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Anti-aging Research > Choline.
News & Research:
The nutrient you didn’t know you were missing - NYT, 12/8/16 -
"Did you misplace your keys again or forget to call
someone back? Choline plays a role in processing and storing memories, functions
that are critical for learning and knowledge retention. In animal studies,
having enough choline appears to have an impact on activating parts of the brain
responsible for memory ... Choline intake appears to have an inverse
relationship with homocysteine levels, spurring further investigation into the
role choline may play in brain health in older adults ... Choline helps move fat
out of the liver, helping prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ... In animal
models, when muscles don’t get enough choline, muscle cells start to break down.
The movement of fat out of the liver to be used as energy also decreases when
choline levels are too low ... Wallace says most people will need a choline
supplement. “According to the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, modeling of
different healthy diet patterns found people would still fall short of their
daily choline needs.”" - See
citicholine at Amazon.com.
nutrients to protect the aging brain - Science Daily, 4/15/15 -
"Citicoline is a natural substance found in the body's
cells and helps in the development of brain tissue, which helps regulate memory
and cognitive function, enhances communication between neurons, and protects
neural structures from free radical damage. Clinical trials have shown
citicoline supplements may help maintain normal cognitive function with aging
and protect the brain from free radical damage. (Kyowa Hakko USA) ... Choline,
which is associated with liver health and women's health, also helps with the
communication systems for cells within the brain and the rest of the body.
Choline may also support the brain during aging and help prevent changes in
brain chemistry that result in cognitive decline and failure. A major source of
choline in the diet are eggs"
B: Choline intake improves memory and attention-holding capacity, experts say
- Science Daily, 7/11/13 - "In the first experiment,
scientists administered choline to rats during the third term of gestation ...
the scientists concluded that prenatal choline intake improves long-term memory
in the resulting offspring once they reach adulthood ... In the second
experiment, the researchers measured changes in attention that occurred in adult
rats fed a choline supplement for 12 weeks, versus those with no choline intake.
They found that the rats which had ingested choline maintained better attention
that the others when presented with a familiar stimulus"
Choline Intake During
Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 - Medscape, 6/28/13 -
"Higher gestational choline intake was associated with
modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years"
Citicoline May Improve
Memory, Decrease Cognitive Decline - Medscape, 3/5/13 -
"The study examined 349 patients older than 64 years
from 6 regions in Italy who had memory complaints and evidence of vascular
lesions — but who did not have probable Alzheimer's disease ... the participants
who received citicoline had significantly better memory scores, as shown on the
Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), up to 9 months after treatment compared
with their counterparts who did not receive the treatment ... Of the 349 study
participants, 265 received 500 mg of oral citicoline twice daily"
supplementation during pregnancy presents a new approach to schizophrenia
prevention - Science Daily, 1/15/13 - "Choline, an
essential nutrient similar to the B vitamin and found in foods such as liver,
muscle meats, fish, nuts and eggs, when given as a dietary supplement in the
last two trimesters of pregnancy and in early infancy, is showing a lower rate
of physiological schizophrenic risk factors in infants 33 days old ... Choline
is also being studied for potential benefits in liver disease, including chronic
hepatitis and cirrhosis, depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and
dementia, and certain types of seizures ... Half the healthy pregnant women in
this study took 3,600 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine each morning and 2,700
milligrams each evening; the other half took placebo. After delivery, their
infants received 100 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine per day or placebo.
Eighty-six percent of infants exposed to pre- and postnatal choline
supplementation, compared to 43% of unexposed infants, inhibited the response to
repeated sounds, as measured with EEG sensors placed on the baby's head during
sleep" - [Abstract]
phosphatidylcholine at Amazon.com.
in eggs and meat may influence gene expression from infancy to adulthood -
Science Daily, 9/20/12 - "Consuming greater amounts of
choline -- a nutrient found in eggs and meat -- during pregnancy may lower an
infant's vulnerability to stress-related illnesses, such as mental health
disturbances, and chronic conditions, like hypertension, later in life ... More
choline in the mother's diet led to a more stable HPA axis and consequently less
cortisol in the fetus ... Pressman joined a team led by Marie Caudill, Ph.D.,
R.D., professor in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell, in studying
26 pregnant women in their third trimester who were assigned to take 480 mg of
choline per day, an amount slightly above the standard recommendation of 450 mg
per day, or about double that amount, 930 mg per day. The choline was derived
from the diet and from supplements and was consumed up until delivery"
Pregnant? Get Your Choline! - U.S. News, 8/31/12 -
"The take-home message is best summarized by a review in the Journal of
Pediatrics: Choline in the diet of the pregnant mother and the infant is
directly related to permanent changes in brain function. Without enough choline
during the critical time of brain growth and development, intelligence, memory,
and possibly mood regulation will be damaged permanently. We may not be able to
measure the exact impact on IQ or other brain functions, but we know enough at
this point to start preaching the choline message"
Supplement May Aid
Vascular Dementia Memory Problems - Medscape, 8/1/12 -
"at 9 months, there was a significant difference in
Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in citicoline users vs nonusers ...
A psychostimulant, citicoline has been shown to inhibit brain cell death
associated with cerebral ischemia. It has also been shown to inhibit
neurodegeneration and is able to increase neuroplasticity and noradrenaline and
dopamine levels in the central nervous system ... Those in the active treatment
group received oral citicoline at a dose of 500 mg twice a day" - See
citicholine at Amazon.com.
mixture improves memory in patients with early Alzheimer's - Science Daily,
7/10/12 - "Wurtman came up with a mixture of three
naturally occurring dietary compounds: choline, uridine and the omega-3 fatty
acid DHA ... These nutrients are precursors to the lipid molecules that, along
with specific proteins, make up brain-cell membranes, which form synapses. To be
effective, all three precursors must be administered together ... In animal
studies, he showed that his dietary cocktail boosted the number of dendritic
spines, or small outcroppings of neural membranes, found in brain cells. These
spines are necessary to form new synapses between neurons ... 40 percent of
patients who consumed the drink improved in a test of verbal memory, while 24
percent of patients who received the control drink improved their performance
... Patients, whether taking Souvenaid or a placebo, improved their
verbal-memory performance for the first three months, but the placebo patients
deteriorated during the following three months, while the Souvenaid patients
continued to improve ... as the trial went on, the brains of patients receiving
the supplements started to shift from patterns typical of dementia to more
normal patterns. Because EEG patterns reflect synaptic activity, this suggests
that synaptic function increased following treatment, the researchers say"
- Avoid the patent mark-up. See
citicholine at Amazon.com,
uridine at Amazon.com and
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
Nutritional Supplement Boosts Cognition in Healthy Women - Medscape, 6/21/11
- "Citicoline, a naturally occurring substance found in
the brain and liver and marketed as a nutritional supplement, enhanced aspects
of cognition in healthy women and may have a role in mitigating the cognitive
decline associated with normal aging ... It may also improve the attention
deficits associated with psychiatric disorders ... The women were divided into 3
groups of 20 and randomly assigned to receive a daily oral citicoline dose of
250 mg (low dose) or 500 mg (high dose) or placebo for 28 days ... participants
who received low- or high-dose citicoline showed improved attention,
demonstrating fewer commission and omission errors on the CPT-II compared with
the placebo group"
Science builds for attention boosting potential of Cognizin Citicoline -
Nutra USA, 5/18/11 - "Citicoline has been shown to have
a variety of cognitive-enhancing and neuroregenerative properties in
pre-clinical and clinical studies ... Our findings suggest that citicoline may
mitigate the cognitive decline associated with normal aging and may ameliorate
attentional deficits associated with psychiatric disorders"
supply of key brain chemical reduces fatigue in mice - Science Daily,
12/10/10 - "Researchers at Vanderbilt University have
"engineered" a mouse that can run on a treadmill twice as long as a normal mouse
by increasing its supply of acetylcholine ... could lead to new treatments for
neuromuscular disorders such as myasthenia gravis, which occurs when cholinergic
nerve signals fail to reach the muscles ... The choline transporter is vital to
the capacity for muscle contraction -- including the ability to breathe --
because it regulates the supply of choline, the precursor to acetylcholine. "We
reasoned that giving more of this protein might enhance muscle function and
reduce nerve-dependent fatigue,""
Supplement may prevent alcohol-related brain, skull defects - Science Daily,
5/27/10 - "The dietary supplement CDP-choline, sold as a
brain-boosting agent and under study for stroke and traumatic brain injury, may
block skull and brain damage that can result from alcohol consumption early in
pregnancy ... 25 percent of mouse embryos exposed to alcohol during that
critical period had defects in the fibrous joints that connect the skull ...
When they added ceramide-neutralizing CDP-choline to the mouse cells, cell death
and ceramide levels were reduced" - See
citcoline at Amazon.com.
