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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 6/1/16

Mouse study links heart regeneration to telomere length - Science Daily, 5/30/16 - "Maintaining the length of cardiomyocyte telomeres might therefore boost the regenerative capacity of adult cells, improving the recovery of cardiac tissue following a heart attack"

Connections between gut microbiota and the brain - Science Daily, 5/29/16 - "the gut and the brain communicate with each other via several routes including the vagus nerve, the immune system, the enteric nervous system or by way of microbial metabolic processes. For instance, intestinal bacteria convert carbohydrates into short chain fatty acids, e.g. in butyric acid. This strengthens the connections between the cells and reinforces the blood-brain barrier, which serves as a cellular wall to protect the brain from infections and inflammations ... Elderly individuals who are in poor health often have a lower diversity of microorganisms in their microbiome or inflammation-promoting manifestations" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Diabetic Retinopathy - Medscape, 5/28/16 - "The mechanism could be twofold, he said. Studies suggest that vitamin D might improve insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes and may also directly reduce vascular endothelial growth factors. (Thus, deficiency would have the opposite effects.) ... For any diabetic retinopathy, the odds ratio (OR) between those with and without vitamin D deficiency was 1.391 (P = .011). For nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, the OR was 1.209 (P = .001), and for proliferative retinopathy 1.315 (P < .001). For all the studies combined, the odds ratio was 1.267 (P < .001)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Gut bacteria may contribute to poor health in patients with kidney disease - Science Daily, 5/26/16 - "There has been increasing awareness that the gut microbiota is not only pivotal for human health but is also involved in various disease processes, including obesity and diabetes mellitus ... This study adds evidence that the gut microbiota may likewise be a contributor to the disease burden in patients with a diminished kidney function. Furthermore, this knowledge may pave the way for novel therapeutic interventions by both dietary measures and drugs, thereby hopefully improving the prognosis and quality of life of kidney disease patients" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.

Vitamin nicotinamide riboside protects mice from diabetes complications - Science Daily, 5/27/16 - "As had been shown in previous studies, NR greatly protected the prediabetic and T2D mice from weight gain due to the high-fat diet. But the new study also showed that NR had other beneficial effects on whole body metabolism in the prediabetic and T2D mice. It protected high-fat fed mice from hepatic steatosis -- the build-up of fat globules in the liver -- which was severe in the prediabetic and T2D mice that did not receive NR. NR also reduced liver damage in the mice on high-fat diets, and greatly improved blood sugar levels in the prediabetic and T2D mice ... NR also protected against peripheral nerve damage, or neuropathy, a common, serious complication of prediabetes and T2D ... about 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is a leading cause of diabetic foot ulcers and limb amputation in people with T2D" - See See nicotinamide riboside at Amazon.com.

How to feed a happy, healthy gut - Washington Post, 5/27/16 - "A healthy, balanced gut microbiota promotes a strong immune system and lower levels of chronic inflammation. An unhealthy microbiota has been linked to obesity, asthma, allergies and autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease, Type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Increasingly, chronic inflammation is also thought to be a root cause of cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer ... a diet high in refined, heavily processed foods will send our microbiota out of balance ... a plant-based diet with lots of fiber and regular consumption of fermented foods nourishes and stimulates beneficial bacteria, which over time can shift the balance of your microbiota in a healthier direction ... Your microbiota adapts to its environment, and if that environment doesn’t provide the fiber it needs, your microbes will instead dine on the thin layer of mucus that protects your intestinal lining, potentially leading to a “leaky gut” and all number of health problems ... Diets high in saturated fat are harmful to microbiota diversity, so opt for plant-based sources of monounsaturated fats such as olive oil, avocados, nuts and seeds"

Another reason to stay active as we age - Science Daily, 5/26/16 - "individuals who maintain an active jogging habit into their senior years are spending nearly the same amount of metabolic energy as a 20-year-old"

A Low-Salt Diet May Be Bad for the Heart - NYT, 5/25/16 - "Current guidelines recommend a daily maximum of 2.3 grams of sodium a day — the amount found in a teaspoon of salt — for most people, and less for the elderly or people with hypertension ... Among 69,559 people without hypertension, consuming more than seven grams of sodium daily did not increase the risk for disease or death, but those who ate less than three grams had a 26 percent increased risk for death or for cardiovascular events like heart disease and stroke, compared with those who consumed four to five grams a day ... In people with high blood pressure, consuming more than seven grams a day increased the risk by 23 percent, but consuming less than three grams increased the risk by 34 percent, compared with those who ate four to five grams a day"

Abstracts from this week:

Effects of high doses of vitamin D3 on mucosa-associated gut microbiome vary between regions of the human gastrointestinal tract - Eur J Nutr. 2016 Jun;55(4):1479-89 - "We sampled stomach, small bowel, colon, and stools before and after 8 weeks of vitamin D3 supplementation ... Vitamin D3 modulates the gut microbiome of the upper GI tract which might explain its positive influence on gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease or bacterial infections" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

The effects of beef protein isolate and whey protein isolate supplementation on lean mass and strength in resistance trained individuals - a double blind, placebo controlled study - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015; 12 - "Thirty college-aged, resistance-trained males and females were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups. Subjects consumed two servings (46g) of Beef Protein Isolate (BeefISO™), Whey Protein isolate or maltodextrin. Subjects trained 5 days per week (3 resistance training, 2 cardio) for 8 weeks as a part of a daily undulating periodized resistance-training program. Two servings of protein were consumed immediately following exercise or at a similar time of day on off days ... Both beef protein isolate (↑5.7%) and whey protein isolate (↑4.7%) each lead to a significant increase in lean body mass compared with baseline (p < 0.0001). Fat loss was also significantly decreased at 8 weeks compared to baseline for beef protein isolate and whey, 10.8% and 8.3% respectively" - [Nutra USA]

Sulforaphane induces adipocyte browning and promotes glucose and lipid utilization - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 May 24 - "Obesity is closely related to the imbalance of white adipose tissue storing excess calories, and brown adipose tissue dissipating energy to produce heat in mammals. Recent studies revealed that acquisition of brown characteristics by white adipocytes, termed "browning," may positively contribute to cellular bioenergetics and metabolism homeostasis ... SFN-induced browning of white adipocytes enhanced the utilization of cellular fuel, and SFN is a promising strategy to combat obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorder" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.

Periodontal diseases and risk of oral cancer in Southern India: Results from the HeNCe Life study - Int J Cancer. 2016 May 23 - "Generalized gingival recession was significantly associated with oral cancer risk (Odds Ratio=1.83"

Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence - Phytother Res. 2016 May 23 - "Overall, there is early evidence that turmeric/curcumin products and supplements, both oral and topical, may provide therapeutic benefits for skin health" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.

Triglycerides are a predictive factor for arterial stiffness: a community-based 4.8-year prospective study - Lipids Health Dis. 2016 May 18;15(1):97 - "Lower triglyceride levels were significantly associated with decreases in carotid-femoral PWV, indicating that achieving low TG levels may be an additional therapeutic consideration in subjects with atherosclerotic disease"

Sulforaphane reduces advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced inflammation in endothelial cells and rat aorta - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016 Apr 21 - "The present study demonstrated for the first time that sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed HUVECs and AGEs-infused rat aorta partly by suppressing RAGE expression through its anti-oxidative properties. Inhibition of the AGEs-RAGE axis by sulforaphane might be a novel therapeutic target for vascular injury in diabetes" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com

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