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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 3/9/11.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

The safety of daily magnesium oxide treatment for children with chronic constipation - Science Daily, 3/8/11 - "The authors concluded that serum magnesium concentrations increase significantly after daily magnesium oxide intake, but the magnitude of the increase appears modest. Younger age, but not prolonged use of daily magnesium oxide might be a relative risk factor, and it should be determined by further studies whether serum magnesium concentration should be assessed in these subjects"

Oral tongue cancer increasing in young, white females - Science Daily, 3/8/11 - "the incidence of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma rose 28 percent among individuals ages 18 to 44. Specifically, among white individuals ages 18 to 44 the incidence increased 67 percent. The increasing incidence was most dramatic for white females ages 18 to 44. They had a percentage change of 111 percent ... Over the past decade an association between the human papilloma virus with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil and tongue has been observed ... The researchers at UNC have preliminarily tested the cancers of the oral tongue of their young white female patients and have not found them to be associated with the virus. Other institutions have also noted the absence of the virus in young females with oral tongue cancer. The UNC researchers have also anecdotally observed that these young white female patients are typically non-smokers and non-drinkers"

High levels of 'good' cholesterol may cut bowel cancer risk - Science Daily, 3/7/11 - "Each rise of 16.6 mg/dl in HDL and of 32 mg/dl in apoA reduced the risk of bowel cancer by 22% and 18%, respectively, after taking account of diet, lifestyle, and weight ... low HDL levels have been linked to higher levels of proteins involved in inflammation, while higher levels of proteins that dampen down the inflammatory response have also been linked to high HDL levels ... The pro inflammatory proteins boost cell growth and proliferation while curbing cell death, so HDL may alter the inflammatory process in some way"

Helicobacter pylori infection linked to decreased iron levels in otherwise healthy children - Science Daily, 3/7/11 - "Half of the world's population is infected with H. pylori and most of the individuals are asymptomatically infected ... Previous research has shown that iron levels correlate with several body functions including brain activity and have well documented long-term health consequences such as increased morbidity and mortality and loss of productivity ... the infection causes a decrease in the levels of iron in children who do not have anemia or an iron deficiency. The bacterium H. pylori infects the lining of the stomach resulting in chronic swelling of tissue, a condition known as gastritis. H. pylori is also a major cause of peptic ulcer disease and the cause of most cancers of the stomach ... Over time markers of iron stored in the body increased in children no longer infected. However, children who remained infected lagged in levels of one marker, serum ferritin, at their six month follow-up. The protein serum ferritin measures the amount of iron stored in your body"

BNCT, a new generation radiation treatment pioneered in Finland, is effective in advanced head and neck cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/4/11 - "The years of work done on developing and clinically testing of BNCT -- or Boron Neutron Capture Therapy -are now paying off. BNCT-based treatment has been successfully used to treat patients with advanced head and neck cancer who have not responded to previous treatments and generally have poor prognosis"

Denture wearers warned about risk of excess zinc consumption - Science Daily, 3/4/11 - "Denture wearers are advised to pay special attention to the amount of zinc they consume ...A single tube should last three to 10 weeks with daily use, although actual usage depends on the number of applications per day ... Over time, toxic levels of zinc could cause a copper deficiency, which has been linked to neurological damage"

Much Ado About Dust Mites - NYTimes.com, 3/4/11 - "Dust mites are microscopic creatures, about 0.4 millimeters in length, that feast on flakes of human skin. Their feces contains a substance called DerP1, a very potent allergen. People who are allergic to dust mites may have asthma-like symptoms, eczema or chronic sinus problems ... Many of us believe that bed linens, pillows and mattresses must be replaced regularly in order to prevent them from becoming home to vast colonies of these nasty critters, lest their feces spread and cause allergic reactions in family members. According to most experts, the truth is a bit more prosaic. People who have allergies to dust mites should indeed take measures to protect themselves. But everyone else can skip the expensive trips to Linens “R” Us"

  • Dust Mites: Where Are They Lurking? - ExtraTV.com, 8/23/00 - "The average pillow will get up to 1/10 of its weight from dust mites and dust mites waste material and its making people sick."

