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Home > Health Conditions > Neuropathic Pain

Neuropathic Pain/Neuropathy

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  • Combination of Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng as Main Components in the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2023 Apr 17 - "Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng (ARPN) ... The compatibility of Radix Astragali and Radix notoginseng as the main components can effectively improve the renal function of patients with diabetic nephropathy and delay the progress of diabetic nephropathy" - See Astragalus at Amazon.com and Panax ginseng at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary flavonoid intake is associated with a lower risk of diabetic nephropathy in US adults: data from NHANES 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2017-2018 - Food Funct 2023 Apr 17 - "Weighted logistic regression models demonstrated that the total flavonoid intake in the second (OR: 0.642; 95% CI: 0.456-0.906), third (OR: 0.665; 95% CI: 0.447-0.988), and the highest (OR: 0.551; 95% CI: 0.382-0.796) quantiles (versus the lowest) were associated with the decreased risk of DN. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) analyses showed that the total flavonoid intake had a negative linear association with DN (p-value for non-linearity was 0.003). Weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression analyses revealed that flavan-3-ols, flavones, and anthocyanidins were the main contributors for the combined effects of six flavonoid subclasses. Our findings suggested that higher dietary flavonoid intake was associated with a decreased risk of DN, with the greatest influence coming from flavan-3-ols, flavones, and anthocyanidins" - See anthocyanins at Amazon.com.
  • Effectiveness of a vitamin D regimen in deficient multiple myeloma patients and its effect on peripheral neuropathy - Support Care Cancer 2023 Jan 26 - "Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is common in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. More insight has been gained concerning the role of vitamin D in preventing PN. However, studies evaluating the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on PN are lacking ... The use of substantially higher vitamin D3 doses than recommended in current guidelines resulted in a significant increase in vitamin D levels in MM patients. Furthermore, evaluation of PN showed a significant decrease in PN grading" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Kaempferol attenuated diabetic nephropathy by reducing apoptosis and promoting autophagy through AMPK/mTOR pathways - Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 Nov 30 - "Renal podocyte injury, apoptosis and autophagy are involved in the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Kaempferol (KPF) has the promotion of autophagy and inhibition of apoptosis properties in the development of miscellaneous diseases, but these functions in DN have not yet been elucidated ... In conclusion, KPF might have a protective effect on DN through reduced apoptosis and enhanced podocytes autophagy, which were correlated with regulating AMPK/mTOR pathways" - See Kaempferia parviflora at Amazon.com.
  • Berberine Reduces Renal Cell Pyroptosis in Golden Hamsters with Diabetic Nephropathy through the Nrf2-NLRP3-Caspase-1-GSDMD Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 Oct 31 - "To observe the effect of berberine (BBR) on kidney cell pyroptosis in golden hamsters with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and to explore the molecular mechanism of its renal protection ... DN golden hamster kidney NLRP3-Caspase-1-GSDMD signalling was enhanced. BBR can reduce oxidative stress damage by regulating antioxidative Nrf2 and then regulating NLRP3-Caspase-1-GSDMD signalling to inhibit pyroptosis, antagonizing DN inflammation-induced damage" - See berberine at Amazon.com.
  • Krill Oil Turns Off TGF-β1 Profibrotic Signaling in the Prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy - J Agric Food Chem 2022 Aug 2 - "KO may prevent DN predominantly by suppressing the TGF-β1 signaling pathway" - See krill oil products at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidative Stress and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Fucoidan Nanoparticles against Nephropathy of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 May 31 - "Oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to interact and have the role of importance in causing diabetic nephropathy complications. Fucoidan has a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammation effect, so the aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory effect of fucoidan nanoparticles against nephropathy of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats ... fucoidan nanoparticles are promising agents in terms of the protection afforded against streptozotocin-induced nephropathy through antioxidative stress by decreasing MDA and increasing SOD and GPx and through anti-inflammatory effect by decreasing levels of IL-6 and TNF-α."
    • Fucoidan - Wikipedia - "Fucoidan is a long chain sulfated polysaccharide found in various species of brown algae. Commercially available fucoidan is commonly extracted from the seaweed species Fucus vesiculosus, Cladosiphon okamuranus, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida" - See fucoidan at Amazon.com.
