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Home > Anti-aging Research > Choline.


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  • Essential nutrient may help fight Alzheimer's across generations - Science Daily, 1/8/19 - "The study focuses on mice bred to display AD-like symptoms. Results showed that when these mice are given high choline in their diet, their offspring show improvements in spatial memory, compared with those receiving a normal choline regimen in the womb ... Remarkably, the beneficial effects of choline supplementation appear to be transgenerational, not only protecting mice receiving choline supplementation during gestation and lactation, but also the subsequent offspring of these mice ... While this second generation received no direct choline supplementation, they nevertheless reaped the benefits of treatment, likely due to inherited modifications in their genes ... First, choline reduces levels of homocysteine, an amino acid that can act as a potent neurotoxin, contributing to the hallmarks of AD: neurodegeneration and the formation of amyloid plaques ... Secondly, choline supplementation reduces the activation of microglia -- cells responsible for clearing away debris in the brain. While their housekeeping functions are essential to brain health, activated microglia can get out of control, as they typically do during AD. Over-activation of microglia causes brain inflammation and can eventually lead to neuronal death" - See choline at Amazon.com.
  • Eating more foods with choline during pregnancy could boost baby’s brain - Science Daily, 1/4/18 - "half the women received 480 mg/day of choline, slightly more than the adequate intake level, and the other half received 930 mg/day ... While offspring in both groups showed cognitive benefits, information processing speeds were significantly faster for the group of expectant mothers who consumed 930 mg/day when compared with the group that took 480 mg/day over the same period ... Though the study has a small sample, it suggests that current recommendations for daily choline intake may not be enough to produce optimal cognitive abilities in offspring" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • The top ingredients for cognition, focus and mood - Nutra USA, 7/14/17 - "omega-3 ... Phosphatidylserine (PS) ... B-vitamins ... Vitamin E ... Lutein ... Citicoline ... Magnesium ... L-theanine ... Curcumin ... Resveratrol ... Blueberry anthocyanins ... Inositol-stabilized arginine silicate ... Spearmint extract ... Ashwaganda ... Bacopa ... Teacrine"
  • The nutrient you didn’t know you were missing - NYT, 12/8/16 - "Did you misplace your keys again or forget to call someone back? Choline plays a role in processing and storing memories, functions that are critical for learning and knowledge retention. In animal studies, having enough choline appears to have an impact on activating parts of the brain responsible for memory ... Choline intake appears to have an inverse relationship with homocysteine levels, spurring further investigation into the role choline may play in brain health in older adults ... Choline helps move fat out of the liver, helping prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ... In animal models, when muscles don’t get enough choline, muscle cells start to break down. The movement of fat out of the liver to be used as energy also decreases when choline levels are too low ... Wallace says most people will need a choline supplement. “According to the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, modeling of different healthy diet patterns found people would still fall short of their daily choline needs.”"
