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Anti-aging Research > Stanol Esters
Stanols and Sterols
Note: All the margarines that I'm seen that contain
stanol esters also contain hydrogenated oils, i.e.,
trans fatty acids, which defeats the whole purpose of eating it for health
reasons. The only margarine that I know that doesn't contain trans fatty
acids is Smart Balance.
News & Research:
Preventive effect of plant sterols in Alzheimer’s disease - Science
Daily, 10/24/13 - "It's no secret that many of the
phytochemicals in fruit and vegetables have a positive effect on our health.
For instance, plant sterols (also known as phytosterols) help to lower
cholesterol levels. According to a new study by researchers at Saarland
University, they also appear to prevent the onset of Alzheimer's disease ...
one sterol in particular, stigmasterol, actually inhibited protein formation
... Stigmasterol has an effect on a variety of molecular processes: it
lowers enzyme activity, it inhibits the formation of proteins implicated in
the development of Alzheimer's disease, and it alters the structure of the
cell membrane ... Together, these effects synergistically reduce the
production of beta-amyloid proteins" - See
products at iHerb.
Stanols better than sterols for LDL-cholesterol reduction, suggests
meta-analysis. - Nutra USA, 3/1/11
Plant stanol-ester enriched foods diet can cut CVD risk, study - Nutra
Study extends understanding of phytosterol benefits - Nutra USA, 8/28/07
Plant Sterol Pills Significantly Lower LDL Cholesterol - Science Daily,
3/13/06 - "The addition of plant sterols helped
further lower total cholesterol and contributed to a nearly 10 percent
reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol"
Pistachios Pummel Cholesterol - WebMD, 12/9/05 -
"Among commonly eaten nuts and seeds, pistachios and
sunflower seeds had the highest phytosterol content"
Plant Sterols May Help Lower Cholesterol - WebMD, 6/17/05 -
"Plant sterols are already on the market in various
products, including cholesterol-lowering margarines such as Take Control and
Benecol ... LDL cholesterol fell by more than a quarter (27%) for diabetic
people who received the sterol spread. For those without diabetes, LDL
phytosterol phenomenon - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 4/05
Sterols: the key to heart health - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals,
11/04 - "volunteers who drank one glass of
sterol-fortified orange juice twice a day for eight weeks reduced their
total cholesterol by 7.2 per cent, their LDL cholesterol by 12.4 per cent
and their non-high-density lipoprotein levels 7.8 per cent"
Plant sterols impact absorption of other nutrients
- Nutra USA, 7/13/04 - "both of the milks enriched
with plant sterols reduced cholesterol absorption by 60 per cent ... Both
also reduced the bioavailability of beta-carotene by around 50 per cent and
that of alpha-tocopherol by around 20 per cent but the reduction in
beta-carotene bioavailability was significantly less with plant free sterols
than with plant sterol esters"
- Breakfast Table
Therapy: Plant Sterols in O.J. Reduce Cholesterol
- Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 4/15/04 - "72
people with high LDL
cholesterol were randomly assigned to either
drink orange juice with phytosterols or plain orange juice for eight weeks
... total cholesterol levels dropped more than 7% and LDL cholesterol levels
dropped more than 12%. In contrast, no changes were seen in those receiving
the plain orange juice"
Moving Beyond Margarine - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 11/03 -
"plant-derived sterols are called phytosterols. The
difference between sterols and stanols is that stanols are saturated ...
Phytosterols, because of their molecular similarity to cholesterol,
interfere with cholesterol absorption in the gut by competing for the
intestinal spaces where cholesterol is transferred to the bloodstream ...
When cholesterol is blocked in this way, it is excreted rather than
absorbed, resulting in reduced serum cholesterol"
Non-Esterified Stanol Diet Decreases Cholesterol Absorption Without
Increasing Synthesis - Doctor's Guide, 6/13/02
- Vegetable Oil
Helps Reduce Cholesterol - WebMD, 6/7/02
Plant Sterol-Enriched Spread Reduces Cholesterol Levels In Belgian
Population - Doctor's Guide, 5/16/02
Foods: Able to Leap Broccoli in a Single Bound?
