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Home > Anti-aging Research > Whey


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News & Research:

  • Ideal protein to help seniors rebuild lost muscle - Science Daily, 10/10/18 - "Researchers found that protein did not stop lean muscle loss caused by inactivity, however, whey supplements helped to rebuild muscle once the participants activities resumed ... whey versus collagen protein ... Whey is considered a high-quality or complete protein, meaning it is rich in all essential amino acids and is higher in leucine, one of the essential amino acids the body cannot make itself and therefore, must derive from food ... Collagen peptides, by comparison, are much lower in their leucine content, lack or are low in essential amino acids ... While protein was ineffective in mitigating muscle loss, say researchers, when participants returned to normal, muscle-building activity, the whey group recovered more skeletal muscle" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Whey beneficially affects diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese adults - Science Daily, 4/30/14 - "They gave volunteers who were obese and non-diabetic the same meal of soup and bread plus one kind of protein, either from whey, gluten, casein (another milk protein) or cod. The scientists found that the meal supplemented with whey caused the subjects' stomachs to empty slower than the others'. These subjects also had lower levels of fatty acids in their blood after meals but higher amounts of the specific types of amino acids that boost insulin levels"
  • Effects of Soy, Whey Protein Supplementation Post-Exercise - Science Daily, 10/12/13 - "Our main findings demonstrate that 14 days of supplementation with soy protein does appear to partially blunt serum testosterone. In addition, whey influences the response of cortisol following an acute bout of resistance exercise by blunting its increase during recovery"
  • Eating protein throughout the day preserves muscle and physical function in dieting postmenopausal women, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "higher protein intake during weight loss can offset negative effects on muscle mass by maintaining more muscle relative to the amount of weight lost. Women who ate more protein lost 3.9 percent more weight and had a relative gain of 5.8 percent more thigh muscle volume than woman who did not ... 31 healthy, postmenopausal obese women were divided into two groups. Each group followed a 1,400-calorie weight-loss diet based on USDA's My Pyramid, but one group received a powdered whey protein supplement in the morning and again in the afternoon or evening; the other received a placebo that contained carbohydrates ... We hypothesize that more vigorous exercise -- in particular, resistance training -- would preserve even more muscle" - See whey protein at Amazon.com or try the yogurt recipe at the top of my yogurt page.
  • Whey Protein May Be Helpful for Weight Loss - WebMD, 7/15/11 - "Researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Human Nutrition Research Center randomly assigned 90 overweight and obese middle-aged adults to one of three groups. The first group was asked to add protein drinks made with whey to their normal diets, the second group drank protein drinks made with soy protein, and the third group drank carbohydrate drinks ... the drinks, which were drunk twice daily, at breakfast and dinner, had the same number of calories: 200. They also all had had 52 grams per packet, for a daily total of 104 grams of added protein or carbs ... After six months, people drinking the carbohydrate shakes had gained a little bit of weight, about 2 pounds, which appeared to be mainly added fat ... People drinking the soy shakes had stayed about the same weight as where they started ... But people drinking the whey protein had lost a little bit of weight and body fat, about 2 pounds. Additionally, while the other groups saw little change in the size of their waists, the whey protein group lost about an inch around the middle ... a couple of things may help to explain the weight and fat loss seen with whey protein ... People in the whey protein group had significantly lower blood levels of the hormone ghrelin than people eating the soy protein or carbohydrate ... And though researchers really can't explain why this happened or what it means, they found that people drinking the whey protein had cut back on their carbohydrate intake by the end of the study, even though they weren't eating fewer total calories and didn't know what kind of supplement they were getting ... researchers advise picking a whey product that is also low in calories and fat"
  • Whey protein may cut metabolic risk of high-fat diet: Mouse study - Nutra USA, 3/24/11
  • Whey protein holds fat fighting potential, suggests study - Nutra USA, 2/3/11 - "The amount of fat inside liver cells (known as intra-hepatocellular lipid concentrations – IHCL) in subjects fed a short term high fat diet has been previously shown to be reduced again through increasing dietary protein intake ... four weeks of supplementation with whey protein led to a significant decrease in IHCL of 21 percent, whilst fasting plasma triglyceride was observed to decrease by 15 percent, and total plasma cholesterol concentration decreased by over 7 percent" - [Abstract]
