was: 17 percent higher in those who grilled, broiled, or roasted beef, chicken or and fish more than 15 times/month, compared with less than 4 times a month ... 15 percent higher in those who prefer their food well done, compared with those who prefer rarer meats ... 17 percent higher in those estimated to have consumed the highest levels of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) -- chemicals formed when meat protein is charred or exposed to high temperatures -- compared to those with the lowest intake"
  • High consumption of red and processed meat linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance - Science Daily, 3/20/18 - "The results showed that high consumption of red and processed meat is independently associated with NAFLD and insulin resistance regardless of saturated fat and cholesterol intake and other risk factors such as BMI. In addition, individuals who consumed large quantities of meat cooked using unhealthy methods and those already diagnosed with NAFLD who consumed high HCAs had a higher chance of having insulin resistance"
  • Grilled/BBQ Meat and Lower Breast Cancer Survival? - Medscape, 1/17/17 - "High pre-diagnosis grilled/barbecued and smoked meat intake was associated with a 23% increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 - 1.46) ... Also, among women with a continued high intake of grilled/barbecued and smoked meat after diagnosis, all-cause mortality risk was elevated at 31% ... breast-cancer–specific mortality was decreased among women with any pre- and post-diagnosis intake of smoked poultry/fish (HR, 0.55 ... They are a "prevalent" dietary source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) carcinogens, observe the authors. PAHs are a group of over 100 different chemicals and typically are formed when fat and juices from grilled meat drip onto the fire, creating flames and smoke, the authors explain. The PAHs then stick to the surface of the meat. They are also generated in the meat-smoking process"
  • High dietary red meat intake linked to common bowel condition diverticulitis - Science Daily, 1/11/17 - "New cases of the condition are on the rise, particularly among younger people. And around 4% of those affected will develop severe or long term complications, such as perforations in the gut wall, abscesses, and fistula (abnormal connections between two hollow spaces) ... Compared with the lowest levels of consumption, the highest level of red meat intake was associated with a 58% heightened risk of developing diverticulitis, with each daily serving associated with an 18% increased risk ... The association was strongest for unprocessed red meat, and substituting one daily portion of this with fish or poultry was associated with a 20% lowered risk"
  • Western diet increases Alzheimer's risk - Science Daily, 8/25/16 - "Dietary supply of meat or animal products (minus milk) 5 years before Alzheimer's disease prevalence had the highest correlations with Alzheimer's disease prevalence in this study ... Residents of the United States seem to be at particular risk, with each person in the U.S. having about a 4% chance of developing Alzheimer's disease, likely due in part to the Western dietary pattern, which tends to include a large amount of meat consumption ... Reducing meat consumption could significantly reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease as well as of several cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, stroke, and, likely, chronic kidney disease ... Although the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with about half the risk for Alzheimer's disease of the Western diet, the traditional diets of countries such as India, Japan, and Nigeria, with very low meat consumption, are associated with an additional 50% reduction in risk of Alzheimer's disease"
  • Fast food may expose consumers to harmful chemicals called phthalates - Science Daily, 4/13/16 - "People who ate the most fast food had phthalate levels that were as much as 40 percent higher ... Phthalates belong to a class of industrial chemicals used to make food packaging materials, tubing for dairy products, and other items used in the production of fast food. Other research suggests these chemicals can leach out of plastic food packaging and can contaminate highly processed food ... grain and meat items were the most significant contributors to phthalate exposure ... the grain category contained a wide variety of items including bread, cake, pizza, burritos, rice dishes and noodles"