  • Phloretin ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting nephrin and podocin reduction through a non-hypoglycemic effect - Food Funct 2022 May 27 - "Phloretin is a dihydrochalcone flavonoid from natural plants, which has protective activities against oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, its effect on diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been investigated ... daily treatment with a low dose (20 mg kg-1) of phloretin, as a dietary supplement, significantly alleviated polyuria, proteinuria, and glomerular histopathological changes in the T2DM mice, indicating a protective effect of phloretin on diabetic renal dysfunction. In the phloretin-treated T2DM mice, major metabolic parameters, including blood glucose levels, were not altered significantly, suggesting that the observed beneficial effects of phloretin may be due to a mechanism independent of blood glucose control ... low-dose phloretin treatment has a protective effect on podocytes in DN via a non-hypoglycemic mechanism in preserving nephrin and podocin expression levels" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of quercetin on diabetic nephropathy (DN): a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies - Food Funct 2022 Apr 13 - "Quercetin, a flavonoid possessing numerous biological activities, is reported to improve renal injury in diabetic animals. Here, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effect of quercetin on diabetic nephropathy and summarize its possible mechanisms ... Apart from creatinine clearance and uric acid with no significant difference, quercetin significantly decreased the levels of renal index, serum/plasma creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urine protein, urine albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity. In short, quercetin improves renal function and attenuates the renal oxidative stress level and inflammatory response in DN animal models. Its possible action mechanisms include anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis, and regulation of renal lipid accumulation" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Dioscin relieves diabetic nephropathy via suppressing oxidative stress and apoptosis, and improving mitochondrial quality and quantity control - Food Funct 2022 Mar 21 - "Dioscin is a steroidal saponin isolated from various kinds of vegetables and herbs and possesses various biological activities. In this study, the protective effect of dioscin on diabetic nephropathy (DN) was explored. Dioscin and metformin (positive control) were administered orally to diabetic rats daily for 8 weeks ... dioscin effectively reduced blood glucose, pancreatic injury, renal function markers and renal pathological changes in DN rat kidneys. Dioscin reduced O2- and H2O2 levels, decreased MDA levels, enhanced antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) activities, and reduced inflammatory factor expressions. Moreover, NOX4 expression and the disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory chain were reversed by dioscin. Furthermore, apoptosis mediated by the mitochondria and ER stress was inhibited by dioscin through downregulating the expressions of Bax, CytC, Apaf-1, caspase 9, p-PERK, p-EIF2α, IRE1, p-IRE1, XBP1s, ATF4, p-CHOP and caspase 12. In addition, autophagy was enhanced by dioscin via an AMPK-mTOR pathway. Mitophagy and mitochondrial fission/fusion belong to the mitochondrial quality and quantity control process, which was improved by dioscin via regulating Parkin, PINK1, DRP1, p-DRP1 and MFN2 expressions" - See dioscin at Amazon.com.
  • Kaempferol exerts a neuroprotective effect to reduce neuropathic pain through TLR4/NF-ĸB signaling pathway - Phytother Res 2022 Mar 2 - "We found that kaempferol treatment can significantly reduce NP and proinflammatory cytokine production. Kaempferol attenuated the activation of TLR4/NF-κB pathways in LPS-activated BV2 cells. The analgesic effects of kaempferol on NP may be due to inhibition of microglia activation and switching the M1 to M2 phenotype" - See Kaempferia parviflora at Amazon.com.
