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aHome > Anti-aging Research > Milk

Milk & Dairy

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News & Research:

  • The Case Against Low-fat Milk Is Stronger Than Ever - Time, 4/4/16 - "people who had higher levels of three different byproducts of full-fat dairy had, on average, a 46% lower risk of getting diabetes during the study period than those with lower levels ... in a separate study published in the American Journal of Nutrition, another group analyzed the effects of full fat and low fat dairy on obesity and found that among 18,438 women in the Women’s Health Study, those who consumed the most high-fat dairy products lowered their risk of being overweight of obese by 8% ... While it’s not entirely clear how whole fat is helping to lower risk of diabetes, it’s possible that it’s working on several different levels to regulate insulin and glucose"
  • Dairy Consumption and Risk of Frailty in Older Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study - Medscape, 10/29/15 - "Participants consuming seven or more servings per week of low-fat milk and yogurt had lower incidence of frailty (OR = 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29–0.90; P for trend = .03) than those consuming less than one serving per week. Specifically, consumers of seven or more servings per week of low-fat milk and yogurt had less risk of slow walking speed (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44–0.92, P trend = .01) and of weight loss (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.33–0.87, P trend = .02). Consuming seven or more servings per week of whole milk or yogurt (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.90–2.60, P trend = .10) or of cheese (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.52–1.61; P trend = .61) was not associated with incident frailty"
  • Not All Trans Fats Harm the Heart, Study Contends - WebMD, 9/22/15 - "naturally occurring trans fats found in dairy and meat products might actually help protect the heart ... people with higher levels of naturally occurring trans fats were 37 percent less likely to suffer a sudden cardiac death, compared with those who had low levels of natural trans fats"
  • Consumption of Yogurt, Low-Fat Milk, and Other Low-Fat Dairy Products Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Incidence in an Elderly Mediterranean Population - J Nutr. 2015 Aug 19 - "dietary habits by a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire, and blood biochemistry determinations ... median follow-up of 3.2 y ... the comparison of extreme tertiles of dairy product consumption were 0.72 (0.61, 0.86) for low-fat dairy, 0.73 (0.62, 0.86) for low-fat yogurt, 0.78 (0.66, 0.92) for whole-fat yogurt, and 0.80 (0.67, 0.95) for low-fat milk. The respective HR for cheese was 1.31"
  • High-fat dairy products linked to reduced type 2 diabetes risk - Science Daily, 4/2/15 - "are in line with previous studies of eating habits that indicated a link between high consumption of dairy products and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes ... the new study indicates that it is high-fat dairy products specifically that are associated with reduced risk ... Those who ate the most high-fat dairy products had a 23 per cent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who ate the least. High meat consumption was linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes regardless of the fat content of the meat"
  • Milk could be good for your brain - Science Daily, 3/24/15 - "participants who had indicated they had drunk milk recently had higher levels of glutathione in their brains. This is important, the researchers said, because glutathione could help stave off oxidative stress and the resulting damage caused by reactive chemical compounds produced during the normal metabolic process in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to be associated with a number of different diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and many other conditions" - Note:  Yeah but three servings of this and three serving of that and three servings of the other thing will pack on the pounds as you get older and don't even think about dessert. The best way I know of to increase glutathione is to take n-acetyl-cysteine.  See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium, Vitamin D, Dairy Products, and Mortality Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors: The Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort - Medscape, 10/20/14 - "In multivariate analysis, post-diagnosis total calcium intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] for those in the highest relative to the lowest quartiles, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.98; Ptrend = .02). An inverse association with all-cause mortality was also observed for postdiagnosis milk intake (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.94; Ptrend = .02), but not for vitamin D intake"
  • A heart-felt need for dairy food: Small serving beneficial, large not necessary - Science Daily, 9/16/14 - "A study of nearly 4000 Taiwanese ... a dominantly Chinese food culture, unaccustomed to dairy foods ... Those who ate no dairy had higher blood pressure, higher body mass index and greater body fatness generally than other groups ... For optimal results, the key is daily consumption of dairy foods -- but at the rate of about five servings over a week. One serving is the equivalent to eight grams of protein: a cup of milk, or 45 grams of cheese ... Such quantities rarely cause trouble even for people considered to be lactose intolerant" - See my yogurt recipe.
  • Consumption of high-fat dairy products associated with lower risk of developing diabetes - Science Daily, 9/15/14 - "replacing saturated fat with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats might be favourable in the prevention of T2D. In line with this, plant sources of fat have been suggested to be a better choice compared with animal sources ... Nevertheless, several epidemiological studies have indicated that a high intake of dairy products may be protective ... study included 26,930 individuals (60% women), aged 45-74 years, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort ... 14 years of follow up ... high intake of high-fat dairy products was associated with a 23% lower incidence of T2D for the highest consuming 20% of participants (or quintile) (median=8 portions/day) compared with the lowest consuming 20% (median=1 portion/day) ... there was no association found between intakes of low-fat dairy products and risk of developing type 2 diabetes ... High intakes of meat and meat products were, regardless of fat content, associated with increased risk, but the increased risk was higher for lower fat meats (increased risk of type 2 diabetes for high fat meats 9%, for low fat 24%), both referring to the risk in the highest-consuming versus lowest-consuming 20%)"
  • Milk Protein for Improved Metabolic Health - Medscape, 9/23/13 - "'Sarcobesity' and sarcopaenic diabetes are rapidly growing health issues. As well as through direct mechanisms, dairy protein may indirectly improve metabolic health by aiding loss of body weight and fat mass through enhanced satiety, whilst promoting skeletal muscle growth and function through anabolic effects of dairy protein-derived branch chain amino acids (BCAAs). BCAAs enhance muscle protein synthesis, lean body mass and skeletal muscle metabolic function. The composition and processing of dairy protein has an impact on digestion, absorption, BCAA kinetics and function, hence the optimisation of dairy protein composition through selection and combination of specific protein components in milk may provide a way to maximize benefits for metabolic health" - See branched-chain amino acid products at iHerb.
