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Home > Anti-aging Research > HMB

Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB)

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  • Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Supplementation on Elderly Body Composition and Muscle Strength: A Review of Clinical Trials - Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Mar 12 - "The aging process has great impact on body composition, such as the increase of adipose tissue in abdominal region, and the decrease of lean body mass, due to skeletal muscle loss. A reduction in muscle mass is associated to high risk of fractures and falls, loss of mobility, and increased number of hospitalizations. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a biological substance derived from leucine metabolism, with anabolic and anticatabolic properties. Some HMB effects are tissue repair stimulation and protein anabolism ... Supplementation of 3 g of HMB has shown to be most beneficial in improving strength and body composition in people over 65 years, especially in bed rest and untrained conditions ... Our findings suggest that HMB has a positive effect on body composition and strength, especially in bedridden or sedentary elderly, due to its anticatabolic properties" - See HMB at Amazon.com.
  • β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate supplementation in older persons - an update - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2020 Nov 2 - "The interest in the use of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) as an intervention to prevent and treat sarcopenia has increased over recent years ... No new studies have been published over the last 2 years investigating the effect of HMB in older persons who are hospitalized, aside from one posthoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial exploring the effect of a high protein oral nutrition supplement containing HMB on handgrip strength and nutritional status ... Recent data suggest the need for high-quality studies investigating the effectiveness of HMB to improve outcomes related to sarcopenia in both hospitalized and community-dwelling older persons" - See HMB at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • The impact of acute beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) ingestion on glucose and insulin kinetics in young and older men - J Funct Foods 2020 Oct;73:104163 - "Insulin resistance (IR) is a key feature in the development of numerous metabolic diseases. The cornerstone for treatment for IR remains diet and exercise, however these have poor rates of adherence. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a nutraceutical with contentious effects on IR in animal models ... Young and older male volunteers underwent two 75 g OGTT with or without 3 g HMB. In young men, HMB significantly reduced the insulin area-under-the-curve (AUC), with no difference in glucose AUC, resulting in a numerical increase in the Cederholm index of insulin sensitivity. In older men, HMB had no effect on insulin or glucose responses" - See HMB at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Enhanced physical and cognitive performance in active duty Airmen: evidence from a randomized multimodal physical fitness and nutritional intervention - Sci Rep 2020 Oct 19 - "Achieving military mission objectives requires high levels of performance from Airmen who operate under extreme physical and cognitive demands. Thus, there is a critical need to establish scientific interventions to enhance physical fitness and cognitive performance-promoting the resilience of Airmen and aiding in mission success. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, 12-week randomized controlled trial in active-duty Air Force Airmen (n = 148) to compare the efficacy of a multimodal intervention comprised of high-intensity interval aerobic fitness and strength training paired with a novel nutritional supplement [comprised of β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB), lutein, phospholipids, DHA and selected micronutrients including B12 and folic acid] to high-intensity interval aerobic fitness and strength training paired with a standard of care placebo beverage. The exercise intervention alone improved several dimensions of physical fitness [strength and endurance (+ 8.3%), power (+ 0.85%), mobility and stability (+ 22%), heart rate (- 1.1%) and lean muscle mass (+ 1.4%)] and cognitive function [(episodic memory (+ 9.5%), processing efficiency (+ 7.5%), executive function reaction time (- 4.8%) and fluid intelligence accuracy (+ 19.5%)]. Relative to exercise training alone, the multimodal fitness and nutritional intervention further improved working memory (+ 9.0%), fluid intelligence reaction time (- 7.7%), processing efficiency (+ 1.8%), heart rate (- 2.4%) and lean muscle mass (+ 1.5%)" - [Nutra USA]
  • Long-term Effects of Calcium β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Muscular Function in Older Adults with and without Resistance Training: A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020 Aug 28 - "The primary aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and Vitamin D3 (D) would enhance muscle function and strength in older adults. Older adults over 60 years of age with insufficient circulating 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D (25OH-D) levels were enrolled in a double-blinded controlled 12-month study. Study participants were randomly assigned to treatments consisting of: (a) Control + no exercise; (b) HMB+D + no exercise; (c) Control + exercise, and (d) HMB+D + exercise. The study evaluated 117 participants consisting of multiple measurements over the 12 months that included body composition, strength, functionality, and questionnaires. HMB+D had a significant benefit on lean body mass within the non-exercise group at 6 months (0.44±0.27kg, HMB+D vs. -0.33±0.28kg control, p<0.05). In non-exercisers, improvement in knee extension peak torque (60°/sec) was significantly greater in HMB+D supplemented participants than in non-supplemented group (p=0.04) at 3 months, 10.9 ± 5.7Nm and -5.2 ± 5.9Nm, respectively. A composite functional index, integrating changes in handgrip, Get Up, and Get Up and Go measurements, was developed. HMB+D + no exercise resulted in significant increases in the functional index compared to those observed in the control + no exercise group at 3 (p=0.03), 6 (p=0.04), and 12 months (p=0.04). Supplementation with HMB+D did not further improve the functional index within the exercising group. This study demonstrated the potential of HMB and Vitamin D3 supplementation to enhance muscle strength and physical functionality in older adults, even in individuals not engaged in an exercise training program" - [Nutra USA] - See HMB at Amazon.com and iHerb and Vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.