  • Eight nutrients to protect the aging brain - Science Daily, 4/15/15 - "Citicoline is a natural substance found in the body's cells and helps in the development of brain tissue, which helps regulate memory and cognitive function, enhances communication between neurons, and protects neural structures from free radical damage. Clinical trials have shown citicoline supplements may help maintain normal cognitive function with aging and protect the brain from free radical damage. (Kyowa Hakko USA) ... Choline, which is associated with liver health and women's health, also helps with the communication systems for cells within the brain and the rest of the body. Choline may also support the brain during aging and help prevent changes in brain chemistry that result in cognitive decline and failure. A major source of choline in the diet are eggs"
  • Vitamin B: Choline intake improves memory and attention-holding capacity, experts say - Science Daily, 7/11/13 - "In the first experiment, scientists administered choline to rats during the third term of gestation ... the scientists concluded that prenatal choline intake improves long-term memory in the resulting offspring once they reach adulthood ... In the second experiment, the researchers measured changes in attention that occurred in adult rats fed a choline supplement for 12 weeks, versus those with no choline intake. They found that the rats which had ingested choline maintained better attention that the others when presented with a familiar stimulus"
  • Choline Intake During Pregnancy and Child Cognition at Age 7 - Medscape, 6/28/13 - "Higher gestational choline intake was associated with modestly better child visual memory at age 7 years"
  • Citicoline May Improve Memory, Decrease Cognitive Decline - Medscape, 3/5/13 - "The study examined 349 patients older than 64 years from 6 regions in Italy who had memory complaints and evidence of vascular lesions — but who did not have probable Alzheimer's disease ... the participants who received citicoline had significantly better memory scores, as shown on the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), up to 9 months after treatment compared with their counterparts who did not receive the treatment ... Of the 349 study participants, 265 received 500 mg of oral citicoline twice daily"
  • Choline supplementation during pregnancy presents a new approach to schizophrenia prevention - Science Daily, 1/15/13 - "Choline, an essential nutrient similar to the B vitamin and found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts and eggs, when given as a dietary supplement in the last two trimesters of pregnancy and in early infancy, is showing a lower rate of physiological schizophrenic risk factors in infants 33 days old ... Choline is also being studied for potential benefits in liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, and certain types of seizures ... Half the healthy pregnant women in this study took 3,600 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine each morning and 2,700 milligrams each evening; the other half took placebo. After delivery, their infants received 100 milligrams of phosphatidylcholine per day or placebo. Eighty-six percent of infants exposed to pre- and postnatal choline supplementation, compared to 43% of unexposed infants, inhibited the response to repeated sounds, as measured with EEG sensors placed on the baby's head during sleep" - [Abstract] - See phosphatidylcholine at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient in eggs and meat may influence gene expression from infancy to adulthood - Science Daily, 9/20/12 - "Consuming greater amounts of choline -- a nutrient found in eggs and meat -- during pregnancy may lower an infant's vulnerability to stress-related illnesses, such as mental health disturbances, and chronic conditions, like hypertension, later in life ... More choline in the mother's diet led to a more stable HPA axis and consequently less cortisol in the fetus ... Pressman joined a team led by Marie Caudill, Ph.D., R.D., professor in the Division of Nutritional Sciences at Cornell, in studying 26 pregnant women in their third trimester who were assigned to take 480 mg of choline per day, an amount slightly above the standard recommendation of 450 mg per day, or about double that amount, 930 mg per day. The choline was derived from the diet and from supplements and was consumed up until delivery"
  • Pregnant? Get Your Choline! - U.S. News, 8/31/12 - "The take-home message is best summarized by a review in the Journal of Pediatrics: Choline in the diet of the pregnant mother and the infant is directly related to permanent changes in brain function. Without enough choline during the critical time of brain growth and development, intelligence, memory, and possibly mood regulation will be damaged permanently. We may not be able to measure the exact impact on IQ or other brain functions, but we know enough at this point to start preaching the choline message"