  • Many U.S. consumers do not use a food thermometer when cooking poultry, despite hazardous risks - Science Daily, 1/16/15 - "fewer than two-thirds of consumers own a food thermometer, and less than 10 percent of food thermometer owners actually use it to check for doneness of all types of poultry ... Pathogens, such as Salmonella and Campylobacter, may be present on raw poultry. Using a food thermometer is the only reliable way to ensure food is cooked to a safe internal temperature to destroy any harmful bacteria that may present. USDA recommends that consumers cook all poultry to a safe minimum internal temperature of 165°F" - Note:  I was surprise that the number that use them is so few.  Here's my favorite.  It's simple and easy to read: MeasuPro DCT250 Ultra-Fast Instant Read Digital Cooking Thermometer with Timer, Silver
  • High Protein Intake Linked to Higher Type 2 Diabetes Incidence - Medscape, 4/17/14 - "The current analysis included 10,901 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a subcohort of 15,352 participants, including 736 diabetes cases, with a mean follow-up of 12 years ... used food frequency questionnaires to determine participants' eating habits ... overall, high total protein intake was associated with a 13% higher incidence of diabetes for every 10-g increment ... protein of animal origin is largely responsible for the association — not plant protein"
  • Deli Dilemma: Meat and Cheese Linked to Earlier Death - ABC News, 3/4/14 - "The study of more than 6,000 American adults found those between the ages of 50 and 65 with diets high in animal protein were 74 percent more likely to meet an untimely end than those who consumed less animal protein or got their protein from non-animal sources ... For deaths due to cancer, the risk was four times higher ... Why did the effect disappear with older people? As we age, our demand for protein increases. So getting more of it from a host of sources after 65 is important in extending our longevity ... The patients whose diets were packed with protein were more than 25 percent less likely to meet an early death ... What we know for sure is older people have a problem getting enough protein ... The condition is known as sarcopenia, and is estimated to affect nearly half of seniors by the time they reach eighty years of age" - [Fox video segment on this which gets into the percentages of protein]
  • Diets Heavy in Meat Boost Risk for Certain Cancers - Medscape, 1/10/14 - "smoking and diets rich in animal products have the strongest correlations with cancer incidence rates ... The strongest correlation with animal products was seen in cancers of the female breast, corpus uteri, kidney, ovaries, pancreas, prostate, testicles, and thyroid, and in multiple myeloma ... alcohol consumption was found to be significantly correlated with only colorectal cancer ... Added sweeteners were also associated with an increased incidence of brain cancer in women, and in corpus uteri, pancreatic, and prostate cancers. Cereals were associated with a decreased incidence of kidney and prostate cancer ... there is a 15- to 30-year lag between diet and cancer incidence ... animal fat is an important risk factor for lung cancer ... higher latitudes (where there is less UVB, and consequently less vitamin D absorption) were associated with higher rates of cancer"
  • Red, Processed Meats Tied to Increased Risk for CRC Death - Medscape, 7/3/13 - "survivors with consistently high intakes (median of about 4 servings/week or higher) before and after diagnosis had a 79% higher risk for CRC-specific mortality (relative risk, 1.79) than those with intakes consistently below the median ... Men and women who consistently ate the most red and processed meat before and after diagnosis had a statistically significant higher risk of death as a result of CRC, compared with those who consistently ate the least red and processed meat"
  • Cutting Back on Red Meat May Lower Risk for Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 6/18/13 - "Reducing red-meat consumption by more than half a serving per day over a 4-year follow-up did not confer a reduced risk for incident type 2 diabetes in the subsequent 4 years, but it was associated with a 14% reduced risk during a 12- to 16-year follow-up"
  • Processed meat 'early death' link - BBC News, 3/6/13 - "The study followed people from 10 European countries for nearly 13 years on average ... One in every 17 people followed in the study died. However, those eating more than 160g of processed meat a day - roughly two sausages and a slice of bacon - were 44% more likely to die over a typical follow-up time of 12.7 years than those eating about 20g"
  • Beef up: Middle-aged men may need more to maintain muscle mass - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "Canada's Food Guide now suggests that consuming about 3oz (0.80 g/kg/d) of meat per serving is adequate to provide protein at the recommended level ... However, our work shows that the quantity of beef needed to maximize the renewal of new muscle proteins was at least 6oz in middle-aged men. Our findings have clear ramifications for the current recommendations regarding protein to prevent muscle loss in aging"