- WebMD, 1/7/02
- Trans Fatty Acids
Enough of a Risk for the FDA to Consider New Labeling Laws
- WebMD, 3/8/01 - "Increasingly, scientific evidence
is demonstrating that eating foods containing trans fatty acids contributes
to increases in LDL or "bad" cholesterol and decreases in HDL or "good"
cholesterol. They also may have other negative effects on heart health. This
is a major concern in North America, where intake of trans fatty acids,
which are found not only in margarines but also in many baked goods as well
as processed and fast foods, is high and where heart disease is the leading
cause of death . . . a 2% increase in trans fatty acid intake causes a 25%
jump in the risk of heart disease . . . you are not doing yourself any
favors by substituting trans fatty acids for saturated fats"
Benecol Good With Cholesterol-lowering Drugs - Nutrition Science News,
Spread the Word: Plant-Based Margarines Lower Cholesterol - WebMD,
FDA: Plant Margarines Heart Healthy - Intelihealth, 9/6/00
- Study Shows Spread
Reduces Cholesterol Levels in Patients Taking Statin Drugs
- Medscape, 6/27/00
- Kids Lower
Cholesterol With Help From a New Margarine
- WebMD, 5/5/00
- Special Margarine
Cuts Cholesterol Levels in Children With Genetic Risk of Early Heart Disease
- Medscape, 2/10/00
Anti-Cholesterol Spread Approved - Intelihealth, 5/3/99
Cholesterol-lowering margarine expected in stores next year - CNN,
Phytosterols, red yeast rice, and lifestyle changes instead of statins: A
randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial - Am Heart J. 2013
Jul;166(1):187-196.e2 - "lifestyle change (LC) ... red
yeast rice (RYR) ... A total of 187 participants (mean low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol [LDL-C], 154 mg/dL) took RYR 1800 mg twice daily and were randomized
to phytosterol tablets 900 mg twice daily or placebo. Participants were also
randomized to a 12-week LC program or usual care (UC) ... All participants took
RYR and had significant decreases in LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides,
high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol for 1 year when compared with baseline ... The addition of
phytosterol tablets to RYR did not result in further lowering of LDL-C levels"
- See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
of a plant sterol-based spread derived from rice bran oil is effective at
reducing plasma lipid levels in mildly hypercholesterolaemic individuals -
Br J Nutr. 2011 Feb 15:1-12
Phytosterols supplementation decreases plasma small and dense LDL levels in
metabolic syndrome patients on a westernized type diet - Nutr Metab
Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Feb 11 - "After 2 months
supplementation with phytosterols, a significant reduction in total cholesterol,
LDL-cholesterol, small and dense LDL (sdLDL) levels, as well as, apoB and
triglycerides concentrations were observed in the intervention group (P < 0.05)
compared to the control group. In addition, phytosterol supplementation lowered
serum total cholesterol by 15.9%, LDL-cholesterol by 20.3% and triglyceride
levels by 19.1% (P = 0.02, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively), although the
patients kept their habitual westernized type diet. No differences were observed
in HDL cholesterol, apoA1, glucose, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen levels and
Anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty
acids and plant sterols in hyperlipidemic individuals - Atherosclerosis.
2008 Sep 27 - "The combination of n-3 PUFA and plant
sterols reduced several inflammatory markers. High sensitivity C-reactive
protein (hs-CRP) was reduced by 39% (P=0.009), tumor necrosis factor-alpha
(TNF-alpha) by 10% (P=0.02), interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 10.7% (P=0.009),
leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 29.5% (P=0.01) and adiponectin was increased by
29.5% (P=0.05). Overall cardiovascular risk was reduced by 22.6% (P=0.006)
in the combination group. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated, for the first
time that dietary intervention with n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduces
systemic inflammation in hyperlipidemic individuals. Furthermore, our
results suggest that reducing inflammation provides a potential mechanism by
which the combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols are cardioprotective"
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
Comparison of the effects of dietary plant sterol and stanol esters on lipid
metabolism - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004 Jun;14(3):133-42 -
"These findings suggest that absorption of dietary plant sterols suppressed
bile acid synthesis, thereby diminishing their cholesterol-lowering
efficacy. In contrast, plant stanols reduced plant sterol absorption and
maintained their cholesterol-lowering efficacy"
Plant sterol ester-enriched milk and yoghurt effectively reduce serum
cholesterol in modestly hypercholesterolemic subjects
- Eur J Nutr. 2004 Aug 17 - "PSteE-milk and
PSteE-spread were equally efficacious in lowering total and LDL-cholesterol
as compared to placebo by 6-8% and 8-10%, respectively. No significant
additional cholesterol-lowering was observed with the combination of
PSteE-milk and PSteE-spread (4 g plant sterols/d)"
Plant stanol and sterol esters in prevention of cardiovascular diseases
- Ann Med. 2004;36(2):126-34 - "A small dose of
statin should be added to treatment in individuals resistant to monotherapy
with plant stanol ester spread. A life-long consumption of plant stanol
ester spread has been predicted to lower coronary events by about 20%"
Smart Balance Omega-Plus contains plant stanol esters and omega-3 from
Impact of margarine enriched with plant sterols on blood lipids, platelet
function, and fibrinogen level in young men - Metabolism. 2003
"The subjects consuming margarine with sterols showed
a significant (11%) decrease in LDL-C (P <.001) ... After the consumption of
margarine with sterols, the adhesion and aggregation time of blood platelets
was significantly prolonged after collagen-epinephrine activation. Margarine
with sterols, through its antiplatelet activity and the significant
reduction of LDL-C, can play a vital role in the nonpharmacologic prevention
of circulatory diseases"
Effects of phytosterol ester-enriched vegetable oil on plasma lipoproteins
in healthy men - Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2003;12(3):282-91
Safety of long-term consumption of plant sterol esters-enriched spread
- Eur J Clin Nutr 2003 May;57(5):681-692 -
"Consumption of a plant sterol esters-enriched spread is an effective way to
consistently lower blood
cholesterol concentrations and is safe to use over a long period of
Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: phytosterols
- Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2003 Mar;73(2):127-34 -
"Addition of plant sterols, or especially of their delta-5 saturated
derivatives plant stanols into diet as fat-soluble esters inhibit
cholesterol absorption and lower serum cholesterol similarly in short-term
studies. Long-term consumption of plant stanol esters lowers serum
cholesterol to the extent expected to reduce clinical manifestation of
coronary heart disease by over 20% without detectable side effects,
cholesterol lowering being especially effective in combination with
cholesterol synthesis inhibitors statins"
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