  • Two cups of milk a day ideal for children's health, new research shows - Science Daily, 12/17/12 - "looked at how cow's milk affected body stores of iron and vitamin D -- two of the most important nutrients in milk -- in more than 1,300 children aged two to five years ... children who drank more cow's milk had higher Vitamin D stores but lower iron stores ... two cups of cow's milk per day was enough to maintain adequate vitamin D levels for most children, while also maintaining iron stores. With additional cow's milk, there was a further reduction in iron stores without greater benefit from vitamin D"
  • New study sheds light on cancer-protective properties of milk - Science Daily, 10/3/12 - "lactoferricin4-14 (Lfcin4-14), a milk protein with known health effects, significantly reduces the growth rate of colon cancer cells over time by prolonging the period of the cell cycle before chromosomes are replicated. In a new study, investigators report that treatment with Lfcin4-14 reduced DNA damage in colon cancer cells exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light ... Our data suggest that the effects of Lfcin4-14 in prolonging the cell cycle may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of milk"
  • Low-Fat Dairy May Help Lower Stroke Risk - WebMD, 4/19/12 - "The study researchers, who tracked the diets of nearly 75,000 men and women over 10 years, found that those who ate the most low-fat dairy foods and beverages were 12% less likely to have a stroke than those who ate the least ... The most plausible explanation is that low-fat dairy food lowers blood pressure ... consuming full-fat dairy products such as whole milk was not associated with risk of stroke ... those who ate a daily average of four servings of low-fat cheeses, yogurts, and milk significantly lowered their risk of stroke compared to those who did not include any low-fat dairy in their diet"
  • Milk intake in teens tied to later prostate cancer - MSNBC, 12/29/11 - "Older Icelandic men who remember chugging a lot of milk in their teens are three times as likely to be diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer as more-moderate milk drinkers"
  • Frequency of dairy consumption and functional disability in older persons - J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15(9):795-800 - "of milk and milk products consumption were obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and functional disability was assessed using the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and ADL scales ... In men, dietary intake of dairy products was associated with a significantly reduced risk of IADL disability after controlling for known functional disability risk factors and other dietary factors (p for trend, 0.038). Compared with men who consumed dairy products < 1 time/week, those who consumed ≥ 1 time/day had a reduced risk of IADL disability (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.91). Meanwhile, milk and milk products consumption was not significantly associated with ADL disability. In women, dairy products consumption was not significantly associated with physical disability"
  • Soy beats milk protein for cholesterol improvements: RCT - Nutra USA, 10/22/11 - "Results showed that, compared with carbohydrates, the soy protein was associated with a 3.97 mg/dl reduction in total cholesterol levels, and a 0.12 mg/dl reduction in the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol ... In addition, compared to milk protein, the soy protein was associated with a 1.54 mg/dl increase in HDL cholesterol levels and a 0.14 mg/dl decrease in the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol ... On the other hand, milk protein supplementation was significantly associated with a 1.13 mg/dL decrease in HDL levels, compared to carb supplement ... The effect of milk protein did not confer a significant favorable effect on any lipid measures compared with carbohydrate" - Note:  In addition to homemade yogurt, I been using Silk plus DHA Omega-3 on my cereal.  If you read the ingredients, it's probably not the best for you but it sure tastes good.  The soy adds variety over the milk used to make the yogurt.
  • Foods rich in protein, dairy products help dieters preserve muscle and lose belly fat - Science Daily, 8/29/11 - "a higher-protein, lower-carbohydrate energy-restricted diet has a major positive impact on body composition, trimming belly fat and increasing lean muscle, particularly when the proteins come from dairy products ... compared three groups of overweight and obese, but otherwise healthy, premenopausal women. Each consumed either low, medium or high amounts of dairy foods coupled with higher or lower amounts of protein and carbohydrates ... there were identical total weight losses among the groups, but the higher-protein, high-dairy group experienced greater whole-body fat and abdomen fat losses, greater lean mass gains and greater increases in strength ... One hundred per cent of the weight lost in the higher-protein, high-dairy group was fat. And the participants gained muscle mass, which is a major change in body composition ... the lower-protein, low-dairy group lost about a pound and half of muscle whereas the lower-protein, medium dairy group lost almost no muscle. In marked contrast, the higher-protein, high-dairy group actually gained a pound and half of muscle, representing a three-pound difference between the low- and high-dairy groups ... On top of the muscle mass differences, the higher-protein, high-dairy group lost twice as much belly fat than the lower-protein, low-dairy group ... These women also got fitter and stronger" - See my yogurt recipe on my yogurt page.
  • Highest Mortality Risk Seen With High-Fat Dairy and High Sugar Intake - Medscape, 12/23/10 - "Compared to people who ate healthy foods, men and women in their 70s had a 40% higher risk of death if they got most of their calories from high-fat dairy foods or from sweets and desserts" - I'd take that one study with a grain of salt.  In regard to dairy, it contradicts this analysis of many studies.