  • The clinical use of curcumin on neurological disorders: An updated systematic review of clinical trials - Phytother Res 2021 Sep 15 - "Neuroprotective effects of curcumin have been shown in previous studies ... Curcumin supplementation may have favorable effects on inflammatory status and clinical outcomes of patients with neurological disease, although the results were not consistent" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • A review of therapeutic potentials of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its active constituent, curcumin, on inflammatory disorders, pain, and their related patents - Phytother Res 2021 Jul 26 - "Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its constituent, curcumin, have been used for their therapeutic properties for a long time. Most of the medicinal impacts of turmeric and curcumin might be attributed to their anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant effects ... Several documents and patents disclosed the significance of turmeric and curcumin to apply in several therapeutic, medicinal, and pharmaceutical fields. These phytocompounds could be applied as a supplementary therapy in phytotherapy, inflammatory disorders such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, osteoarthritis, psoriasis, dermatitis, and different types of pain including neuropathic pain. However, because of inadequate clinical trials, further high-quality studies are needed to firmly establish the clinical efficacy of the plant" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Protective Effects of Vitamin E on Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials - Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Jun 18 - "Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common symptom, but prophylactic measures cannot still be carried out effectively ... Available data in this meta-analysis showed that vitamin E supplementation can confer modest improvement in the prevention of CIPN" - See vitamin E at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Effects of alpha-lipoic acid treatment on serum progranulin levels and inflammatory markers in diabetic neuropathy - J Int Med Res 2021 May - "Progranulin (PGRN) is a secreted growth factor that helps to regulate neuronal survival by blocking tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) receptors. The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is used in diabetic neuropathy to improve nerve conduction and relieve neuropathic pain, but its effects on PGRN levels have not yet been elucidated ... 54 patients with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy received 600 mg of ALA daily for 6 months. Twenty-four patients with diabetes without neuropathy were also included in the study ... After ALA treatment, serum PGRN levels were significantly increased and CPT values were significantly improved. Furthermore, there were significant positive correlations among TNFα, ICAM-1, and PGRN levels both before and after ALA treatment. A significant negative correlation was observed between the improvements in CPT and the PGRN levels. Furthermore, ICAM-1 levels were an independent predictor of PGRN levels ... Conclusions: Changes in serum PGRN levels indicate that ALA treatment may have beneficial effects on endothelial function and neuronal inflammation" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Baseline omega-3 level is associated with nerve regeneration following 12-months of omega-3 nutrition therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes - J Diabetes Complications 2020 Nov 26 - "Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty-acids are essential for the development and maintenance of nerve function, but the relationship of plasma n-3 to the presence of diabetic distal-symmetric-polyneuropathy (DSP) and the effect of n-3 therapy on plasma levels and small nerve fibre morphology in T1D are unknown ... corneal nerve fibre length (CNFL) ... At baseline, participants with DSP had lower DHA than those without (1.73 ± 0.89 vs. 2.27 ± 0.70%, p = 0.049). Twelve-months seal-oil therapy increased mean plasma EPA by 185%, DPA by 29%, DHA by 79% (p < 0.001) and CNFL by 29% (p = 0.001). Change in CNFL was positively associated with higher baseline total n-3" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Protective Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins on the Kidneys of Diabetic Rats through the Nrf2 Signalling Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 Sep 29 - "Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal failure. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a powerful antioxidant that is believed to protect the kidney through antioxidant action ... Ten healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly selected as controls. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were randomly divided into three groups (10 animals/group): type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) group (untreated), L-GSPE group (treated with 125-mg/kg/day GSPE for 8 weeks), and H-GSPE group (treated with 250 mg/kg/day GSPE for 8 weeks) ... Compared with the T2DM group, the H-GSPE group had significantly reduced kidney weight and renal index. Similarly, the levels of fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, urinary albumin, and renal malondialdehyde (p < 0.05) were also significantly decreased. In addition, GSPE significantly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidative capability, and glutathione (p < 0.05) as well as the protein levels of Nrf2, HO-1, glutathione S-transferase, and NAD (P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 ... The results indicate that GSPE reduced renal damage in rats with diabetes by activating the Nrf2 signalling pathway, which consequently increased the antioxidant capacity of the tissue. Therefore, GSPE is a potential natural agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • The effects of omega-3 fatty acids on diabetic nephropathy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - PLoS One. 2020 Feb 11 - "Omega-3 fatty acids could help ameliorate proteinuria among type 2 DM who received omega-3 supplementation for at least 24 weeks without adverse effects on HbA1C, total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol" - [Nutra USA] - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Tocotrienol-rich vitamin E improves diabetic nephropathy and persists 6-9 months after washout: a phase IIa randomized controlled trial - Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Dec 25 - "receive Tocovid 200 mg or placebo for 12 weeks ... Patients were reassessed 6-9 months post-washout. After 12 weeks of supplementation, Tocovid significantly decreased serum creatinine levels (mean difference: -3.3 ± 12.6 versus 5.4 ± 14.2, p = 0.027) and significantly increase eGFR (mean difference: 1.5 ± 7.6 versus -2.9 ± 8.0, p = 0.045) compared with placebo ... Subgroup analysis revealed that in patients with low serum vitamin E concentrations at baseline, Tocovid reduced serum creatinine, eGFR, and VCAM-1 significantly. After 6-9 months of washout, persistent difference in serum creatinine remained between groups (mean difference: 0.82 ± 8.33 versus 11.26 ± 15.47, p = 0.031), but not eGFR. Tocovid at 400 mg/day significantly improved renal function in 12 weeks of supplementation, as assessed by serum creatinine and eGFR, which remained significant 6-9 months post-washout" - [Nutra USA] - See Tocovid at Amazon.com.