Resveratrol may be useful tool for reducing body fat - Science Daily, 3/4/11 - "This thesis shows, on the one hand, the results obtained after treatment with CLA in hamsters subjected to energy restriction and, on the other, the effect of resveratrol on accumulated fat and lipolytic activity in cell cultures of adipocytes of murinae and humans. The results obtained show that CLA does not foment weight or body fat loss, induced by an energy restriction diet. Neither does it induce greater lipolysis, nor improvement in serum parameters, in glucose homeostasis or insulin function to any greater extent than with the slimming diet itself. On the contrary, resveratrol reduces the accumulation of triglycerides, in part by activation of lipolysis, in both the adipocytes of mice and of humans ... For all these reasons, it can be concluded that, while CLA may not be a molecule useful in treating obesity, when resveratrol is included in hypocaloric diet, it could well be a useful tool for reducing body fat" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.

Sperm quality and counts worsening in Finland - Science Daily, 3/3/11 - "A new study published in the International Journal of Andrology reveals that semen quality has significantly deteriorated during the last ten years in Finland, a country that previously was a region with high sperm counts. At the same time, the incidence of testis cancer in the Finnish population showed a remarkable increase, following the worrying trends observed in several countries in Europe and the Americas ... The underlying cause for these simultaneously occurring adverse trends remains unknown. However, the rapid change strongly points to environmental reasons. Endocrine disrupting compounds acting during development have been hypothesized to be a cause"

Trouble with the latest dance move? GABA might be to blame - Science Daily, 3/3/11 - "those who were more GABA responsive were also quicker to learn the simple motor task. The brains of more GABA-responsive individuals also showed greater activation in the motor cortex during learning. The researchers also found that those with higher GABA concentrations at baseline tended to have slower reaction times and less brain activation during learning ... GABA levels can change after that kind of brain trauma, and the findings support the idea that treatments designed to influence GABA levels might improve learning"

Increased B vitamins may ease PMS symptoms: Study - Nutra USA, 3/3/11 - "women with the highest average intakes of riboflavin two to four years prior to diagnosis were associated with a 35 percent lower incidence of PMS than women with the lowest average intakes" - [Abstract]

Effects of a Month-Long Napping Regimen in Older Individuals - Medscape, 3/3/11 - "Napping had no negative effect on subsequent nighttime sleep quality or duration, resulting in a significant increase in 24-hour sleep amounts. Such increased sleep was associated with enhanced cognitive performance but had no effect on simple reaction time. Participants were generally able to adhere better to the 45-minute than the 2-hour nap regimen"

Obesity rate lower in Canada than in US, study shows - BBC News, 3/2/11 - "Canada has a significantly lower rate of obesity than does the US ... When comparing only the non-Hispanic white populations of the two countries, 25.6% of Canadians were obese, compared with 33% for the US. Over the whole population, the figures were 24.1% and 34.4%, respectively" - Note:  Also see the following.  The highest cause of dying is from heart disease (1 in 5) and obesity is one of the major causes of heart disease.  Obesity is probably tied to the top three, heart disease, cancer and stroke.  It seems like it should be the area of primary emphasis:

  • Odds  Chances of Dying Comments - Los Angeles SEO Website Design (blog)
  • U.S. Obesity Rate May Hit 42% by 2050 - US News and World Report, 11/5/10 - "42 percent of adults will be obese ... U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has placed the adult obesity rate at 34 percent, with another 34 percent of Americans overweight but not obese"

Carts one of dirtiest places in grocery store, study says - USA Today, 3/2/11 - "Researchers say they actually found more fecal bacteria on grocery cart handles than you would typically find in a bathroom"

Long-Term PPI Use Associated With Low Magnesium - Medscape, 3/2/11 - "Long-term use of prescription proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) can be associated with hypomagnesemia, which can in turn cause serious muscle spasms (tetany), arrhythmias, and seizures, but may instead be asymptomatic ... In about 25% of cases reported to and reviewed by the FDA, magnesium supplementation alone was insufficient for correcting hypomagnesemia ... The drugs in question include esomeprazole magnesium (Nexium, AstraZeneca), dexlansoprazole (Dexilant, Takeda), omeprazole (Prilosec, Astra-Zeneca; also available OTC), omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zergerid, AstraZeneca; also available OTC), lansoprazole (Prevacid, Novartis; also available OTC) pantoprazole soidum (Protonix, Wyeth/Pfizer; and generics) rabeprazole sodium (AcipHex, Eisai and Ortho-MacNeil), and esomeprazole magnesium/naproxen (Vimovo, AstraZeneca)" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Linked to Increased Risk of Erectile Dysfunction - Science Daily, 3/2/11 - "After controlling for age, race, ethnicity, smoking status, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, high cholesterol and body mass index, the researchers found that ED was 1.4 times more likely -- a modest risk -- among regular NSAID users compared to men who did not take the drugs regularly. This association was consistent across all age groups"

Can Exercise Keep You Young? - NYTimes.com, 3/2/11 - "in heartening new research published last week in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, exercise reduced or eliminated almost every detrimental effect of aging in mice that had been genetically programmed to grow old at an accelerated pace ... mitochondria can accumulate small genetic mutations, which under normal circumstances are corrected by specialized repair systems within the cell. Over time, as we age, the number of mutations begins to outstrip the system’s ability to make repairs, and mitochondria start malfunctioning and dying ... Half of the mice were allowed to run on a wheel for 45 minutes three times a week, beginning at 3 months ... At 8 months, when their sedentary lab mates were bald, frail and dying, the running rats remained youthful. They had full pelts of dark fur, no salt-and-pepper shadings. They also had maintained almost all of their muscle mass and brain volume. Their gonads were normal, as were their hearts. They could balance on narrow rods, the showoffs ... But perhaps most remarkable, although they still harbored the mutation that should have affected mitochondrial repair, they had more mitochondria over all and far fewer with mutations than the sedentary mice had"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Evolving Concepts of the Role of High-Density Lipoprotein in Protection from Atherosclerosis - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011 Mar - "HDL is able to interact with and remove cholesterol from the lipid-laden foam cells in the peripheral vasculature with subsequent transportation to the liver for excretion. However, HDL has multiple other physiologic effects that may play a significant role in protection from atherosclerosis. HDL has been demonstrated to exhibit multiple beneficial effects on the coagulation system. Platelet function is improved by both direct and indirect mechanisms. HDL has a complex interaction with the protein C and protein S system. Thrombolytic balance is also improved by HDL. HDL has been demonstrated to have a significant natural antioxidant effect that inhibits the oxidative step required for low-density lipoprotein uptake by the macrophage. Additionally, HDL has also been demonstrated to exert multiple beneficial effects on endothelial function, including decreased apoptosis and endothelial repair" - See niacin at Amazon.com (niacin increases HDL).

Meta-analyses of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Mar 4 - "We observed inverse associations of colorectal cancer risk with dietary vitamin D (summary RR per 100 IU/day=0.95 95%CI: (0.93-0.98); 10 studies; range of intake (midpoints) = 39-719 IU/day) and serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (RR per 100 IU/l=0.96 (0.94-0.97); 6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l), but not with total vitamin D (5 studies). Supplemental (2 studies; range=0-600 IU/day) and total (4 studies; range=79-732 IU/day) vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status (6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l) were inversely associated with colon cancer risk. We did not observe statistically significant associations between FokI, PolyA, TaqI, Cdx2 and ApaI VDR polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk. The BsmI polymorphism was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk (RR=0.57 (0.36-0.89) for BB vs. bb, 8 studies)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Use of dietary supplements by cardiologists, dermatologists and orthopedists: report of a survey - Nutr J. 2011 Mar 3;10(1):20 - "Fifty-seven percent of cardiologists said they use dietary supplements at least occasionally, as did 75% of dermatologists and 73% of orthopedists. The product most commonly reported to be used was a multivitamin, but over 25% in each specialty said they used omega-3 fatty acids and over 20% said they used some botanical supplements. Regular dietary supplement use was reported by 37% of cardiologists, 59% of dermatologists, and 50% of orthopedists. Seventy-two percent of cardiologists, 66% of dermatologists, and 91% of orthopedists reported recommending dietary supplements to their patients. The primary reason given for recommending dietary supplements to patients was for heart health or lowering cholesterol for the cardiologists; benefits for skin, hair and nails for the dermatologists; and bone and joint health for the orthopedists"

Arecoline N-Oxide: Its Mutagenicity and Possible Role as Ultimate Carcinogen in Areca Oral Carcinogenesis - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 3 - "The areca nut is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in Taiwan, India, and Southeast Asia. It is considered to be an environmental risk factor for the development of oral submucous fibrosis and cancer. Arecoline, the major alkaloid of areca nut, has been known to cause cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in various systems. However, the active compound accounting for arecoline-induced damage in normal human oral cells is still uncharacterized. The present study was undertaken to identify the active metabolite of arecoline that might induce damage in human oral tissues and cause mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA 100 and TA 98. It is interesting to find that the major metabolite of arecoline, arecoline N-oxide, is moderately mutagenic to these Salmonella tester strains. This mutagenicity was potently inhibited by sulfhydryl compounds, namely, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, and cysteine, whereas methionine is inactive in this inhibition. The mutagenicity of arecoline N-oxide was strongly inhibited by the N-oxide reducing agent titanium trichloride. The possible role of arecoline N-oxide in the induction of oral carcinogenesis by areca nut chewing is discussed"

Beta-cryptoxanthin, plentiful in Japanese mandarin orange, prevents age-related cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in senescence-accelerated mouse brain - Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(3):311-7 - "Increased oxidative stress is known to accelerate age-related pathologies. Beta-cryptoxanthin (β-CRX, (3R)-β,β-caroten-3-ol) is a potent antioxidant that is highly rich in Satsuma mandarin orange (mandarin), which is the most popular fruit in Japan. We investigated the antioxidative and anti-aging effects of β-CRX and mandarin using senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP10), which were characterized by a short lifespan, high generation of superoxide anions in the brain and poor learning ability with aging. β-CRX (0.5-5.0 µg/ml) or mandarin juice (3.8-38.0%) was added to drinking water of SAMP10 one to 12 months of age. β-CRX was dose-dependently incorporated into the cerebral cortex and the contents were similar to the concentration of β-CRX in the human frontal lobe. These mice also had higher learning ability. The level of DNA oxidative damage was significantly lower in the cerebral cortex of mice that ingested β-CRX and mandarin than control mice. In addition, the mice that ingested β-CRX (>1.5 µg/ml) and mandarin (>11.3%) exhibited a higher survival when 12 month-old, the presenile age of SAMP10, than control mice. These results suggest that β-CRX is incorporated into the brain and has an important antioxidative role and anti-aging effect" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.

Resveratrol improves hippocampal atrophy in chronic fatigue mice by enhancing neurogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis of granular cells - Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(3):354-9 - "Neuroimaging evidence showed structural and/or functional abnormalities existing in the central nervous system, especially the hippocampus, in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients. However, its pathophysiologic mechanisms are unclear in part due to the lack of an applicable animal model. We established a chronic fatigue murine model by six repeated injections of Brucella abortus antigen to mice, which was manifested as reduced daily running activity and hippocampal atrophy. Thereafter, resveratrol, a polyphenolic activator of sirtuin 1, was used for treatment in this model. Daily running activity was increased by more than 20%, and the hippocampus was enlarged after 4-week resveratrol therapy. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited neuronal apoptosis and expression of hippocampal acetylated p53 in the fatigue mice. Resveratrol also improved neurogenesis and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the hippocamous. We concluded that repeated injection of B. abortus antigen could induce hypoactivity and hippocampal atrophy in mice. Resveratrol may be effective for improving fatigue symptoms and enlarging the atrophic hippocampus by repressing apoptosis and promoting neurogenesis" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Naringin Protects against Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus in Rats: Evidence for an Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Intervention - Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(3):360-5 - "The effect of naringin, a bioflavanoid, with potent antioxidant activity was studied on kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures, cognitive deficit and oxidative stress. Rats were administered KA (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and observed for behavioral changes and incidence and latency of convulsions over 4 h. The rats were thereafter sacrificed and oxidative stress parameters like malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in the brain. The level of proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was also determined in the rat brain. It was observed that pretreatment with naringin (20, 40, 80 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly (p<0.001) increased the latency of seizures as compared to the vehicle treated-KA group. Naringin (40, 80 mg/kg) also significantly prevented the increase in MDA and fall in GSH levels due to KA. In addition, naringin dose-dependently attenuated the KA-induced increase in the TNF-α levels of brain. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased retention latency in the passive avoidance task. This shows that naringin reduced the cognitive deficit induced by KA. The results of our study suggest that naringin has therapeutic potential since it suppresses KA-induced seizures, cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in the brain. These neuroprotective effects are a result of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity" - See naringin products at iHerb.