  • Combined protein and calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate induced gains in leg fat free mass: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020 Mar 12;17(1):16 - "All participants received 60 g of whey protein on training days and 30 g of whey protein (WP) on non-training days. Participants were randomly assigned to additionally receive 3 g of calcium HMB (WP + HMB) or a placebo (WP + PLA) ... Combined protein and HMB supplementation resulted in segmental, but not whole-body increases in FFM compared to protein supplementation alone. These findings could explain some of the controversial effects of HMB reported in previous studies and have practical implications for maximizing training-induced gains in FFM and clinical conditions associated with skeletal muscle deconditioning such as aging, sedentary lifestyles, bed rest and spaceflight" - [Nutra USA] - See HMB at Amazon.com and whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Ten Weeks of Creatine Monohydrate Plus HMB Supplementation on Athletic Performance Tests in Elite Male Endurance Athletes Nutrients. 2020 Jan 10;12(1) - "CrM plus HMB supplementation over 10 weeks showed a synergistic effect on aerobic power (measured as WAT, W4, and W8) during an incremental test but had no influence muscle mass" - [Nutra USA] - See creatine at Amazon.com and  HMB at Amazon.com.
  • Long-Term Effect of Combination of Creatine Monohydrate Plus β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Anabolic/Catabolic Hormones in Elite Male Endurance Athletes - Biomolecules. 2020 Jan 15;10(1) - "randomized into four different groups: placebo group (PLG; n = 7), CrM group (CrMG; 0.04 g/kg/day of CrM; n = 7), HMB group (HMBG; 3 g/day of HMB; n = 7), and CrM-HMB group (CrM-HMBG; 0.04 g/kg/day of CrM plus 3 g/day of HMB; n = 7) ... we observed significant differences in CrM-HMBG with respect to PLG, CrMG, and HMBG on testosterone (p = 0.006; η2p = 0.454) and the testosterone/cortisol ratio (T/C; p = 0.032; η2p = 0.349). Moreover, we found a synergistic effect of combined supplementation on testosterone (CrM-HMBG = -63.85% vs. CrMG + HMBG = -37.89%) and T/C (CrM-HMBG = 680% vs. CrMG + HMBG = 57.68%) and an antagonistic effect on cortisol (CrM-HMBG = 131.55% vs. CrMG + HMBG = 389.99%). In summary, the combination of CrM plus HMB showed an increase in testosterone and T/C compared with the other groups after 10 weeks of supplementation. Moreover, this combination presented a synergistic effect on testosterone and T/C and an antagonistic effect on cortisol compared with the sum of individual or isolated supplementation" - [Nutra USA]
  • Effect of Ten Weeks of Creatine Monohydrate Plus HMB Supplementation on Athletic Performance Tests in Elite Male Endurance Athletes - Nutrients. 2020 Jan 10;12(1) - "CrM plus HMB supplementation over 10 weeks showed a synergistic effect on aerobic power (measured as WAT, W4, and W8) during an incremental test but had no influence muscle mass" - See creatine at Amazon.com and HMB at Amazon.com.
  • The Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on Sarcopenia and Functional Frailty in Older Persons: A Systematic Review - J Nutr Health Aging. 2019;23(2):145-15 - "Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been shown to be effective and superior to other types of protein supplements to attenuate loss of muscle mass, strength and function, however, its benefits in sarcopenic and frail older people remain unclear ... Three studies matched our eligibility criteria which enrolled 203 subjects through a variety of definitions of sarcopenia or frailty. Lean body mass increased and muscle strength and function were preserved following HMB supplementation"
  • Two and Four Weeks of β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementations Reduce Muscle Damage Following Eccentric Contractions - J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 Dec 27:1-7 - "This study investigated the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation for either 2 or 4 weeks on the muscle damage after elbow flexors after eccentric contractions (ECCs) ... We concluded that more than 2 weeks of HMB supplementation has a positive role for untrained subjects to prevent the muscle damage after ECCs."
  • Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and sarcopenia: from biological plausibility to clinical evidence - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2019 Jan;22(1):37-43 - "the consumption of protein sources enhanced with this essential amino acid, or its metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), is assumed to give the greatest benefit in terms of maintenance of muscle mass and function during aging ... It is proposed that HMB may be utilized to protect or rebuild muscle mass in older people with reduced lean body mass" - See metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) at Amazon.com.
  • Role of Oral Nutritional Supplements Enriched with β-Hydroxy-β-Methylbutyrate in Maintaining Muscle Function and Improving Clinical Outcomes in Various Clinical Settings - J Nutr Health Aging. 2018;22(6):664-675 - "Aging and disease-related malnutrition are well associated with loss of muscle mass and function. Muscle mass loss may lead to increased health complications and associated increase in health care costs, especially in hospitalized individuals. High protein oral nutritional supplements enriched with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HP-ONS+HMB) have been suggested to provide benefits such as improving body composition, maintaining muscle mass and function and even decreasing mortality rates. The present review aimed to examine current evidence on the effect of HP-ONS+HMB on muscle-related clinical outcomes both in community and peri-hospitalization patients. Overall, current evidence suggests that therapeutic nutrition such as HP-ONS+HMB seems to be a promising tool to mitigate the decline in muscle mass and preserve muscle function, especially during hospital rehabilitation and recovery"
  • Cognitive function is preserved in aged mice following long-term β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate supplementation - Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Jun 19:1-13 - "The findings from this study suggest that prolonged HMB supplementation starting in adulthood may preserve cognition with age"
  • The Effects of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - J Am Coll Nutr. 2018 Apr 20:1-10 - "The current evidence revealed a time-dependent effect of HMB in reducing LDH and CK serum levels among adults. HMB, therefore, may be seen as a priority muscle damage recovery agent in interventions"
  • The effects of phosphatidic acid supplementation on strength, body composition, muscular endurance, power, agility, and vertical jump in resistance trained men - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Jun 2;13:24 - "Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a lipid messenger that has been shown to increase muscle protein synthesis via signaling stimulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). MaxxTOR® (MT) is a supplement that contains PA as the main active ingredient but also contains other synergistic mTOR signaling substances including L-Leucine, Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB), and Vitamin D3 ... participants were tested on one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press strength (LP), 1RM bench press strength (BP), push-ups to failure (PU), vertical jump (VJ), pro-agility shuttle time (AG), peak power output (P), lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), and thigh muscle mass (TMM) ... There was a significant main effect (F(1,16) = 33.30, p < 0.001) for LBM where MT significantly increased LBM when compared to the PLA group (p < 0.001). Additionally, there was a significant main effect for LP (F(1,16) = 666.74, p < 0.001) and BP (F(1,16) = 126.36, p < 0.001) where both increased significantly more in MT than PLA group (p < 0.001). No significant differences between MT and PLA were noted for FM, TMM, VJ, AG, P, or PU" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  Seems like you might have gotten the same results with l-leucine (one of the ingredients in MaxxTOR®) alone.  See phosphatidic acid at Amazon.com, HMB at Amazon.com and leucine products at Amazon.com.
  • HMB attenuates muscle loss during sustained energy deficit induced by calorie restriction and endurance exercise - Metabolism. 2013 Jul 19 - "Mice were divided into four groups (n=10/group): 1) ALT=ad libitum+trained (1h/d for 3d/wk); 2) ALTH=ALT+HMB (0.5g/kg BW/d); 3) C=calorie restricted (-30%)+trained (6h/d, 6d/wk); and 4) CH=C+HMB ... HMB improves body composition and sensorimotor function during normal training and attenuates muscle mass and strength loss during catabolic conditions"
  • Effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on lean body mass during 10 days of bed rest in older adults - Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 4 - "Loss of muscle mass due to prolonged bed rest decreases functional capacity and increases hospital morbidity and mortality in older adults ... In healthy older adults, HMB supplementation preserves muscle mass during 10 days of bed rest"
  • Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program - Nutrition 2001 Jul-Aug;17(7-8):558-66 - "In summary, CR and HMB can increase LBM and strength, and the effects are additive"
  • Body Composition in 70-Year-Old Adults Responds to Dietary beta-Hydroxy-beta-Methylbutyrate Similarly to That of Young Adults - J Nutr 2001 Jul;131(7):2049-52 - "In conclusion, changes in body composition can be accomplished in 70-y-old adults participating in a strength training program, as previously demonstrated in young adults, when HMB is supplemented daily"
  • Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation in humans is safe and may decrease cardiovascular risk factors - J Nutr. 2000 Aug;130(8):1937-45 - "In conclusion, the objective data collected across nine experiments indicate that HMB can be taken safely as an ergogenic aid for exercise and that objective measures of health and perception of well-being are generally enhanced."