  • Routine vitamin B12 screening may prevent irreversible nerve damage in type-2 diabetes - Science Daily, 11/20/18 - "earlier detection of vitamin B12 deficiency through routine screening of all metformin-treated, type-2 diabetes patients could reduce their risk of developing irreversible, painful and potentially disabling nerve damage ... Our findings indicate that patients with diabetes taking metformin should be checked more frequently and that we need to ensure deficiencies are adequately treated to avoid irreversible nerve damage ... Metformin remains the best treatment for type-2 diabetes, these findings should not discourage patients from taking it, but encourage doctors to monitor vitamin B12 levels more routinely, so any deficiency can quickly be treated" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Reduced vitamin D levels in painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy - Diabet Med. 2018 Aug 13 - "We have demonstrated a significant difference in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in well-characterized people with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy, while accounting for the main confounding factors. This suggests a possible role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Procyanidins attenuate neuropathic pain by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase-9/2 - J Neuroinflammation. 2018 Jun 21;15(1):187 - "Management of neuropathic pain is a real clinical challenge. Despite intense investigation, the mechanisms of neuropathic pain remain substantially unidentified. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to contribute to the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Therefore, inhibition of MMP-9/2 may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuropathic pain ... procyanidins (PC) ... PC is an effective and safe approach to alleviate neuropathic pain via a powerful inhibition on the activation of MMP-9/2" - See proanthocyanidins at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D supplementation attenuates the behavioral scores of neuropathic pain in rats - Nutr Neurosci. 2018 Feb 12:1-6 - "These results indicate that chronic vitamin D administrations can attenuate the behavioral scores of neuropathic pain in rats" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of omega-3 supplementation on neuropathy in type 1 diabetes: A 12-month pilot trial - Neurology. 2017 May 17 - "To test the hypothesis that 12 months of seal oil omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) supplementation will stop the known progression of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) ... 750 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, 560 mg docosapentaenoic acid, and 1,020 mg docosahexaenoic acid) for 1 year ... The primary outcome was the 1-year change in corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) measured by in vivo corneal confocal microscopy, with sensory and nerve conduction measures as secondary outcomes ... Baseline CNFL was 8.3 we2.9 mm/mm2 and increased 29% to 10.1 an3.7 mm/mm2 (p = 0.002) after 12 months of supplementation" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Nicotinamide riboside (vitamin B3) prevents nerve pain caused by cancer drugs - Science Daily, 2/23/17 - "Although chemotherapies have improved cancer survival rates, many of these drugs also cause debilitating side effects that decrease the quality of life of patients and survivors. In particular, many anti-cancer drugs cause chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) -- nerve damage and pain ... Prophylactic treatment with daily doses of NR (200 mg/kg) for seven days before chemotherapy was started and continued for 24 days after the chemotherapy ended prevented the hypersensitivity to touch in the rats. This protective effect lasted for at least two weeks after the NR supplementation stopped" - See nicotinamide riboside at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGb-761 on Neuropathic Pain in Mice: Involvement of Opioid System - Phytother Res. 2016 Nov;30(11):1809-181 - "In conclusion, this study suggests that the potential of EGb-761 as a new analgesic for neuropathic pain treatment, and opioid system may be involved in the EGb-761-induced attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia" - See ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract EGb-761 on Neuropathic Pain in Mice: Involvement of Opioid System - Phytother Res. 2016 Jul 25 - "this study suggests that the potential of EGb-761 as a new analgesic for neuropathic pain treatment, and opioid system may be involved in the EGb-761-induced attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of peripheral neuropathy in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016 May 7 - "Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) was reported to be associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) ... After adjusting for all potential confounders, VDD was still linked with increased risk of DPN [odds ratio (OR) 2.59" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin Rescues Diabetic Renal Fibrosis by Targeting Superoxide-Mediated Wnt Signaling Pathways - Am J Med Sci. 2016 Mar;351(3):286-95 - "Curcumin alleviated extracellular matrix accumulation in diabetic nephropathy by not only preventing the diabetes-mediated superoxide synthesis but also resuming downregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. These findings suggest that regulation of Wnt activity by curcumin is a feasible alternative strategy to rescue diabetic renal injury" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil may help with diabetic neuropathy - Science Daily, 5/6/15 - "Approximately 50 percent of patients with diabetes suffer from nerve damage, or