  • Whey supplements lower blood pressure: Low-cost protein gets big results in people with elevated blood pressure - Science Daily, 12/8/10 - "Beverages supplemented by whey-based protein can significantly reduce elevated blood pressure, reducing the risk of stroke and heart disease ... daily doses of commonly available whey brought a more than six-point reduction in the average blood pressure of men and women with elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressures ... blood-pressure reductions like those seen by Fluegel can reduce cardiovascular disease and bring a 35 to 40 percent reduction in fatal strokes"
  • Whey protein better than meat for reducing body weight - Nutra USA, 6/7/04 - "Increasing the dietary density of whey protein, but not of red meat, reduced body weight gain by 4 per cent, they add, while whey protein also reduced plasma insulin concentration by 40 per cent and increased insulin sensitivity, compared to meat protein"
  • Athletes Believe The "Whey" To Greater Muscle Strength Is Through Training And Protein Supplements - Intelihealth, 4/10/03 - "supplementation with a100% whey isolate formulation and creatine produced greater muscle fiber growth increases that transferred into significant increases in functional strength"
  • The New Faces Of Whey - Life Extension Magazine, 1/02 - "whey may be able to reduce stress and depression by lowering cortisol and increasing brain serotonin, improve liver function (in those suffering from certain forms of hepatitis) and reduce blood pressure"


  • Effects of whey and soy protein supplementation on inflammatory cytokines in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Nutr 2022 Jun 16 - "These data support that whey and soy protein supplementation elicit anti-inflammatory effects by reducing circulating IL-6 and TNF-a levels, respectively. This effect may be enhanced by soy isoflavones and may be more prominent in individuals with sarcopenia" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and Soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.
  • Protein supplement helps control Type 2 diabetes - Science Daily, 5/27/22 - "glucose levels were much better controlled when taking the whey supplement before meals. On average, they had two hours extra per day of normal blood sugar levels compared to the no protein week. In addition, their daily blood glucose levels were 0.6 mmol/L lower compared to when they consumed the supplement without any protein. ... We believe the whey protein works in two ways, firstly, by slowing down how quickly food passes through the digestive system and secondly, by stimulating a number of important hormones that prevent the blood sugars climbing so high"
  • Whey Protein, Leucine- and Vitamin-D-Enriched Oral Nutritional Supplementation for the Treatment of Sarcopenia - Nutrients 2022 Apr 6 - "The purpose of this review is to collate and describe all of the relevant efficacy studies carried out with a muscle-targeted oral nutritional supplementation (MT-ONS)-namely a whey-protein-based, leucine- and vitamin D-enriched formula aimed at optimizing their intake and satisfying their requirements-in different patient populations and clinical settings in order to determine if there is enough evidence to recommend prescription for the treatment of sarcopenia or its prevention in high-risk patient populations ... Consistent results have been observed in various clinical settings (community, rehabilitation centers, care homes), with or without adjunctive physical exercise programs. A positive effect on markers of inflammation has also been shown. A muscle-protein-sparing effect, with benefits on physical performance and function, has also been demonstrated in patients at risk of losing skeletal muscle mass (three trials), such as older patients undergoing weight loss or intensive rehabilitation programs associated with neurological disability (Parkinson's disease). MT-ONS has demonstrated not only a significant efficacy in clinical variables, but also a positive impact on healthcare resource consumption in the rehabilitation setting (length of stay and duration of rehabilitation)" - See whey protein at Amazon.com, leucine products at Amazon.com and vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Whey-Derived Lactopeptide β-Lactolin on Memory in Healthy Adults: An Integrated Analysis of Data from Randomized Controlled Trials - J Nutr Health Aging 2022 - "Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of dairy products reduces the risk of dementia and cognitive decline in older individuals. Tryptophan-tyrosine-related β-lactopeptides and their representative β-lactolin of glycine-threonine-tryptophan-tyrosine tetra-peptide have been identified as agents in dairy products, which improve cognitive function as well as memory function via the activation of the dopaminergic system in a mouse model of amnesia. Previous clinical trials have shown that supplementation with β-lactolin improves memory retrieval in healthy older adults. Specifically, β-lactolin improved the scores in some neuropsychological tests ... Three randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of β-lactolin on memory in healthy adults were selected for the integrated analysis. The results showed that the score of cued recall among the neuropsychological tests in the β-lactolin group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (g=0.33; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.55). In addition, the total memory score was higher but this difference was not significant"