  • Supplement May Aid Vascular Dementia Memory Problems - Medscape, 8/1/12 - "at 9 months, there was a significant difference in Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in citicoline users vs nonusers ... A psychostimulant, citicoline has been shown to inhibit brain cell death associated with cerebral ischemia. It has also been shown to inhibit neurodegeneration and is able to increase neuroplasticity and noradrenaline and dopamine levels in the central nervous system ... Those in the active treatment group received oral citicoline at a dose of 500 mg twice a day" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient mixture improves memory in patients with early Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 7/10/12 - "Wurtman came up with a mixture of three naturally occurring dietary compounds: choline, uridine and the omega-3 fatty acid DHA ... These nutrients are precursors to the lipid molecules that, along with specific proteins, make up brain-cell membranes, which form synapses. To be effective, all three precursors must be administered together ... In animal studies, he showed that his dietary cocktail boosted the number of dendritic spines, or small outcroppings of neural membranes, found in brain cells. These spines are necessary to form new synapses between neurons ... 40 percent of patients who consumed the drink improved in a test of verbal memory, while 24 percent of patients who received the control drink improved their performance ... Patients, whether taking Souvenaid or a placebo, improved their verbal-memory performance for the first three months, but the placebo patients deteriorated during the following three months, while the Souvenaid patients continued to improve ... as the trial went on, the brains of patients receiving the supplements started to shift from patterns typical of dementia to more normal patterns. Because EEG patterns reflect synaptic activity, this suggests that synaptic function increased following treatment, the researchers say" - Avoid the patent mark-up.  See citicholine at Amazon.com, uridine at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Nutritional Supplement Boosts Cognition in Healthy Women - Medscape, 6/21/11 - "Citicoline, a naturally occurring substance found in the brain and liver and marketed as a nutritional supplement, enhanced aspects of cognition in healthy women and may have a role in mitigating the cognitive decline associated with normal aging ... It may also improve the attention deficits associated with psychiatric disorders ... The women were divided into 3 groups of 20 and randomly assigned to receive a daily oral citicoline dose of 250 mg (low dose) or 500 mg (high dose) or placebo for 28 days ... participants who received low- or high-dose citicoline showed improved attention, demonstrating fewer commission and omission errors on the CPT-II compared with the placebo group"
  • Science builds for attention boosting potential of Cognizin Citicoline - Nutra USA, 5/18/11 - "Citicoline has been shown to have a variety of cognitive-enhancing and neuroregenerative properties in pre-clinical and clinical studies ... Our findings suggest that citicoline may mitigate the cognitive decline associated with normal aging and may ameliorate attentional deficits associated with psychiatric disorders"
  • Boosting supply of key brain chemical reduces fatigue in mice - Science Daily, 12/10/10 - "Researchers at Vanderbilt University have "engineered" a mouse that can run on a treadmill twice as long as a normal mouse by increasing its supply of acetylcholine ... could lead to new treatments for neuromuscular disorders such as myasthenia gravis, which occurs when cholinergic nerve signals fail to reach the muscles ... The choline transporter is vital to the capacity for muscle contraction -- including the ability to breathe -- because it regulates the supply of choline, the precursor to acetylcholine. "We reasoned that giving more of this protein might enhance muscle function and reduce nerve-dependent fatigue,""
  • Supplement may prevent alcohol-related brain, skull defects - Science Daily, 5/27/10 - "The dietary supplement CDP-choline, sold as a brain-boosting agent and under study for stroke and traumatic brain injury, may block skull and brain damage that can result from alcohol consumption early in pregnancy ... 25 percent of mouse embryos exposed to alcohol during that critical period had defects in the fibrous joints that connect the skull ... When they added ceramide-neutralizing CDP-choline to the mouse cells, cell death and ceramide levels were reduced" - See citcoline at Amazon.com.
  • Low Choline Levels In Pregnant Women Raise Babies' Risk For Brain And Spinal-cord Defects, Study Shows - Science Daily, 8/16/09 - "Choline, an essential nutrient found in egg yolks, soy, wheat germ and meats, was the only nutrient measured whose blood levels were linked to risk of neural tube defects"
  • Nutrient cocktail may boost memory and learning: study - Nutra USA, 7/10/08 - "It may be possible to use this [combination] to partially restore brain function in people with diseases that decrease the number of brain neurons, including, for example, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's, strokes and brain injuries. Of course, such speculations have to be tested in double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials ... supplemented the diets of gerbils with uridine (in its monophosphate form, 0.5 per cent) and choline (0.1 per cent), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 300 mg/kg/day) for four weeks ... At the end of the study, significant increases in phospholipid levels in the brain were observed when the compounds were given together, while administration of only DHA or UMP or UMP plus choline produced smaller increases" - [Abstract] - See citicholine at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary uridine enhances the improvement in learning and memory produced by administering DHA to gerbils - FASEB J. 2008 Jul 7 - "These findings demonstrate that a treatment that increases synaptic membrane content can enhance cognitive functions in normal animals" - See citicholine at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Pine bark extract boost for blood flow and heart health - Nutra USA, 10/18/07 - "Acetylcholine stimulates the cells of arteries to produce NO from L-arginine faster ... In turn, the NO causes the muscle surrounding arteries to relax, which results in an increase of blood vessel diameters. When subjects had taken Pycnogenol the relaxation of arteries was increased by 42 per cent as compared to the group taking placebo tablets"