    • Milk and dairy consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan;93(1):158-71 - "PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched for articles published up to February 2010. Of >5000 titles evaluated, 17 met the inclusion criteria, all of which were original prospective cohort studies ... A modest inverse association was found between milk intake and risk of overall CVD [4 studies; relative risk (RR): 0.94 per 200 mL/d; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99]. Milk intake was not associated with risk of CHD (6 studies; RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.04), stroke (6 studies; RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.05), or total mortality (8 studies; RR per 200 mL/d: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.03). Limited studies of the association of total dairy products and of total high-fat and total low-fat dairy products (per 200 g/d) with CHD showed no significant associations"
  • Component in common dairy foods may cut diabetes risk, study suggests - Science Daily, 12/20/10 - "The compound, trans-palmitoleic acid, is a fatty acid found in milk, cheese, yogurt, and butter ... trans-palmitoleic acid may underlie epidemiological evidence in recent years that diets rich in dairy foods are linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes and related metabolic abnormalities. Health experts generally advise reducing full-fat dairy products, but trans-palmitoleic acid is found in dairy fat ... At baseline, higher circulating levels of trans-palmitoleic acid were associated with healthier levels of blood cholesterol, inflammatory markers, insulin levels, and insulin sensitivity, after adjustment for other risk factors. During follow-up, individuals with higher circulating levels of trans-palmitoleic acid had a much lower risk of developing diabetes, with about a 60% lower risk among participants in the highest quintile (fifth) of trans-palmitoleic acid levels" - So maybe I can stop feeling guilty about my yoghurt made with 50% full fat powdered milk and 50% skim powdered milk.  I eat a lot of it.  My triglycerides on the last test were 91 and my fasting glucose 83.  Yoghurt is about as low as you can get with 10 AGEs/serving (kU) compared to broccoli at 226 or broiled franks at 10,143.  Click here for the table.
  • Milk: Two glasses a day tones muscles, keeps the fat away in women, study shows - Science Daily, 5/26/10 - "Women who drink two large glasses of milk a day after their weight-lifting routine gained more muscle and lost more fat compared to women who drank sugar-based energy drinks ... The women who drank milk gained barely any weight because what they gained in lean muscle they balanced out with a loss in fat"
  • Really? - The Claim - Milk Makes You Phlegmy - NYTimes.com, 4/12/10 - "Many people believe milk leads to upper-respiratory congestion, but studies have generally dismissed it as an old wives’ tale. In one well-known experiment, scientists found that even people inoculated with the common cold virus did not exhibit a statistically significant increase in symptoms or nasal secretions when they drank milk ... not all milk is the same. Some types of milk, from certain breeds of cow, contain a protein called beta-CM-7, which has been shown in studies to stimulate mucus glands in the digestive tract. These glands are also found in the respiratory tract, where they are known to overproduce mucus in conditions caused by inflammation, like asthma ... There may be a link between milk and phlegm in some people, but for now it is only hypothetical"
  • Sixty percent of adults can't drink milk - USATODAY.com, 8/30/09 - "Somewhat less than 40% of people in the world retain the ability to digest lactose after childhood. The numbers are often given as close to 0% of Native Americans, 5% of Asians, 25% of African and Caribbean peoples, 50% of Mediterranean peoples and 90% of northern Europeans. Sweden has one of the world's highest percentages of lactase tolerant people ... Being able to digest milk is so strange that scientists say we shouldn't really call lactose intolerance a disease, because that presumes it's abnormal. Instead, they call it lactase persistence, indicating what's really weird is the ability to continue to drink milk"
  • Low-fat dairy linked to blood pressure improvements: Study - Nutra USA, 1/29/09 - "The systolic and diastolic blood pressures of those with the highest average level of low-fat dairy intake (631 grams per day) were 4.2 and 1.8 mmHg lower than for participants with the lowest average intakes (3.1 grams per day)"
  • Organic Free Grazing Cows Are Cream Of The Crop - Science Daily, 5/27/08 - "organic farmers who let their cows graze as nature intended are producing better quality milk ... During the summer months, one of the beneficial fats in particular – conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA9 – was found to be 60% higher" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Nonfat Milk Linked to Prostate Cancer - Medscape, 1/2/08 - "Intake of calcium and vitamin D has little or no impact on the risk of prostate cancer, but consumption of low fat or nonfat milk may increase the risk of the malignancy ... low fat or nonfat milk increased the risk of localized or low-grade tumors, while whole milk decreased this risk"
  • Childhood Dairy Intake Linked to Colon Cancer - oncologystat.com, 12/19/07 - "Those who reported high levels of dairy during childhood were about 3 times more likely to develop colon cancer than those with low intake. A high intake was considered 2 or more cups a day, with a low intake being half a cup or less"
  • Progesterone in Dairy Products Poses Risks - Doctor's Guide, 12/14/07 - "People absorb significant amounts of bovine progesterone (identical to human progesterone) from dairy products, thanks to the practice among dairy farmers of keeping dairy cattle pregnant most of the time"
  • Full-fat dairy may protect prostates from cancer - Nutra USA, 10/10/07 - "when the researchers considered intakes of specific dairy products they noted a significant 12 per cent reduction in total prostate cancer risk by increased whole milk consumption. On the other hand, low-/nonfat milk was related to 16 per cent increased risk"
  • Milk Helps to Gain Muscle and Lose Fat, Study Shows - Doctor's Guide, 8/8/07 - "the milk drinking group had lost nearly twice as much fat -- 2 pounds -- while the carbohydrate beverage group lost one pound of fat. Those drinking soy lost no fat. At the same time, the gain in muscle was much greater among the milk drinkers than either the soy or carbohydrate beverage study participants"
  • Drinking milk cuts diabetes risk - BBC News, 7/13/07 - "metabolic syndrome increased the risk of death by 50% ... men were 62% less likely to have the syndrome if they drank a pint or more of milk every day, and 56% less likely to have it if they regularly ate other dairy produce"