  • Effect of Whey Protein Supplementation on Perioperative Outcomes in Patients with Cancer-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutr Cancer 2021 Dec 28 - "Whey protein has several biochemical characteristics which make it an ideal nutritional supplement in cancer ... Whey protein supplementation improved the perioperative functional capacity and significantly reduced postoperative complications in patients with cancer"
  • Leucine-enriched whey protein supplementation, resistance-based exercise, and cardiometabolic health in older adults: a randomized controlled trial - J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 Sep 14 - "Increasing protein intake (above the Recommended Dietary Amount) alone or with resistance-based exercise is suggested to improve cardiometabolic health ... Sixteen weeks of leucine-enriched whey protein supplementation alone and combined with resistance-based exercise improved cardiometabolic health markers in older adults" - See leucine products at Amazon.com and leucine at iHerb and whey protein at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • A new high protein-to-energy enteral formula with a whey protein hydrolysate to achieve protein targets in critically ill patients: a prospective observational tolerability study - Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 24 - "The HP:E formula containing 33% whey protein hydrolysate is well tolerated in this tolerability study. Due to the HP:E ratio protein targets can be reached faster" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Whey Protein Drink Ingestion before Breakfast Suppressed Energy Intake at Breakfast and Lunch, but Not during Dinner, and Was Less Suppressed in Healthy Older than Younger Men - Nutrients. 2020 Oct 29 - "These findings support the use of whey-protein drink supplements in older people who aim to increase their protein intake without decreasing their overall energy intake"
  • Supplement with whey protein hydrolysate in contrast to carbohydrate supports mitochondrial adaptations in trained runners - J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 Sep 7 - "Intake of whey PRO hydrolysate before and whey PRO hydrolysate plus CHO after each exercise session during a six-week endurance training period may augment training effects on specific mitochondrial proteins compared to intake of iso-caloric CHO but does not alter VO2max or 6 K TT performance" - [Nutra USA] - See whey protein at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Effects of whey protein on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome and related conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials - Lipids Health Dis 2020 Sep 21 - "Consumption of whey protein resulted in significant reduction of HbA1c (WMD: -0.15; 95% CI: - 0.29, - 0.01) insulin (WMD: -0.94; 95% CI: - 1.68, - 0.21) and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD: -0.20; 95% CI: - 0.36, - 0.05). A significant reduction in triglycerides levels (WMD: -17.12; 95% CI: - 26.52, - 7.72), total cholesterol (WMD: -10.88; 95% CI -18.60, - 3.17), LDL-cholesterol levels (WMD: -8.47 95% CI: - 16.59, - 0.36) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (WMD: -0.26; 95% CI: - 0.41, - 0.10) was found as well"
  • A Five-Ingredient Nutritional Supplement and Home-Based Resistance Exercise Improve Lean Mass and Strength in Free-Living Elderly - Nutrients 2020 Aug 10 - "Old age is associated with lower physical activity levels, suboptimal protein intake, and desensitization to anabolic stimuli, predisposing for age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia). Although resistance exercise (RE) and protein supplementation partially protect against sarcopenia under controlled conditions, the efficacy of home-based, unsupervised RE (HBRE) and multi-ingredient supplementation (MIS) is largely unknown ... Thirty-two sedentary men underwent twelve weeks of home-based resistance band training (3 d/week), in combination with daily intake of a novel five-nutrient supplement ('Muscle5'; M5, n = 16, 77.4 ± 2.8 y) containing whey, micellar casein, creatine, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids, or an isocaloric/isonitrogenous placebo (PLA; n = 16, 74.4 ± 1.3 y), containing collagen and sunflower oil. Appendicular and total lean mass (ASM; +3%, TLM; +2%), lean mass to fat ratios (ASM/% body fat; +6%, TLM/% body fat; +5%), maximal strength (grip; +8%, leg press; +17%), and function (5-Times Sit-to-Stand time; -9%) were significantly improved in the M5 group following HBRE/MIS therapy (pre vs. post tests; p < 0.05). Fast-twitch muscle fiber cross-sectional areas of the quadriceps muscle were also significantly increased in the M5 group post intervention (Type IIa; +30.9%, Type IIx, +28.5%, p < 0.05). Sub-group analysis indicated even greater gains in total lean mass in sarcopenic individuals following HBRE/MIS therapy (TLM; +1.65 kg/+3.4%, p < 0.05). We conclude that the Muscle5 supplement is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective complement to low-intensity, home-based resistance exercise and improves lean mass, strength, and overall muscle quality in old age" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  I'd add leucine, HBM and collagen.