  • Choline Effective in Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma - Medscape, 10/11/07 - "Treatment with choline chloride has significant anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation"
  • The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1073-1081 - "Total choline + betaine intake was inversely associated with tHcy, as was choline from 2 water-soluble choline-containing compounds. Remethylation of tHcy may be more dependent on the betaine pathway when methyl sources are low as a result of either inadequate folate intake or heavier alcohol consumption"
  • Choline May Promote Colon Polyps - WebMD, 8/7/07 - "that doesn't mean that choline caused those polyps -- or that avoiding choline prevents polyps. Observational studies such as this one don't prove cause and effect"
  • Need More Choline? - Dr. Weil, 7/3/07
  • Nutritional Supplement Given After Birth Improves Learning And Behavior In Rats Exposed To Alcohol During Development - Science Daily, 3/1/07 - "Choline plays a number of roles in brain development. It is also a precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in learning and cognition, among other functions ... giving choline to rat pups exposed to alcohol during the equivalent of the third trimester, when there's a spurt in brain growth, significantly reduced the severity of alcohol-related over-activity and spatial learning deficits. The benefits lasted months after choline treatment, suggesting that choline's effects are long-lasting"
  • Increased choline intake could cut CVD risk, suggests study - Nutra USA, 6/22/06
  • MIT Research Offers New Hope For Alzheimer's Patients - Science Daily, 4/27/06 - "The three compounds in the treatment cocktail - omega-3 fatty acids, uridine and choline - are all needed by brain neurons to make phospholipids, the primary component of cell membranes"
  • Memory enhancer named best new ingredient - Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, 4/04 - "Citicoline is a form of choline that helps replenish the brain with phosphatidylserine ... In a double-blind trial of 84 elderly patients with mild to moderate memory loss, subjects who took 1000mg of citicoline daily for six weeks showed improvement in the acquisition of new information and its recall and improvement in global memory efficiency"
  • Research Links Nutrient in Eggs to Improved Memory - WebMD, 3/12/04 - "has been studying choline in animals for more than a decade and is also four years into a study examining the effects of choline deficiency in humans. He says those studies show that the current recommended intake of half a gram a day -- the amount gotten by eating two large eggs -- is probably not enough for some groups, especially young men"
  • Enhancing Cognitive Function - Life Extension Magazine, 5/00
  • How to Have a Smarter Child - WebMD, 10/8/01 - "When Swartzwelder gave pregnant rats a diet containing three times the usual amount of choline, their offspring did better on maze-learning and similar tests of spatial memory. They also had improved function in the brain region known as the hippocampus, which is vital for memory and learning"
  • Putting On Einstein's Thinking Cap - Life Enhancement Magazine, 8/99
  • Be All That You Can Be - Life Enhancement Magazine, 7/99


  • Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States - Nutrients. 2017 Aug 5;9(8) - "This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement ... adequate intake (AI)" - [Nutra USA] - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • B-vitamin and choline supplementation increases neuroplasticity and recovery after stroke - Neurobiol Dis. 2017 Jul;103:89-100 - "In supplemented diet mice, we report improved motor function after ischemic damage compared to mice fed a control diet after ischemic damage. Within the perilesional cortex, we show enhanced proliferation, neuroplasticity and anti-oxidant activity in mice fed the supplemented diet" - [Nutra USA] - See Citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • A double-blind, randomized clinical trial of dietary supplementation on cognitive and immune functioning in healthy older adults - BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Feb 4;14:43 - "On the Controlled Oral Word Association Trial-S, the scores significantly increased for the Ginkgo Synergy(®) plus Choline arm from baseline to 6 months follow-up ... Our study showed isolated and modest effects of a Ginkgo biloba plus choline-based formula on cognitive and immune functioning among healthy older adults with no history of significant cognitive deficits" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com and citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • A Nutrient Combination that Can Affect Synapse Formation - Nutrients. 2014 Apr 23;6(4):1701-10 - "Brain neurons form synapses throughout the life span. This process is initiated by neuronal depolarization, however the numbers of synapses thus formed depend on brain levels of three key nutrients-uridine, the omega-3 fatty acid DHA, and choline ... In Alzheimer's disease (AD) the need for extra quantities of the three nutrients is enhanced, both because their basal plasma levels may be subnormal (reflecting impaired hepatic synthesis), and because especially high brain levels are needed for correcting the disease-related deficiencies in synaptic membrane and synapses" - See uridine at Amazon.com, docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com and citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jan 9:1-7 - "The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy ... The children's plasma free choline concentration (9.17 (sd 2.09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine ... Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale - total language scores (β = 0.066; P= 0.04), but no other associations were evident"