Choline Levels In Pregnant Women Raise Babies' Risk For Brain And
Spinal-cord Defects, Study Shows - Science Daily, 8/16/09 -
"Choline, an essential nutrient found in egg yolks,
soy, wheat germ and meats, was the only nutrient measured whose blood levels
were linked to risk of neural tube defects"
Nutrient cocktail may boost memory and learning: study - Nutra USA,
7/10/08 - "It may be possible to use this
[combination] to partially restore brain function in people with diseases
that decrease the number of brain neurons, including, for example,
Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's, strokes and brain injuries. Of course,
such speculations have to be tested in double-blind, placebo-controlled
clinical trials ... supplemented the diets of gerbils with uridine (in its
monophosphate form, 0.5 per cent) and choline (0.1 per cent), and
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 300 mg/kg/day) for four weeks ... At the end of
the study, significant increases in phospholipid levels in the brain were
observed when the compounds were given together, while administration of
only DHA or UMP or UMP plus choline produced smaller increases" - [Abstract]
citicholine at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
enhances the improvement in learning and memory produced by administering
DHA to gerbils - FASEB J. 2008 Jul 7 - "These
findings demonstrate that a treatment that increases synaptic membrane
content can enhance cognitive functions in normal animals" - See
citicholine at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
Pine bark extract boost for blood flow and heart health - Nutra USA,
10/18/07 - "Acetylcholine stimulates the cells of
arteries to produce NO from L-arginine faster ... In turn, the NO causes the
muscle surrounding arteries to relax, which results in an increase of blood
vessel diameters. When subjects had taken Pycnogenol the relaxation of
arteries was increased by 42 per cent as compared to the group taking
Choline Effective in Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma - Medscape, 10/11/07
- "Treatment with choline chloride has significant
anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation"
The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma
concentrations of homocysteine in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Oct;86(4):1073-1081 - "Total choline + betaine
intake was inversely associated with tHcy, as was choline from 2
water-soluble choline-containing compounds. Remethylation of tHcy may be
more dependent on the betaine pathway when methyl sources are low as a
result of either inadequate folate intake or heavier alcohol consumption"
Choline May Promote Colon Polyps - WebMD, 8/7/07 -
"that doesn't mean that choline caused those polyps
-- or that avoiding choline prevents polyps. Observational studies such as
this one don't prove cause and effect"
Need More Choline? - Dr.
Nutritional Supplement Given After Birth Improves Learning And Behavior In Rats
Exposed To Alcohol During Development - Science Daily, 3/1/07 -
"Choline plays a number of roles in brain development.
It is also a precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in learning
and cognition, among other functions ... giving choline to rat pups exposed to
alcohol during the equivalent of the third trimester, when there's a spurt in
brain growth, significantly reduced the severity of alcohol-related
over-activity and spatial learning deficits. The benefits lasted months after
choline treatment, suggesting that choline's effects are long-lasting"
Increased choline intake could cut CVD risk, suggests study - Nutra USA,
Research Offers New Hope For Alzheimer's Patients - Science Daily, 4/27/06 -
"The three compounds in the treatment cocktail - omega-3
fatty acids, uridine and choline - are all needed by brain neurons to make
phospholipids, the primary component of cell membranes"
Memory enhancer named best new ingredient
- Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 4/04 -
"Citicoline is a form of choline that helps
replenish the brain with phosphatidylserine ... In a double-blind trial of
84 elderly patients with mild to moderate memory loss, subjects who took
1000mg of citicoline daily for six weeks showed improvement in the
acquisition of new information and its recall and improvement in global
- Research Links
Nutrient in Eggs to Improved Memory
- WebMD, 3/12/04 - "has been studying choline in
animals for more than a decade and is also four years into a study examining
the effects of choline deficiency in humans. He says those studies show that
the current recommended intake of half a gram a day -- the amount gotten by
eating two large eggs -- is probably not enough for some groups, especially
Enhancing Cognitive Function - Life Extension Magazine, 5/00
How to Have a Smarter Child - WebMD, 10/8/01 -
"When Swartzwelder gave pregnant rats a diet
containing three times the usual amount of choline, their offspring did
better on maze-learning and similar tests of spatial memory. They also had
improved function in the brain region known as the hippocampus, which is
vital for memory and learning"
- Putting On
Einstein's Thinking Cap - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/99
Be All That You Can Be - Life Enhancement Magazine, 7/99
A double-blind, randomized
clinical trial of dietary supplementation on cognitive and immune functioning in
healthy older adults - BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Feb 4;14:43 -
"On the Controlled Oral Word Association Trial-S, the
scores significantly increased for the Ginkgo Synergy(®) plus Choline arm from
baseline to 6 months follow-up ... Our study showed isolated and modest effects
of a Ginkgo biloba plus choline-based formula on cognitive and immune
functioning among healthy older adults with no history of significant cognitive
deficits" - See
Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com
citicholine at Amazon.com.