  • Effects of High Intensity Dynamic Resistance Exercise and Whey Protein Supplements on Osteosarcopenia in Older Men with Low Bone and Muscle Mass. Final Results of the Randomized Controlled FrOST Study - Nutrients 2020 Aug 5 - "The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of high intensity dynamic resistance exercise (HIT-DRT) and whey protein supplementation (WPS) on bone mineral density (BMD) and sarcopenia parameters in osteosarcopenic men. Men ≥ 72 years with osteosarcopenia (n = 43) were randomly assigned to a HIT-RT (HIT-RT: n = 21) or a non-training control group (n = 22). Supervised HIT-RT twice/week was applied for 18 months, while the control group maintained their habitual lifestyle. Supplying WPS, total protein intake amounted to 1.5-1.6 (HIT-RT) and 1.2 g/kg/body mass/d (control). Both groups were supplied with calcium and vitamin D ... we observed significant positive effects for sarcopenia Z-score (standardized mean difference (SMD): 1.40), BMD at lumbar spine (SMD: 0.72) and total hip (SMD: 0.72). In detail, effect sizes for skeletal muscle mass changes were very pronounced (1.97, p < 0.001), while effects for functional sarcopenia parameters were moderate (0.87, p = 0.008; handgrip strength) or low (0.39, p = 0.209; gait velocity). Apart from one man who reported short periods of temporary worsening of existing joint pain, no HIT-RT/WPS-related adverse effects or injuries were reported. We consider HIT-RT supported by whey protein supplementation as a feasible, attractive, safe and highly effective option to fight osteosarcopenia in older men" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Combined protein and calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate induced gains in leg fat free mass: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Mar 12;17(1):16 - "All participants received 60 g of whey protein on training days and 30 g of whey protein (WP) on non-training days. Participants were randomly assigned to additionally receive 3 g of calcium HMB (WP + HMB) or a placebo (WP + PLA) ... Combined protein and HMB supplementation resulted in segmental, but not whole-body increases in FFM compared to protein supplementation alone. These findings could explain some of the controversial effects of HMB reported in previous studies and have practical implications for maximizing training-induced gains in FFM and clinical conditions associated with skeletal muscle deconditioning such as aging, sedentary lifestyles, bed rest and spaceflight" - [Nutra USA] - See HMB at Amazon.com and whey protein at Amazon.com..
  • Anabolic response to essential amino acid plus whey protein composition is greater than whey protein alone in young healthy adults - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Feb 10;17(1):9 - "essential amino acids ... We conclude that a composition of a balanced EAA formulation combined with whey protein is highly anabolic as compared to a whey protein-based recovery product, and that the response is dose-dependent"
  • Oral Supplementation Using Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Whey Protein Improves Whole Body Fat-Free Mass in Men After Resistance Training - J Clin Med Res. 2019 Jun;11(6):428-434 - "Oral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) supplementation increases growth hormone (GH) serum levels and protein synthesis. Therefore, post-exercise supplementation using GABA and protein may help enhance training-induced muscle hypertrophy ... Twenty-one healthy men (26 - 48 years) were randomized to receive whey protein (WP; 10 g) or whey protein + GABA (WP + GABA; 10 g + 100 mg) daily for 12 weeks ... After 12 weeks, the WP + GABA group exhibited significantly greater increase in whole body fat-free mass than the WP group" - [Nutra USA] - See GABA at Amazon.com.
  • Improving Dietary Protein Quality Reduces the Negative Effects of Physical Inactivity on Body Composition and Muscle Function - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019 Jan 28 - "Twenty healthy, older men and women completed 7 days of bed rest followed by 5 days of rehabilitation. Volunteers consumed a mixed macronutrient diet (MIXED: N = 10; 68 ± 2 years; 1,722 ± 29 kcal/day; 0.97 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day) or an isoenergetic, whey-augmented, higher protein quality diet (WHEY: N = 10; 69 ± 1 years; 1,706 ± 23 kcal/day; 0.90 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day) ... During bed rest, both groups experienced a 20% reduction in knee extension peak torque (p < .05). The WHEY diet partially protected leg lean mass (-1,035 vs. -680 ± 138 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .08) and contributed to a greater loss of body fat (-90 vs. -233 ± 152 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p < .05). Following rehabilitation, knee extension peak torque in the WHEY group fully recovered (-10.0 vs. 2.2 ± 4.1 Nm, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .05)" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Myoprotective Potential of Creatine Is Greater than Whey Protein after Chemically-Induced Damage in Rat Skeletal Muscle - Nutrients. 2018 Apr 30 - "Creatine supplementation appears to offer an element of myoprotection which was not observed following whey protein supplementation" - [Nutra USA] -See creatine at Amazon.com.
  • Protein supplementation enhances cerebral oxygenation during exercise in elite basketball players - Nutrition. 2018 Feb 5;53:34-37 - "supplements with different whey protein contents ... resulted in a 16% longer cycling time (from 474 ± 49 s to 553 ± 78 s, P < 0.05), compared with the low-protein trial" - [Nutra USA]
  • Protein supplementation enhances cerebral oxygenation during exercise in elite basketball players - Nutrition. 2018 Feb 5;53:34-37 - "supplements with different whey protein contents ... resulted in a 16% longer cycling time (from 474 ± 49 s to 553 ± 78 s, P < 0.05), compared with the low-protein trial" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • The short-term effect of high versus moderate protein intake on recovery after strength training in resistance-trained individuals - J Int Socty of Sports Nutr Nov 21 2017 - "Fourteen resistance-trained individuals underwent two 10-day isocaloric dietary regimes with a protein content of 1.8 g.kg−1.d−1 (PROMOD) or 2.9 g.kg−1.d−1 (PROHIGH) ... No significant differences were reported between conditions for any of the performance repetition count variables (p > 0.05). However, within PROMOD only, squat performance total repetition count was significantly lower at T3 (19.7 ± 6.8) compared to T1 (23.0 ± 7.5; p = 0.006)" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  Strange that it only improved squat performance.  That said, I have my own protein cocktail consisting of leucine, arginine, citrulline, creatine, hydrolyzed protein and beta-arginine and it makes a big difference in my swim times.  See Athletic Elite 10, GoPro 100% Hi-Protein Whey Protein Powder, Dietary Supplement (Milk Chocolate, 5LB) at Amazon.com.
  • Inulin-type fructans and whey protein both modulate appetite but only fructans alter gut microbiota in adults with overweight/obesity: a randomized controlled trial - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017 Jul 21 - "125 adults with overweight/obesity were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of: 1) Control; 2) Inulin-type fructans (ITF); 3) Whey protein; 4) ITF + Whey protein ... Compared to Control, body fat was significantly reduced in the Whey protein group at 12wks. Hunger, desire to eat and prospective food consumption were all lower with ITF, Whey protein and ITF + Whey protein compared to Control at 12 wks. Microbial community structure differed from 0 to 12 wks in the ITF and ITF +Whey Protein groups (i.e. increased Bifidobacterium) but not Whey Protein or Control ... Adding ITF, whey protein or both to snack bars improved several aspects of appetite control. Changes in gut microbiota may explain in part the effects of ITF but likely not whey protein" - See whey protein at Amazon.com and Inulin at Amazon.com.
  • Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats - PLoS One. 2016 Apr 8;11(4):e0152562 - "whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) ... Ten weeks of both TCTs and WPIs increased exercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats" - [Nutra USA] - See whey protein at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Combined Oral Intake of GABA with Whey Protein Improves Lean Mass in Resistance-trained Men - Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5 Suppl 1):54 - "After 12 wk, change in whole body lean mass was significantly higher in the WP+G group compared to the WP group (1340 +/- 465 vs. 146 +/- 218 g." - [Nutra USA] - See GABA at Amazon.com.  GABA is part of my sleep cocktail.  I'm sticking with leucine for the protein part.
