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Home > Anti-aging Research > Eggs


News & Research:

  • Go (over) easy on the eggs: 'Egg-cess' consumption linked to diabetes - Science Daily, 11/15/20 - "higher long-term egg consumption (greater than 38 grams per day) increased the risk of diabetes among Chinese adults by approximately 25 per cent ... adults who regularly ate a lot of eggs (over 50 grams, or equivalent to one egg, per day) had an increased risk of diabetes by 60 per cent"
  • Unscrambling the Egg Data: One a Day Looks OK - WebMD, 3/5/20 - "The study participants were followed for 32 years, during which their diets and other lifestyle habits were recorded ... The researchers also analyzed 28 studies with up to 1.7 million people. This meta-analysis supported the finding that moderate egg consumption is not associated with increased risk of heart disease in Americans and Europeans ... The investigators also found some evidence suggesting that moderate egg consumption may be associated with lower heart disease risk in Asian populations, but the finding may be affected by their overall dietary habits"
  • An egg a day not tied to risk of heart disease - Science Daily, 1/27/20 - "Moderate egg intake, which is about one egg per day in most people, does not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease or mortality even if people have a history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes ... Also, no association was found between egg intake and blood cholesterol, its components or other risk factors"
  • Eggs Not Tied to Higher Stroke Risk - NYT, 5/22/19 - "On average, the men ate about four and a half eggs a week and consumed 408 milligrams of cholesterol a day. After controlling for other health and behavioral characteristics, the researchers found no difference in risk between a man who averaged less than two eggs a week and one who ate more than six. And a man who took in 333 milligrams of cholesterol a day was at no higher risk for stroke than one who had more than 459 milligrams a day."
  • Dietary cholesterol or egg consumption do not increase the risk of stroke, Finnish study finds - Science Daily, 5/20/19 - "a moderately high intake of dietary cholesterol or consumption of up to one egg per day is not associated with an elevated risk of stroke. Furthermore, no association was found in carriers of the APOE4 phenotype, which affects cholesterol metabolism and is remarkably common among the Finnish population ... Findings from earlier studies addressing the association of dietary cholesterol or egg intake with the risk of stroke have been contradictory. Some studies have found an association between high dietary cholesterol intake and an increased risk of stroke, while others have associated the consumption of eggs, which are high in cholesterol, with a reduced risk of stroke. For most people, dietary cholesterol plays a very small role in affecting their serum cholesterol levels. However, in carriers of the apolipoprotein E phenotype 4 -- which significantly impacts cholesterol metabolism -- the effect of dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol levels is greater ... The findings suggest that moderate cholesterol intake or daily egg consumption are not associated with the risk of stroke, even in persons who are genetically predisposed to a greater effect of dietary cholesterol on serum cholesterol levels"
  • Higher egg and cholesterol consumption hikes heart disease and early death risk - Science Daily, 3/15/19 - "Eating 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day was associated with 17 percent higher risk of incident cardiovascular disease and 18 percent higher risk of all-cause deaths. The cholesterol was the driving factor independent of saturated fat consumption and other dietary fat ... Eating three to four eggs per week was associated with 6 percent higher risk of cardiovascular disease and 8 percent higher risk of any cause of death" - Note: One egg has about 187 mg of cholesterol.  It does, it doesn’t, it does. The problem with 'associated' studies is that they don’t track what’s eaten with a typical egg breakfast and what oils they cook it with.  I eat an egg a day.  The frying pan is sprayed with avocado oil and it’s on bread spread with olive oil margarine.  Compare that with the person who eats two eggs fried in grease, hash browns fried in grease alone with bacon at Denny’s.  There's also the calories associated with those with that lifestyle.  That could easily account for the 17% right there.  That's the problem with 'association' studies.  It doesn't account for the lifestyle and other factors of people who consume that type of food.
  • Up to an Egg a Day May Ward Off Diabetes: Metabolomic Study - Medscape, 1/15/19 - "those in the highest quartile of egg intake (about 1 egg/day) had a 38% lower risk of type 2 diabetes than men in the lowest quartile (about 1 egg/week)"
  • Are Eggs Healthy? Here’s What Experts Say - Time, 12/5/18 - "According to the 2015 Dietary Guidelines, dietary cholesterol is no longer a nutrient of concern when it comes to raising a person’s blood cholesterol. “Risk factors that are more likely related to heart disease risk include genetics, lack of exercise and lifestyle choices like smoking and alcohol consumption,” Zeitlin says ... In fact, recent research found that people who ate about one egg a day had lower rates of heart disease and stroke, possibly because of eggs’ high levels of “good” HDL cholesterol, which can help fight fat buildup in blood vessels. Another study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, also found that eating one egg a day wasn’t a problem for people who were at greater risk for heart and cholesterol problems."
  • Daily egg consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease - Science Daily, 5/21/18 - "In particular, daily egg consumers (up to one egg/day) had a 26% lower risk of haemorrhagic stroke -- the type of stroke with a higher prevalence rate in China than in high-income countries -- a 28% lower risk of haemorrhagic stroke death and an 18% lower risk of CVD death"
  • Eggs not linked to cardiovascular risk, despite conflicting advice - Science Daily, 5/7/18 - "participants aimed to maintain their weight while embarking on a high-egg (12 eggs per week) or low-egg (less than two eggs per week) diet, with no difference in cardiovascular risk markers identified at the end of three months"
  • Whole eggs better for muscle building and repair than egg whites - Science Daily, 12/20/17 - "the post-workout muscle-building response in those eating whole eggs is 40 percent greater than in those consuming an equivalent amount of protein from egg whites ... The yolks also contain protein, along with key nutrients and other food components that are not present in egg whites ... And something in the yolks is boosting the body's ability to utilize that protein in the muscles ... research is showing that we need more protein in the diet than we once thought to maintain health"
  • Eggs can significantly increase growth in young children - Science Daily, 6/7/17 - "Eggs significantly increased growth and reduced stunting by 47 percent in young children"
  • High cholesterol intake and eggs do not increase risk of memory disorders - Science Daily, 1/9/17 - "a relatively high intake of dietary cholesterol, or eating one egg every day, are not associated with an elevated risk of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, no association was found in persons carrying the APOE4 gene variant that affects cholesterol metabolism and increases the risk of memory disorders. APOE4 is common in Finland ... a relatively high intake of dietary cholesterol, or eating one egg every day, are not associated with an elevated risk of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, no association was found in persons carrying the APOE4 gene variant that affects cholesterol metabolism and increases the risk of memory disorders. APOE4 is common in Finland ... On the contrary, the consumption of eggs was associated with better results in certain tests measuring cognitive performance"
  • Why You Need to Stop Eating Egg Whites - Time, 10/25/16 - "But there’s good reason not to fear the yolks. Scientific research has vindicated dietary cholesterol, finding that eating cholesterol has no real impact on cholesterol metabolism. That is, eating foods high in cholesterol does not mean you’ll develop high cholesterol. Some evidence suggests that eggs might even be beneficial for cholesterol by raising levels of HDL cholesterol, the “good” cholesterol that’s linked to a lower risk of heart disease ... Egg yolks contain a vibrant mix of saturated and unsaturated fat—another nutrient that, when it comes from a healthy whole food source, is unfairly slandered. Yolks have a good helping of vitamin E, one of the nutrients Americans eat too little of. But the real case for egg yolks can be made by their abundance of carotenoids, nutrients in plants and animal fats that give things like egg yolks (and even autumn leaves) their yellow color. Egg yolks are rich in the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, which help eye health and protect against inflammation ... Carotenoids need to be eaten with fat in order for the body to more fully absorb them, and a whole egg is the total package. Eat them, and you’ll get more of these nutrients—not just from the eggs, but from the stuff you eat it with, too"
  • Eating eggs reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, study indicates - Science Daily, 4/2/15 - "The dietary habits of 2,332 men aged between 42 and 60 years were assessed at the baseline of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, KIHD, at the University of Eastern Finland in 1984-1989 ... follow-up of 19.3 years ... egg consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes as well as with lower blood glucose levels. Men who ate approximately four eggs per week had a 37 per cent lower risk of type 2 diabetes than men who only ate approximately one egg per week ... The consumption of more than four eggs did not bring any significant additional benefits"
  • Eating Eggs Is Not Linked to High Cholesterol in Adolescents, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 7/19/13 - "the most recent research suggests that increased serum cholesterol is more affected by intake of saturated fats and trans fats -- present in red meat, industrial baked goods, etc. -- than by the amount of cholesterol in the diet ... eating larger amounts of egg is neither linked to higher serum cholesterol nor to worse cardiovascular health in adolescents, regardless of their levels of physical activity ... The conclusions, published in the journal Nutrición Hospitalaria, confirm recent studies in healthy adults that suggest that an intake of up to seven eggs a week is not associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases ... a medium-size egg contains 200 milligrams of cholesterol but has more unsaturated fats than saturated fats and only has 70 calories"
  • New evidence that egg white protein may help high blood pressure - Science Daily, 4/9/13 - "We have evidence from the laboratory that a substance in egg white –– it’s a peptide, one of the building blocks of proteins –– reduces blood pressure about as much as a low dose of Captopril, a high-blood-pressure drug ... Yu and colleagues, who are with Clemson University, used a peptide called RVPSL ... They set out to further document RVPSL’s effects, using laboratory rats that develop high blood pressure and are stand-ins for humans in such early research on hypertension ... RVPSL did not have apparent toxic effects and lowered blood pressure by amounts comparable to low doses of Captopril"
  • Egg Study Not All It’s Cracked Up To Be - ABC News, 8/16/12 - "This is very poor quality research that should not influence patient’s dietary choices ... It is extremely important to understand the differences between ‘association’ and ‘causation’ ... Nissen said the researchers relied on patients to recall how many eggs they consumed, but asked them once and assumed it remained constant, which isn’t reliable. He said the way researchers measured patients’ plaque has come under “considerable criticism,” and that researchers failed to adjust for other dietary factors ... Still, the good headline potential was too tempting for several media outlets to ignore and the story ran widely, and in some cases without any comment from outside experts ... The danger here is headline writers who aren’t necessarily science writers may go way overboard in headlining the story"
  • Nutritionist challenges egg-busting study - Nutra USA, 8/14/12
  • Egg yolk consumption almost as bad as smoking when it comes to atherosclerosis, study suggests - Science Daily, 8/13/12 - "regular consumption of egg yolks is about two-thirds as bad as smoking when it comes to increased build-up of carotid plaque ... The study looked at data from 1,231 men and women, with a mean age of 61.5, who were patients attending vascular prevention clinics at London Health Sciences Centre's University Hospital ... The researchers found carotid plaque area increased linearly with age after age 40, but increased exponentially with pack-years of smoking and egg yolk-years" - [Abstract]
  • The Truth About Your Eggs - ABC News, 7/28/12 - "you could be getting a lot more of stuff you don't want. First you'll get some arsenic, added to feed to promote growth in hens but linked to various forms of cancer in people, and an extra dose of antibiotics, also used to promote growth but linked to antibiotic resistance and even obesity in people. Then add a heaping helping of salmonella. A 2010 study published in the journal Veterinary Record found that the eggs from hens confined to cages, as they often are in factory farms, had 7.77-times greater odds of harboring salmonella bacteria than eggs from non-caged hens ... Labels like "natural" and "cage-free" make eggs seem like they came from down on the farm, from chickens living happy lives and eating bugs. But that's not always the case. If all you want is healthy protein, it's time to start scrutinizing egg cartons. Following are nine of the most common egg-carton claims and what they mean for your health ... Organic eggs come from hens that were fed certified-organic feed, free of things like arsenic and antibiotics, pesticides, animal byproducts, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Forced molting and debeaking are permitted in certified-organic production ... Can you trust it? Yes. Egg producers are subject to annual audits of their operations and must pay a fee to be certified ... "Natural" ... Can you trust it? No! Neither the FDA nor the USDA have set any definitions for the word "natural" when it comes to eggs, and it's highly misleading ... "Omega-3 Enriched" ... Can you trust it? Sort of" - Note:  My criteria for buying eggs is the ones with the furthest expiration date.
  • Eggs at Breakfast May Delay Hunger - WebMD, 5/11/12 - "researchers tracked 20 overweight or obese people, giving them either a breakfast containing eggs or cold cereal for one week. Although the breakfasts offered different protein foods, the meals themselves were equally matched in terms of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat ... people who had eggs in the morning felt fuller before lunch, and they also ate less food from the buffet compared to those who had cereal. Egg eaters also had lower levels of ghrelin and higher amounts of PYY3-36 during the three hours between breakfast and lunch. This suggests they felt less hungry and more satisfied between meals ... Long-term weight loss trials to compare the manipulation of protein quality without increasing protein quantity should be explored" - Note:  I fully agree.  I just seems very easy to keep my weight in check when I have eggs for breakfast.
  • Can eggs be a healthy breakfast choice? - Science Daily, 8/2/11 - "all eggs are not created equal. Her research indicates that when hens are fed with a diet low in omega-6 fatty acids from a young age -- feed high in wheat, barley, and milo and lower in soy, maize and sunflower, safflower, and maize oils -- they produce eggs that may cause less oxidative damage to human health. That's a major part of what determines the physiological impact of the end product on your table ... There were vast differences in outcome among the treatments. Daily consumption of two industry-standard eggs, high in omega-6, caused a 40 percent increase in LDL oxidizability in participants. After eating two per day of the specially-composed eggs, with both high anti-oxidant and low omega-6 levels, however, LDL oxidation levels were similar to the control group eating only two to four eggs a week"
  • Eggs' antioxidant properties may help prevent heart disease and cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "They found the yolks contained two amino acids, tryptophan and tyrosine, which have high antioxidant properties ... After analyzing the properties, the researchers determined that two egg yolks in their raw state have almost twice as many antioxidant properties as an apple and about the same as half a serving (25 grams) of cranberries ... However, when the eggs were fried or boiled, antioxidant properties were reduced by about half, and a little more than half if the eggs were cooked in a microwave"
  • Egg Yolks May Reduce Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration - Medscape, 11/13/09 - "Two eggs per day is probably all that is needed to maximize blood levels of lutein and zeaxanthin as well as macular pigment optic density (MPOD) status"
  • Finding the Right Prostate Cancer Diet - WebMD, 2/15/08 -"poultry and eggs double the risk of prostate cancer progression ... orange and yellow vegetables, such as squash, yams, and carrots, and cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cut the risk of recurrence by about half ... If you eat chicken or poultry, eat it without the skin ... the men's overall PSA doubling time was nearly four times slower after they began drinking pomegranate juice"
  • Eating Eggs Daily May Not Be Risky for Heart - WebMD, 7/8/04 - "adding up to three eggs per day does raise some types of LDL cholesterol, but it didn't significantly raise levels of the types of LDL known to clog arteries"
  • Research Links Nutrient in Eggs to Improved Memory - WebMD, 3/12/04 - "has been studying choline in animals for more than a decade and is also four years into a study examining the effects of choline deficiency in humans. He says those studies show that the current recommended intake of half a gram a day -- the amount gotten by eating two large eggs -- is probably not enough for some groups, especially young men"
  • Eggs Might Not Be So Bad After All - WebMD, 11/1/01 - "something called phosphatidylcholine, or PC, in eggs actually stops the cholesterol in eggs from entering your bloodstream ... PC doesn't stop 100% of the cholesterol from getting into your blood, but it does seem to block a significant amount"


  • Association of Egg Consumption Frequency and Quantity with Dyslipidemia in Chinese Rural Adults - J Am Nutr Assoc 2022 Oct 27 - "Increment of 25 g/d was associated with 15% (OR: 0.85, (0.71-1.00)) lower risk of dyslipidemia ... Egg consumption was associated with decreased risk of dyslipidemia among Chinese women but not men. Additionally, the beneficial effect tended to be stronger at 20-50 g egg per day"
  • Eggs and the heart - Eur Heart J. 2022 Oct 25 - "However, eggs are a conspicuous source of dietary cholesterol, containing more than 200 mg per large egg. Not surprisingly therefore, health benefits have been debated, and the association between egg intake and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be scrutinized. A thorough meta-analysis, published recently, of 28 prospective studies provocatively suggested that associations between egg consumption and CVD risk were population-specific: in Asian cohorts only, but not in Western cohorts, an inverse association was observed.2 ... We decided to scrutinize the egg consumption pattern in the three continents by analyzing on Google the first consecutive 20 images of the traditional Asian or European or American egg breakfast (accessed June 22. 2022). The egg images were subdivided into four categories (Table 1):" - Note: I've said for years that it's the way it's processed. In America, it's the thousand-calorie meal at Denny's, fried in saturated fat with bacon, and white toast with butter. In Asia, it's hard-boiled without all the bad stuff. I have two eggs fried in avocado oil every day along with whole wheat toast and olive oil margarine.
  • The role of protein intake in the relationship between egg consumption and body composition in young adults. A mediation analysis - Clin Nutr 2022 Sep 6 - "The association between egg consumption and body composition is mediated by protein intake. This finding is important from a public health perspective, suggesting that higher egg consumption (≥5 eggs/week) may lead to a healthier body composition, especially due to higher protein intake" - Note: I eat a couple scrambled eggs per day. Love my Hexclad frying pan. I spay it with avocado oil.
  • Eggs Consumption in Relation to Lower Risk of Cognitive Impairment in Elderly: Findings from a 6-Year Cohort Study - J Nutr Health Aging 2022 - "Compared with non-consumers or less-than-weekly consumers, participants consuming 0.1-2.9 eggs/week and 3.0-5.9 eggs/week had 18% (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.76-0.89) and 9% (RR=0.91, 95%CI 0.84-0.99) lower risks of cognitive impairment respectively, whereas no association was found in those consuming ≥6.0 eggs/week"
  • Associations of Dietary Cholesterol, Serum Cholesterol, and Egg Consumption With Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality, and Systematic Review and Updated Meta-Analysis - Circulation 2022 Apr 1 - "Greater dietary cholesterol and egg consumption were associated with increased risk of overall and CVD mortality. HRs for each additional 300 mg cholesterol intake per day were 1.10 and 1.13 for overall and CVD mortality (respectively), and for each additional 50 g egg consumed daily HRs were 1.06 and 1.09, respectively, for overall and CVD mortality (all P-values<0.0001). After multivariable adjustment, higher serum total cholesterol concentrations were associated with increased risk of CVD mortality"
  • Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular events among Iranians: results from Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) - Eur J Clin Nutr 2022 Mar 28 - "These findings suggest that higher egg consumption is not associated with increased risk of MI, ICHD, stroke, and CVD among Iranians. Larger studies with longer duration of follow-up are warranted to explore these associations in populations with higher egg consumption"
  • Association between egg consumption and arterial stiffness: a longitudinal study - Nutr J 2021 Jul 13 - "In this large-scale longitudinal analysis, we did not find a significant difference in arterial stiffness, as assessed by baPWV level, between low and high egg consumption groups. However, moderate egg consumption (3-3.9 eggs/wk) appeared to have beneficial effects on arterial stiffness"
  • Eggs, dietary cholesterol, choline, betaine, and diabetes risk in the Women's Health Initiative: a prospective analysis - Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 7 - "As egg consumption increased to ≥3 eggs/wk, there was a steady increase in diabetes risk that may have been due to the cholesterol in the eggs. The population attributable risk for ≥3 eggs/wk was far lower than that for being obese or overweight"
  • Dietary cholesterol and egg intake in relation to incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in postmenopausal women - Am J Clin Nutr 2020 Dec 17 - "After multivariable adjustment for traditional risk factors and key dietary nutrients including dietary saturated fat, there were modest associations of dietary cholesterol intake with incident CVD (HRQ5versusQ1: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P-trend < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (HRQ5versusQ1: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15; P-trend < 0.001). Significant positive associations were also observed between dietary cholesterol and incident IHD (P-trend = 0.007), incident ischemic stroke (P-trend = 0.002), and CVD mortality (P-trend = 0.002), whereas there was an inverse association for incident hemorrhagic stroke (P-trend = 0.037) and no association for mortality from cancer, Alzheimer disease/dementia, respiratory diseases, or other causes (P-trend > 0.05). Higher egg consumption was also associated with modestly higher risk of incident CVD (P-trend = 0.004) and all-cause mortality (P-trend < 0.001), with HRs of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.22), respectively, when comparing ≥1 egg/d with <1 egg/wk"
  • Choline Intake as Supplement or as a Component of Eggs Increases Plasma Choline and Reduces Interleukin-6 without Modifying Plasma Cholesterol in Participants with Metabolic Syndrome - Nutrients 2020 Oct 13 - "Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance, which increase the risk of heart disease. Eggs have numerous nutrients including choline, carotenoids, and fat-soluble vitamins that may protect against these conditions. Egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major contributor of dietary choline in the American diet. However, uncertainty remains regarding eggs due to their high concentration of cholesterol. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two sources of choline, whole eggs (a source of PC) and a choline supplement (choline bitartrate, CB), on plasma lipids, glucose, insulin resistance, and inflammatory biomarkers ... We recruited 23 subjects with MetS to participate in this randomized cross-over intervention. After a 2-week washout, with no choline intake, participants were randomly allocated to consume three eggs/day or CB (~400 mg choline/d for both) for 4 weeks. After a 3-week washout period, they were allocated to the alternate treatment. Dietary records indicated higher concentrations of vitamin E and selenium during the egg period (p < 0.01). Interestingly, there were no changes in plasma total, low density lipoprotein (LDL)- or high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, or glucose, compared either to baseline or between treatments. In contrast, interleukin-6 was reduced, with both sources of choline compared to baseline, while eggs also had an effect on lowering C-reactive protein, insulin, and insulin resistance compared to baseline. This study demonstrates that in a MetS population, intake of three eggs per day does not increase plasma LDL cholesterol, and has additional benefits on biomarkers of disease compared to a choline supplement, possibly due to the presence of other antioxidants in eggs" - See citicholine at Amazon.com and iHerb.
  • Effects of substituting eggs for high-carbohydrate breakfast foods on the cardiometabolic risk-factor profile in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2020 Mar 9 - "Subjects incorporated into their habitual diets breakfast meals containing either 2 eggs/day for 6 days/week (Egg condition), or energy-matched, non-egg, higher-CHO-based foods (Non-Egg condition) ... Thirty men and women with mean age 54.1 ± 1.9 years and body mass index 31.9 ± 0.7 kg/m2 provided data. Neither diet condition significantly altered insulin sensitivity indices, but the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was significantly (p = 0.028) higher after the Non-Egg vs. the Egg condition. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was decreased from baseline (119 mg/dL) by 2.9 and 6.0% with Egg and Non-Egg breakfasts, respectively (p = 0.023). Systolic blood pressure was reduced from baseline (127 mm Hg) by 2.7 and 0.0% with Egg and Non-Egg, respectively"
  • Consumption of eggs and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration - Clin Nutr. 2019 Mar 16 - "Our findings suggest that moderate consumption of eggs significantly reduces the risk of developing incident late-stage AMD over 15 years"
  • Egg consumption, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep 27 - "High-quality intervention studies have found nonsignificant effects of increasing the consumption of eggs on risk markers for CVD and T2D in healthy subjects and subjects with T2D. The risk associations found in the observational studies are more likely to be attributed to a dietary pattern often accompanying high egg intake and/or the cluster of other risk factors in people with high egg consumption. Dietary patterns, physical activity and genetics affect the predisposition of CVD and T2D more than a single food item as eggs. In conclusion, up to seven eggs per week can safely be consumed, but in patients with established CVD or T2D only with special emphasis on a healthy lifestyle"
  • Consuming Two Eggs per Day, as Compared to an Oatmeal Breakfast, Increases Plasma Ghrelin while Maintaining the LDL/HDL Ratio - Nutrients. 2017 Jan 29;9(2) - "These results demonstrate that compared to an oatmeal breakfast, two eggs per day do not adversely affect the biomarkers associated with CVD risk, but increase satiety throughout the day in a young healthy population"
  • Intake of up to 3 Eggs per Day Is Associated with Changes in HDL Function and Increased Plasma Antioxidants in Healthy, Young Adults - J Nutr. 2017 Jan 11. pii: jn241877 - "Intake of 1 egg/d was sufficient to increase HDL function and large-LDL particle concentration; however, intake of 2-3 eggs/d supported greater improvements in HDL function as well as increased plasma carotenoids. Overall, intake of ≤3 eggs/d favored a less atherogenic LDL particle profile, improved HDL function, and increased plasma antioxidants in young, healthy adults"
  • Meta-analysis of Egg Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke - J Am Coll Nutr. 2016 Oct 6:1-13 - "A 12% decreased risk (SRRE = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-0.97) of stroke was observed in the meta-analysis of 7 studies of egg intake (high vs low; generally 1/d vs <2/wk) ... A nonstatistically significant SRRE of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.88-1.07, p-H = 0.67, I2 = 0.00) was observed in the meta-analysis of 7 studies of egg consumption and CHD ... Based on the results of this meta-analysis, consumption of up to one egg daily may contribute to a decreased risk of total stroke, and daily egg intake does not appear to be associated with risk of CHD"
  • Associations of egg and cholesterol intakes with carotid intima-media thickness and risk of incident coronary artery disease according to apolipoprotein E phenotype in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Feb 10 - "common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) ... Egg or cholesterol intakes were not associated with the risk of CAD ... Egg or cholesterol intakes were also not associated with increased CCA-IMT"
  • Egg consumption and risk of heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke: results from 2 prospective cohorts - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep 23 - "There was no statistically significant association between egg consumption and risk of MI or any stroke type in either men or women or HF in women. In men, consumption of ≤6 eggs/wk was not associated with HF risk; however, daily egg consumption (≥1/d) was associated with a 30% higher risk of HF (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.67). Egg consumption was not associated with any CVD outcome in individuals with diabetes"
  • Egg and cholesterol intake and incident type 2 diabetes among French women - Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 10 - "No association was observed between egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. When comparing women who consumed at least five eggs per week with non-consumers, the multivariable hazard ratio (HR) was found to be 1.00 (95 % CI 0.78, 1.29; across categories, P trend=0.11). Women in the highest quintile of dietary cholesterol had a 40 % higher rate of diabetes compared with those in the lowest quintile (HR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.19, 1.63; across quintiles, P trend<0.0001). A 100 mg increase of dietary cholesterol per 4184 kJ (or 1000 kcal) was associated with a 14 % increase in the risk of diabetes (HR 1.14; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.26). In this large prospective cohort, we observed an association between dietary cholesterol and type 2 diabetes, but no association with egg consumption. In the absence of a clear underlying mechanism and potential residual confounding, these results should be interpreted with caution"
  • Egg intake and cancers of the breast, ovary and prostate: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective observational studies - Br J Nutr. 2015 Aug 21 - "For breast cancer, the linear dose-response meta-analysis found a non-significantly increased risk (RR for an increase of 5 eggs consumed/week: 1.05, 95 % CI 0.99, 1.11, n 16 023 cases). Evidence for non-linearity was not statistically significant (P non-linearity= 0.50, n 15 415 cases) but consuming ≥ 5 eggs/week was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer compared with no egg consumption, with the summary RR being 1.04 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.07) for consuming 5 eggs/week and 1.09 (95 % CI 1.03, 1.15) for consuming about 9 eggs/week. For other cancers investigated, the summary RR for an increase of 5 eggs consumed/week was 1.09 (95 % CI 0.96, 1.24, n 2636 cases) for ovarian cancer; 1.47 (95 % CI 1.01, 2.14, n 609 cases) for fatal prostate cancer, with evidence of small-study effects (P Egger= 0.04). No evidence was found for an association with the risk of total prostate cancer"
  • One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients - Nutrients. 2015 May 11;7(5):3449-63 - "Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks ... after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation"
  • The effect of a high-egg diet on cardiovascular risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) study-a 3-mo randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr;101(4):705-13 - "we aimed to determine whether a high-egg diet (2 eggs/d for 6 d/wk) compared with a low-egg diet (<2 eggs/wk) affected circulating lipid profiles, in particular high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, in overweight or obese people with prediabetes or T2D ... There was no significant difference in the change in HDL cholesterol from screening to 3 mo between groups; the mean difference (95% CI) between high- and low-egg groups was +0.02 mmol/L (-0.03, 0.08 mmol/L; P = 0.38). No between-group differences were shown for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, or glycemic control. Both groups were matched for protein intake, but the high-egg group reported less hunger and greater satiety postbreakfast. Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) intakes significantly increased from baseline in both groups"
  • Impact of Breakfasts (with or without Eggs) on Body Weight Regulation and Blood Lipids in University Students over a 14-Week Semester - Nutrients. 2013 Dec 16;5(12):5097-113 - "Seventy-three subjects were instructed to consume a breakfast with eggs (Egg Breakfast, EB, n = 39) or without (Non-Egg Breakfast, NEB, n = 34), five times/week for 14 weeks ... Blood lipids were similar between groups at all time points, indicating that the additional 400 mg/day of dietary cholesterol did not negatively impact blood lipids"
  • Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 15 - "A systematic literature review was conducted for published studies in PubMed and EMBASE through March 2012 ... This meta-analysis suggests that egg consumption is not associated with the risk of CVD and cardiac mortality in the general population. However, egg consumption may be associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes among the general population and CVD comorbidity among diabetic patients" - Note:  Unless they can figure out a way to filter out how people are cooking those eggs and what they are eating with the eggs, I don't see how the study is useful.  Just think how frying the eggs, eating bacon, sausage, ham, fried hash browns and toast with margarine (hydrogenated oils) or butter can skew the study over just eggs cooked in a microwave with cooking spray.
  • Egg consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis - Nutr Cancer. 2013;65(4):538-46 - "In conclusion, our findings suggest no significant association between egg consumption and bladder cancer risk, except for a possible positive relationship with the intake of fried eggs based on the limited number of studies"
  • Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: A meta-analysis - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Apr 17 - "The pooled RRs of the risk of CVD, CVD for separated diabetes patients, and diabetes for the highest vs lowest egg intake were 1.19 (95% CI 1.02-1.38), 1.83 (95% CI 1.42-2.37), 1.68 (95% CI 1.41-2.00), respectively. For each 4/week increment in egg intake, the RRs of the risk for CVD, CVD for separated diabetes patients, diabetes was 1.06 (95% CI 1.03-1.10), 1.40 (95% CI 1.25-1.57), 1.29 (95% CI 1.21-1.37), respectively ... Our study suggests that there is a dose-response positive association between egg consumption and the risk of CVD and diabetes" - Note:  At least part of that could be connected to how most cook the eggs (such as fried) and what they have with it (such as sausage or bacon and fried hash browns and toast with butter or margarine (hydrogenated oils)).
  • Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome - Metabolism. 2012 Sep 26 - "In a randomized, single-blind, parallel design, participants consumed either 3 whole eggs/day (EGG, n=20) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB, n=17), as part of a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet (25%-30% energy) for 12 weeks ... Atherogenic dyslipidemia improved for all individuals as evidenced by reductions in plasma triglycerides, apoC-III, apoE, oxLDL, VLDL particle diameter, large VDL, total IDL, small LDL, and medium LDL particles (P<0.05). Furthermore, there were increases in HDL-cholesterol, large LDL and large HDL particles (P<0.05) for all individuals. However, there were greater increases in HDL-cholesterol and large HDL particles, and reductions in total VLDL and medium VLDL particles for those consuming EGG compared to SUB (P<0.05). Plasma insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were reduced, while LCAT activity, and both HDL and LDL diameters increased over time in the EGG group only (P<0.05)"
  • Egg consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study - Public Health Nutr. 2012 Mar 6:1-5 - "After adjustment for possible confounders more than twofold increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus was determined for individuals consuming 3-4.9 eggs/week (OR = 2.60; 95 % CI 1.34, 5.08) and threefold increased risk of the disease was determined for individuals consuming ≥5 eggs/week (OR = 3.02; 95 % CI 1.14, 7.98) compared with those eating <1 egg/week"
  • Intakes of meat, fish, poultry, and eggs and risk of prostate cancer progression - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec 30 - "Intakes of processed and unprocessed red meat, fish, total poultry, and skinless poultry were not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression. Greater consumption of eggs and poultry with skin was associated with 2-fold increases in risk in a comparison of extreme quantiles: eggs [hazard ratio (HR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.72; P for trend = 0.05] and poultry with skin (HR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.36, 3.76; P for trend = 0.003). An interaction was observed between prognostic risk at diagnosis and poultry. Men with high prognostic risk and a high poultry intake had a 4-fold increased risk of recurrence or progression compared with men with low/intermediate prognostic risk and a low poultry intake (P for interaction = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the postdiagnostic consumption of processed or unprocessed red meat, fish, or skinless poultry is not associated with prostate cancer recurrence or progression, whereas consumption of eggs and poultry with skin may increase the risk"
  • Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in the SUN Project - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 23 - "Egg intake was assessed using a 136-item-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Baseline consumption was categorized into no consumption or <1 egg/week, 1 egg/week, 2-4 eggs/week and >4 eggs/week. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by questionnaire at baseline, and the incidence ofCVD was assessed using biennial assessments. The median follow-up was 6.1 years. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD (myocardial infarction, revascularization procedures or stroke). Outcomes were confirmed by review of medical records.Results:During a median follow-up of 6.1 years, 91 new confirmed cases of CVD were observed. No association was found between egg consumption and the incidence of CVD (HR: 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-2.63) for the highest versus the lowest category of egg consumption after adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, adherence to the Mediterranean food pattern and other cardiovascular risk factors"