Combination that Can Affect Synapse Formation - Nutrients. 2014 Apr
23;6(4):1701-10 - "Brain neurons form synapses
throughout the life span. This process is initiated by neuronal depolarization,
however the numbers of synapses thus formed depend on brain levels of three key
nutrients-uridine, the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, and choline ... In Alzheimer's
disease (AD) the need for extra quantities of the three nutrients is enhanced,
both because their basal plasma levels may be subnormal (reflecting impaired
hepatic synthesis), and because especially high brain levels are needed for
correcting the disease-related deficiencies in synaptic membrane and synapses"
uridine at Amazon.com,
docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com
citicholine at Amazon.com.
status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child
Development Nutrition Study - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jan 9:1-7 -
"The aim of the present study was to examine the
association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related
metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child
Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the
development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during
pregnancy ... The children's plasma free choline concentration (9.17 (sd 2.09)
μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine ... Adjusted
multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively
associated with Preschool Language Scale - total language scores (β = 0.066; P=
0.04), but no other associations were evident"
in quantitative EEG following consumption of a natural citicoline-enhanced
beverage - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Jun;63(4):421-5 -
"Ten healthy adult participants enrolled in a
double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study and were randomized to receive
either placebo or the citicoline supplement on the first visit. Measures of
electrical brain activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected 30 min
after consuming the beverage. Seven days after the initial assessment
participants completed the alternative condition (placebo or citicoline
beverage). Compared to placebo, significant improvements were found in frontal
alpha EEG and N100 event related potentials (ERP) associated with the
citicoline-enhanced supplement. These preliminary findings suggest that a novel
brain drink containing compounds known to increase choline in the brain
significantly improved attention as measured by ERP and EEG. These findings
suggest that a viable and alternative brain supplement without potential
compounds such as taurine may augment attentional mechanisms in healthy
Enhances Neuroregenerative Processes After Experimental Stroke in Rats -
Stroke. 2012 May 10 - "Animals treated with citicoline
showed a significantly better neurological outcome at Days 10, 21, and 28 after
ischemia, which could not be attributed to differences in infarct volumes or
glial scar formation. However, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, subventricular
zone, and peri-infarct area was significantly increased by citicoline.
Furthermore, enhanced neurological outcome after citicoline treatment was
associated with a shift toward excitation in the perilesional cortex"
Choline intake in a large cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver
disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb 15 - "Decreased
choline intake is significantly associated with increased fibrosis in
postmenopausal women with NAFLD"
in Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia After Stroke -
Stroke. 2010 Dec 16 - "Stroke doubles the risk of
dementia and is a major contributor to vascular cognitive impairment and
vascular dementia ... Citicoline has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in
acute stroke and has been shown to improve cognition in patients with chronic
cerebrovascular disease and in some patients with Alzheimer disease. A recent
trial lasting 6 months in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke showed that
citicoline prevented cognitive decline after stroke with significant improvement
of temporal orientation, attention, and executive function. Experimentally,
citicoline exhibits neuroprotective effects and enhances neural repair.
Citicoline appears to be a safe and promising alternative to improve stroke
recovery and could be indicated in patients with vascular cognitive impairment,
vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease with significant cerebrovascular
Neuroprotection and Recovery: Recent Data at the Bench on Citicoline -
Stroke. 2010 Dec 16 - "Although the mechanisms of some
of these actions remain to be elucidated, so far citicoline appears as a drug
with the ability to promote "safe" neuroprotection capable of enhancing
endogenous protective pathways at the same time as preparing the scenario for
plasticity" - See
citicholine at Amazon.com.
Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images
of high-calorie foods - Int J Eat Disord. 2009 Mar 3 -
has a variety of cognitive enhancing, neuroprotective, and
neuroregenerative properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals,
citicoline has been shown to increase brain dopamine levels and
reduce cravings ... After 6 weeks, there was no significant change
in weight status, although significant declines in appetite ratings
were observed for the 2,000 mg/day group. The higher dose group also
showed significant increases in functional brain responses to food
stimuli within the amygdala, insula, and lateral orbitofrontal
cortex. Increased activation in these regions correlated with
declines in appetite ratings ...These preliminary findings suggest a
potential usefulness of citicoline in modulating appetite, but
further research is warranted"
choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of
inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study - Am J
Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):424-30 - "Compared
with the lowest tertile of choline intake (<250 mg/d), participants
who consumed >310 mg/d had, on average, 22% lower concentrations of
C-reactive protein (P < 0.05), 26% lower concentrations of
interleukin-6 (P < 0.05), and 6% lower concentrations of tumor
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