  • Pan-fried meat increases risk of prostate cancer, new study finds - Science Daily, 8/16/12 - "the risk of prostate cancer may be a result of potent chemical carcinogens formed when meats are cooked at high temperatures ... Researchers examined pooled data from nearly 2,000 men who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study ... men who ate more than 1.5 servings of pan-fried red meat per week increased their risk of advanced prostate cancer by 30 percent ... men who ate more than 2.5 servings of red meat cooked at high temperatures were 40 percent more likely to have advanced prostate cancer ... When considering specific types of red meats, hamburgers -- but not steak -- were linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer, especially among Hispanic men. "We speculate that these findings are a result of different levels of carcinogen accumulation found in hamburgers, given that they can attain higher internal and external temperatures faster than steak," ... pan-frying, regardless of meat type, consistently led to an increased risk of prostate cancer"
  • Red Meat Tied to Increased Mortality Risk - ABC News, 3/12/12 - "The study, which followed more than 120,000 American men and women, linked daily consumption of unprocessed red meat with a 13 percent increase in mortality risk ... A daily serving of processed meat carried an even bigger risk. Eating one hotdog or two strips of bacon per day was associated with a 20 percent increased risk of death ... The study could not conclude that red meat consumption caused the increased risk of death, rather that there was an association between the two. But red meat contains compounds known to boost the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, such as saturated fat, sodium nitrites and other "chemicals produced during processing and cooking," ... Swapping red meat for healthy protein sources, such as poultry, fish, legumes and whole grains was linked to a decrease in mortality risk, ranging from 7 percent for fish to 19 percent for nuts"
  • Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat Consumption and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Among French Women - Diabetes Care. 2011 Nov 18 - "Comparing the highest category of processed meat intake, ≥5 servings/week (median, 48 g/day), to the lowest, <1 serving/week (median, 5 g/day), processed meat was significantly associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio 1.30 [95% CI 1.07-1.59], P trend = 0.0007; for 1 serving/day, 1.29 [1.14-1.45]). Unprocessed red meat was not associated with diabetes"
  • Health risk from eating well-done meat may be underestimated - Science Daily, 11/1/11 - "the incidence of intestinal tumours increased from 31 per cent to 80 per cent in "human-like" mice who consumed substances from meat crust (i.e. the surface formed during heat-treatment) ... Heat-processing of food can lead to the formation of carcinogenic substances. The formation of carcinogenic substances -- so-called food mutagens -- usually occurs at high temperatures when frying or grilling"
  • Red meat linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and other lifestyle and dietary risk factors, the researchers found that a daily 100-gram serving of unprocessed red meat (about the size of a deck of cards) was associated with a 19% increased risk of type 2 diabetes. They also found that one daily serving of half that quantity of processed meat -- 50 grams (for example, one hot dog or sausage or two slices of bacon) -- was associated with a 51% increased risk ... Clearly, the results from this study have huge public health implications given the rising type 2 diabetes epidemic and increasing consumption of red meats worldwide ... for an individual who eats one daily serving of red meat, substituting one serving of nuts per day was associated with a 21% lower risk of type 2 diabetes; substituting low-fat dairy, a 17% lower risk; and substituting whole grains, a 23% lower risk ... consumption of processed red meat -- like hot dogs, bacon, sausage, and deli meats, which generally have high levels of sodium and nitrites -- should be minimized and unprocessed red meat should be reduced. If possible, they add, red meat should be replaced with healthier choices, such as nuts, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, fish, or beans"
  • Strong Evidence Links Meat to Higher Risk for Colon Cancer - Medscape, 5/30/11 - "For red and processed meat, the findings from 10 new studies were added to the 14 studies that were evaluated in the 2007 report. From these 24 studies, the panel confirmed that there is convincing evidence that both red and processed meat can increase the risk for colorectal cancer ... The WCRF/AICR recommend that the consumption of red meat be limited to 500 g/week, which is roughly the equivalent of 5 or 6 medium portions of beef, lamb, or pork. They also recommend that processed meat be avoided ... According to their data, if 3.5 ounces of red meat are consumed every day (24.5 ounces per week), the risk for colorectal cancer will be 17% higher than if no red meat is consumed. If the amount of red meat consumed is doubled (7.0 ounces every day; 49 ounces per week), the risk is 34% higher. However, the evidence found that there was very little increase in risk for individuals who ate less than 18 ounces of red meat per week ... The cancer risk associated with processed meat, which includes ham, bacon, pastrami, hot dogs, and sausages, was much higher. Consuming 3.5 ounces every day (24.5 ounces per week) was associated with a risk that is 36% higher than the risk of consuming no processed meat. As with red meat, the higher the rate of consumption, the higher the risk for colorectal cancer"
  • Certain meat components may increase bladder cancer risk, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/2/10 - "People whose diets had the highest amount of total dietary nitrite (from all sources and not just from meat), as well as those whose diets had the highest amount of nitrate plus nitrite from processed meats had a 28 percent to 29 percent increased risk of developing bladder cancer compared with those who consumed the lowest amount of these compounds"
  • Eating processed meats, but not unprocessed red meats, may raise risk of heart disease and diabetes, study finds - Science Daily, 5/17/10 - "eating processed meat, such as bacon, sausage or processed deli meats, was associated with a 42% higher risk of heart disease and a 19% higher risk of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the researchers did not find any higher risk of heart disease or diabetes among individuals eating unprocessed red meat, such as from beef, pork, or lamb"
  • Meat, especially if it's well done, may increase risk of bladder cancer - Science Daily, 4/19/10
  • Good Diet May Aid Ovarian Cancer Survival - WebMD, 3/4/10 - "five years, 75% of the women who ate less than one serving a week of yellow vegetables were alive, compared to about 82% of those who had three or more servings of yellow vegetables a week ... When the researchers looked at red meat lovers vs. avoiders, "we found almost a threefold risk of dying for those women who ate four or more servings of red meat a week compared to those who ate less than one serving per week over the 11-year study period"


  • Red meat consumption and risk of frailty in older women - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Nov 9 - "Habitual consumption of unprocessed and processed red meat was associated with a higher risk of frailty. Replacement of red meat by other protein sources might reduce the risk of frailty"
  • Unhealthy Diet May Shrink the Brain - Medscape, 9/22/15 - "Consumption of an unhealthy Western diet characterized by meat, hamburgers, chips, and soft drinks, may reduce the volume of the left hippocampus, whereas a healthy diet of fresh vegetables and fish may increase hippocampal volume ... Specifically, a high-fat diet reduces brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, which impairs neuronal plasticity, learning, and behavior ... The difference in left hippocampal volume between those with a healthy diet and those with an unhealthy diet was 203 cubic millimeters, which accounted for 62% of the average decline in left hippocampal volume during the 4-year study period ... unhealthy diets are linked to mental, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders ... I have a number of cases in my practice of people who just didn't plan their food, who didn't think about how their nutrition is related to their psychiatric condition, and have really changed their lives by enhancing their self-care more nutrient-dense brain food"
  • Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer: results from a Canadian population-based study - Nutr J. 2015 Jan 15;14(1):8 - "Three major dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis, namely a Meat-diet pattern, a Plant-based diet pattern and a Sugary-diet pattern. In combination the three dietary patterns explained 74% of the total variance in food intake. Results suggest that the Meat-diet and the Sugary-diet increased the risk of CRC with corresponding odds ratios (ORs) of 1.84 (95% CI: 1.19-2.86) and 2.26 (95% CI: 1.39-3.66) for people in the highest intake quintile compared to those in the lowest. Whereas plant-based diet pattern decreases the risk of CRC with a corresponding OR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.35-0.87)"
  • Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis - Int J Cancer. 2015 Jan 12 - "Comparing highest versus lowest intake, beef consumption was associated with an increased risk of CRC (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01 to 1.22) and colon cancer (RR=1.24, 95% CI=1.07 to 1.44), but no association was found with rectal cancer (RR=0.95, 95% CI=0.78 to 1.16). Higher consumption of lamb was also associated with increased risk of CRC (RR=1.24, 95% CI=1.08 to 1.44). No association was observed for pork (RR=1.07, 95% CI=0.90 to 1.27), but some between study heterogeneity was observed. No association was observed for poultry consumption and risk of colorectal adenomas or cancer"
  • Processed Meat Intake Is Unfavorably and Fish Intake Favorably Associated with Semen Quality Indicators among Men Attending a Fertility Clinic - J Nutr. 2014 May 21 - "Among the 155 men (median age: 36.1 y, 83% white non-Hispanic), processed meat intake was inversely related to sperm morphology. Men in the highest quartile of processed meat intake had, on average, 1.7 percentage units (95% CI: -3.3, -0.04) fewer morphologically normal sperm than men in the lowest quartile of intake (P-trend = 0.02). Fish intake was related to higher sperm count and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. The adjusted mean total sperm count increased from 102 million (95% CI: 80, 131) in the lowest quartile to 168 million (95% CI: 136, 207) sperm in the highest quartile of fish intake (P-trend = 0.005). Similarly, the adjusted mean percentages of morphologically normal sperm for men in increasing quartiles of fish intake were 5.9 (95% CI: 5.0, 6.8), 5.3 (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3), 6.3 (95% CI: 5.2, 7.4), and 7.5 (95% CI: 6.5, 8.5) (P-trend = 0.01)"
  • Fatty and lean red meat consumption in China: Differential association with Chinese abdominal obesity - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Mar 20 - "Greater intake of fatty fresh RM was significantly associated with higher WC (men only) and abdominal obesity risk in Chinese adults"
  • Animal Protein Intake Is Associated with Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Elderly Adults: The Ohasama Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Feb 27 - "Participants were divided into quartiles according to intake levels of total, animal, and plant protein ... men in the highest quartile of animal protein intake had significantly lower risk of higher-level functional decline than those in the lowest quartile (odds ratio (OR) = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.20-0.83; P for trend .01). These associations were not seen in women (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.41-1.34; P for trend .37)"
  • Premenopausal Plasma Ferritin Levels, HFE Polymorphisms, and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Nurses' Health Study II - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Jan 17 - "Ferritin levels and HFE SNPs were not associated with breast cancer risk in this population. Impact: Components of red meat other than iron are likely responsible for its positive association with breast cancer in premenopausal women"
  • Dietary patterns and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma - Public Health Nutr. 2013 May 9:1-7 - "Population-based sample residing in Nebraska from 1999 to 2002 ... Our results suggest that a dietary pattern high in meats, fats and sweets may be associated with an increased risk of NHL"
  • Nutrient-based dietary patterns of head and neck squamous cell cancer: a factor analysis in Uruguay - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Mar 27 - "The first pattern (meat-based pattern) was positively associated with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (OR 2.85, 95 % CI 1.81-4.15), whereas the third pattern (fruit-based) was strongly protective (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.27-0.63)"
  • Associations between Red Meat and Risks for Colon and Rectal Cancer Depend on the Type of Red Meat Consumed - J Nutr. 2013 Feb 20 - "The study aim was to evaluate associations between intake of red meat and its subtypes, processed meat, fish, and poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. We also evaluated whether fish or poultry should replace red meat intake to prevent colon cancer or rectal cancer ... follow-up (13.4 y) ... No associations were found between intake of red meat, processed meat, fish, or poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer. The risk associated with specific red meat subtypes depended on the animal of origin and cancer subsite; thus, the risk for colon cancer was significantly elevated for higher intake of lamb [IRR(per 5g/d) = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13)], whereas the risk for rectal cancer was elevated for higher intake of pork [IRR(per 25g/d) = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02-1.36)]. Substitution of fish for red meat was associated with a significantly lower risk for colon cancer [IRR(per 25g/d) = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-0.99)] but not rectal cancer. Substitution of poultry for red meat did not reduce either risk. This study suggests that the risks for colon cancer and potentially for rectal cancer differ according to the specific red meat subtype consumed"
  • Meat intake, cooking methods, and risk of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancer: The Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) cohort study - Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 8 - "In the population-based Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort (NOWAC) we examined associations of meat intake with incident proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancer, in 84 538 women who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) during 1996-1998 or 2003-2005 (baseline or exposure update) at age 41-70 years, with follow-up by register linkages through 2009 ... Processed meat intake ≥60 vs. <15 g/day was associated with significantly increased cancer risk in all subsites with HRs (95% confidence interval, CI) of 1.69 (1.05-2.72) for proximal colon, 2.13 (1.18-3.83) for distal colon, and 1.71 (1.02-2.85) for rectal cancer ... Our study did not support an association between CRC risk and intake of red meat, chicken, or meat cooking methods, but a high processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancer. The effect of processed meat was mainly driven by the intake of sausages"
  • Red and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 21 - "performed a literature search on PubMed database through June 2012 ... Comparing the highest category of consumption with lowest category, the pooled relative risks (RRs) of total stroke were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.25) for total meat (red and processed meat combined) (n=4), 1.09 (95% CI, 1.01-1.18) for red meat (n=5) and 1.14 (95% CI, 1.05-1.25) for processed meat (n=5); the corresponding RRs of ischemic stroke (highest vs lowest quintile) were 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04-1.28), 1.13(95% CI, 1.01-1.25) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.08-1.31). Consumption of red and/or processed meat was not associated with hemorrhagic stroke. In the dose-response analysis, the risk of stroke increased significantly by 10% and 13% for each 100 g per day increment in total and red meat consumption, respectively, and by 11% for each 50 g per day increment in processed meat consumption"
  • Dietary protein and beef consumption predict for markers of muscle mass and nutrition status in older adults - J Nutr Health Aging. 2012;16(9):784-90 - "Beef intake was positively associated with mid-arm muscle area, and protein intake was positively associated with nutrition status, calf circumference, and BMI in older adults. Consuming lean cuts of beef in moderation may be a healthy way in which older adults can increase protein intake, preserve muscle mass and improve nutrition status"
  • Red Meat Consumption and Risk of Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies - Stroke. 2012 Jul 31 - "For each serving per day increase in fresh red meat, processed meat, and total red meat consumption, the RR (95% CI) of total stroke were 1.11 (1.03-1.20), 1.13 (1.03-1.24), and 1.11 (1.06-1.16), respectively"
  • Meat consumption in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb 15 - "Moderate meat consumption, up to ~ 100 g/day, was not associated with increased mortality from ischemic heart disease, stroke or total cardiovascular disease among either gender"
  • Meat Consumption, Cooking Methods, Mutagens, and Risk of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus: A Case-Control Study in Uruguay - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Jan 13 - "Red meat, lamb, and boiled meat were directly associated with the risk of ESCC, whereas total white meat, poultry, fish, and liver were mainly protective against this malignancy"
  • Dietary Protein Sources and the Risk of Stroke in Men and Women - Stroke. 2011 Dec 29 - "During 26 and 22 years of follow-up in women and men, respectively, we documented 2633 and 1397 strokes, respectively. In multivariable analyses, higher intake of red meat was associated with an elevated risk of stroke, whereas a higher intake of poultry was associated with a lower risk. In models estimating the effects of exchanging different protein sources, compared with 1 serving/day of red meat, 1 serving/day of poultry was associated with a 27% (95% CI, 12%-39%) lower risk of stroke, nuts with a 17% (95% CI. 4%-27%) lower risk, fish with a 17% (95% CI, 0%-30%) lower risk, low-fat dairy with an 11% (95% CI, 5%-17%) lower risk, and whole-fat dairy with a 10% (95% CI, 4%-16%) lower risk. We did not see significant associations with exchanging legumes or eggs for red meat"
  • Diet and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Oct 29 - "We investigated the association between diet and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. The INHANCE pooled data included 22 case-control studies with 14,520 cases and 22,737 controls ... An inverse association was observed for higher-frequency intake of fruit (4th vs. 1st quartile OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.43-0.62, p (trend) < 0.01) and vegetables (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.90, p (trend) = 0.01). Intake of red meat (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.13-1.74, p (trend) = 0.13) and processed meat (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.14-1.65, p (trend) < 0.01) was positively associated with HNC risk"
  • Dietary patterns and risk of oesophageal cancers: a population-based case-control study - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 7:1-10 - "We conducted a population-based case-control study, which included 365 oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), 426 oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma (OGJAC) and 303 oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases, with frequency matched on age, sex and geographical location to 1580 controls ... A high score on the meat-and-fat pattern was associated with increased risk of all three cancers: multivariable-adjusted OR 2.12 (95 % CI 1.30, 3.46) for OAC; 1.88 (95 % CI 1.21, 2.94) for OGJAC; 2.84 (95 % CI 1.67, 4.83) for OSCC (P-trend < 0.01 for all three cancers). A high score on the pasta-and-pizza pattern was inversely associated with OSCC risk (OR 0.58, 95 % CI 0.36, 0.96, P for trend = 0.009); and a high score on the fruit-and-vegetable pattern was associated with a borderline significant decreased risk of OGJAC (OR for Q4 v. Q1 0.66, 95 % CI 0.42, 1.04, P = 0.07) and significantly decreased risk of OSCC (OR 0.41, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.70, P for trend = 0.002). High-fat dairy foods appeared to play a dominant role in the association between the meat-and-fat pattern and risk of OAC and OGJAC"
  • Meat Consumption and Risk of Lung Cancer Among Never-Smoking Women - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jul 20 - "Among these never smokers, fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with lung cancer risk. Seventy-two percent of meat consumed was white meat (chicken or fish). Meat consumption overall was inversely associated with lung cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.88, 0.59 for second, third tertiles, P (trend) = .012]. An inverse relationship between fish consumption and lung cancer (adjusted OR, 0.81, 0.47 for 2nd, 3rd tertiles, P (trend) < .001) was observed. No association was seen between consumption of processed meats and lung cancer, nor between dietary heterocyclic amines and lung cancer. Our data suggest that fish consumption may be protective against lung cancer in never smokers"
  • Red meat consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "mean follow-up of 10.1 y ... Consumption of processed meat, but not of fresh red meat, was positively associated with risk of stroke. The multivariable relative risks (RRs) of total stroke for the highest compared with the lowest quintiles of consumption were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.40; P for trend = 0.004) for processed meat and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.24; P for trend = 0.77) for fresh red meat. Processed meat consumption was also positively associated with risk of cerebral infarction in a comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.38; P for trend = 0.03)"
  • Dietary fat and meat intakes and risk of reflux esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma - Int J Cancer. 2011 Mar 31 - "The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary fat and meat intakes are associated with reflux esophagitis (RE), Barrett's esophagus (BE) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) ... Patients in the highest quartile of total fat intake had a higher risk of RE (OR=3.54; 95%CI=1.32-9.46) and EAC (OR=5.44; 95%CI=2.08-14.27). A higher risk of RE and EAC was also reported for patients in the highest quartile of saturated fat intake (OR=2.79; 95%CI=1.11-7.04; OR=2.41; 95%CI=1.14-5.08, respectively) and monounsaturated fat intake (OR=2.63; 95%CI=1.01-6.86; OR=5.35; 95%CI=2.14-13.34, respectively). Patients in the highest quartile of fresh red meat intake had a higher risk of EAC (OR=3.15; 95%CI=1.38-7.20). Patients in the highest category of processed meat intake had a higher risk of RE (OR=4.67; 95%CI=1.71-12.74). No consistent associations were seen for BE with either fat or meat intakes"- Whoa!!!  Up to 5 times the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma for the highest processed meat intake!!!
  • Association between red meat consumption and metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk: Cross-sectional and 1-year follow-up assessment - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Sep 26 - "Subjects in the upper quartile of RM consumption were more likely to meet the criteria for the MetS at baseline (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9; P-trend = 0.001) and after 1-year follow-up (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7; P-trend = 0.034) compared with those in the quartile of reference, even after adjusting for potential confounders. The longitudinal analyses showed that individuals in the fourth quartile of RM consumption had an increased risk of MetS (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8; P-trend = 0.009) or central obesity incidence (OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 1.4-46.0; P-trend = 0.077) at the end of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile"
  • AMACR polymorphisms, dietary intake of red meat and dairy and prostate cancer risk - Prostate. 2010 Oct 13 - "Red meat consumption was positively associated with PCa risk, and the association was stronger for more aggressive disease (lowest vs. highest tertile OR = 1.55"
  • Association between red meat consumption and metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk: Cross-sectional and 1-year follow-up assessment - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Sep 26 - "Subjects in the upper quartile of RM consumption were more likely to meet the criteria for the MetS at baseline (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9; P-trend = 0.001) and after 1-year follow-up (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.7; P-trend = 0.034) compared with those in the quartile of reference, even after adjusting for potential confounders. The longitudinal analyses showed that individuals in the fourth quartile of RM consumption had an increased risk of MetS (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.8; P-trend = 0.009) or central obesity incidence (OR, 8.1; 95% CI, 1.4-46.0; P-trend = 0.077) at the end of the follow-up compared to the lowest quartile"
  • Major Dietary Protein Sources and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women - Circulation. 2010 Aug 16 - "26 years of follow-up ... higher intakes of red meat, red meat excluding processed meat, and high-fat dairy were significantly associated with elevated risk of CHD. Higher intakes of poultry, fish, and nuts were significantly associated with lower risk. In a model controlling statistically for energy intake, 1 serving per day of nuts was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval, 17% to 42%) lower risk of CHD compared with 1 serving per day of red meat. Similarly, compared with 1 serving per day of red meat, a lower risk was associated with 1 serving per day of low-fat dairy (13%; 95% confidence interval, 6% to 19%), poultry (19%; 95% confidence interval, 3% to 33%), and fish (24%; 95% confidence interval, 6% to 39%). Conclusions-These data suggest that high red meat intake increases risk of CHD and that CHD risk may be reduced importantly by shifting sources of protein in the US diet"
  • Red meat consumption and risk of heart failure in male physicians - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Jul 30 - "there was a positive and graded relation between red meat consumption and HF [hazard ratio (95% CI) of 1.0 (reference), 1.02 (0.85-1.22), 1.08 (0.90-1.30), 1.17 (0.97-1.41), and 1.24 (1.03-1.48) from the lowest to the highest quintile of red meat, respectively"
  • Associations of red meat, fat, and protein intake with distal colorectal cancer risk - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Aug;62(6):701-9 - "There was no association between total, saturated, or monounsaturated fat and distal CRC risk. In African Americans, the OR of distal CRC for the highest category of polyunsaturated fat intake was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.08-0.96). The percent of energy from protein was associated with a 47% risk reduction in Whites (Q4 OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.37-0.77). Red meat consumption in Whites was associated with a marginally significant risk reduction (Q4 OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43-1.00). Our results do not support the hypotheses that fat, protein, and red meat increase the risk of distal CRC"
  • Intakes of meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and risk of prostate cancer progression - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec 30 - "Intakes of processed and unprocessed red meat, fish, total poultry, and skinless poultry were not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression. Greater consumption of eggs and poultry with skin was associated with 2-fold increases in risk in a comparison of extreme quantiles: eggs [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.72; P for trend = 0.05] and poultry with skin (HR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.36, 3.76; P for trend = 0.003). An interaction was observed between prognostic risk at diagnosis and poultry. Men with high prognostic risk and a high poultry intake had a 4-fold increased risk of recurrence or progression compared with men with low/intermediate prognostic risk and a low poultry intake (P for interaction = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the postdiagnostic consumption of processed or unprocessed red meat, fish, or skinless poultry is not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression, whereas consumption of eggs and poultry with skin may increase the risk"
  • Dietary iron intake and risk of endometrial cancer: a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China - Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(1):40-50 - "Dietary red meat and animal fat have been linked to endometrial cancer (EC) risk, but the impact of bioavailable iron in animal-derived foods has been less well studied ... Animal-derived iron intake was positively associated with EC risk [adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.4-2.7, P(trend) < 0.01, highest vs. lowest quartile], predominantly after menopause (OR = 2.2; 95%CI = 1.4-3.4, P(trend) < 0.01) and in women with BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2)(OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.4-7.5 in postmenopausal obese women, P(trend) < 0.01). Animal-derived fat was also associated with postmenopausal EC risk (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.5, P(trend) < 0.01). Multiplicative interactions between animal-derived iron and BMI or animal-derived fat intake were not observed. Animal-derived iron intake is associated with increased risk of EC after menopause and among obese women. Avoidance of animal-derived (heme) iron may reduce the risk of EC in these women"