  • Two-Year Whey Protein Supplementation Did Not Enhance Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Well-Nourished Healthy Older Postmenopausal Women - J Nutr. 2015 Sep 23 - "in protein-replete healthy ambulant postmenopausal women, 30 g/d of extra protein did not improve the maintenance of muscle mass or physical function despite evidence of deterioration in muscle measurements in the upper limb"
  • Effects of whey protein and resistance exercise on body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - J Am Coll Nutr. 2014 Apr;33(2):163-75 - "A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify RCTs that investigated WP (concentrate, isolate, or hydrolystate) and body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat, lean body mass (LBM), fat-free mass (FFM), and waist circumference ... Body weight (WGMD: -4.20 kg, 95% confidence interval [CI], -7.67, -0.73) and body fat (WGMD: -3.74 kg, 95% CI, -5.98, -1.50) were significantly decreased from baseline in the WPR within-group analyses ... Results from the subgroup analyses indicated a statistically significant increase in LBM (WGMD: 2.24 kg, 95% CI, 0.66, 3.81) among studies that included a resistance exercise component along with WP provision" - Note: 4.20 kg is 9.3 pounds.  See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 27 - "myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) ... A low-protein (6.25 g) mixed macronutrient beverage can be as effective as a high-protein dose (25 g) at stimulating increased MPS rates when supplemented with a high (5.0 g total leucine) amount of leucine. These results have important implications for formulations of protein beverages designed to enhance muscle anabolism" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  That's about what I take per day in the one heaping scoop.  It's got to be the worst tasting substance in the world.  I put the scoop in a small jar with about a third cup of water, shake it and swill in then rinse the jar a couple more times to get it all.  See leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • Myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis rates subsequent to a meal in response to increasing doses of whey protein at rest and after resistance exercise - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 20 - "muscle protein synthesis (MPS) ... A 20-g dose of whey protein is sufficient for the maximal stimulation of postabsorptive rates of myofibrillar MPS in rested and exercised muscle of ~80-kg resistance-trained, young men. A dose of whey protein >20 g stimulates amino acid oxidation and ureagenesis" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of soy and whey protein supplementation on acute hormonal reponses to resistance exercise in men - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Feb;32(1):66-74 - "For many resistance-trained men concerns exist regarding the production of estrogen with the consumption of soy protein when training for muscle strength and size. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of soy and whey protein supplementation on sex hormones following an acute bout of heavy resistance exercise in resistance trained men ... Ten resistance-trained men (age 21.7 +/- 2.8 [SD] years; height 175.0 +/- 5.4 cm; weight 84.2 +/- 9.1 kg) volunteered to participate in an investigation ... all subjects completed 3 experimental treatment conditions supplementing with whey protein isolate (WPI), soy protein isolate (SPI), and maltodextrin placebo control for 14 days with participants ingesting 20 g of their assigned supplement each morning at approximately the same time each day ... This investigation observed lower testosterone responses following supplementation with soy protein in addition to a positive blunted cortisol response with the use of whey protein at some recovery time points. Although sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was proposed as a possible mechanism for understanding changes in androgen content, SHBG did not differ between experimental treatments. Importantly, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in estradiol concentrations"
  • Whey protein supplementation during resistance training augments lean body mass - J Am Coll Nutr. 2013 Apr;32(2):122-35 - "Compared to soy, whey protein is higher in leucine, absorbed quicker and results in a more pronounced increase in muscle protein synthesis ... randomized non-resistance-trained men and women into groups who consumed daily isocaloric supplements containing carbohydrate (carb; n = 22), whey protein (whey; n = 19), or soy protein (soy; n = 22) ... Lean body mass gains were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in whey (3.3 +/- 1.5 kg) than carb (2.3 +/- 1.7 kg) and soy (1.8 +/- 1.6 kg). Fat mass decreased slightly but there were no differences between groups. Fasting concentrations of leucine were significantly elevated (20%) and postexercise plasma leucine increased more than 2-fold in whey. Fasting leucine concentrations were positively correlated with lean body mass responses"