Anti-angiogenic Activity and Intracellular Distribution of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Analogs - Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34(3):396-400 - "Angiogenesis, a process of construction of new blood capillaries, is crucial for tumor progression and metastasis. Our previous studies demonstrated that a component of green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), suppressed angiogenesis and subsequent tumor growth. In this study, to elucidate the detailed mechanism of the anti-angiogenic effect of EGCG and to enhance the antiangiogenic activity of EGCG, we designed and synthesized EGCG derivatives and examined their biological effect and intracellular localization in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). EGCG derivatives aminopentyl dideoxyEGCG and aminopentyl dideoxygallocatechin-3-gallate (cis-APDOEGCG and trans-APDOEGCG) had an enhanced inhibitory effect on the proliferation when used at more than 30 µM. To elucidate antiangiogenic effect of EGCG, we used a 1 µM concentration for subsequent experiments where no effect on proliferation was observed. These EGCG derivatives showed a stronger inhibitory effect on migration, invasion, and tube formation by HUVECs than the non-derivatized EGCG. Furthermore, the derivatives induced a change in the distribution of F-actin and subsequent morphology of the HUVECs. Next, we synthesized fluorescent TokyoGreen-conjugated EGCG derivative (EGCG-TG) and observed the distribution in HUVECs under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Abundant fluorescence was observed in the cells after a 3-h incubation, and was localized in mitochondria as well as in cytoplasm. These results suggest that EGCG was incorporated into the HUVECs, that a portion of it entered into their mitochondria" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.

Tea Contains Potent Inhibitors of Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Feb 28 - "Tea is widely consumed all over the world. Studies have demonstrated the role of tea in prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases including diabetes and obesity, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. PTP1B is a widely expressed tyrosine phosphatase which has been defined as a target for therapeutic drug development to treat diabetes and obesity. In screening for inhibitors of PTP1B, we found that aqueous extracts of teas exhibited potent PTP1B inhibitory effects with an IC50 value of 0.4 to 4 g dry tea leaves per liter of water. Black tea shows the strongest inhibition activities, followed by oolong and then by green tea. Biochemical fractionations demonstrated that the major effective components in tea corresponded to oxidized polyphenolic compounds. This was further verified by the fact that tea catechins became potent inhibitors of PTP1B upon oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinases. When applied to cultured cells, tea extracts induced tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins. Our study suggests that some beneficial effects of tea may be attributed to the inhibition of PTP1B" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.

25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and hypertension rates - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011 Mar;13(3):170-7 - "Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cardiovascular disease and risk factors including hypertension ... Patients were categorized into quartiles according to 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: ideal (≥40 ng/mL), adequate (30-39 ng/mL), deficient (15-29 ng/mL), and severely deficient (<15 ng/mL). Prevalence rates of hypertension and odds ratios were calculated for each 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartile, adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency. A total of 2722 individuals met the inclusion criteria for the study. The overall prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 24%. Hypertension rates were 52%, 41%, 27%, and 20% in 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartiles <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, 30 to 39 ng/mL, and ≥40 ng/mL, respectively (P<.001). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hypertension adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency were 2.7 (1.4-5.2), 2.0 (1.5-2.6), and 1.3 (1.2-1.6) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, and 30 to 39 ng/mL, respectively, compared with the ≥40 ng/mL group. This study demonstrates increased rates of hypertension in individuals who tested for lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D starting at levels <40 ng/mL. This retrospective analysis raises the question of whether supplementing to optimal vitamin D levels can prevent or improve hypertension" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Dietary B vitamin intake and incident premenstrual syndrome - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb 23 - "Intakes of thiamine and riboflavin from food sources were each inversely associated with incident PMS. For example, women in the highest quintile of riboflavin intake 2-4 y before the diagnosis year had a 35% lower risk of developing PMS than did those in the lowest quintile (relative risk: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.92; P for trend = 0.02)"

Pterostilbene Is More Potent than Resveratrol in Preventing Azoxymethane (AOM)-Induced Colon Tumorigenesis via Activation of the NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2)-Mediated Antioxidant Signaling Pathway - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Feb 28 - "Inflammatory bowel diseases have been a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inflammatory cells create oxidative stress and contribute to neoplastic transformation, proliferation, and even metastasis. Previously, resveratrol (RS) and pterostilbene (PS) had been reported to prevent chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis by anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties ... Administrations of PS can be more effective than RS in reducing AOM-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lymphoid nodules (LNs), and tumors. We also find that PS is functioning more effectively than RS to reduce nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-β2 (PKC-β2) and decreasing downstream target gene expression, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and aldose reductase (AR) in mouse colon stimulated by AOM. Moreover, administration of RS and PS for 6 weeks significantly enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione reductase (GR), via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. When the above findings are taken together, they suggest that both stilbenes block cellular inflammation and oxidative stress through induction of HO-1 and GR, thereby preventing AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis. In comparison, PS was a more potent chemopreventive agent than RS for the prevention of colon cancer. This is also the first study to demonstrate that PS is a Nrf2 inducer and AR inhibitor in the AOM-treated colon carcinogenesis model" - See pterostilbene at iHerb.

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