neuropathy. No cure exists, and the most effective treatment, keeping blood sugar in control, only slows neuropathy ... fish oil supplements can restore the condition of nerves damaged from diabetes in mice ... Previous studies of obesity and diabetes have reported better blood sugar handling, liver function and reduced inflammation with omega-3 fatty acids treatment. The health benefits were attributed to protective molecules produced from omega-3 fatty acids, including one type called resolvins" - See fish oil supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Renoprotective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of oral low-dose quercetin in the C57BL/6J model of diabetic nephropathy - Lipids Health Dis. 2014 Dec 6 - "Taken together, these data show that quercetin effectively attenuated STZ-induced cytotoxicity in renal tissue. This study provides convincing experimental evidence and perspectives on the renoprotective effects of quercetin in diabetic mice and outlines a novel therapeutic strategy for this flavonoid in the treatment of DN" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D decreases pain in women with type 2 diabetes, depression - Science Daily, 12/2/13 - "Researchers in this study tested the efficacy of weekly vitamin D2 supplementation (50,000 IUs) for six months on depression in women with type 2 diabetes. Depression significantly improved following supplementation. In addition, 61 percent of patients reported shooting or burning pain in their legs and feet (neuropathic pain) and 74 percent reported numbness and tingling in their hands, fingers, and legs (sensory pain) at the beginning of the study. Researchers found a significant decrease in neuropathic and sensory pain at three and six months following vitamin D2 supplementation" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise may slow development of diabetic nerve pain - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "diabetic rats assigned to exercise showed increased expression of Hsp72 in nerve tissues. Hsp 72 is one of a family of heat shock proteins that play essential roles in protecting against cellular damage caused by various types of stress (including heat stress)"
  • Protective Effects of Quercetin on Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats - Phytother Res. 2012 Dec 27 - "Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is an important microvascular complication and one of the main causes of end-stage renal disease. In this study, we examined the protective effects of quercetin on DN in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats ... Compared with the levels in the DN group, quercetin decreased the levels of fasting blood glucose, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urine protein, and the intensity of oxidative stress decreased significantly. Quercetin significantly inhibited the expression of advanced glycosylation end products, collagen IV, laminin, connective tissue growth factor, Smad 2/3, and transforming growth factor-β(1) mRNA. Moreover, quercetin was observed to inhibit proliferation of mesangial cells and decrease thickness of glomerular basement membrane. Those results suggest that quercetin has protective effects on several pharmacological targets in the progress of DN and is a potential drug for the prevention of early DN" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Coenzyme Q10 prevents peripheral neuropathy and attenuates neuron loss in the db-/db- mouse, a type 2 diabetes model - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 24 - "Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes ... Diabetic mice at 8 mo of age exhibited loss of sensation, hypoalgesia (an increase in mechanical threshold), and decreases in mechanical hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, and sciatic nerve conduction velocity. All these changes were virtually completely absent after the 6-mo, daily CoQ10 treatment in db(-)/db(-) mice when started at 7 wk of age" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E is a MIF Inhibitor - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Jan 18 - "Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain ... Vitamin E inhibits not only the enzymatic activity of MIF but more importantly the biological function of MIF. Our findings suggest that Vitamin E may be attenuating hyperalgesia and reducing neuropathic pain at least in part by inhibiting MIF activity" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term dietary antioxidant cocktail supplementation effectively reduces renal inflammation in diabetic mice - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 3:1-8 - "Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlies the development of diabetic complications remains unknown. We hypothesised that dietary antioxidant supplementation with single N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or vitamin C combined with either vitamin E or vitamin E and NAC improves diabetic renal inflammation through the modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Experimental animals were treated with alloxan monohydrate to induce diabetes. Mice were divided into five groups and supplemented with single or a combination of antioxidants. Body weights and blood glucose levels were measured once a week. After 8 weeks of dietary antioxidant supplementation, mice were killed and blood urea N (BUN) and plasma creatinine levels were measured to evaluate renal function. NF-κB protein was indirectly demonstrated by the phosphorylated IκBα (pIκBα) level, and the expressions of oxidative stress- and inflammatory response-related proteins were also determined. We demonstrated that dietary antioxidant supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation levels