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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 7/24/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Breastfed Children Are Less Likely to Develop ADHD Later in Life, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 7/22/13 - "researchers compared breastfeeding histories of children from six to 12 years of age at Schneider's Children Medical Center in Israel ... children with ADHD were far less likely to be breastfed in their first year of life than the children in the other groups. At three months, only 43 percent of children in the ADHD group were breastfed compared to 69 percent of the sibling group and 73 percent of the control group. At six months, 29 percent of the ADHD group was breastfed, compared to 50 percent of the sibling group and 57 percent of the control group"

Skipping Breakfast May Increase Coronary Heart Disease Risk - Science Daily, 7/22/12 - "Researchers analyzed food frequency questionnaire data and tracked health outcomes for 16 years (1992-2008) on 26,902 male health professionals ages 45-82. They found: ... Men who reported they skipped breakfast had a 27 percent higher risk of heart attack or death from coronary heart disease than those who reported they didn't ... Men who reported eating late at night (eating after going to bed) had a 55 percent higher coronary heart disease risk than those who didn't. But researchers were less convinced this was a major public health concern because few men in the study reported this behavior"

Vaccinating boys plays key role in HPV prevention - Science Daily, 7/22/13 - "HPV has been linked to anal, penile and certain types of throat cancers in men. Since the virus is also responsible for various cancers in women, vaccinating boys aged 11 to 21 will play a crucial role in reducing cancer rates across the sexes ... HPV is the single most common sexually transmitted infection"

Vitamin D Insufficiency Prevalent in Psychiatric Patients - Medscape, 7/22/13 - "Among the patients, 75% had vitamin D levels lower than 30 ng/mL, generally considered by groups, including the American College of Physicians, to represent insufficiency ... Vitamin D insufficiency may be a causative factor in the pathogenesis of mental illness through interactions that affect cellular mechanisms, which eventually diverge into different clinically observed phenotypes ... as many as 63% of patients with insufficient vitamin D levels were not treated with supplementation ... Physicians who work in those units should make sure vitamin D screening and evaluation is part of routine evaluation of patients, not necessarily because it may be causative of psychiatric symptoms but because there are a lot of conditions that are associated with vitamin D deficiency — osteoporosis, diabetes, and some other medical problems that are also relatively common in patients with psychiatric illnesses" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Topical Agents for Hair Growth Promotion - Medscape, 7/22/13 - "androgenetic alopecia (AGA), i.e., male pattern hair loss and female pattern hair loss ... Melantonin has long been known to modulate hair growth. Animal testing has shown that melatonin stimulates the anagen phase of hair growth.[23] In a double-blind, randomized, placebocontrolled study 40 women with diffuse alopecia (n=28) or AGA (n=12) were treated topically for 6 months with 1 ml daily of 0.1% melatonin-alcohol solution versus vehicle. Trichograms were used to determine efficacy in the frontal and occipital scalp areas. At the end of the study, the AGA group demonstrated a statistically significant increase in anagen hairs in the occiput region compared to placebo (mean 78 to 82 hairs), but no difference was shown with placebo in the frontal area.[24] The group with diffuse alopecia showed a substantial increase in frontal hair. Plasma melatonin levels were elevated under treatment with melatonin, but did not exceed the physiological night peak" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.

Avoiding estrogen therapy led to deaths of nearly 50,000 women, study says | Fox News - Fox News, 7/19/13 - "in a study published in the American Journal of Public Health, researchers are arguing that misconceptions about hormonal treatments also led women to reject estrogen-only treatments, which have numerous health benefits including reduced mortality and lower incidences of breast cancer and heart disease ... researchers estimated that up to 48,835 women died prematurely between 2002 and 2011 because they failed to use estrogen therapy treatments"

Eating Eggs Is Not Linked to High Cholesterol in Adolescents, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 7/19/13 - "the most recent research suggests that increased serum cholesterol is more affected by intake of saturated fats and trans fats -- present in red meat, industrial baked goods, etc. -- than by the amount of cholesterol in the diet ... eating larger amounts of egg is neither linked to higher serum cholesterol nor to worse cardiovascular health in adolescents, regardless of their levels of physical activity ... The conclusions, published in the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, confirm recent studies in healthy adults that suggest that an intake of up to seven eggs a week is not associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases ... a medium-size egg contains 200 milligrams of cholesterol but has more unsaturated fats than saturated fats and only has 70 calories"

Testosterone Produces Mixed Results in Prostate Cancer Study - Medscape, 7/18/13 - "In men with prostate cancer, the use of transdermal testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) after radical prostatectomy produced an increase in testosterone levels, but also had the undesirable effect of increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels ... However, the use of TRT did not appear to increase biochemical recurrence rates during follow-up, which was a median of 27.5 months for treated men"

Too Little Vitamin D May Hasten Disability as You Age - WebMD, 7/17/13 - "It's estimated that as many as 90 percent of older people are vitamin D-deficient ... Among participants aged 65 to 88, those with the lowest vitamin D levels were 1.7 times as likely to have at least one physical limitation as those with the highest vitamin D levels. Among participants aged 55 to 65, those with the lowest vitamin D levels were twice as likely to have at least one physical limitation as those with the highest vitamin D levels" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Vitamins and minerals can boost energy and enhance mood - Science Daily, 7/16/13 - "In a series of studies she recently conducted in Canada, Kaplan found of the 97 adults with diagnosed mood disorders who kept a three-day food record, a higher intake of vitamins and minerals were significantly correlated with overall enhanced mental functioning ... Other vitamins that have been known to enhance mood, said C.J. Geiger, Ph.D., president of Geiger & Associates, LLC, and research associate professor in the division of nutrition at the University of Utah, include 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5 HTP), Vitamins B and D, as well as ginkgo biloba and Omega 3" - See 5-HTP products at Amazon.com and Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.

People With Impaired Glucose Tolerance Can Show Cognitive Dysfunction -Science Daily, 7/16/13 - "she examined 31 previous studies regarding cognitive performance under various dietary conditions. She found that the impaired glucose tolerance group showed difficulties in 12 of 27 cognitive test outcomes, including word recognition, visual verbal learning test, visual spatial learning test, psychomotor test and Corsi block-tapping. The impaired glucose tolerance group was made up of all middle-aged women who appeared to be in general good health ... She pointed to a 2009 Japanese study of 129 people in their 80s, 55 of whom had impaired glucose tolerance or Type 2 diabetes. All the subjects in the study consumed more than 30 grams of dietary fiber per day and exercised two to four times per week over a two-year period. Within that timeframe, the 36 people with impaired glucose tolerance showed improvements in delayed recall and block design tests. The Type 2 diabetes group showed improvement in dementia, delayed recall and their mental state"

What are fructooliogosaccharides and how do they provide digestive, immunity and bone health benefits? - Science Daily, 7/16/13 - "Fructooliogosaccharides are naturally found in chicory, onions, asparagus, wheat, tomatoes and other fruits, vegetables and grains. They also can be derived from cane sugar and seaweed for use as a low-calorie (1.5 -- 2 Kcal/g) food sweetener and supplement. As scFOS provides approximately 30-to-50 percent of the sweetness of regular sugar, it can be used to enhance flavor and lower the amount of sugar in a food product ... In addition, scFOS are considered prebiotics. After they are consumed, fructooliogosaccharides move to the large intestine to stimulate the production of microbiota in the colon and gastrointestinal track ... The regular addition of scFOS to the diet is "ideal for maintaining mineral density and (bone) strength ... Most Americans, including many formula-fed infants and children, do not get enough scFOS" - See inulin at Amazon.com.

  • Inulin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants"

New Risk With ADT in Prostate Cancer: Kidney Injury - Medscape, 7/16/13 - "In the study of more than 10,000 men with prostate cancer, the therapy, which has been tied to diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and other conditions, was significantly associated with an increased risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). This serious adverse event has a mortality rate of 50% ... ADT reduces testosterone levels, which leads to a hypogonadal condition marked by metabolic changes such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and an increase in fat mass"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Therapeutic Potential of Turmeric in Alzheimer's Disease: Curcumin or Curcuminoids? - Phytother Res. 2013 Jul 19 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. There is limited choice in modern therapeutics, and drugs available have limited success with multiple side effects in addition to high cost. Hence, newer and alternate treatment options are being explored for effective and safer therapeutic targets to address AD. Turmeric possesses multiple medicinal uses including treatment for AD. Curcuminoids, a mixture of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, are vital constituents of turmeric. It is generally believed that curcumin is the most important constituent of the curcuminoid mixture that contributes to the pharmacological profile of parent curcuminoid mixture or turmeric. A careful literature study reveals that the other two constituents of the curcuminoid mixture also contribute significantly to the effectiveness of curcuminoids in AD. Therefore, it is emphasized in this review that each component of the curcuminoid mixture plays a distinct role in making curcuminoid mixture useful in AD, and hence, the curcuminoid mixture represents turmeric in its medicinal value better than curcumin alone" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.

A High-Salt Diet Further Impairs Age-Associated Declines in Cognitive, Behavioral, and Cardiovascular Functions in Male Fischer Brown Norway Rats - J Nutr. 2013 Jul 17 - "we tested the effect of high salt (HS) on anxiety, learning-memory function, and blood pressure (BP) in male Fischer brown Norway (FBN) rats. Adult (A; 2 mo) and old (O; 20 mo) male rats were fed normal-salt (NS; 0.4% NaCl) or HS (8% NaCl) diets for 4 wk after being implanted with telemeter probes for conscious BP measurement. Thereafter, tests to assess anxiety-like behavior and learning-memory were conducted. The rats were then killed, and samples of plasma, urine, and brain tissue were collected. We found that systolic BP was higher in O-NS (117 +/- 1.2 mm Hg) than in A-NS (105 +/- 0.8 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, BP was higher in O-HS (124 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) than in O-NS (117 +/- 1.2 mm Hg) rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, anxiety-like behavior (light-dark and open-field tests) was not different between A-NS and O-NS rats but was greater in O-HS rats than in A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Short-term memory (radial arm water maze test) was similar in A-NS and O-NS rats but was significantly impaired in O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, oxidative stress variables (in plasma, urine, and brain) as well as corticosterone (plasma) were greater in O-HS rats when compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05). The antioxidant enzyme glyoxalase-1 expression was selectively reduced in the hippocampus and amygdala of O-HS rats compared with A-NS, O-NS, or A-HS rats (P < 0.05), whereas other antioxidant enzymes, glutathione reductase 1, manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that salt-sensitive hypertension and behavioral derangement are associated with a redox imbalance in the brain of aged FBN rats"

Consumption of coffee, not green tea, is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in Japanese men - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 17 - "540 eligible men who enrolled in the baseline survey of a cohort study in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan ... Coffee consumption was inversely associated with arterial stiffness independent of known atherosclerotic risk factors, and this association was partly mediated by reduced circulating triglycerides"

Olive oil has a beneficial effect on impaired glucose regulation and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Di@bet.es study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 17 - "A total of 4572 individuals aged 18 years in 100 clusters (health centers) were randomly selected with a probability proportional to population size ... Around 90% of the Spanish population use olive oil, at least for dressing, and slightly fewer for cooking or frying. The preference for olive oil is related to age, educational level, alcohol intake, body mass index and serum glucose, insulin and lipids. People who consume olive oil (vs sunflower oil) had a lower risk of obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.62 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.41-0.93, P=0.02)), impaired glucose regulation (OR=0.49 (95% CI=0.28-0.86, P=0.04)), hypertriglyceridemia (OR=0.53 (95% CI=0.33-0.84, P=0.03)) and low HDL cholesterol levels (OR=0.40 (95% CI=0.26-0.59, P=0.0001))"

Effects of Metformin Dose on Cancer Risk Reduction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Follow-up Study - Pharmacotherapy. 2013 Jul 17 - "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database ... A total of 65,754 age- and gender-matched patients without diabetes and no previous cancer diagnosis were extracted from the database ... Our results revealed dose-dependent effects of metformin on cancer risk and cancer onset times. A significant decrease in cancer risk was found in the monotherapy group who received more than 360 defined daily doses (DDDs) of metformin (hazard ratio [HR] 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.66). The greatest decrease in cancer risk was observed in patients who took more than 1080 DDDs (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.84). Significantly greater dose-dependent effects were seen in patients who used metformin in combination with other antidiabetic drugs" - See metformin at IAS.

The protective effect of coffee consumption on cutaneous melanoma risk and the role of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jul 17 - "case-control study was conducted in the inpatient wards of IDI-San Carlo Rome, Italy, including 304 incident cases of cutaneous melanoma and 305 controls ... High frequency of coffee drinking (>once daily), compared with low-frequency consumption of coffee (≤7 times weekly) was associated with a protective effect for cutaneous melanoma (OR 0.46"

Rosiglitazone and Outcomes for Patients with Diabetes and Coronary Artery Disease in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) Trial - Circulation. 2013 Jul 15 - "Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial ... 4.5 yrs of follow-up ... After multivariable adjustment, among patients treated with rosiglitazone, mortality was similar (HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.18) while there was a lower adjusted incidence of composite death, MI, and stroke (hazard ratio (HR) 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55 to 0.93) and stroke (HR 0.36, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.86), and a higher incidence of fractures (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.51); the incidence of MI (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.10) and CHF (HR 1.22, 95%CI, 0.84 to 1.82) were not significantly different. Among propensity matched patients rates of major ischemic cardiovascular events and CHF were not significantly different"

  • Rosiglitazone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Following the reports in 2007 that Avandia can significantly increase the risk of heart attacks, the drug has been controversial"

Protective effects of dietary carotenoids on risk of hip fracture in men: The Singapore Chinese Health Study - J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Jul 16 - "used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 men and women who were of ages 45-74 years between 1993 and 1998 ... validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 9.9 years, we identified 1,630 hip fracture incident cases. Among men, consumption of vegetables was associated with lower hip fracture risk. Similarly, dietary total carotenoids and specific carotenoids, α-, β-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with hip fracture risk. Compared to men in the lowest quartile of nutrient density, men in the highest quartile had statistically significant 26% to 39% risk reduction ... There was no association between dietary carotenoids or vegetables/fruits and hip fracture risk among women. This study suggests that adequate intake of vegetables may reduce risk of osteoporotic fractures among elderly men and that the antioxidant effects of carotenoids may counteract the mechanism of osteoporosis related to leanness" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.

Curcumin I Mediates Neuroprotective Effect Through Attenuation of Quinoprotein Formation, p-p38 MAPK Expression, and Caspase-3 Activation in 6-Hydroxydopamine Treated SH-SY5Y Cells - Phytother Res. 2013 Jul 16 - "6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) selectively enters dopaminergic neurons and undergoes auto-oxidation resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species and dopamine quinones, subsequently leading to apoptosis. This mechanism mimics the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and has been used to induce experimental Parkinsonism in both in vitro and in vivo systems ... curcumin I (diferuloylmethane) purified from Curcuma longa ... Our results clearly demonstrated that curcumin I protects neurons against oxidative damage, as shown by attenuation of p-p38 expression, caspase-3-activation, and toxic quinoprotein formation, together with the restoration of p-TH levels. This study provides evidence for the therapeutic potential of curcumin I in the chemoprevention of oxidative stress-related neurodegeneration" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.

Quercetin Protects Mouse Brain against Lead-induced Neurotoxicity - J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Jul 15 - "Mice were exposed to lead acetate (20 mg/kg body weight/day) intragastrically with or without QE (15 and 30 mg/kg body weight/day) co-administration for three months. Our data showed that QE significantly prevented Pb-induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. In exploring the underlying mechanisms of QE action, we found QE administration decreased Pb contents in blood (13.2%, 19.1%) and brain (17.1%, 20.0%). QE markedly increased NO production (39.1%, 61.1%) and PKA activity (51.0%, 57.8%) in brains of Pb-treated mice. Additionally, QE remarkably suppressed Pb-induced oxidative stress in mouse brain. Western blot analysis showed that QE increased the phosphorylations of Akt, CaMKII nNOS, eNOS and CREB in brains of Pb-treated mice" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.

Health Focus (Omega-3):

News & Research:

  • Specific Fish Oils May Protect Against Breast Cancer - Medscape, 6/27/13 - "The consumption of higher levels of dietary marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is associated with a 14% lower risk for breast cancer than lower levels of consumption ... They found that marine n-3 PUFAs were associated with a 14% reduction in the risk for breast cancer (relative risk [RR] for highest vs lowest intake, 0.86) ... no significant association was observed for exposure to alpha linolenic acid (ALA), which is contained in some nuts and in vegetable oils. About half of the studies in the meta-analysis contained data on ALA. Both ALA and n-3 PUFAs are types of omega-3 fatty acids" - [Science Daily] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Could a Diet High in Fish and Flax Help Prevent Broken Hips? - Science Daily, 6/27/13 - "The study showed that higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids from both plant and fish sources in those blood cells were associated with a lower likelihood of having fractured a hip ... The study also showed that as the ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to omega-3s increased, so did the risk for hip fracture ... Inflammation is associated with an increased risk of bone loss and fractures, and omega-3 fatty acids are believed to reduce inflammation ... omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and omega-6 fatty acids seem to have both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects ... women who had the highest ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids had nearly twice the risk of hip fractures compared to women with the lowest ratios. The current typical American diet contains between 15 and 17 times more omega-6 than omega-3, a ratio that previous research has suggested should be lowered to 4-to-1, or even 2-to-1, by increasing omega-3s, to improve overall health. The primary omega-6 fatty acid in the diet is linoleic acid, which composes about 99 percent of Americans' omega-6 intake and is found in corn, soybean, safflower and sunflower oils"
  • Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids - Medscape, 6/11/13 - "Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass that results in a reduction in skeletal muscle function, quality of life and an increased risk of falls. Older muscle has an 'anabolic resistance' to both nutrients and exercise, with the precise underlying mechanism still to be elucidated. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish oil can be incorporated into the membranes of skeletal muscles, where they may have anti-inflammatory effects. This alteration in muscle membrane fatty acid composition may have anabolic effects in aging muscle and, thus, be useful in the treatment of sarcopenia ... The current data presented suggest that n-3 PUFAs may be of benefit in the treatment of sarcopenia"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may help heal a broken heart - Science Daily, 5/30/13 - "The potency of these compounds corresponds to concentrations that have been measured in the blood of human subjects taking high dose fish oil supplements for short periods of time. In rabbits, researchers treated the artery with RvD at the time of the balloon angioplasty procedure by infusing the drug directly into the vessel, and found that this one-time treatment reduced inflammation and subsequent scarring of the vessel after one month"
  • Fish Oil Supplements May Help Fight Against Type 2 Diabetes - Science Daily, 5/22/13 - "Fish oil supplements, also called omega 3 fatty acid capsules, raise levels of adiponectin in the bloodstream. Adiponectin is an important hormone that has beneficial effects on metabolic processes like glucose regulation and the modulation of inflammation. In long-term human studies, higher levels of adiponectin are associated with lower risks of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease ... The meta-analysis reviewed and analyzed results from 14 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials"
  • Fish oil may help the heart beat mental stress - Science Daily, 5/22/13 - "volunteers who took fish oil supplements for several weeks had a blunted response to mental stress in several measurements of cardiovascular health, including heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), part of the "fight or flight" response, compared to volunteers who took olive oil instead. The results may explain why taking fish oil could be beneficial to the heart and might eventually help doctors prevent heart disease in select populations"
  • Fish oil may stall effects of junk food on brain - Science Daily, 5/14/13 - "high-fat diets could disrupt neurogenesis, a process that generates new nerve cells, but diets rich in omega-3s could prevent these negative effects by stimulating the area of the brain that control feeding, learning and memory ... Excessive intake of certain macronutrients, the refined sugars and saturated fats found in junk food, can lead to weight gain, disrupt metabolism and even affect mental processing ... These changes can be seen in the brain's structure, including its ability to generate new nerve cells, potentially linking obesity to neurodegenerative diseases ... omega-3 fish oils can reverse or even prevent these effects ... omega-3s restore normal function by interfering with the production of these inflammatory molecules, suppressing triglycerides, and returning these nerve growth factors to normal ... Fish oils don't appear to have a direct impact on weight loss, but they may take the brakes off the detrimental effects of some of the processes triggered in the brain by high-fat diets. They seem to mimic the effects of calorie restrictive diets and including more oily fish or fish oil supplements in our diets could certainly be a positive step forward for those wanting to improve their general health"
  • Eating fish associated with lower risk of dying among older adults: Risk of dying from heart disease significantly lowered - Science Daily, 4/1/13 - "Older adults who have higher blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids -- found in fatty fish and seafood -- may be able to lower their overall mortality risk by as much as 27% and their mortality risk from heart disease by about 35% ... older adults who had the highest blood levels of the fatty acids found in fish lived, on average, 2.2 years longer than those with lower levels ... The researchers examined 16 years of data from about 2,700 U.S. adults aged 65 or older who participated in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a long-term study supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ... One type in particular -- docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA -- was most strongly related to lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) death (40% lower risk), especially CHD death due to arrhythmias (electrical disturbances of the heart rhythm) (45% lower risk). Of the other blood fatty acids measured -- eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) -- DPA was most strongly associated with lower risk of stroke death, and EPA most strongly linked with lower risk of nonfatal heart attack"
  • High Intake of Dietary Long-Chain ω-3 Fatty Acids Is Associated With Lower Blood Pressure in Children Born With Low Birth Weight: NHANES 2003-2008 - Hypertension. 2013 Mar 4 - "Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure ... In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4])" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Taking omega-3 supplements may help prevent skin cancer, new study finds - Science Daily, 2/26/13 - "the study analysed the effect of taking omega-3 on 79 healthy volunteers ... taking a regular dose of fish oils boosted skin immunity to sunlight. Specifically, it also reduced sunlight-induced suppression of the immune system, known as immunosuppression, which affects the body's ability to fight skin cancer and infection ... it was the first time the research had been carried out on humans"
  • Omega-3s inhibit breast cancer tumor growth, study finds - Science Daily, 2/21/13 - "A lifelong diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids can inhibit growth of breast cancer tumours by 30 per cent ... the researchers created a novel transgenic mouse that both produces omega-3 fatty acids and develops aggressive mammary tumours. The team compared those animals to mice genetically engineered only to develop the same tumours ... Mice producing omega-3s developed only two-thirds as many tumours -- and tumours were also 30-per-cent smaller -- as compared to the control mice"
  • Fish oil may protect dialysis patients from sudden cardiac death - Science Daily, 2/6/13 - "We found that higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the blood of patients who were just starting hemodialysis were very strongly associated with a lower risk of sudden cardiac death over the first year of their treatment ... The five-year survival rate for patients on hemodialysis is 35 percent, with the risk of death highest in the first few months of starting treatment. The most common cause of death in these patients is sudden cardiac death, which accounts for about one out of every four deaths"
  • Omega-3-Rich Ground Beef Available Soon - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "The U.S. currently does not have a recommended daily intake of omega-3s, though many doctors and nutritionists recommend between 1,200-1,600 milligrams daily ... A quarter-pound hamburger made of the enriched ground beef has 200 milligrams of omega-3s" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com which has 765 milligrams of omega-3 in one capsule.  So you'd have to eat 3.825 hamburgers to get the omega-3 in one capsule.  At 330 calories per hamburger, that's 1262 calories compared to 10 calories for the capsule.
  • Limiting Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Pregnancy May Influence Body Fat of Children - Science Daily, 1/10/13 - "mothers who have higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in cooking oils and nuts, during pregnancy have fatter children ... assessed the fat and muscle mass of 293 boys and girls at four and six years, who are part of the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS), a large prospective mother-offspring cohort ... the higher the level of n-3 the less fat and more muscle and bone in the baby ... This could suggest that a pregnancy supplementation strategy would be beneficial"
  • Association Between use of Specialty Dietary Supplements and C-Reactive Protein Concentrations - Medscape, 12/28/12 - "In summary, this study adds support to laboratory research and to some human studies which suggest that glucosamine, chondroitin, and fish oil may reduce systemic inflammation. In doing so, this study adds biologic plausibility to previous studies which have shown beneficial effects of these supplements on chronic diseases. Given the number of diseases with which inflammation is associated, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, there is a need to find safe and effective ways to reduce inflammation. Research suggests that these 3 supplements have excellent safety profiles, [88–92] supporting their potential role in disease prevention" - See glucosamine products at Amazon.com, chondroitin sulfate at Amazon.com, Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Glucosamine, Chondroitin, Fish Oil May Reduce Inflammation - Medscape, 11/27/12 - "Inflammation is now recognized as a factor in cancer and cardiovascular disease as well as many rheumatoid diseases ... the researchers found hs-CRP reductions of 17% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7% - 26%) with glucosamine, 22% (95% CI, 8% - 33%) with chondroitin, and 16% (95% CI, 0.3% - 29%) with fish oil compared with participants who did not take the supplements"
  • Eating more fish could reduce postpartum depression - Science Daily, 11/15/12 - "Low levels of omega-3 may be behind postpartum depression ... Because omega-3 is transferred from the mother to her fetus and later to her breastfeeding infant, maternal omega-3 levels decrease during pregnancy, and remain lowered for at least six-weeks following the birth" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 intake heightens working memory in healthy young adults - Science Daily, 10/25/12 - "In the first study of its kind, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have determined that healthy young adults ages 18-25 can improve their working memory even further by increasing their Omega-3 fatty acid intake ... After six months of taking Lovaza -- an Omega-3 supplement approved by the Federal Drug Administration -- the participants were asked to complete this series of outpatient procedures again. It was during this last stage, during the working memory test and blood sampling, that the improved working memory of this population was revealed" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and probiotic products at Amazon.com.
  • New link between high-fat 'Western' diet and atherosclerosis identified - Science Daily, 10/8/12 - "endothelial lipase (EL), an enzyme associated with the development of atherosclerosis ... In the current study, a strain of mice susceptible to atherosclerosis was fed a normal diet enriched with either palmitic acid (a common saturated fat) or eicosapentaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid, or polyunsaturated fat, found in fish oil, among other foods). After 12 weeks, the mice's aortas were examined for changes in the expression of EL and inflammatory factors. Aortas of mice fed the saturated fat diet showed a significant increase in EL and detrimental changes in inflammatory factors, while those of mice fed the polyunsaturated fat diet showed a significant decrease in EL and beneficial changes in inflammatory factors ... when the macrophages were given rosiglitazone, the expression of EL increased markedly. The addition of omega-3 fatty acids to the cells blocked this increase. "This would suggest that besides raising LDL cholesterol levels, rosiglitazone can raise the risk of cardiovascular disease by increasing EL,""
  • Prenatal mercury exposure may be linked to risk of ADHD-related behaviors; Fish consumption may be linked to lower risk - Science Daily, 10/8/12 - "Nonoccupational methylmercury exposure comes primarily from eating fish, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration have recommended pregnant women limit their total fish intake to no more than two, six-ounce servings per week. However, fish is also a source of nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to benefit brain development, potentially confounding mercury-related risk estimates ... analyzed data from the New Bedford birth cohort, a group of infants born between 1993 and 1998, to investigate the association of peripartum maternal hair mercury levels (n=421) and prenatal fish intake (n=515) with ADHD-related behaviors at age 8 years ... In this population-based prospective cohort study, hair mercury levels were consistently associated with ADHD-related behaviors, including inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. We also found that higher prenatal fish consumption was protective for these behaviors"
  • Omega-3 supplements may slow a biological effect of aging - Science Daily, 10/1/12 - "In the study, lengthening of telomeres in immune system cells was more prevalent in people who substantially improved the ratio of omega-3s to other fatty acids in their diet ... Omega-3 supplementation also reduced oxidative stress, caused by excessive free radicals in the blood, by about 15 percent compared to effects seen in the placebo group ... Study participants took either 2.5 grams or 1.25 grams of active omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ... The supplements were calibrated to contain a ratio of the two cold-water fish oil fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), of seven to one ... the typical American diet tends to be heavy on omega-6 fatty acids and comparatively low in omega-3s that are naturally found in cold-water fish such as salmon and tuna. While the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids averages about 15-to-1, researchers tend to agree that for maximum benefit, this ratio should be lowered to 4-to-1, or even 2-to-1 ... when the researchers analyzed the participants' omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in relationship to telomere lengthening, a lower ratio was clearly associated with lengthened telomeres ... omega-3 supplements lowered IL-6 by 10 to 12 percent, depending on the dose. By comparison, those taking a placebo saw an overall 36 percent increase in IL-6 by the end of the study ... This finding strongly suggests that inflammation is what's driving the changes in the telomeres"
  • Omega-3 lowers inflammation in overweight older adults - Science Daily, 6/21/12 - "Chronic inflammation is linked to numerous conditions, including coronary heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, arthritis and Alzheimer's disease, as well as the frailty and functional decline that can accompany aging ... Participants received either a placebo or one of two different doses of omega-3 fatty acids -- either 2.5 grams or 1.25 grams per day ... After four months, participants who had taken the omega-3 supplements had significantly lower levels in their blood of two proteins that are markers of inflammation, also called pro-inflammatory cytokines. The low-dose group showed an average 10 percent decrease in the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the high-dose group's overall IL-6 dropped by 12 percent. In comparison, those taking a placebo saw an overall 36 percent increase in IL-6 by the end of the study ... The current typical American diet contains between 15 and 17 times more omega-6 than omega-3, a ratio that researchers suggest should be lowered to 4-to-1, or even 2-to-1, to improve overall health"
  • Omega-3 Heart Trial Fails the Test - vitalchoice.com, 6/15/12 - "Authors acknowledge their study's limitations and flaws ..."
  • Why omega-3 oils help at the cellular level - Science Daily, 5/15/12 - "The scientists fed mouse macrophages -- a kind of white blood cell -- three different kinds of fatty acid: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA). EPA and DHA are major polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, essential to a broad range of cellular and bodily functions, and the primary ingredient in commercial fish oil dietary supplements. AA is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid prevalent in the human diet ... They discovered that omega-3 fatty acids inhibit an enzyme called cyclooxygenase (COX), which produces the prostaglandin hormones that spark inflammation. The action is similar to what happens when one takes an aspirin, which disrupts the COX-2 signaling pathway, thus reducing inflammation and pain ... On the other hand ... omega-3 oils do not inhibit another group of enzymes called lipoxygenases (LOX), which are also produced by stimulated macrophages. One type of generated LOX enzyme in turn produces fat-signaling molecules called leukotrienes, which are pro-inflammatory. But Norris noted that LOX enzymes may also generate anti-inflammatory compounds called resolvins from EPA and DHA"
  • Nutrition: More Omega-3, Less of a Suspect Protein - NYTimes.com, 5/7/12 - "Amyloid plaques and tangles in the brain are characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease and are known to increase the risk for mental decline ... higher levels of omega-3 intake were associated with significantly lower beta-amyloid blood levels"
  • Eating fish, chicken, nuts may lower risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 5/2/12 - "A new study suggests that eating foods that contain omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish, chicken, salad dressing and nuts, may be associated with lower blood levels of a protein related to Alzheimer's disease and memory problems ... 1,219 people older than age 65, free of dementia, provided information about their diet for an average of 1.2 years before their blood was tested for the beta-amyloid. Researchers looked specifically at 10 nutrients, including saturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, vitamin E, vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin B12, folate and vitamin D ... the more omega-3 fatty acids a person took in, the lower their blood beta-amyloid levels. Consuming one gram of omega-3 per day (equal to approximately half a fillet of salmon per week) more than the average omega-3 consumed by people in the study is associated with 20 to 30 percent lower blood beta-amyloid levels ... Other nutrients were not associated with plasma beta-amyloid levels" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil added to yogurt may help consumers meet daily nutritional requirements - Science Daily, 3/28/12 - "In a preliminary study, tasters could not differentiate between low levels of fish and butter oils in unflavored yogurt, but they could discern yogurt flavored with oxidized fish oil, which has a strong fishy taste" - Hmmm!!! Fish flavored and chili and lime flavored yogurt.  Try selling that idea.  I'll stick to my fish oil capsules.
  • Fatty diets may be associated with reduced semen quality - Science Daily, 3/14/12 - "The study of 99 men in the USA found an association between a high total fat intake and lower total sperm count and concentration. It also found that men who ate more omega-3 polyunsaturated fats (the type of fat often found in fish and plant oils) had better formed sperm than men who ate less ... if men make changes to their diets so as to reduce the amount of saturated fat they eat and increase their omega-3 intake, then this may not only improve their general health, but could improve their reproductive health too ... the relationship between dietary fats and semen quality was largely driven by the consumption of saturated fats. Men consuming the most saturated fats had a 35% lower total sperm count than men eating the least, and a 38% lower sperm concentration"
  • Omega-3 reduces inflammatory marker to offer ‘multiple’ health benefits - Nutra USA, 3/2/12 - "The first of the two new studies ... indicated that omega-3 supplements were associated with reduced levels of sICAM-1, which may contribute to a decrease in the risk of atherosclerosis ... The second study ... indicated that increased levels of omega-3 may counteract the pro-carcinogenic action of sICAM-1" - [Abstract] [Abstract]
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Help Brain Age Better - WebMD, 2/27/12 - "the results suggest diets lacking in omega-3 fatty acids may cause the brain to age faster ... people whose DHA levels were in the bottom 25% of the group had lower brain volumes compared with people with higher DHA levels ... In addition, people with both low DHA and all the other omega-3 fatty acid levels scored lower on tests of visual memory, processing, and abstract thinking ... Researchers say the results suggest that low DHA and other omega-3 fatty acid levels are associated with a pattern of memory and brain function problems even in people free of dementia"
  • Omega-3s linked to slower eye sight loss in people with retinal disease: Study - Nutra USA, 2/14/12 - "people with the condition who consume at least 0.2 grams per day of omega-3 fatty acids have a 40% slower average annual rate of decline in distance visual acuity, compared with people with lower intakes"
  • Study to determine whether fish oil can help prevent psychiatric disorders - Science Daily, 2/8/12 - "Researchers at Zucker Hillside Hospital's Recognition and Prevention (RAP) Program who have worked with teenagers at risk for serious mental illness for the past decade are now studying the effectiveness of Omega 3 fatty acids (fish oil) for treating psychiatric symptoms ... Of the 300 adolescents who have participated in the RAP Program, most have shown substantial improvement"
  • Maternal omega-3 reduces eczema risk in children: Study - Nutra USA, 1/31/12 - "children whose mothers had consumed omega-3 daily had 36% less risk of developing eczema, a 38% reduction in the chance of being sensitised to egg, and 50% less chance of having egg allergy"
  • Omega-3 may enhance benefits of strength training for the elderly - Nutra USA, 1/6/12 - "fish oil may be an attractive supplement for the elderly to maximize their neuromuscular responses to strength training, which is important to life quality" - [Abstract]
  • Healthy oil components may fight pancreatitis - Nutra USA, 1/3/12 - "They found that the oleic acid and hydroxytyrosol – both of which are present in a particularly high concentration in virgin olive oil and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids – offered protection from inflammatory damage from induced pancreatitis in pancreatic cells"
  • Alzheimer's: Diet patterns may keep brain from shrinking - Science Daily, 12/29/11 - "People with diets high in several vitamins or in omega 3 fatty acids are less likely to have the brain shrinkage associated with Alzheimer's disease than people whose diets are not high in those nutrients ... Those with diets high in omega 3 fatty acids and in vitamins C, D, E and the B vitamins also had higher scores on mental thinking tests than people with diets low in those nutrients ... people with diets high in trans fats were more likely to have brain shrinkage and lower scores on the thinking and memory tests than people with diets low in trans fats"
  • Possible cure for leukemia found in fish oil - Science Daily, 12/22/11 - "The compound -- delta-12-protaglandin J3, or D12-PGJ3 -- targeted and killed the stem cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia, or CML, in mice ... The compound is produced from EPA -- Eicosapentaenoic Acid -- an Omega-3 fatty acid found in fish and in fish oil ... During the experiments, the researchers injected each mouse with about 600 nanograms of D12-PGJ3 each day for a week. Tests showed that the mice were completely cured of the disease. The blood count was normal, and the spleen returned to normal size. The disease did not relapse ... The researchers focused on D12-PGJ3 because it killed the leukemia stem cells, but had the least number of side effects"
  • Some Fish Oil Supplements Fishy on Quality - WebMD, 12/7/11 - "None of the fish oil supplements contained contaminants, such as lead, mercury, or PCBs, that exceeded levels set by USP or the European Union ... the total PCB amounts in four brands (CVS Natural, GNC Triple Organic, Nature’s Bounty Odorless, and Sundown Naturals) were below the USP safe limit but within the range that would require a warning label under California’s Proposition 65, 90 parts per billion ... For the report, the consumer agency purchased three lots of 15 different top-selling brands of fish oil supplements online and in the New York metropolitan area ... Two of the three samples of Kirkland Signature Enteric 1200 fish oil supplements had an enteric coating (designed to prevent a fishy aftertaste) that did not disintegrate properly. The coating may break up in the stomach rather than in the small intestine, as desired for proper absorption by the body" - Note:  So those bargains at Costco may not be such a bargain if they aren't absorbed.
  • Young women may reduce heart disease risk eating fish with omega 3 fatty acids, study finds - Science Daily, 12/5/11 - "In the first population-based study in women of childbearing age, those who rarely or never ate fish had 50 percent more cardiovascular problems over eight years than those who ate fish regularly. Compared to women who ate fish high in omega-3 weekly, the risk was 90 percent higher for those who rarely or never ate fish ... Fish oil contains long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are believed to protect against heart and vascular disease. Few women in the study took fish oil supplements, so these were excluded from the analyses and the results were based on the dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, not intake from supplements"
  • Eating fish can reduce the risk of diabetes - Science Daily, 11/11/11 - "the consumption of fish is associated with a decreased prevalence of diabetes and lower glucose concentrations whereas the consumption of red meat, especially cured meats is related to increased weight gain and obesity ... Eating red meat in excess is linked to higher cardiovascular risk, higher blood pressure, diabetes and a moderate decrease in life expectancy mainly due to cancer or heart disease. In contrast, fish appears in the Mediterranean diet and has health benefits for the heart"
  • You are what you eat: Low fat diet with fish oil slows growth of human prostate cancer cells, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/25/11 - "Men who ate a low-fat diet with fish oil supplements for four to six weeks before having their prostate removed had slower cancer-cell growth in their prostate tissue than men who ate a traditional, high-fat Western diet ... The short-term study also found that blood obtained from patients after the low-fat, fish oil diet slowed the growth of prostate cancer cells in a test tube, while blood from men on the Western diet did not slow cancer growth ... Preclinical studies suggest that lowering dietary omega-6 fatty acids from corn oil and increasing omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil decreases the risk of prostate cancer development and progression," the study states. "We found this diet intervention resulted in a decrease in omega-6 vs. omega-3 fatty acid ratios in benign and malignant prostate tissue and a decrease in malignant cell proliferation"
  • Boosting mental performance with fish oil? - Science Daily, 10/21/11 - "overall, taking either of two different types of fish oil supplement for three months had no consistent impact on mental function in 18 -- 35-year-olds, however they did find evidence of reduced mental fatigue and faster reaction times. Contrary to popular belief, these results suggest that taking omega-3 or fish oil supplements may not have an immediate or measureable impact on mental performance in healthy young adults, possibly due to the fact that this population is already performing at its mental peak or that higher doses or longer than 12 weeks supplementation are required ... Interestingly, in the second of these studies it was found that taking DHA-rich fish oil over the same time period did increase blood flow to active areas of the brain during performance of similar mental tasks. The researchers claim these findings could have implications for mental function later on in life, as evidence suggests regularly eating oily fish or taking omega-3 supplements may prevent cognitive decline and dementia, and increased blood flow to the brain may be a mechanism by which this occurs"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids shown to prevent or slow progression of osteoarthritis - Science Daily, 10/17/11 - "New research has shown for the first time that omega-3 in fish oil could "substantially and significantly" reduce the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis ... omega-3-rich diets fed to guinea pigs, which naturally develop osteoarthritis, reduced disease by 50 per cent compared to a standard diet ... Furthermore, there was strong evidence that omega-3 influences the biochemistry of the disease, and therefore not only helps prevent disease, but also slows its progression, potentially controlling established osteoarthritis ... The only way of being certain that the effects of omega-3 are as applicable to humans as demonstrated in guinea pigs is to apply omega-3 to humans. However, osteoarthritis in guinea pigs is perhaps the most appropriate model for spontaneous, naturally occurring osteoarthritis, and all of the evidence supports the use of omega-3 in human disease ... Most diets in the developed world are lacking in omega-3, with modern diets having up to 30 times too much omega-6 and too little omega-3. Taking omega-3 will help redress this imbalance and may positively contribute to a range of other health problems such as heart disease and colitis"
  • Omega-3 may ease depression symptoms, slash dementia risk: RCT - Nutra USA, 9/23/11 - "recruited 50 people over the age of 65 to participate in their six-month double-blind, randomized controlled trial ... Participants received daily supplements of EPA- or DHA-rich fish oil, or the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA, 2.2 grams per day). The EPA-rich supplement provided 1.67 grams of EPA and 0.16 grams of DHA, while the DHA-rich supplement provided 1.55 grams of DHA and 0.40 grams of EPA ... compared with the group receiving the LA supplements, the EPA-rich supplement group displayed higher scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale ... On the other hand, the DHA group displayed improvements in verbal fluency ... These results indicate that DHA-rich and EPA-rich fish oils may be effective for depressive symptoms and health parameters, exerting variable effects on cognitive and physical outcomes" - [Abstract]
  • Omega-3 supplements show benefits against anxiety: Human data - Nutra USA, 9/14/11 - "the Ohio State researchers recruited 68 medical students to participate in their parallel group, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. The med students were given either placebo capsules or omega-3 capsules containing 2085 mg of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 348 mg DHA (docosahexanoic acid) ... Results showed a 14% reduction in levels of the production of pro-inflammatory interleukin 6 (IL-6), as well as a 20% reduction in anxiety symptoms in the omega-3 group, compared to the placebo group ... Proinflammatory cytokines promote secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a primary gateway to hormonal stress responses; CRH also stimulates the amygdala, a key brain region for fear and anxiety. Accordingly, alterations in inflammation could also influence anxiety" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.  Note:  CRH increases cortisol.  See:
  • Maternal omega-3 intake may influence childhood allergy - Nutra USA, 9/12/11 - "Omega-3 fatty acids may aid the development of the infant gut and improve how gut immune cells respond to bacteria and foreign substances, making the baby less likely to suffer from allergies in the long term, according to new research in pigs ... These findings suggest that feeding fatty acids of the omega-3 family during pregnancy and lactation impact newborn intestinal barrier function ... such changes “are likely to reduce the risk of developing allergies in later life" ... The end result is that the baby's immune system may develop and mature faster – leading to better immune function and less likelihood of suffering allergies ... the pig intestine is an excellent model of the human gut, however, so they are hopeful that the findings can be extrapolated" - [Abstract]
  • Omega-3 Effective for Treating Child ADHD - Medscape, 9/8/11 - "In an evaluation of 10 trials with 699 total children with ADHD, investigators found that those who received omega-3 supplements had a "small but significant" improvement in symptom severity compared with those who were given placebo. This effect was also significant in the children who received supplements that specifically contained higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid ... Omega-3 supplements that included higher doses of eicosapentaenoic acid were also significantly associated with lowering ADHD symptoms ... There were no significant differences found for any dose of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid, or between omega-3 monotherapy vs augmenting traditional ADHD medications with omega-3" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Marine, but not plant, omega-3s may boost heart health for women: Study - Nutra USA, 9/7/11 - "High intakes of long chain omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3) was associated with a 38% reduction in the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women, but not men ... Much attention has been paid to the conversion of ALA to the longer chain EPA, with many stating that this conversion is very small. Indeed, between 8 and 20 per cent of ALA is reportedly converted to EPA in humans, and between 0.5 and 9 per cent of ALA is converted to DHA ... high intakes of long chain omega-3s ranging from 0.45 to 11.2 grams per day were associated with a 38% reduction in IHD risk for women only" - [Abstract]
  • Fish oil's impact on cognition and brain structure identified in new study - Science Daily, 8/17/11 - "Researchers at Rhode Island Hospital's Alzheimer's Disease and Memory Disorders Center have found positive associations between fish oil supplements and cognitive functioning as well as differences in brain structure between users and non-users of fish oil supplements ... compared to non-users, use of fish oil supplements was associated with better cognitive functioning during the study. However, this association was significant only in those individuals who had a normal baseline cognitive function and in individuals who tested negative for a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease known as APOE4. This is consistent with previous research ... The unique finding, however, is that there was a clear association between fish oil supplements and brain volume ... In other words, fish oil use was associated with less brain shrinkage in patients taking these supplements during the ADNI study compared to those who didn't report using them"
  • Omega-3 Supplements May Lower Anxiety - Medscape, 7/22/11 - "In a small randomized controlled trial of medical students, those who received omega-3 supplements for 3 months showed a 20% reduction in anxiety scores and a 14% reduction in stimulated interleukin 6 (IL-6) production ... Chronic inflammation has been linked to a broad spectrum of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, and rheumatoid arthritis ... A total of 68 first- and second-year medical students (56% male; mean age, 23.65 years) were enrolled and randomized to receive 3 times daily either omega-3 supplement capsules (consisting of 2085 mg of EPA and 348 mg of DHA, n = 34) or fish-flavored placebo capsules (n = 34) for 12 weeks ... We chose the 7:1 EPA/DHA balance because of evidence that EPA has relatively stronger anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects than DHA"
  • Earlier the better for omega-3 benefits for brains & hearts? - Nutra USA, 7/4/11 - "the older animals did benefit from fish oil supplementation, but the benefits were limited to diastolic function, or the filling of the heart with blood following contraction (systolic) ... The younger animals had better spatial memory than the older animals, and the fish oil supplements were not associated with any reversal of the age-related memory deficits or increases in inflammation in the brain, wrote the researchers" - [Abstract]


  • Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 11 - "Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long-chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it ... Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPLs) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk ... Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFAs); HR [95% CI] = 1.51 [1.06, 2.16] (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); p-trend = 0.003. HRs (Q5 to Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR = 0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); p-trend = 0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated for moderate intakes of linoleic acid (Q2 and Q3 vs. Q1, 1.58 [1.10, 2.28] and 1.70 [1.18, 2.46], respectively), but the increase was not significant for higher intakes (Q4 and Q5). No association varied significantly by tumour aggressiveness (all p-homogeneity > 0.1). Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA, largely attributable to palmitic acid and inversely associated with %PPL monounsaturated fatty acids, largely attributable to oleic acid. Higher risks were also observed for dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fats, primarily linoleic acid"
  • Effect of Fish Oil on Circulating Adiponectin: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May 23 - "In placebo-controlled RCTs, fish oil moderately increases circulating adiponectin" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Lipid content in hepatic and gonadal adipose tissue parallel aortic cholesterol accumulation in mice fed diets with different omega-6 PUFA to EPA plus DHA ratios - Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr 24 - "Dietary ω-6:EPA+DHA ratios did not affect body weight, but lower ω-6:EPA+DHA ratio diets decreased liver lipid accumulation, which possibly contributed to the lower aortic cholesterol accumulation" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • A low dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 Fatty acids may delay progression of prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(4):556-62 - "High amounts of omega-6 fatty acids have been linked with increased prostate cancer risk, whereas omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to inhibit PCa growth. However, because omega-3 and omega-6 are both essential fatty acids and part of a complete diet, it is more relevant to determine the ideal ratio of the two that would allow patients to benefit from the therapeutic properties of omega-3 fatty acids. LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with dietary-based ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids under hormone-deprivation conditions, and effects on various cellular processes were determined. A low omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA ratio can delay the progression of cells toward castration-resistance by suppressing pathways involved in prostate cancer progression, such as the Akt/mTOR/NFκB axis. It also suppresses the expression of cyclin D1, and activation of caspase-3 and annexin V staining shows induction of proapoptotic events. Taken together, our data demonstrates that maintaining a low omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids ratio can enhance efficacy of hormone ablation therapy"
  • Adiponectin Gene Variant Interacts with Fish Oil Supplementation to Influence Serum Adiponectin in Older Individuals - J Nutr. 2013 May 8 - "Individuals homozygous for the +45 T-allele aged >58 y had a 22% increase in serum adiponectin concentration compared with baseline after the highest dose (P-treatment effect = 0.008). If substantiated in a larger sample, a diet high in n3 PUFAs may be recommended for older individuals, especially those of the +45 TT genotype who have reported increased risk of hypoadiponectinemia, type 2 diabetes, and obesity"
  • Dietary Fat, Fatty Acids, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Apr;22(4):697-707 - "NIH-American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Diet and Health Study. Diet was assessed at baseline with self-administered food-frequency questionnaires ... Total fat and mono- and polyunsaturated fat intakes were not associated with incidence of prostate cancer. Saturated fat intake was related to increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (HRQuintile 5 vs. Qunitile 1 (Q1 vs. Q5), 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.46; Ptrend = 0.03) and fatal prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.15; Ptrend = 0.04). α-Linolenic acid (ALA) intake was related to increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.04-1.31; Ptrend = 0.01). Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) intake was related to decreased risk of fatal prostate cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.64-1.04; Ptrend = 0.02)"
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Glucose Metabolism without Effects on Obesity Values and Serum Visfatin Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - J Am Coll Nutr. 2012 Oct;31(5):361-8 - "controlled clinical trial was conducted on 61 women who were diagnosed with PCOS, had a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 40 kg/m(2), and were from 20-35 years old. Thirty of the subjects had taken four 1-g omega-3 fatty acids capsules per day, providing 1200 mg n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), and 31 were given a placebo over 8 weeks ... Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased glucose (by 11.4%, p < 0.001), insulin (by 8.4%, p < 0.05), and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (by 21.8%, p < 0.001) compared with placebo"
  • Fish oil supplementation alters circulating eicosanoid concentrations in young healthy men - Metabolism. 2013 Mar 20 - "Fasted serum samples were collected from 10 young healthy males (23.4+/-1.7years) before and after a 3-month supplementation of fish-oil containing 2.0g EPA and 1.0g DHA ... A 3-month fish oil supplementation in young healthy men improved circulating triglyceride levels and the HDL-c ratio while, concomitantly, increasing the concentrations of two eicosanoids (prostaglandin-F2α and thromboxane-B2). This suggests that fish oil supplementation does have significant benefits in young healthy adults"
  • Total n-3 fatty acid and SFA intakes in relation to insulin resistance in a Canadian First Nation at risk for the development of type 2 diabetes - Public Health Nutr. 2013 Mar 21:1-5 - "Intake of dietary n-3 fatty acids may be protective against whereas SFA intake may promote insulin resistance in this high-risk Canadian First Nation sample. Reduced dietary SFA intake and greater n-3 fatty acid intake may assist the prevention of glycaemic disease among First Nations peoples"
  • Short-term effects of fish-oil supplementation on heart rate variability in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 20 - "systematic search of PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and references of related reviews and studies ... Short-term fish-oil supplementation may favorably influence the frequency domain of heart rate variability, as indicated by an enhanced vagal tone, which may be an important mechanism underlying the antiarrhythmic and other clinical effects of fish oil"
  • Effect of different dietary omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratios on reproduction in male rats - Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Mar 13;12(1):33 - "These findings demonstrated that a balanced n-3/n-6 ratio was important in male rat reproduction. Therefore there is a necessity to determine an appropriate n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in man and different male animals in the future"
  • Omega 3 fatty acids increase the chemo-sensitivity of B-CLL-derived cell lines EHEB and MEC-2 and of B-PLL-derived cell line JVM-2 to anti-cancer drugs doxorubicin, vincristine and fludarabine - Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Mar 16;12(1):36 - "N-3's are promising chemo-sensitizing agents for the treatment of CLL. Selective enhancement of chemo-sensitivity of EHEB, JVM-2 and MEC-2 to drugs by n-3 that is not dependent on increased lipid peroxidation and ROS generation indicates alternative mechanisms by which n-3 enhances chemo-sensitivity"
  • trans Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Increased Risk and n3 Fatty Acid Intake with Reduced Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma - J Nutr. 2013 Mar 13 - "diets high in TFAs, processed meats, and higher fat dairy products were positively associated with NHL risk, whereas diets high in n3 fatty acids and total seafood were inversely associated with risk"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids lower blood pressure by directly activating large-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ channels - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 4 - "This finding has practical implications for the use of omega-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals for the general public and also for the critically ill receiving omega-3-enriched formulas"
  • High Concentrations of Plasma n3 Fatty Acids Are Associated with Decreased Risk for Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration - J Nutr. 2013 Feb 13 - "High dietary intakes of n3 (Ω3) PUFA and fish have been consistently associated with a decreased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ... The Antioxydants Lipides Essentiels Nutrition et Maladies Occulaires (Alienor) Study is a prospective, population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 residents of Bordeaux (France) aged ≥73 y ... After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, physical activity, plasma HDL-cholesterol, plasma TGs, CFH Y402H, apoE4, and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms, and follow-up time, high plasma total n3 PUFA was associated with a reduced risk for late AMD [OR = 0.62 for 1-SD increase (95% CI: 0.44-0.88); P = 0.008]. Associations were similar for plasma 18:3n3 [OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88); P = 0.008] and n3 long-chain PUFA [OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.92); P = 0.01" - Note:  18:3n3 is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the form of omega-3 found in plant sources such as flax.  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil-Supplemented Parenteral Nutrition in Patients Following Esophageal Cancer Surgery: Effect on Inflammation and Immune Function - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Jan;65(1):71-75 - "inflammation [serum procalcitonin (PCT) ... PCT level was notably lower and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was markedly higher in the ω-3 PUFAs group ... ω-3 PUFAs supplemented PN can reduce inflammation and improve immune function in patients following esophageal cancer surgery"
  • Supplementation with n3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Increases Large and Small Arterial Elasticity in Obese Adults on a Weight Loss Diet - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 30 - "carry out a 12-wk randomized, single-blind trial to test the effect of a 25% energy deficit weight loss diet alone (WL) (n = 12) or WL plus 4 g/d Omacor (46% EPA and 38% DHA) supplementation (WL+FAEE) (n = 13) on arterial elasticity in obese adults. Large (C1) and small artery elasticity (C2) were measured ... Supplementation with n3 FAEEs improves C1 and C2 independent of weight loss in obese adults"
  • Alterations in the Intestinal Assimilation of Oxidized PUFAs Are Ameliorated by a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Seed Extract in an In Vitro Model and CACO-2 Cells - J Nutr. 2013 Jan 16 - "The (n-3) PUFAs, 20:5 (n-3) EPA and 22:6 (n-3) DHA, are thought to benefit human health. The presence of prooxidant compounds in foods, however, renders them susceptible to oxidation during both storage and digestion ... We found that during digestion, the development of oxidation products occurs in the stomach compartment, and increased amounts of oxidation products became bioaccessible in the jejunal and ileal compartments. Inclusion of a polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (GSE) during the digestion decreased the amounts of oxidation products in the stomach compartment and intestinal dialysates (P < 0.05). In Caco-2 intestinal cells, the uptake of oxidized (n-3) PUFA was ~10% of the uptake of unoxidized PUFAs (P < 0.05) and addition of GSE or epigallocatechin gallate protected against the development of oxidation products, resulting in increased uptake of PUFAs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that addition of polyphenols during active digestion can limit the development of (n-3) PUFA oxidation products in the small intestine lumen and thereby promote intestinal uptake of the beneficial, unoxidized, (n-3) PUFAs" - See Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids in cancer - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013 Jan 7 - "Inflammation dictates tumour initiation, progression and growth. Omega-3 fatty acids exert anti-inflammatory effects, and therefore recent studies investigated their role in cancer prevention, in cancer cachexia treatment and in enhancement of antitumour therapies. Limited evidence suggests a role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in cancer prevention, but they have been shown to preserve muscle mass and function in cancer patients even during active treatment. During chemotherapy, omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to a reduced inflammatory response, but whether cancer treatment toxicity can be prevented remains to be assessed. Finally, small studies showed that omega-3 fatty acids increase response rate to chemotherapy"