  • Skim milk best for pumping up muscle mass - CNN, 4/19/07 - "eight men who regularly lifted weights were given a soy beverage or skim milk after performing a series of exercises with one leg ... For three hours after the workout, the researchers found, muscle uptake of amino acids was significantly greater when the men drank milk than when they consumed soy"
  • The Benefits of Yogurt - WebMD, 3/7/07 - "your body needs to have a healthy amount of ''good'' bacteria in the digestive tract ... Yogurt May Help Prevent Osteoporosis ... Yogurt May Reduce the Risk of High Blood Pressure ... Yogurt With Active Cultures Helps the Gut ... Yogurt With Active Cultures May Discourage Vaginal Infections ... Yogurt May Help You Feel Fuller"
  • Dairy Foods May Help Prevent Diabetes - WebMD, 7/11/06 - "each additional daily dairy serving was associated with a 4% drop in diabetes risk ... Women with the highest dietary calcium intake were about 20% less likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes than the ones who consumed the least amount of calcium ... the findings were stronger for low-fat dairy products than for high-fat dairy items"
  • Skimmed Milk Reduces The Risk Of Hypertension By 50 Percent - Science Daily, 12/1/05 - "Those persons with an elevated consumption of skimmed milk and milk products showed a reduction of 50% in their risk of developing hypertension, compared with those with a low consumption or who did not consume these products"
  • More Dairy, Less Metabolic Syndrome? - WebMD, 11/17/05 - "skim milk or other low-fat dairy products are the best route to go ... the group with the highest dairy consumption was 40% less likely to have metabolic syndrome, compared with the group of men with the lowest dairy consumption"
  • Study Challenges Dairy's Weight Loss Claim - WebMD, 6/6/05
  • Developing PD: Milk Does a Body Bad? - Physician's Weekly, 5/16/05 - "men who consumed the most milk (more than 16 oz/day) were more than twice as likely to develop PD than were those who consumed no milk"
  • Milk link to ovarian cancer risk - BBC News, 11/29/04 - "Dairy products have previously been linked to cancers, including those of the breast and prostate ... women who consumed more than four servings of dairy products a day had twice the risk of serious ovarian cancer than women who had fewer than two"
  • Dairy Foods Help Burn Fat, Speed Weight Loss - WebMD, 4/16/04
  • Why Not Drink Milk? - Dr. Weil, 2/19/03 - "lactose intolerance isn’t the only problem with milk and milk products. The milk protein, casein, can irritate the immune system and stimulate mucus production worsening allergy symptoms. This is why milk consumption is associated with recurrent childhood ear infections, eczema, chronic bronchitis, asthma, and sinus conditions. Even those who are not allergic to milk, like people who have autoimmune diseases or digestive problems, may find that their symptoms improve when they eliminate milk and milk products"
  • Dietary Milk Powder Supplements Prevents Bone Loss In Postmenopausal Chinese Women - Doctor's Guide, 11/1/02
  • Got Milk - WebMD, 9/27/02 - "A combination of soy and cow's milk could have some beneficial, anti-cancer nutrients ... She explains that conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA, is the key to the cow's role in cancer prevention. CLA is a minor fatty acid found in milk and milk products and beef" - See iHerb CLA products.
  • Allergoses in Majority of Families of Children Hypersensitive to Cow's Milk - Doctor's Guide, 10/15/01
  • Drink To Breast Health - Intelihealth, 10/9/01 - "Possible anti-cancer factors found in milk include calcium, vitamin D and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid). A recent Finnish study found that women with breast cancer had significantly lower levels of CLA in their diets and blood, compared with women without breast cancer. CLA has been shown to block the local growth and spread of breast cancer in animal studies"
  • Cow's Milk May Cause Type 1 Diabetes in at-Risk Infants - WebMD, 7/23/01 - "Those fed the formula made without cow's milk were about 50% less likely to develop proteins that are associated with type 1 diabetes"


  • Meta-Analysis of Milk Consumption and the Risk of Cognitive Disorders - Nutrients. 2016 Dec 20;8(12) - "The highest level of milk consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of cognitive disorders, and the pooled OR (95% CI) was 0.72"
  • Dairy Intake Enhances Body Weight and Composition Changes during Energy Restriction in 18-50-Year-Old Adults-A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Nutrients. 2016 Jul 1;8(7) - "Participants consumed between 2 and 4 standard servings/day of dairy food or 20-84 g/day of whey protein compared to low dairy control diets, over a median of 16 weeks. A greater reduction in body weight (-1.16 kg [-1.66, -0.66 kg], p < 0.001, I² = 11%, QR = high, n = 644) and body fat mass (-1.49 kg [-2.06, -0.92 kg], p < 0.001, I² = 21%, n = 521, QR = high) were found in studies largely including women (90% women). These effects were absent in studies that imposed resistance training (QR = low-moderate). Dairy intake resulted in smaller loss of lean mass (all trials pooled: 0.36 kg [0.01, 0.71 kg], p = 0.04, I² = 64%, n = 651, QR = moderate)"
  • Consumption of Dairy Products and Cognitive Functioning: Findings from the SU.VI.MAX 2 Study - J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20(2):128-137 - "Total dairy product consumption was not associated with cognitive function. However, milk intake was negatively associated with verbal memory performance: mean difference T3 versus T1= -0.99 (-1.83, -0.15). Among women, consuming more than the recommended amount of dairy was negatively associated with working memory performance: excess versus adequate = -1.52"
  • Dairy Consumption Lowers Systemic Inflammation and Liver Enzymes in Typically Low-Dairy Consumers with Clinical Characteristics of Metabolic Syndrome - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Nov 23:1-7 - "This was a randomized study in which participants consumed low-fat dairy (LFD) (10 oz 1% milk, 6 oz nonfat yogurt, 4 oz 2% cheese) or a carbohydrate-based control (CNT) (1.5 oz granola bar and 12 oz 100% juice) for 6 weeks ... Participants had lower concentrations of both hepatic alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase (p < 0.005) after the LFD period. No significant changes in any of the plasma inflammatory compounds were found when all data were analyzed together. In contrast, expression of IL-1b and IL-6 were reduced by 46% and 63%, respectively, compared to the control period ... We conclude that three dairy servings per day improved both liver function and systemic inflammation in subjects with MetS" - See my Greek yogurt recipe at the top of my yogurt page.