demonstrated by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, BUN and plasma creatinine levels in diabetic kidneys. Moreover, dietary antioxidant cocktail supplementation improved blood glucose levels and selectively regulated the expressions of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, haeme oxygenase-1, pIκBα, inducible NO synthase, cyclo-oxygenase-2 and C-reactive protein in diabetic kidneys effectively. These findings demonstrated that diabetic renal failure was associated with inflammatory responses induced by hyperglycaemia. In addition, results in the study suggest that antioxidant cocktail supplementation may have beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy through selective reduction of blood glucose levels and inflammatory response" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Efficacy and safety of high-dose α-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy - Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Sep;90(35):2473-2476 - "total symptom score (TSS) ... 73.27% patients with symptomatic polyneuropathy improved after treatment with α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks versus 18.27% with placebo. TSS declined by 2.6 +/- 2.3 with α-lipoic acid. And it was more than 0.7 +/- 1.4 versus placebo (P < 0.05). TSS decreased quickly after treatment with α-lipoic acid for 2 weeks (P < 0.05). And it was better than placebo. Individual symptom scores of pain, extremity numbness, burning sensation or resting abnormal sensations were significantly diminished as compared to those before treatment and placebo group (all P < 0.05). Nerve conduction velocity had no change. HbA1c further decreased at the end of trial after α-lipoic acid treatment (P < 0.05). The incidence rates of adverse effects were 25.4% vs 11.8% in the treatment and control groups. The major manifestation was burning sensation from throat to stomach (12.7%)" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Chromium picolinate may lessen inflammation in diabetic nephropathy; Supplement linked to decreased protein in the urine of diabetic mice - Science Daily, 9/22/10 - "mice who received the supplement had lower levels of albuminuria (protein in the urine), an indication of kidney disease ... the treated diabetic mice, who were fed the diet with chromium picolinate, excreted about half as much albumin compared to their untreated diabetic counterparts" - See chromium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • alpha-Lipoic acid protects diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice from nephropathy - J Diabetes Complications. 2010 Aug 26 - "LA supplementation markedly protected the beta cells, reduced cholesterol levels, and attenuated albuminuria and glomerular mesangial expansion in the diabetic mice. Renoprotection by LA was equally effective regardless of whether the dietary supplementation was started 4 weeks before, simultaneously with, or 4 weeks after the induction of diabetes by STZ. LA supplementation significantly improved DN and oxidative stress in the diabetic mice. Severity of albuminuria was positively correlated with level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) in the kidney (r(2)=0.62, P<.05). Diabetes significantly changed the kidney expression of Rage, Sod2, Tgfb1 and Ctgf, Pdp2, nephrin, and Lias. LA supplementation corrected these changes except that it further suppressed the expression of the Lias gene coding for lipoic acid synthase" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • High-Dose B Vitamin Therapy May Not Be Helpful in Diabetic Nephropathy - Medscape, 6/3/10
  • Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Kidney Disease - Am J Kidney Dis. 2010 May 19 - "guidelines suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids should be considered in progressive IgA nephropathy. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids decrease blood pressure, a known accelerant of kidney disease progression" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 intakes may improve diabetic kidney health - Nutra USA, 4/12/10 - "Albumin is the most abundant protein in human serum and in people with kidney problems the protein leaks from the kidney into the urine. A level of 30 mg per 24 hours is reportedly representative of sufficient function ... people with a higher average intake of omega-3s had albumin excretion levels 22.7 mg per 24 hours lower than people with the lowest average intakes of omega-3" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and diabetic nephropathy - cohort analysis of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) - Diabetes Care. 2010 Mar 31 - "In a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, we observed a lower mean UAER [difference 22.7 mg/24 hr (95% CI 1.6, 43.8)] in the top vs. bottom third of dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs, but found no association with incident albuminuria ... Dietary n-3 LC-PUFAs appear inversely associated with the degree, but not with the incidence of albuminuria in type 1 diabetes" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • High-Dose N-Acetylcysteine Reduces Contrast Nephropathy - Medscape, 9/14/09 - "the odds of contrast-induced nephropathy were 54% lower in patients randomized to high-dose N-acetylcysteine, compared to those randomized to a control group" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Metformin Linked to B12 Deficiency - WebMD, 6/8/09 - "40% of type 2 diabetes patients using metformin had vitamin B12 deficiency or were in the low-normal range for the essential vitamin. And 77% of metformin users with vitamin B12 deficiency also had peripheral neuropathy, a common form of nerve damage associated with type 2 diabetes" - See vitamin B-12 at Amazon.com.