  • The Impact of Supplemental n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Dietary Antioxidants on Physical Performance in Postmenopausal Women - Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(1):76-80 - "126 postmenopausal women. Intervention: 2 fish oil (1.2g eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or 2 placebo (olive oil) capsules per day for 6 months ... Physical performance, measured by change in walking speed, was significantly affected by fish oil supplementation. Dietary intake of antioxidants (selenium and vitamin C) and changes in TNFα also contributed to change in walking speed suggesting LCPUFA may interact with antioxidants and inflammatory response to impact physical performance"  
  • Association of Marine-Origin n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Consumption and Functional Mobility in the Community-Dwelling Oldest Old - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(1):82-9 - "Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a lower habitual intake of EPA+DHA was significantly associated with poor functional mobility in men but not in women (OR (95%CI) per 1 SD increase of EPA+DHA intake; 0.55 (0.33-0.91), 0.88 (0.59-1.32), men and women respectively)"
  • The Effects of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Adults With Diabetes: Results of the GO-FISH trial - Diabetes Care. 2012 Dec 28 - "placebo-controlled, two-period crossover trial to test the effects of 4 g/day of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of glomerular filtration and kidney injury in adults with adult-onset diabetes and greater than or equal to trace amounts of proteinuria ... These results suggest a potential effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of kidney injury in patients with diabetes and early evidence of kidney disease"
  • Platelet Redox Balance in Diabetic Patients With Hypertension Improved by n-3 Fatty Acids - Diabetes Care. 2012 Dec 13 - "Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, largely as a result of defective production of cardioprotective nitric oxide and a concomitant rise in oxidative stress ... We randomized hypertensive T2DM patients (T2DM HT; n = 22) and age-and-sex matched hypertensive study participants without diabetes (HT alone; n = 23) in a double-blind, crossover fashion to receive 8 weeks of n-3 PUFAs (1.8 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.5 g docosahexaenoic acid) or identical olive oil capsules (placebo), with an intervening 8-week washout period ... Our finding that n-3 PUFAs diminish platelet superoxide production in T2DM HT patients in vivo suggests a therapeutic role for these agents in reducing the vascular-derived oxidative stress associated with diabetes" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of fish oil supplementation on inflammatory acne - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Dec 3;11(1):165 - "Given that acne is a rare condition in societies with higher consumption of omega-3 (n-3) relative to omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids, supplementation with n-3 may suppress inflammatory cytokine production and thereby reduce acne severity ... 13 individuals with inflammatory acne were given three grams of fish oil containing 930 mg of EPA to their unchanged diet and existing acne remedies for 12 weeks ... There was no significant change in acne grading and inflammatory counts at week 12 compared to baseline. However, there was a broad range of response to the intervention on an individual basis. The results showed that acne severity improved in 8 individuals, worsened in 4, and remained unchanged in 1. Interestingly, among the individuals who showed improvement, 7 were classified as having moderate to severe acne at baseline, while 3 of the 4 whose acne deteriorated were classified as having mild acne"
  • Effects of EPA, γ-linolenic acid or coenzyme Q10 on serum prostate-specific antigen levels: a randomised, double-blind trial - Br J Nutr. 2012 Nov 30:1-8 - "A total of 504 healthy men with serum PSA level ≤ 2.5 ng/ml were recruited into the study ... Participants were randomly assigned to a daily dietary supplement containing n-3 fatty acids (1.12 g of EPA and 0.72 g of DHA per capsule) (group 1, n 126), n-6 fatty acid (600 mg γ-linolenic acid (GLA) each capsule) (group 2, n 126), CoQ10 (100 mg per capsule) (group 3, n 126) or a similar regimen of placebo (group 4, n 126) for 12 weeks ... EPA treatment significantly reduced serum PSA level by 30.0 (95 % CI 25, 36) % (P = 0.004) from baseline. In contrast, GLA therapy significantly increased serum PSA concentration by 15.0 (95 % CI 11, 20) % (P = 0.02). CoQ10 therapy also significantly reduced serum PSA level by 33.0 (95 % CI 27, 40) % (P = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, serum values of PSA were strongly correlated with duration of EPA (r - 0.62; 95 % CI - 0.42, - 0.77; P = 0.003), n-6 (r 0.42; 95 % CI 0.31, 0.58; P = 0.02) and CoQ10 use (r - 0.77; 95 % CI - 0.56, - 0.87; P = 0.001). There were also significant correlations between serum values of DHA, EPA, GLA and CoQ10 and serum PSA levels. The present study demonstrates that dietary supplements containing EPA, GLA or CoQ10 may significantly affect serum PSA levels"
  • Effect of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid supplementation in patients with sickle cell anemia: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 28 - "Blood cell aggregation and adherence to vascular endothelium and inflammation play a central role in vaso-occlusive crisis in sickle cell disease. The antiaggregatory, antiadhesive, antiinflammatory, and vasodilatory omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (DHA and EPA) are significantly reduced in patients with the disease ... One hundred forty patients recruited from a single center in Sudan were randomly assigned and received, daily, 1 (age 2-4 y), 2 (age 5-10 y), 3 (age 11-16), or 4 (age ≥17 y) omega-3 capsules containing 277.8 mg DHA and 39.0 mg EPA or placebo for 1 y ... Omega-3 treatment reduced the median rate of clinical vaso-occlusive events (0 compared with 1.0 per year, P < 0.0001), severe anemia (3.2% compared with 16.4%; P < 0.05), blood transfusion (4.5% compared with 16.4%; P < 0.05), white blood cell count (14.4 +/- 3.3 compared with 15.6 +/- 4.0 ×10(3)/μL; P < 0.05), and the OR of the inability to attend school at least once during the study period because of illness related to the disease to 0.4 ... The findings of this trial, which need to be verified in a large multicenter study, suggest that omega-3 fatty acids can be an effective, safe, and affordable therapy for sickle cell anemia"
  • Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study - Nutr J. 2012 Nov 22;11(1):99 - "Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily) were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects ... Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p < 0.05). In contrast to placebo, n-3 PUFA lowered plasma triacylglycerides (P < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001). Systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05), f-glucose (p = 0.05), and s-TNF-alpha (p = 0.05), were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests ... Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline"
  • Fetal growth, omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: preventing fetal origins of disease? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 14 - "Impaired fetal growth is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood ... Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a slower rate of increase in carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth"
  • Dietary fish oil reduces glomerular injury and elevated renal hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid levels in the JCR:LA-cp rat, a model of the metabolic syndrome - Br J Nutr. 2012 Nov 15:1-9 - "These results suggest a potential role for dietary fish oil to improve dysfunctional renal eicosanoid metabolism associated with kidney damage during conditions of the MetS"
  • Titrating lovaza from 4 to 8 to 12 grams/day in patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia who had triglyceride levels >500 mg/dl despite conventional triglyceride lowering therapy - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Oct 30;11(1):143 - "With TG >500 mg/dl despite Type V diet, hyperinsulinemia and diabetes control, and fibric acids, Lovaza (4 g/d) was added for 1 month, and if TG remained >500 mg/dl, increased to 8 g/d for 1 month, and then to 12 g/d for 1 month, and subsequently reduced to 4 g/day for 4 months ... Titration of Lovaza from 4 to 8 to 12 g/d safely offers an effective way to lower TG beyond conventional 4 g therapy"
  • Attenuation of post-myocardial infarction depression in rats by n-3 fatty acids or probiotics starting after the onset of reperfusion - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 15:1-7 - "Proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in depression-like behaviour and apoptosis in the limbic system after myocardial infarction (MI). A PUFA n-3 diet or the combination of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 probiotics, when given before the ischaemic period, reduce circulating proinflammatory cytokines as well as apoptosis in the limbic system ... These results indicate that a high-PUFA n-3 diet or the administration of probiotics, starting after the onset of reperfusion, are beneficial to attenuate apoptosis in the limbic system and post-MI depression in the rat"
  • Plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition in ischemic stroke: Importance of docosahexaenoic acid in the risk for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Sep 20 - "intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) ... no cerebral atherosclerotic stenosis, NCAS ... Age, coexistence of hypertension/diabetes were significantly different among the groups. Phospholipid FA compositions were significantly different between non-stroke control and ischemic stroke patients, and interestingly, between NCAS and ICAS in stroke patients. Pattern analysis showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the ω3-polyunsaturated FAs were important FAs in distinguishing NCAS and ICAS in strokes. Particularly, the risk of ICAS was inversely associated with levels of DHA contents in phospholipids (OR: 0.590, 95% CI: 0.350-0.993, p < 0.05), indicating that the risk may be increased at lower levels of DHA contents ... DHA and EPA are important FAs for distinguishing NCAS and ICAS in strokes. Additionally, the risk of ICAS was inversely associated with the levels of phospholipid DHA, which indicates that sufficient amounts of DHA in plasma or in diet may reduce the risk of ICAS"
  • Effects of Serum n-3 to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Ratios on Coronary Atherosclerosis in Statin-Treated Patients With Coronary Artery Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Oct 2 - "A low ratio of n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with cardiovascular events ... Coronary atherosclerosis in nonculprit lesions in the percutaneous coronary intervention vessel was evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in 101 patients at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention and 8 months after statin therapy ... decreases in serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios are associated with progression in coronary atherosclerosis evaluated using virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in statin-treated patients with coronary artery disease"
  • Fish consumption and risk of stroke and its subtypes: accumulative evidence from a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3 - "A database was derived from 16 eligible studies (19 cohorts), including 402 127 individuals (10 568 incident cases) with an average 12.8 years of follow-up ... Accumulated evidence generated from this meta-analysis suggests that fish intake may have a protective effect against the risk of stroke, particularly ischemic stroke"
  • n-3 Long-chain PUFA reduce allergy-related mediator release by human mast cells in vitro via inhibition of reactive oxygen species - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 1:1-11 - "Increased n-6 and reduced n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) intake in Western diets may contribute to the increased prevalence of allergic diseases ... This suggests that dietary supplementation with EPA and/or DHA may alter the MC phenotype, contributing to a reduced susceptibility to develop and sustain allergic disease"
  • The association of red blood cell n-3 and n-6 fatty acids to dietary fatty acid intake, bone mineral density and hip fracture risk in the Women's Health Initiative - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Sep 27 - "Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in red blood cells (RBC) are an objective indicator of PUFA status and may be related to hip fracture risk ... A nested case-control study (n=400 pairs) was completed within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) using 201 incident hip fracture cases from the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) cohort, along with 199 additional incident hip fracture cases randomly selected from the WHI Observational Study ... In adjusted hazard models, lower hip fracture risk was associated with higher RBC a-linolenic acid [Hazard ratio (HR) Tertile 3 (T3): 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23-0.85; p for linear trend 0.0154)], eicosapentaenoic acid (HR T3: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.24-0.87; p for linear trend 0.0181) and total n-3 PUFAs (HR T3: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.30-1.01; p for linear trend 0.0492). Conversely, hip fracture nearly doubled with the highest RBC n-6/n-3 ratio (HR T3: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.03-3.70; p for linear trend 0.0399). RBC PUFAs were not associated with BMD. RBC PUFAs were indicative of dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFAs (Spearman's rho=0.45, p<0.0001), total n-6 PUFAs (rho=0.17, p<0.0001) and linoleic acid (rho= 0.09, p<0.05). These results suggest that higher RBC a-linolenic acid, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 PUFAs, may predict lower hip fracture risk. Contrastingly, a higher RBC n-6/n-3 ratio may predict higher hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women"
  • Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on postprandial triglycerides and monocyte activation - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Sep 13 - "Patients were treated with 4 g n3-FA/day or placebo for 3 weeks in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Relative postprandial TG increase reached its maximum 4 h after fat intake (185.1 +/- 10.9% of baseline). n3-FA reduced fasting TG from 137.1 +/- 12.9 to 112.2 +/- 8.6 mg/dl (p < 0.05), and maximum ppTG concentrations from 243.6 +/- 24.6 to 205.8 +/- 17.1 mg/dl (p < 0.05), while relative TG increase (192.8 +/- 12.7%) was comparable to placebo"
  • Modification of high saturated fat diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fat improves glucose intolerance and vascular dysfunction - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Sep 5 - "We hypothesized that partial replacement of dietary saturated fats with n-3 PUFA enriched menhaden oil (MO) would provide greater improvement in glucose tolerance and vascular function compared to n-6 enriched safflower oil (SO) or MUFA-enriched olive oil (OO) ... We fed mice a high saturated fat diet (60% kcal from lard) for 12 weeks before substituting half the lard with MO, SO or OO for an additional 4 weeks ... We conclude that short term enrichment of an ongoing high fat diet with n-3 PUFA rich MO but not MUFA rich OO or n-6 PUFA rich SO reverses glucose tolerance, insulin signaling, and vascular dysfunction"
  • Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians' Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Sep 5 - "The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n-3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ~0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month" - Note:  alpha linolenic acid is the omega-3 in flaxseed oil.  See Jarrow Formulas, Flax Seed Oil, 32 fl oz (946 ml) or Flora, Flax-O-Mega, 180 Capsules.
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid in mild-to-moderate depression: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Aug 18 - "Eighty-one mild-to-moderately depressed outpatients were randomly assigned to receive either 1g/d of EPA or DHA or placebo (coconut oil) for 12 weeks ... Although there was no significant difference between groups at baseline, patients in the EPA group showed a significantly lower mean HDRS score at study endpoint compared with those in the DHA (p<0.001) or placebo (p=0.002) groups. Furthermore, response to treatment (defined as a ≥50% decrease from the baseline HDRS score) was only observed in 6 patients receiving EPA, while no one in any of DHA or placebo groups responded to treatment" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Highly Purified Eicosapentaenoic Acid Increases Interleukin-10 Levels of Peripheral Blood Monocytes in Obese Patients With Dyslipidemia - Diabetes Care. 2012 Aug 21 - "Peripheral blood monocytes were prepared from 26 obese patients without and 90 obese patients with dyslipidemia. Of the latter 90 obese patients with dyslipidemia, 82 patients were treated with or without EPA treatment (1.8 g daily) for 3 months ... This study is the first to show that EPA increases the monocyte IL-10 expression in parallel with decrease of arterial stiffness, which may contribute to the antiatherogenic effect of EPA in obese dyslipidemic patients"
  • Plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe - Neurology. 2012 Aug 1 - "A total of 281 community dwellers from the Three-City Study, aged 65 years or older, had plasma fatty acid measurements at baseline and underwent MRI examinations at baseline and at 4 years. We studied the association between plasma EPA and DHA and MTL gray matter volume change at 4 years ... Higher plasma EPA, but not DHA, was associated with lower gray matter atrophy of the right hippocampal/parahippocampal area and of the right amygdala (p < 0.05, familywise error corrected). Based on a mean right amygdala volume loss of 6.0 mm(3)/y (0.6%), a 1 SD higher plasma EPA (+0.64% of total plasma fatty acids) at baseline was related to a 1.3 mm(3) smaller gray matter loss per year in the right amygdala. Higher atrophy of the right amygdala was associated with greater 4-year decline in semantic memory performances and more depressive symptoms ... The amygdala, which develops neuropathology in the early stage of AD and is involved in the pathogenesis of depression, may be an important brain structure involved in the association between EPA and cognitive decline and depressive symptoms" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • n-3 Fatty acids inhibit transcription of human IL-13: implications for development of T helper type 2 immune responses - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul 31:1-11 - "These data indicate the potential of n-3 fatty acids to attenuate IL-13 expression, and suggest that they may subsequently reduce allergic sensitisation and the development of allergic disease"
  • Erythrocyte n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and Seafood Intake Decrease the Risk of Depression: Case-Control Study in Korea - Ann Nutr Metab. 2012 Jul 6;61(1):25-31 - "Multivariate-adjusted regression analysis showed that the risk of depression was significantly and negatively associated with erythrocyte levels of 20:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3, 16:0 and 18:0, but positively associated with erythrocyte levels of 18:2t and 16:1 after adjusting for confounding factors. In addition, the risk of depression was negatively associated with the intake of energy, carbohydrate, seafood and grains, but positively with the intake of fat and meat after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions: The risk of depression could be decreased with increased erythrocyte levels of n-3 PUFA and saturated fatty acids, as well as seafood intake, but decreased erythrocyte levels of trans fatty acids in Koreans"
  • Fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acids and risk of heart failure: A meta-analysis - Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun 6 - "Using random effect model, the pooled relative risk for heart failure comparing the highest to lowest category of fish intake was 0.85 (95% CI; 0.73-0.99), p = 0.04; corresponding value for marine omega-3 fatty acids was 0.86 (0.74-1.00), p = 0.05 ... there was no evidence for publication bias"
  • "Metabolic syndrome" in the brain: Deficiency in omega-3-fatty acid exacerbates dysfunctions in insulin receptor signaling and cognition - J Physiol. 2012 Apr 2 - "high-dietary fructose consumption leads to increase in insulin resistance index, insulin and triglyceride levels, which characterize MetS. Rats fed on an n-3 deficient diet showed memory deficits in Barnes Maze, which were further exacerbated by fructose intake. In turn, n-3 deficient diet and fructose interventions disrupted insulin receptor signaling in hippocampus as evidenced by a decrease in phosphorylation of insulin receptor and its downstream effector Akt. We found that high fructose consumption with n-3 deficient diet disrupts membrane homeostasis as evidenced by an increase in the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids and levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of lipid peroxidation. Disturbances in brain energy metabolism due to n-3 deficiency and fructose treatments were evidenced by a significant decrease in AMPK phosphorylation and its upstream modulator LKB1 as well as a decrease in Sir2 levels. The decrease in phosphorylation of CREB, synapsin I and synaptophysin (SYP) levels by n-3 deficiency and fructose shows the impact of metabolic dysfunction on synaptic plasticity. All parameters of metabolic dysfunction related to the fructose treatment were ameliorated by the presence of dietary n-3 fatty acid. Results showed that dietary n-3 fatty acid deficiency elevates the vulnerability to metabolic dysfunction and impaired cognitive functions by modulating insulin receptor signaling and synaptic plasticity"
  • n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: the potential role for supplementation in cancer - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012 Feb 23 - "Low n-3 fatty acids are associated with loss of skeletal muscle, suggesting a need for supplementation ... Recent evidence appears to favour providing n-3 fatty acids early in the disease trajectory, during antineoplastic therapy for preservation of muscle and also to improve treatment tolerance"
  • Immunomodulation of microglia by docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012 Mar;15(2):134-43 - "Immunomodulation by ω-3 FAs is mediated by several pathways that are interconnected and is a potential therapy for disorders in the CNS"
  • Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on endothelial function: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jan 20 - "Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids significantly improves the endothelial function without affecting endothelium-independent dilation"
  • Effects of n-3 fatty acids on major cardiovascular events in statin users and non-users with a history of myocardial infarction - Eur Heart J. 2012 Feb 1 - "In statin users, an additional amount of n-3 fatty acids did not reduce cardiovascular events [HR(adj) 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 1.31; P = 0.88]. In statin non-users, however, only 9% of those who received EPA-DHA plus ALA experienced an event compared with 18% in the placebo group ... In patients with a history of MI who are not treated with statins, low-dose supplementation with n-3 fatty acids may reduce major cardiovascular events. This study suggests that statin treatment modifies the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the incidence of major cardiovascular events"
  • The Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inhibits Mouse MC-26 Colorectal Cancer Cell Liver Metastasis Via Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E(2) -Dependent Cell Motility - Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Feb 2 - "Treatment with 5% (w/w) EPA-FFA was associated with a reduced MC-26 mouse CRC cell liver tumour burden compared with control animals (median liver weight 1.62g versus 1.03g; P < 0.034). Administration of 5% EPA-FFA was also linked to a significant increase in tumour EPA incorporation and lower intra-tumoral PGE(2) levels (with concomitant increased production of PGE(3) ). Liver tumours from 5% EPA-FFA treated mice demonstrated decreased bromodeoxyuridine-positive CRC cell proliferation and reduced phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 expression at the invasive edge of tumours. A concentration-dependent reduction in MC-26 CRC cell Transwell® migration following EPA-FFA treatment (50-200µM) in vitro was rescued by exogenous PGE(2) (10µM) and PGE(1) -alcohol (1µM). Conclusions:  EPA-FFA inhibits MC-26 CRC cell liver metastasis. EPA incorporation is associated with a 'PGE(2) to PGE(3) switch' in liver tumours. Inhibition of PGE(2) -EP4 receptor-dependent CRC cell motility likely contributes to the anti-neoplastic activity of EPA"
  • Fish Oil Supplement Alters Markers of Inflammatory and Nutritional Status in Colorectal Cancer Patients - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Feb 1 - "The supplemented group (SG) consumed 2 g of fish oil containing 600 milligrams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 9 wk ... Patients supplemented with fish oil (SG) showed a clinically relevant decrease in the C-reactive protein/albumin relation (P = 0.005). Low doses of fish oil supplement can positively modulate the nutritional status and the C-reative protein/albumin ratio"