  • Dairy consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis - Diabet Med. 2015 Oct 3 - "In the meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risk of incidence of metabolic syndrome for the highest vs. the lowest category of dairy consumption was 0.85 (95% CI 0.73-0.98), and for a 1-serving/day increment of dairy consumption, the pooled relative risk was 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.95). In the meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies, the pooled relative risk of prevalence of metabolic syndrome for the highest vs. the lowest category of dairy consumption was 0.73 (95% CI 0.63-0.86)"
  • Longitudinal association of dairy consumption with the changes in blood pressure and the risk of incident hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study - Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 23 - "incident hypertension (HTN) ... Greater intakes of total dairy foods, total low-fat/fat-free dairy foods, low-fat/skimmed milk and yoghurt were associated with smaller annualised increments in SBP and a lower risk of projected HTN incidence. However, with the exception of total dairy foods and yoghurt, these inverse associations with HTN risk were attenuated as the follow-up time increased. For yoghurt, each additional serving was associated with 6 (95 % CI 1, 10) % reduced risk of incident HTN. Total dairy and total low-fat/fat-free dairy intakes were found to be inversely related to changes in DBP. Dairy consumption, as part of a nutritious and energy-balanced diet pattern, may benefit BP control and prevent or delay the onset of HTN"
  • Dairy Consumption and Risk of Frailty in Older Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Aug 27 - "Participants consuming seven or more servings per week of low-fat milk and yogurt had lower incidence of frailty (OR = 0.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.29-0.90; P for trend = .03) than those consuming less than one serving per week. Specifically, consumers of seven or more servings per week of low-fat milk and yogurt had less risk of slow walking speed (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.44-0.92, P trend = .01) and of weight loss (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.33-0.87, P trend = .02). Consuming seven or more servings per week of whole milk or yogurt (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 0.90-2.60, P trend = .10) or of cheese (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.52-1.61; P trend = .61) was not associated with incident frailty" - Note:  The "Results" paragraph of this abstract seems to contradict itself.
  • Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and risk of incident stroke in U.S. men and women in 2 large prospective cohorts - Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;100(6):1437-1447 - "In 2 large prospective cohorts, circulating biomarkers of dairy fat were not significantly associated with stroke"
  • Muscle p70S6K phosphorylation in response to soy and dairy rich meals in middle aged men with metabolic syndrome: a randomised crossover trial - Nutrition & Metabolism 2014, 11:46 - "These data demonstrate that the consumption of a dairy-protein rich but not a soy-protein rich breakfast activates the phosphorylation of mTOR and ribosomal protein S6, required for protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Unlike healthy controls, subjects with MetS did not increase muscle p70S6K(Thr389) phosphorylation in response to a mixed meal" - [Nutra USA]
  • Is Dairy Intake Associated to Breast Cancer? A Case Control Study of Iranian Women - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Sep 25 - "100 cases and 175 controls ... Dietary data were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire ... We observed that higher consumption of total dairy intake was accompanied with reduced breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.04-0.38]. A similar inverse association was also observed for higher intakes of low-fat and fermented dairy products (P for trend <0.05). Lower intake of high-fat dairy was associated with reduced odds of breast cancer, and no significant association was found between nonfermented dairy and breast cancer risk. Our study demonstrates the protective effects of high intakes of total dairy, low-fat and fermented dairy, as well as low intakes of high-fat dairy products against breast cancer risk and shows no association with nonfermented dairy" - Note:  Did I read that right, '0.14' or an 86% reduction in risk?  See my yogurt recipe at the top of my yogurt page.
  • Milk and Dairy Consumption and Risk of Dementia in an Elderly Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014 Jun 10 - "vascular dementia (VaD) ... The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD significantly decreased as milk and dairy intake level increased (P for trend = .03 for all-cause dementia, .04 for AD, .01 for VaD)"
  • Association between fat amount of dairy products with pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness in adults - Nutr J. 2014 Apr 24;13(1):37 - "intima-media thickness (IMT) was measured by carotid ultrasonography. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) ... PWV and IMT showed an inverse association with the intake of low-fat dairy and a positive association with the intake of whole-fat dairy, so the amount of fat in dairy products can play an important role in arterial stiffness and subclinical atherosclerosis"
  • Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration - Br J Nutr. 2014 Feb 6:1-7 - "In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated ... a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0.003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2.80, 95 % CI 1.21, 3.04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3.10, 95 % CI 1.18, 8.14, P for trend = 0.04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD"