  • Ginkgo Reduces Neuropathic Pain In Animal Studies - Science Daily, 6/5/09 - "For both cold and pressure stimuli, pain responses were significantly reduced in ginkgo-treated rats. This was so on before-and-after treatment comparisons and on comparison of ginkgo-treated versus placebo-treated animals. The higher the dose of ginkgo extract, the greater the pain-relieving effect. Pain was reduced for at least two hours after ginkgo treatment" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B(12) may be more effective than nortriptyline in improving painful diabetic neuropathy - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009 Feb 12:1-6 - "In conclusion, vitamin B(12) is more effective than nortriptyline for the treatment of symptomatic painful diabetic neuropathy" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Role of Acetyl-L-Carnitine in the Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (November) - Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Oct 21 - "acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) ... Data on treatment of DPN with ALC support its use. It should be recommended to patients early in the disease process to provide maximal benefit. Further studies should be conducted to determine the effectiveness of ALC in the treatment and prevention of the worsening symptoms of DPN" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
  • Switching from pathogenetic treatment with alpha-lipoic acid to gabapentin and other analgesics in painful diabetic neuropathy: a real-world study in outpatients - J Diabetes Complications. 2008 Apr 8 - "The daily costs for alpha-lipoic acid were considerably lower than those for gabapentin or several frequently used drug combinations. The frequency of outpatient visits was 3.8 times per 3 months during the treatment period with alpha-lipoic acid, while it increased to 7.9 per 3 months after switching to gabapentin or the other pain medications. In conclusion, switching from long-term treatment with alpha-lipoic acid to central analgesic drugs such as gabapentin in painful diabetic neuropathy was associated with considerably higher rates of side effects, frequencies of outpatient visits, and daily costs of treatment. The pathogenic treatment option represents for the practicing diabetologist an effective, safe, and cost-effective treatment option for the majority of patients with diabetic polyneuropathy" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Alpha-Linolenic Acid May Lower Risk of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy - Medscape, 1/7/08 - "Alpha-linolenic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid found in many vegetable oils, including flaxseed, walnuts, and canola oil ... Relative to adults in the lowest quintile of alpha-linolenic acid intake (< 0.61 g/day), the multivariate-adjusted odds of having peripheral neuropathy was 0.54 for subjects in the fourth quintile (1.35 - 2.10 g/day) of intake and 0.40 for adults in the fifth quintile (2.11 g/day or higher)" - See flax seed at Amazon.com.