  • A Whey Protein Hydrolysate Promotes Insulinotropic Activity in a Clonal Pancreatic β-Cell Line and Enhances Glycemic Function in ob/ob Mice - J Nutr. 2013 May 8 - "In conclusion, an 8-wk oral administration of WPH improved blood glucose clearance, reduced hyperinsulinemia, and restored the pancreatic islet capacity to secrete insulin in response to glucose in ob/ob mice. Hence, it may be useful in diabetes management"
  • Post-exercise whey protein hydrolysate supplementation induces a greater increase in muscle protein synthesis than its constituent amino acid content - Br J Nutr. 2013 Feb 7:1-7 - "Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h to depress muscle protein synthesis. Immediately after exercise, the animals were administered either carbohydrate (CHO), CHO plus an amino acid mixture (AA) or CHO plus WPH. At 1 h after exercise, the supplements containing whey-based protein (AA and WPH) caused a significant increase in the fractional rate of protein synthesis (FSR) compared with CHO ... These results indicate that WPH may include active components that are superior to amino acids for stimulating muscle protein synthesis and initiating translation" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Similar effects of leucine rich and regular dairy products on muscle mass and functions of older polymyalgia rheumatica patients: a randomized crossover trial - J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15(6):462-7 - "Patients performed as many stand ups as possible twice a day after which they ingested a regular (Control) or a whey protein enriched dairy product with high leucine content (Test). The 8-week intervention periods were separated by a 4-week wash-out ... The 16-week home-based post-exercise supplementation resulted in a 1.8% increase (p = 0.052) in lower limb muscle mass. Walking speed (+5.3%, p = 0.007) and chair stand test performance (-12.2 %, p < 0.001) were also improved. Furthermore, a tendency for increased jump power (+3.0%, p = 0.084) was observed. However, significant and consistent differences were not found in the changes of muscle mass indices or muscle functions between supplements, but the test supplement tended to prevent accumulation of body fat. Conclusion: A low intensity home based exercise program combined with post-exercise milk protein supplementation is feasible despite some gastrointestinal complaints and seems effective in improving the muscle mass and functions of older persons with a inflammatory disease. Further studies are needed to establish, whether and to what extent the use of leucine-enriched whey products prevent or treat age-associated sarcopenia and whether they are superior to the present commercial milk products"
  • Protective effect of whey proteins against nonalcoholic fatty liver in rats Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Apr 13;10(1):57 - "Oral administration of the studied whey proteins products reduced the final body weight of rats. There was a significant reduction effect (P<0.05) of the tested proteins on hepatic triglycerides, liver enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde level) and serum glucose. Feeding on whey proteins caused an increase in the reduced glutathione. Hepatic content of reduced glutathione was not affected by any of the used whey proteins, but it showed an increasing tendency (P>0.05). Liver histology showed an improvement of fatty infiltration in hepatocytes from whey protein groups and gives the histology of liver a normal appearance"
  • Dietary Whey Protein Lowers the Risk for Metabolic Disease in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet - J Nutr. 2011 Feb 10 - "whey protein isolate (WPI) ... Livers from WPI mice had significantly fewer hepatic lipid droplet numbers and less deposition of nonpolar lipids. Furthermore, WPI improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. We conclude that in mice receiving a HF diet, consumption of WPI results in higher basal metabolic rates and altered metabolism of dietary lipids. Because WPI mice had less hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance, WPI dietary supplements may be effective in slowing the development of fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes"
  • Effects of a whey protein supplementation on intrahepatocellular lipids in obese female patients - Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 31 - "intrahepatocellular lipids (IHCL) ... 60 g/day whey protein supplement (WPS) for 4-weeks ... total liver volume (MR) ... IHCL were positively correlated with visceral fat and total liver volume at inclusion. WPS decreased significantly IHCL by 20.8 +/- 7.7%, fasting total TG by 15 +/- 6.9%, and total cholesterol by 7.3 +/- 2.7%. WPS slightly increased fat free mass from 54.8 +/- 2.2 kg to 56.7 +/- 2.5 kg, p = 0.005). Visceral fat, total liver volume, glucose tolerance, creatinine clearance and insulin sensitivity were not changed"