  • Dairy foods and risk of stroke: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Dec 25 - "searching Embase (1950-November, 2013), Web of Knowledge (1950-November, 2013) and Pubmed (1945-November, 2013) ... Total dairy [relative risk (95% CI): 0.88 (0.82-0.94)], low-fat dairy [0.91 (0.85-0.97)], fermented milk [0.80 (0.71-0.89)] and cheese [0.94 (0.89-0.995)] were significantly associated with reduced risk of stroke, but whole/high-fat dairy, nonfermented milk, butter and cream were not significantly associated with risk of stroke ... A non-linear dose-response relationship (P = 2.80*10-13) between milk and risk of stroke was found, and the relative risk of stroke was 0.88 (0.86-0.91), 0.82 (0.79-0.86), 0.83 (0.79-0.86), 0.85 (0.81-0.89), 0.86 (0.82-0.91), 0.91 (0.84-0.98) and 0.94 (0.86-1.02) for 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 ml/day of milk, respectively"
    ml/day of milk risk of stroke
    100 (0.42 cups) 0.88
    200  (0.85 cups) 0.82
    300 (1.27 cups) 0.83
    400 (1.69 cups) 0.85
    500 (2.11 cups) 0.86
    600 (2.54 cups) 0.91
    700 (2.96) 0.94
  • Dairy Food Intake, Peripheral Bone Structure and Muscle Mass in Elderly Ambulatory Women - J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jan 20 - "elderly women aged 80-92 (mean 84.7) years, who were participants of the CAIFOS/CARES cohort and attended the 10-year follow-up ... Women were categorized according to tertiles of dairy intake: first tertile (≤1.5 servings/day), second tertile (1.5-2.2 servings/day) and third tertile (≥2.2 servings/day) ... compared to those in the first tertile of dairy intake, women in the third tertile had 5.7% greater total bone mass ... Our results suggest a positive association of dairy intake with appendicular bone mineralization and muscle mass in elderly women. Because many fractures in this age group are of the appendicular skeleton often associated with falls, dairy intake may be a modifiable lifestyle factor contributing to healthy ageing"
  • Lower dairy products and calcium intake is associated with adverse retinal vascular changes in older adults - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Jan 10 - "Higher consumption of dairy products and calcium is likely to play a role in maintaining optimal vascular health ... 2813 Blue Mountains Eye Study participants aged 50+ years had dietary data collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and serves of dairy consumption were calculated. Fundus photographs were taken and retinal vascular caliber measured using computer-assisted techniques and summarized ... participants in the lowest quintile of total dairy consumption compared to those in the remaining highest 4 quintiles had significantly wider retinal venular caliber, 227.2 versus 224.7 μm, respectively (multivariable-adjusted p = 0.002)"
  • Dairy Foods and Dairy Protein Consumption Is Inversely Related to Markers of Adiposity in Obese Men and Women - Nutrients. 2013 Nov 20;5(11):4665-4684 - "We sought to examine relationships between energy, protein and calcium consumption from dairy foods (milk, yoghurt, cheese, dairy spreads, ice-cream) and adiposity including body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and direct measures of body composition using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (% body fat and abdominal fat) in an opportunistic sample of 720 overweight/obese Australian men and women ... Overall dairy food consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with BMI, % body fat and WC (all p < 0.05). Dairy protein and dairy calcium (g/day) were both inversely associated with all adiposity measures (all p < 0.05). Yoghurt consumption (g/day) was inversely associated with % body fat, abdominal fat, WC and HC (all p < 0.05), while reduced fat milk consumption was inversely associated with BMI, WC, HC and % body fat (all p < 0.05). Within a sample of obese adults, consumption of dairy products, dairy protein, and calcium was associated with more favourable body composition"
  • Dairy consumption, type 2 diabetes and changes in cardiometabolic traits-a prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese in Beijing and Shanghai - Diabetes Care. 2013 Sep 11 - "2,091 middle-aged and older Chinese men and women were recruited and followed for 6 years. Baseline dairy consumption was assessed by a 74-item food frequency questionnaire ... Compared to non-consumers, relative risks (RR) and 95%CIs of type 2 diabetes among those having 0.5-1 serving/day and >1 serving/day were 0.70(0.55, 0.88) and 0.65(0.49, 0.85), respectively, after multivariate adjustment (Ptrend<0.001), which was attenuated by further adjusting for changes in glucose during follow-up (Ptrend=0.07). Total dairy consumption was associated with favorable changes in glucose, waistline, BMI, diastolic blood pressure (All Ptrend<0.05) and systolic blood pressure (Ptrend=0.05) after multivariate adjustment including baseline values of dependent variables ... Dairy consumption was associated with a significantly lower risk of type 2 diabetes and favorable changes of cardiometabolic traits in Chinese"
  • Maternal milk consumption, birth size and adult height of offspring: a prospective cohort study with 20 years of follow-up - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "809 Danish pregnant women was recruited in 1988-1989, with offspring follow-up at ~ 20 years of age (n=685). Milk consumption was assessed at gestational week 30 using a food frequency questionnaire ... Our findings add to recent observations that maternal milk consumption may have a growth-promoting effect with respect to weight and length at birth. Furthermore, the results provide some suggestion that this effect may even track into early adult age, although further studies with more statistical power are needed for that purpose"
  • Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 14 - "searched the PubMed database for prospective cohort and nested case-control studies of dairy product intake and risk of type 2 diabetes up to 5 June 2013 ... the summary RRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.87, 0.99; I2 = 33%) per 400 g total dairy products/d (n = 12), 0.98 (0.94, 1.03; I2 = 8%) per 200 g high-fat dairy products/d (n = 9), 0.91 (0.86, 0.96; I2 = 40%) per 200 g low-fat dairy products/d (n = 9), 0.87 (0.72, 1.04; I2 = 94%) per 200 g milk/d (n = 7), 0.92 (0.86, 0.99; I2 = 0%) per 50 g cheese/d (n = 8), and 0.78 (0.60, 1.02; I2 = 70%) per 200 g yogurt/d (n = 7) ... This meta-analysis suggests that there is a significant inverse association between intakes of dairy products, low-fat dairy products, and cheese and risk of type 2 diabetes" - Note:  Yogurt was the most protective at .78 per 200 grams.  200 grams is 7 ounces.  See my yogurt recipe on my yogurt page.
  • Consumption of low-fat dairy foods for 6 months improves insulin resistance without adversely affecting lipids or bodyweight in healthy adults: a randomized free-living cross-over study - Nutr J. 2013 May 2;12(1):56 - "Twenty-three healthy subjects completed a randomized, crossover trial of 12 months. Participants consumed their habitual diets and were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: a high dairy supplemented group instructed to consume 4 servings of dairy per day (HD); or a low dairy supplemented group limited to no more than 2 servings of dairy per day (LD) ... HD consumption improved (p < 0.05) plasma insulin (-9%,) and insulin resistance (-11%, p = 0.03) as estimated by HOMA-IR compared with the LD group"
  • Whole Milk Intake Is Associated with Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality among U.S. Male Physicians - J Nutr. 2012 Dec 19 - "28-y follow-up ... Physicians' Health Study ... The intake of total dairy products was associated with increased PCa incidence [HR = 1.12 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.35); >2.5 servings/d vs. ≤0.5 servings/d]. Skim/low-fat milk intake was positively associated with risk of low-grade, early stage, and screen-detected cancers, whereas whole milk intake was associated only with fatal PCa [HR = 1.49 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.28); ≥237 mL/d (1 serving/d) vs. rarely consumed]. In the survival analysis, whole milk intake remained associated with risk of progression to fatal disease after diagnosis [HR = 2.17 (95% CI: 1.34, 3.51)]"
  • The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul 3 - "This large prospective study found no association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. An inverse association of cheese intake and combined fermented dairy product intake with diabetes is suggested, which merits further study"
  • Dairy Products and the Metabolic Syndrome in a Prospective Study, DESIR - J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Oct;30(5 Suppl 1):454S-63S - "Total dairy product consumption, dairy (except cheese) consumption, and dietary calcium density were inversely associated with incident MetS and IFG/T2D. Cheese consumption was negatively associated with incident MetS but not with glycemic disorders. All parameters were associated with lower diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides (average over the 9-year period) and with a lower BMI gain in the same period. Higher total dairy and cheese intake and calcium density were associated with a lower increase in waist circumference and triglycerides during the 9-year follow-up"
  • Milk Consumption and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Published Epidemiological Studies - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Nov 1 - "Studies investigating the association of milk consumption with bladder cancer risk have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted a meta-analysis of published cohort and case-control studies to pool the risk estimates of the association between milk intake and bladder cancer ... High milk intake was significantly associated with decreased risk of bladder cancer (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.97) when comparing the highest with the lowest category of milk intake. The inverse association was stronger in Asia (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.40-0.81) than North America (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76-1.03), and no association was observed in Europe (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.85-1.26). This relationship also varied significantly by specific dairy products. Our results suggest that milk may be related to the reduction of bladder cancer risk. Further studies need to clarify the biological mechanisms"
  • Effect of soy and milk protein supplementation on serum lipid levels: a randomized controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep 28 - "Previous clinical trials have documented that soy protein reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with milk protein ... Compared with carbohydrate, soy protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% confidence interval (CI)) in total cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratio of -3.97 mg/dl (-7.63 to -0.31, P=0.03) and -0.12 (-0.23 to -0.01, P=0.03), respectively. Compared with milk protein, soy protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL and total/HDL cholesterol ratio of 1.54 mg/dl (0.63 to 2.44, P=0.0009) and -0.14 (-0.22 to -0.05, P=0.001), respectively. Compared with carbohydrate, milk protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL of -1.13 mg/dl (-2.05 to -0.22, P=0.02). Conclusions: This randomized controlled trial indicates that soy protein, but not milk protein, supplementation improves the lipid profile among healthy individuals"
  • A Diet High in Low-Fat Dairy Products Lowers Diabetes Risk in Postmenopausal Women - J Nutr. 2011 Sep 21 - "After multivariable adjustment, low-fat dairy product consumption was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. RR was roughly 0.5-0.6 in the upper quintiles compared with the lowest quintile (median servings/d, 2.8 in the 5th quintile and 1.5 in the 4th quintile vs. 0.05 in the first quintile; P-trend < 0.001). The inverse relationship was more pronounced in women with a higher BMI. High yogurt consumption was associated with a significant decrease in diabetes risk, whereas there was no relationship between high-fat dairy product consumption and diabetes risk"
  • The oslo health study: cheese intake was negatively associated with the metabolic syndrome - J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Jun;30(3):182-90 - "frequency of cheese intake (FCI) ... In young (30 years), middle-aged (40 and 45 years), seniors (59-60), and old (75-76 years) subjects, there was an inverse association between FCI and MetSRisk (p ≤ 0.005, except in old men). Using regression, we found a consistent negative association (p < 0.001) between FCI and MetSRisk, SumRisk, single MetS components, and the complete MetS, prevailing after controlling for sex, age, time since last meal, intake of fruit/berries, fruit juice, fatty fish, coffee, alcohol, smoking, leisure time physical activity, years at school, and birthplace. FCI was also negatively associated with body mass index (p < 0.02), except in old women"
  • Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein during Diet- and Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women - J Nutr. 2011 Jul 20 - "Weight loss can have substantial health benefits for overweight or obese persons; however, the ratio of fat:lean tissue loss may be more important. We aimed to determine how daily exercise (resistance and/or aerobic) and a hypoenergetic diet varying in protein and calcium content from dairy foods would affect the composition of weight lost in otherwise healthy, premenopausal, overweight, and obese women. Ninety participants were randomized to 3 groups (n = 30/group): high protein, high dairy (HPHD), adequate protein, medium dairy (APMD), and adequate protein, low dairy (APLD) differing in the quantity of total dietary protein and dairy food-source protein consumed: 30 and 15%, 15 and 7.5%, or 15 and <2% of energy, respectively. Body composition was measured by DXA at 0, 8, and 16 wk and MRI (n = 39) to assess visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 0 and 16 wk. All groups lost body weight (P < 0.05) and fat (P < 0.01); however, fat loss during wk 8-16 was greater in the HPHD group than in the APMD and APLD groups (P < 0.05). The HPHD group gained lean tissue with a greater increase during 8-16 wk than the APMD group, which maintained lean mass and the APLD group, which lost lean mass (P < 0.05). The HPHD group also lost more VAT as assessed by MRI (P < 0.05) and trunk fat as assessed by DXA (P < 0.005) than the APLD group. The reduction in VAT in all groups was correlated with intakes of calcium (r = 0.40; P < 0.05) and protein (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). Therefore, diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain" - Note:  See the yogurt recipe on my yogurt page.
  • Effect of Dietary Protein Supplementation on Blood Pressure: A Randomized, Controlled Trial - Circulation. 2011 Jul 18 - "The trial participants were assigned to take 40 g/d soy protein, milk protein, or carbohydrate supplementation each for 8 weeks in a random order. A 3-week washout period was implemented between the interventions. Three BPs were measured at 2 baseline and 2 termination visits during each of 3 intervention phases with a random-zero sphygmomanometer. Compared with carbohydrate controls, soy protein and milk protein supplementations were significantly associated with -2.0 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -3.2 to -0.7 mm Hg, P=0.002) and -2.3 mm Hg (-3.7 to -1.0 mm Hg, P=0.0007) net changes in systolic BP, respectively. Diastolic BP was also reduced, but this change did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the BP reductions achieved between soy or milk protein supplementation"
  • Adolescent dairy product consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 13 - "Compared with women in the lowest quintile of high school dairy product intake, those in the highest quintile (2 servings/d) had a 38% lower risk of T2D (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.83; P-trend = 0.0006), after adjustment for high school risk factors. After adjustment for adult risk factors, the association persisted (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.97; P-trend = 0.02) but was attenuated after adjustment for adult dairy product consumption. In a multivariate joint comparison of dairy product consumption by adults and high school adolescents, compared with women with consistently low intakes, those with consistently high intakes had the lowest risk of T2D (RR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.82) ... Our data suggest that higher dairy product intake during adolescence is associated with a lower risk of T2D. Some of the benefit of dairy product intake during high school may be due to the persistence of the consumption pattern during adulthood"
  • Association between yogurt, milk, and cheese consumption and common carotid artery intima-media thickness and cardiovascular disease risk factors in elderly women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 25 - "Total dairy product, milk, and cheese consumption was not associated with CCA-IMT (P > 0.05), whereas yogurt consumption was negatively associated with CCA-IMT (unadjusted standardized β = -0.081, P = 0.008; baseline risk factor-adjusted standardized β = -0.075, P = 0.015). Participants who consumed >100 g yogurt/d had a significantly lower CCA-IMT than did participants with lower consumption (unadjusted = -0.024 mm, P = 0.002). This relation remained significant after adjustment for baseline, dietary, and lifestyle risk factors (multivariable analysis = -0.023 mm, P = 0.003) ... Increased consumption of yogurt, but not of other dairy products, is associated with a lower CCA-IMT, independent of other risk factors"
  • Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of cohort studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 11 - "A combined RR of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-0.92) was revealed on T2DM risk associated to dairy intake, with little evidence of heterogeneity. For subgroup analysis, a combined RR was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74-0.90), 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89-1.10), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.86-1.05) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.93) for the intake of low-fat dairy, high-fat dairy, whole milk and yogurt, respectively. Dose-response analysis showed that T2DM risk could be reduced 5% for total dairy products and 10% for low-fat dairy products. Conclusion: An inverse association of daily intake of dairy products, especially low-fat dairy, with T2DM was revealed, indicating a beneficial effect of dairy consumption in the prevention of T2DM development"
  • Biomarkers of dairy intake and the risk of heart disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 May 4 - "The association between the FFQ measure of dairy intake and MI showed evidence of a possible threshold effect, with a protective association observed for all but the top quintile of the exposure distribution ... Dairy product intake as assessed by adipose tissue 15:0, 17:0, and by FFQ is not associated with a linear increase in the risk of MI in the study population. It is possible that the adverse effect of saturated fat in dairy products on cardiovascular health is offset by presence of beneficial nutrients"
  • Dairy Consumption and the Incidence of Hyperglycemia and the Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a French prospective study, Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) - Diabetes Care. 2011 Apr;34(4):813-817 - "Dairy products other than cheese, and dietary calcium density, were inversely associated with incident MetS and IFG/T2D; cheese was negatively associated with incident MetS. All three parameters were associated with lower diastolic blood pressure, and with a lower BMI gain. Higher cheese intake and calcium density were associated with a lower increase in waist circumference and lower triglyceride levels. Calcium density was also associated with a lower systolic blood pressure and a lower 9-year increase in plasma triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS A higher consumption of dairy products and calcium was associated with a lower 9-year incidence of MetS and IFG/T2D in a large cohort drawn from the general population"
  • A systematic review and meta-analysis of elevated blood pressure and consumption of dairy foods - J Hum Hypertens. 2011 Feb 10 - "elevated blood pressure (EBP) ... Meta-analysis of consumption of dairy foods and EBP in adults gave a relative risk (RR) of 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.94). Separation of high- and low-fat dairy foods, however, indicated a significant association with low-fat dairy foods only (RR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.74-0.95)). Additional analyses showed no association between EBP and cheese, although fluid dairy foods were significantly associated with a reduced development in EBP (RR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.98)). Little heterogeneity was observed among the data presented. This meta-analysis supports the inverse association between low-fat dairy foods and fluid dairy foods and risk of EBP"
  • Milk and dairy consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov 10
  • Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1722-9 - "High childhood total dairy intake was associated with a near-tripling in the odds of colorectal cancer [multivariate odds ratio: 2.90 (95% CI: 1.26, 6.65); 2-sided P for trend = 0.005] compared with low intake, independent of meat, fruit, and vegetable intakes and socioeconomic indicators"
  • Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1104-1110 - "gestational age (SGA) ... large-for-gestational age (LGA) ... Milk intake in pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight for gestational age, lower risk of SGA, and higher risk of LGA"
  • Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(3):467-76 - "The summary RR was 1.13 (95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.24) when comparing the highest with the lowest quantile of consumption ... This is biologically plausible since milk contains considerable amounts of fat, hormones, and calcium that are associated with prostate cancer risk"
  • High intakes of milk, but not meat, increase s-insulin and insulin resistance in 8-year-old boys - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Nov 17 - "a short-term high milk, but not meat, intake increased insulin secretion and resistance. The long-term consequences of this are unknown"
  • Calcium, vitamin D, milk consumption, and hip fractures: a prospective study among postmenopausal women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):504-11 - "Women consuming 12.5 µg vitamin D/d from food plus supplements had a 37% lower risk of hip fracture (RR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94) than did women consuming < 3.5 µg/d. Total calcium intake was not associated with hip fracture risk (RR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.68, 1.34 for 1200 compared with < 600 mg/d). Milk consumption was also not associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (P for trend = 0.21)"
  • Dairy Consumption, Obesity, and the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Young Adults: The CARDIA Study - JAMA. 2002 Apr 24;287(16):2081-9
  • Milk, dietary calcium, and bone fractures in women: a 12-year prospective study - Am J Public Health 1997 Jun;87(6):992-7 - "These data do not support the hypothesis that higher consumption of milk or other food sources of calcium by adult women protects against hip or forearm fractures"
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