  • The effect of alpha-lipoic acid on symptoms and skin blood flow in diabetic neuropathy - Diabet Med. 2007 May 8 - "study suggests that alpha-lipoic acid, a potent antioxidant, improves symptoms of diabetic neuropathy"
  • Oral Treatment With {alpha}-Lipoic Acid Improves Symptomatic Diabetic Polyneuropathy: The SYDNEY 2 trial - Diabetes Care. 2006 Nov;29(11):2365-2370 - "Oral treatment with ALA for 5 weeks improved neuropathic symptoms and deficits in patients with DSP. An oral dose of 600 mg once daily appears to provide the optimum risk-to-benefit ratio" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Copper Deficiency May Be Cause of Mysterious Neuropathy - Doctor's Guide, 5/31/06 - "Unexplained neuropathy may be the result of a copper deficiency ... Copper deficiency has long been associated with anemia and neutropenia, but its neurological consequences have only recently been recognized"
  • Treatment for diabetic mononeuropathy with alpha-lipoic acid - Int J Clin Pract. 2005 Jun;59(6):645-50 - "alpha-lipoic acid appears to be an effective drug in the treatment for not only peripheral and autonomic diabetic neuropathy, but also diabetic mononeuropathy of the cranial nerves leading to full recovery of the patients" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy--a three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP study) - Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Feb;43(2):71-7 - "A statistically significant (p = 0.0287) improvement in the neuropathy score was observed in the group given active drug when compared to the placebo-treated controls"
  • Common Nutrient May Ease Diabetic Pain - WebMD, 1/6/05 - "a 1,000 milligrams three times a day of acetyl-L-carnitine was effective in relieving pain caused by nerve damage associated with the condition"
  • Supplemental Carnitine May Be Helpful in Diabetic Neuropathy - Medscape, 1/3/05 - "Pain as the most bothersome symptom significantly improved with ALC"
  • Acetyl-L-Carnitine Improves Pain, Nerve Regeneration, and Vibratory Perception in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Neuropathy: An analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials - Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28(1):89-94 - "ALC treatment is efficacious in alleviating symptoms, particularly pain, and improves nerve fiber regeneration and vibration perception in patients with established diabetic neuropathy"
  • Needle Away Neuropathy? - Dr. Weil, 4/12/04
  • Antioxidant [alpha]-Lipoic Acid Provides Relief for Diabetic Polyneuropathy - Doctor's Guide, 6/20/03 - "After 3 weeks, alpha-lipoic acid had a 24.1% improvement over placebo ... for TSS [Total Symptom Score] and 16.0% for NIS [Neuropathy Impairment Score]" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Alpha Lipoic Acid Helping the Fight against Diabetes - Physician's Weekly, 5/12/03 - "the over-the-counter antioxidant supplement alpha lipoic acid has been effective against the burning, numbness and pain that often is associated with diabetic neuropathy. The antioxidant works mainly as a pain medication and was clinically shown to have few side effects" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant Soothes Diabetic Neuropathy - WebMD, 4/11/03 - "Alpha lipoic acid seems to actually change the metabolism of the nerve or blood supply to the nerve ... It is a very strong antioxidant and it is assumed that oxidation plays a role in the development of diabetes ... This means the substance -- produced in very small amounts by the body and also found in foods such as potatoes and red meat -- protects against damage by cell-ravaging "free radicals." This oxidation process is implicated in various diseases, including heart disease, cancer, and neurologic conditions including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's ... alpha lipoic acid improves the function of cell "transporters" that carry and distribute glucose. "This helps insulin do its role,"" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • B-Vitamins Prove Effective In Relieving Chronic Pain - Intelihealth, 4/10/03 - "B-vitamins, such as thiamin (B1), pyridoxine (B6), and cyanocobalamin (B12), have been proven to be clinically effective in treating various painful conditions such as lumbago, sciatica, trigeminal neuralgia, facial paralysis and optic neuritis as acting as an analgesia (pain reliever)"
  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid Helpful in Diabetic Neuropathy - Medscape, 3/7/03 - "Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) rapidly and significantly reduces sensory symptoms and pain of diabetic neuropathy" - Note:  ALA and acetyl-l-carnitine were supplements discussed in the 2/19/02 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences indicating that it may slow or reversed aging in mice.  See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Enzymes Can Hasten Pain Relief - Nutrition Science News, 2/01
  • The Chemistry of Pain - Nutrition Science News, 2/01
  • Persistent Pain - Nutrition Science News, 10/99
  • Effectiveness of different benfotiamine dosage regimens in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy - Arzneimittelforschung. 1999 Mar;49(3):220-4 - "An overall beneficial therapeutic effect on the neuropathy status was observed in all three groups during the study, and a significant improvement in most of the parameters studied appeared already at the 3rd week of therapy (p < 0.01). The greatest change occurred in the group of patients receiving the high dose of benfotiamine"
  • Chronic Joint Pain - Nutrition Science News, 1/99

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