  • Association of Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids with Incident Atrial Fibrillation in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study - Circulation. 2012 Jan 26 - "In multivariable Cox models adjusted for other risk factors, the RR in the top versus lowest quartile of total n-3 PUFA (EPA+DPA+DHA) levels was 0.71 (95%CI=0.57-0.89, P-trend=0.004); and of DHA levels, 0.77 (95%CI=0.62-0.96, P-trend=0.01). EPA and DPA levels were not significantly associated with incident AF. Evaluated non-parametrically, both total n-3 PUFA and DHA showed graded and linear inverse associations with incidence of AF"
  • (n-3) Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: Are Effects of EPA and DHA Shared or Complementary? - J Nutr. 2012 Jan 25 - "We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially for DPA. Nonetheless, the present evidence suggests that EPA and DHA have both shared and complementary benefits. Based on current evidence, increasing consumption of either would be advantageous compared to little or no consumption. Focusing on their combined consumption remains most prudent given the potential for complementary effects and the existing more robust literature on cardiovascular benefits of their combined consumption as fish or fish oil for cardiovascular benefits"
  • Dietary intake of PUFAs and colorectal polyp risk - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 25 - "n-6 PUFAs were not associated with adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps in either men or women. Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs were associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenomas in women only, with an adjusted OR of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.97) for the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest quintile of intake (P-trend = 0.01). Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid was associated with an increased risk of hyperplastic polyps in men (P-trend = 0.03), which was not seen in women"
  • Associations of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among Chinese - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Jan 20 - "Our results suggest that plasma PL n-3 PUFA was significantly inversely associated with hypertension in Chinese. It would seem appropriate for hypertensive subjects to increase their dietary n-3 PUFA which may help reduce BP"
  • Oral nutritional supplements containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect quality of life and functional status in lung cancer patients during multimodality treatment: an RCT - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 11 - "(2.02 g eicosapentaenoic acid+0.92 g docosahexaenoic acid/day) or an isocaloric control supplement ... The intervention group reported significantly higher on the quality of life parameters, physical and cognitive function (B=11.6 and B=20.7, P<0.01), global health status (B=12.2, P=0.04) and social function (B=22.1, P=0.04) than the control group after 5 weeks. The intervention group showed a higher Karnofsky Performance Status (B=5.3, P=0.04) than the control group after 3 weeks. Handgrip strength did not significantly differ between groups over time. The intervention group tended to have a higher physical activity than the control group after 3 and 5 weeks (B=6.6, P=0.04 and B=2.5, P=0.05)"
  • Associations between n-3 PUFA concentrations and cognitive function after recovery from late-life depression - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 4 - "sample of 132 eligible participants who had recovered from major depression (mean +/- SD age: 67.8 +/- 6.6 y) were enrolled from outpatient psychiatric services. A series of cognitive tests and a structured questionnaire were administered. Fasting blood samples were collected for n-3 PUFA measurements ... the strongest and most consistent correlations were found between immediate recall and concentrations of total n-3 PUFAs and α-linolenic acid (ALA) in erythrocytes, which were observed only in participants with recurrent depression ... Total erythrocyte n-3 PUFA concentrations are positively associated with cognitive function, particularly immediate recall, in older people with previous depression. Lower concentrations of n-3 PUFAs or ALA in erythrocyte membranes may be good predictors for cognitive impairment in older people with previous recurrent depression"
  • ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes and the risk of breast cancer in Mexican women: impact of obesity status - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Dec 22 - "Overall, there was no significant association between ω-3 PUFA intake and breast cancer risk (p=0.31). An increased risk of breast cancer was associated with increasing ω-6 PUFA intake in pre-menopausal women (OR=1.92, 95% CI=1.13;3.26; p=0.04). A decreased risk of breast cancer was significantly associated with increasing ω-3 PUFA intake in obese women (OR=0.58, 95%CI=0.39;0.87; p=0.008), but not in normoweight nor in overweight women (p for heterogeneity = 0.017)
  • Fish oil attenuates surgery-induced immunosuppression, limits post-operative metastatic dissemination and increases long-term recurrence-free survival in rodents inoculated with cancer cells - Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 26 - "ω-3FA feeding attenuates or even overcomes postoperative NK cell suppression, increases resistance to experimental and spontaneous metastasis, and enhances recurrence-free survival following excision of metastasizing primary tumors"
  • Hypothalamic gene expression in ω-3 PUFA-deficient male rats before, and following, development of hypertension - Hypertens Res. 2011 Nov 10 - "Dietary deficiency of ω-3 fatty acids (ω-3 DEF) produces hypertension in later life ... Animals were fed experimental diets that were deficient in ω-3 fatty acids, sufficient in short-chain ω-3 fatty acids or sufficient in short- and long-chain ω-3 fatty acids, from the prenatal period until 10 or 36 weeks-of-age. There was no difference in blood pressure between groups at 10 weeks-of-age; however, at 36 weeks-of-age ω-3 DEF animals were hypertensive in relation to sufficient groups. At 10 weeks, expression of angiotensin-II(1A) receptors and dopamine D(3) receptors were significantly increased in the hypothalamic tissue of ω-3 DEF animals. In contrast, at 36 weeks, α(2a) and β(1) adrenergic receptor expression was significantly reduced in the ω-3 DEF group. Brain docosahexaenoic acid was significantly lower in ω-3 DEF group compared with sufficient groups. This study demonstrates that dietary ω-3 DEF causes changes both in the expression of key genes involved in central blood pressure regulation and in blood pressure. The data may indicate that hypertension resulting from ω-3 DEF is mediated by the central adrenergic system"
  • Enteral n-3 fatty acids and micronutrients enhance percentage of positive neutrophil and lymphocyte adhesion molecules: a potential mediator of pressure ulcer healing in critically ill patients - Br J Nutr. 2011 Nov 1:1-6 - "n-3 Fatty acids are recognised as influencing both wound healing and immunity. We assessed the impact of a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula (study formula) on the healing of pressure ulcers and on immune function in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit ... intervention group, n 20, received study formula; and a control group, n 20, received an isoenergetic formula ... Patients who received the study formula showed significant increases in the percentage of positive CD18 and CD11a lymphocytes and of CD49b granulocytes as compared to controls (P < 0.05). While the severity of pressure ulcers was not significantly different between the two groups on admission, severity increased significantly over time for the control group (P < 0.05), but not for the study group. The present study suggests that a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula may prevent worsening of pressure ulcers and that this effect may be mediated by an effect on adhesion molecule expression"
  • Do long-chain n-3 fatty acids reduce arterial stiffness? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct;106(7):974-80 - "A total of ten n-3 trials met the final inclusion criteria; four using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and six using arterial compliance, measured as capacitive compliance or systemic arterial compliance, as respective outcome measures. Meta-analysis revealed that n-3 was statistically significant in effectively improving both PWV (g = 0.33; 95 % CI 0.12, 0.56; P < 0.01) and arterial compliance (g = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.24, 0.72; P < 0.001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Results were not influenced by changes in blood pressure, heart rate or BMI. The findings of the present study reveal that supplementation with n-3 offers a scientifically supported means of reducing arterial stiffness. Reduction in arterial stiffness by n-3 may account for some of its purported cardioprotective effects" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Management of Hypercalciuric Stone Formers - Urology. 2011 Oct 13 - "All patients received empiric dietary recommendations for intake of fluids, sodium, protein, and citric juices. All subjects with hypercalciuria (urinary calcium >250 mg/d for males or >200 mg/d for females) on at least two 24-hour urine collections were counseled to supplement their diet with fish oil (1200 mg/d) ... Twenty-nine patients were followed for 9.86 +/- 8.96 months. The mean age was 43.38 +/- 13.78 years. Urinary calcium levels decreased in 52% of patients, with 24% converting to normocalciuria. The average urinary calcium (mg/d) decreased significantly from baseline (329.27 +/- 96.23 to 247.47 +/- 84.53, P <.0001). Urinary oxalate excretion decreased in 34% of patients. The average urinary oxalate (mg/d) decreased significantly from baseline (45.40 +/- 9.90 to 32.9 +/- 8.21, P = .0004). Urinary citrate (mg/d) increased in 62% of subjects from baseline (731.67 +/- 279.09 to 940.22 +/- 437.54, P = .0005). Calcium oxalate supersaturation decreased in 38% of the subjects significantly from baseline (9.73 +/- 4.48 to 3.68 +/- 1.76, P = .001)"
  • Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 20:1-12 - "Depressive symptoms may increase the risk of progressing from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. Consumption of n-3 PUFA may alleviate both cognitive decline and depression ... A total of fifty people aged >65 years with MCI were allocated to receive a supplement rich in EPA (1.67 g EPA+0.16 g DHA/d; n 17), DHA (1.55 g DHA+0.40 g EPA/d; n 18) or the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LA; 2.2 g/d; n 15). Treatment allocation was by minimisation based on age, sex and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). Physiological and cognitive assessments, questionnaires and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes were obtained at baseline and 6 months (completers: n 40; EPA n 13, DHA n 16, LA n 11). Compared with the LA group, GDS scores improved in the EPA (P = 0.04) and DHA (P = 0.01) groups and verbal fluency (Initial Letter Fluency) in the DHA group (P = 0.04). Improved GDS scores were correlated with increased DHA plus EPA (r 0.39, P = 0.02). Improved self-reported physical health was associated with increased DHA. There were no treatment effects on other cognitive or QOL parameters. Increased intakes of DHA and EPA benefited mental health in older people with MCI. Increasing n-3 PUFA intakes may reduce depressive symptoms and the risk of progressing to dementia. This needs to be investigated in larger, depressed samples with MCI"
  • n-3 PUFA prevent metabolic disturbances associated with obesity and improve endothelial function in golden Syrian hamsters fed with a high-fat diet - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 16:1-11 - "In conclusion, n-3 PUFA prevent some metabolic disturbances induced by high-fat diet and improve endothelial function in hamsters"
  • Dietary {alpha}-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and n-3 long-chain PUFA and risk of ischemic heart disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 24 - "α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3)  ... Four hundred seventy-one cases of IHD were observed during a median follow-up period of 23.3 y. Higher intake of ALA was not significantly associated with decreased risk of IHD among women or men. Although the HR of IHD was stepwise decreased with increasing ALA intake in men [0.84 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.14) in the medium compared with the lowest tertile (reference) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.24) in the highest compared with the lowest tertile], this change was far from significant (P-trend: 0.39). No evidence of effect modification by n-3 LC-PUFA or LA was observed. High n-3 LC-PUFA intake, in comparison with low intake, was inversely associated with risk of IHD; this trend was significant in women (P = 0.04; HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.97) but not in men (P = 0.15; HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.51, 1.06). No associations were observed between intake of LA and risk of IHD" - Note:  α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) is the form of omega-3 found in things like vegetable and flax seeds, linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6) is what's in most vegetable oils like corn and soy.


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