  • Improvements in quantitative EEG following consumption of a natural citicoline-enhanced beverage - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Jun;63(4):421-5 - "Ten healthy adult participants enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study and were randomized to receive either placebo or the citicoline supplement on the first visit. Measures of electrical brain activity using electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected 30 min after consuming the beverage. Seven days after the initial assessment participants completed the alternative condition (placebo or citicoline beverage). Compared to placebo, significant improvements were found in frontal alpha EEG and N100 event related potentials (ERP) associated with the citicoline-enhanced supplement. These preliminary findings suggest that a novel brain drink containing compounds known to increase choline in the brain significantly improved attention as measured by ERP and EEG. These findings suggest that a viable and alternative brain supplement without potential compounds such as taurine may augment attentional mechanisms in healthy individuals"
  • Citicoline Enhances Neuroregenerative Processes After Experimental Stroke in Rats - Stroke. 2012 May 10 - "Animals treated with citicoline showed a significantly better neurological outcome at Days 10, 21, and 28 after ischemia, which could not be attributed to differences in infarct volumes or glial scar formation. However, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, subventricular zone, and peri-infarct area was significantly increased by citicoline. Furthermore, enhanced neurological outcome after citicoline treatment was associated with a shift toward excitation in the perilesional cortex"
  • Choline intake in a large cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb 15 - "Decreased choline intake is significantly associated with increased fibrosis in postmenopausal women with NAFLD"
  • Citicoline in Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia After Stroke - Stroke. 2010 Dec 16 - "Stroke doubles the risk of dementia and is a major contributor to vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia ... Citicoline has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in acute stroke and has been shown to improve cognition in patients with chronic cerebrovascular disease and in some patients with Alzheimer disease. A recent trial lasting 6 months in patients with first-ever ischemic stroke showed that citicoline prevented cognitive decline after stroke with significant improvement of temporal orientation, attention, and executive function. Experimentally, citicoline exhibits neuroprotective effects and enhances neural repair. Citicoline appears to be a safe and promising alternative to improve stroke recovery and could be indicated in patients with vascular cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease with significant cerebrovascular disease"
  • Neuroprotection and Recovery: Recent Data at the Bench on Citicoline - Stroke. 2010 Dec 16 - "Although the mechanisms of some of these actions remain to be elucidated, so far citicoline appears as a drug with the ability to promote "safe" neuroprotection capable of enhancing endogenous protective pathways at the same time as preparing the scenario for plasticity" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.
  • Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foods - Int J Eat Disord. 2009 Mar 3 - "Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has a variety of cognitive enhancing, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals, citicoline has been shown to increase brain dopamine levels and reduce cravings ... After 6 weeks, there was no significant change in weight status, although significant declines in appetite ratings were observed for the 2,000 mg/day group. The higher dose group also showed significant increases in functional brain responses to food stimuli within the amygdala, insula, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Increased activation in these regions correlated with declines in appetite ratings ...These preliminary findings suggest a potential usefulness of citicoline in modulating appetite, but further research is warranted"
  • Dietary choline and betaine intakes in relation to concentrations of inflammatory markers in healthy adults: the ATTICA study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Feb;87(2):424-30 - "Compared with the lowest tertile of choline intake (<250 mg/d), participants who consumed >310 mg/d had, on average, 22% lower concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05), 26% lower concentrations of interleukin-6 (P < 0.05), and 6% lower concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha"