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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 8/18/21

T4DM Trial and its T4Bone Substudy Shed Further Light on Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Middle-aged and Older Men - Medscape, 8/16/21 - "The Bone Trial of the TTrials demonstrated that testosterone treatment substantially increased volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) of the lumbar spine ... Testosterone treatment for 2 years in the T4Bone trial was associated with greater improvements in the cortical and total vBMD and cortical area and thickness at the distal tibia and radius, compared with placebo. Testosterone treatment also significantly increased areal BMD (aBMD) at the lumbar spine and the hip ... Although the findings of the T4Bone trial are similar in some ways to those of the Bone Trial of the TTrials,[4] there also are some salient differences. In both, testosterone treatment, compared with placebo, increased vBMD. The magnitude of the increase of the primary end point (tibial cortical vBMD) in the T4Bone trial was smaller, 3% in 2 years, compared with 7% in 1 year of the primary end point (spine trabecular vBMD) in the Bone Trial. In the T4Bone trial, larger increases were observed in the cortical bone, while the Bone Trial found greater increases in the trabecular bone. The changes in aBMD at the hip and spine were similar in the 2 trials ... Testosterone threshold for eligibility in the T4DM Trial was 14nmol/L (403 ng/dL), and a majority had baseline testosterone levels in the eugonadal range. In contrast, the baseline mean testosterone levels in the Bone Trial were unequivocally, although modestly, hypogonadal (8.0 nmol/L [229.6 ng/dL]) and 8.3nmol/L [238.8ng/dL] in testosterone and placebo arms, respectively) ... Estradiol levels above 10 pg/mL and testosterone levels in the range of 200 to 300ng/dL have been considered sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men"

Treating the ‘root’ cause of baldness with a dissolvable microneedle patch - Science Daily, 8/11/21 - "The team tested control patches and the cerium-containing ones on male mice with bald spots formed by a hair removal cream. Both applications stimulated the formation of new blood vessels around the mice's hair follicles. However, those treated with the nanoparticle patch showed faster signs of hair undergoing a transition in the root, such as earlier skin pigmentation and higher levels of a compound found only at the onset of new hair development. These mice also had fewer oxidative stress compounds in their skin. Finally, the researchers found that the cerium-containing microneedle patches resulted in faster mouse hair regrowth with similar coverage, density and diameter compared with a leading topical treatment and could be applied less frequently. Microneedle patches that introduce cerium nanoparticles into the skin are a promising strategy to reverse balding for androgenetic alopecia patients"

People with stroke who walk 30 minutes per day may have 54% lower risk of early death - Science Daily, 8/11/21 - "people who walk or garden at least three to four hours per week, or bike at least two to three hours per week, or the equivalent after having a stroke may have a 54% lower risk of death from any cause"

Diabetes Drugs Tied to Less Amyloid, Slowed Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's - Medscape, 8/11/21 - "Compared to the group not taking a DPP-4 inhibitor, those taking these agents had significantly lower global SUVRs (1.33 vs 1.41; P = .001). These patients also had significantly lower regional SUVRs (frontal:1.33 vs 1.41; lateral parietal: 1.34 vs 1.42; lateral temporal: 1.33 vs 1.41; and anterior cingulate/posterior cingulate cortices: 1.43 vs 1.53 ... In addition, those taking DPP-4 inhibitors had lower Aβ burden globally and in two regional cortices ― the lateral parietal and lateral temporal ― compared to the nondiabetes group"

Is your long-lasting makeup toxic? Study raises concerns about PFAS in cosmetics - Washington Post, 8/11/21 - "waterproof, sweatproof and long-wearing cosmetics — so popular at this time of year — contain higher levels of a potentially toxic class of thousands of chemicals called perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances or (PFAS) ... PFAS aren’t used only in cosmetics; they can be found in products such as nonstick cookware, waterproof clothing, carpet, and fast-food containers. “You are not just exposed in one place or one source, they are everywhere,” ... these chemicals don’t naturally degrade and are known to accumulate in the body as well as in our soil and water, making them a potential risk to consumer health and the environment ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has linked the chemicals to serious kidney, liver, immunological, developmental and reproductive issues. And, recently, it said that there is evidence that PFAS affect the antibody response to vaccines such as those for covid-19 ... They are added to make lotions, cosmetics and hair products more water-resistant, durable and spreadable. And small amounts not listed on ingredient labels can be found in many more products, acknowledges the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC)"

EU Approves Dapagliflozin for Kidney Disease, Regardless of Diabetes - Medscape, 8/10/21 - "We found that dapagliflozin delayed the initiation of dialysis and reduced the number of deaths ... treatment with dapagliflozin led to a 39% relative risk reduction in the incidence of a combined renal and cardiovascular endpoint during a median 2.4 years of follow-up, with an absolute risk reduction of 5.3%. The combined endpoint tallied the incidence of a 50% or greater drop in eGFR from baseline, onset of end-stage renal disease, or renal or cardiovascular death" - See dapagliflozin at reliablerxpharmacy.com.

Growing evidence of vitamin K benefits for heart health - Science Daily, 8/9/21 - "There are two types of vitamin K found in foods we eat: vitamin K1 comes primarily from green leafy vegetables and vegetable oils while vitamin K2 is found in meat, eggs and fermented foods such as cheese ... The study found that people with the highest intakes of vitamin K1 were 21 percent less likely to be hospitalised with cardiovascular disease related to atherosclerosis ... For vitamin K2, the risk of being hospitalised was 14 percent lower ... This lower risk was seen for all types of heart disease related to atherosclerosis, particularly for peripheral artery disease at 34 percent" - See vitamin K1 at Amazon.com.

Microbes turn back the clock as research discovers their potential to reverse aging in the brain - Science Daily, 8/9/21 - "There is a growing appreciation of the importance of the microbes in the gut on all aspects of physiology and medicine. In this latest mouse study the authors show that by transplanting microbes from young into old animals they could rejuvenate aspects of brain and immune function. Prof John F. Cryan, says "Previous research published by the APC and other groups internationally has shown that the gut microbiome plays a key role in aging and the aging process. This new research is a potential game changer , as we have established that the microbiome can be harnessed to reverse age-related brain deterioration. We also see evidence of improved learning ability and cognitive function." Although very exciting Cryan cautions that "it is still early days and much more work is needed to see how these findings could be translated in humans."" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Dirty Air, Higher Dementia Risk? - WebMD, 8/6/21 - "an increase of 1 microgram per cubic meter of exposure corresponded to a 16% greater hazard of all-cause dementia"

Fasting may help ward off infections, study in mice suggests - Science Daily, 8/5/21 - "These data suggest that therapeutic fasting or calorie restriction has the potential to beneficially modulate infectious and potentially non-infectious gastrointestinal diseases ... When food is limited, the microbiome appears to sequester the nutrients that remain, preventing pathogens from acquiring the energy they need to infect the host. While more research is needed, fasting or otherwise adjusting food intake could be exploited therapeutically to modulate infectious diseases in the future"

Vitamin D reduces the need for opioids in palliative cancer - Science Daily, 8/5/21 - "They received either 12 weeks of treatment with vitamin D at a relatively high dose (4000 IE/day) or a placebo ... The effects were quite small, but statistically significant and may have clinical significance for patients with vitamin D deficiency who have cancer in the palliative phase. This is the first time it has been shown that vitamin D treatment for palliative cancer patients can have an effect on both opioid-sensitive pain and fatigue" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Eating more plant foods may lower heart disease risk in young adults, older women - Science Daily, 8/4/21 - "People who scored in the top 20% on the long-term diet quality score (meaning they ate the most nutritionally rich plant foods and fewer adversely rated animal products) were 52% less likely to develop cardiovascular disease, after considering several factors (including age, sex, race, average caloric consumption, education, parental history of heart disease, smoking and average physical activity) ... In addition, between year 7 and 20 of the study when participants ages ranged from 25 to 50, those who improved their diet quality the most (eating more beneficial plant foods and fewer adversely rated animal products) were 61% less likely to develop subsequent cardiovascular disease, in comparison to the participants whose diet quality declined the most during that time."

Common weight-loss drug successfully targets fat that can endanger heart health - Science Daily, 8/4/21 - "The 185 study participants were given a once-daily injection of liraglutide over 40 weeks of treatment. The relative effects of liraglutide on fat reduction were two-fold greater in the abdominal tissues and six-fold greater in the liver than seen on overall body weight. The treatment effect was consistent across race/ethnicity and BMI categories, and among those with or without baseline prediabetes. Liraglutide also reduced fasting blood glucose and inflammation in this trial population without diabetes, the majority of whom had normal blood sugar levels at baseline."

Frequent consumption of peanuts by cancer patients may increase risk of cancer spread, study finds - Science Daily, 8/4/21 - "Peanut agglutinin (PNA) -- a carbohydrate-binding protein that rapidly enters into the blood circulation after peanuts are eaten -- interacts with blood vascular wall (endothelial) cells to produce molecules called cytokines ... the possibility remains that circulating PNA, at least at the relatively high levels found shortly after a large "dose" of peanuts, could have a significant biological effect on tumour cells circulating at that time, with a potential for increased risk of metastasis. Heavy or very frequent peanut consumption therefore might be better avoided by cancer patients"

Half Abandon Metformin Within a Year of Diabetes Diagnosis - Medscape, 8/3/21 - "One reason for the discontinuations, he said, is that patients might not realize they need to keep taking the medication ... "When a physician is seeing a person with newly diagnosed diabetes, I think it's important to remember that they might not know the implications of having a chronic condition. A lot of times we're quick to prescribe metformin and forget about it...Physicians might write a script for 3 months and three refills and not see the patient again for a year...We may need to keep a closer eye on these folks and have more regular follow-up, and make sure they're getting early diabetes education."" - Note:  Sounds like the problem is that people are ignorant to the damage the high blood sugar is doing to their body so they don't understand why they're taking a medicine that they don't need.  I know doctors who are at fault for that and I'm not referring to metformin.

Statins may improve survival for triple-negative breast cancer patients - Science Daily, 8/3/21 - "Researchers found a 58% relative improvement in breast cancer-specific survival and a 30% relative improvement in overall survival with statin use. The median follow-up was 3.3 years for breast cancer-specific survival and 4.4 years for overall survival ... Researchers also found a statistically significant association between lipophilic statins (L-statin: simvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin) and improved overall survival ... We know that statins decrease breast cancer cell division and increase cell death"

Abstracts from this week:

DHA-Rich Fish Oil Increases the Omega-3 Index in Healthy Adults and Slows Resting Heart Rate without Altering Cardiac Autonomic Reflex Modulation - J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Aug 11 - "Participants (N = 20) were supplemented (double-blinded) with (2x1g.day−1) soy oil (Control n = 9) or DHA-rich tuna fish oil (FO n = 11) providing DHA: 560 mg and EPA: 140 mg ... In young healthy adults, dietary achievable doses of ω-3 DHA-rich fish oil exerted a direct slowing effect on resting HR, without compromising the HR response to either dominant sympathetic or parasympathetic modulation" - [Nutra USA] - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com and and iHerb.

Higher dose docosahexaenoic acid supplementation during pregnancy and early preterm birth: A randomised, double-blind, adaptive-design superiority trial - EClinicalMedicine 2021 May 17 - "early preterm birth (EPB, < 34 weeks) ... We hypothesized that 1000 mg DHA per day would be superior to 200 mg, the amount in most prenatal supplements ... The higher dose had a lower EPB rate [1.7% (9/540) vs 2.4% (12/492), pp=0.81] especially if participants had low DHA status at enrolment [2.0% (5/249) vs 4.1%, (9/219), pp=0.93]. Participants with high enrolment DHA status did not realize a dose effect [1000 mg: 1.4% (4/289); 200 mg: 1.1% (3/271), pp = 0.57]. The higher dose was associated with fewer serious adverse events (maternal: chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes and pyelonephritis; neonatal: feeding, genitourinary and neurologic problems, all" - [Nutra USA] - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com and and iHerb.

A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Hydrolyzed Chicken Collagen Type II Supplement in Alleviating Joint Discomfort - Nutrients 2021 Jul 18; - "Joint pain and disease affects more than one in four adults in the United States. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of a hydrolyzed chicken collagen type II (HCII) supplement in reducing joint-related discomfort such as pain and stiffness, and in improving mobility. We enrolled adults aged 40–65 (65.5% were women) who had joint discomfort, but had no co-morbidities, and who were not taking pain medications. The participants were randomized to receive either the HCII supplement (n = 47) or a placebo (n = 43) for eight weeks ... In the WOMAC stiffness and physical activity domains and in the overall WOMAC score, the HCII group had a significant reduction in joint-related discomforts compared with the placebo group. For example, at week 4, the HCII group had a 36.9% reduction in the overall WOMAC score, compared with a 14.3% reduction in the placebo group (p = 0.027). This HCII product is effective in reducing joint pain and stiffness and in improving joint function among otherwise healthy adults" - [Nutra USA] - See chicken collagen ii at Amazon.com, collagen UC-II at Amazon and collagen supplements at Amazon.com.

Quercetin Inhibits the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition through Suppressing Akt Mediated Nuclear Translocation of β-Catenin in Lung Cancer Cell Line - Nutr Cancer 2021 Aug 2 - "Lung cancer is a first leading cause of cancer related death worldwide. Quercetin (QUE) has chemo-preventive effect against a variety of cancers .... Our results suggest that QUE can inhibit the metastatic potential in lung cancer by altering the Akt/MAPK/β-catenin signaling pathway and inhibiting the nuclear translocation of β-catenin" - See quercetin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Quercetin and Allicin Can Alleviate the Hepatotoxicity of Lead (Pb) through the PI3K Signaling Pathway - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 9 - "Lead (Pb) is a common toxic heavy metal pollutant in the environment that seriously endangers the health of animals. The liver is a key target organ affected by Pb toxicity. Plant extracts allicin and quercetin have a strong antioxidant capacity that can promote the excretion of heavy metals by improving the body's antioxidant defense and chelating heavy metal ions ... In summary, allicin and quercetin could alleviate oxidative damage and apoptosis in the Pb-poisoned chicken liver through the PI3K signaling pathway, with stronger effects achieved by their combination" - See quercetin at Amazon.com and iHerb and aged garlic at Amazon.com.

ASCs -derived exosomes loaded with vitamin A and quercetin inhibit rapid senescence-like response after acute liver injury - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Aug 4 - "Acute liver injury is a short-term burst of liver cell damage, which has many causes and complex mechanisms. Despite the unique ability of the liver to heal itself, there is still no effective treatment except liver transplantation for chronic liver injury or even liver failure caused by acute liver injury ... In this study, quercetin and vitamin A loaded adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs)-derived exosomes were constructed and used to treat acute liver injury induced by CCl4 in mice. Quercetin enhances the therapeutic efficacy of exosomes, while vitamin A enhances the liver targeting of exosomes, and it was found that quercetin and vitamin A loaded mesenchymal stem cell exosomes reduce rapid senescence-like response induced by acute liver injury" - See quercetin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Antitumor Effects of Astaxanthin on Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma by up-Regulation of PPARγ - Nutr Cancer 2021 Aug 2 - "Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor that is difficult to find and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to explore the chemoprevention effect of Astaxanthin (AST) and reveal the possible mechanism of AST on the development of esophageal cancer based on PPARγ ... In conclusion, our data suggested that protective effect of AST on esophageal cancer by inhibiting oxidative stress, up-regulating PPARγ, and activating the apoptotic pathway, which could provide a basis for clinical application of AST" - See Astaxanthin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Long-term Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Subjective Cognitive Decline in US Men and Women - Neurology 2021 Jul 28 - "Higher intake of total flavonoids was associated with lower odds of SCD after adjusting for age, total energy intake, major non-dietary factors, and specific dietary factors. Comparing the highest versus the lowest quintiles of total flavonoid intake, the pooled multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) of 3-unit increments in SCD was 0.81 (0.76, 0.89). In the pooled results, the strongest associations were observed for flavones (OR=0.62 [0.57, 0.68]), flavanones (0.64 [0.58, 0.68)]), and anthocyanins (0.76 [0.72, 0.84]) (p trend <0.0001 for all groups). The dose-response curve was steepest for flavones, followed by anthocyanins. Many flavonoid-rich foods, such as strawberries, oranges, grapefruits, citrus juices, apples/pears, celery, peppers, and bananas, were significantly associated with lower odds of SCD" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.

Flavan-3-ol Microbial Metabolites Modulate Proteolysis in Neuronal Cells Reducing Amyloid-beta (1-42) Levels - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Jul 28 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegeneration characterized by extensive protein aggregation and deposition in the brain, associated with defective proteasomal and autophagic-lysosomal proteolytic pathways. Since current drugs can only reduce specific symptoms, the identification of novel treatments is a major concern in AD research. Among natural compounds, (poly)phenols and their derivatives/metabolites are emerging as candidates in AD prevention due to their multiple beneficial effects"

Fisetin for COVID-19 in Skilled Nursing Facilities (COVID-FIS): Senolytic Trials in the COVID Era - J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Aug 10 - "The burden of senescent cells (SnCs), which do not divide but are metabolically active and resistant to death by apoptosis, is increased in older adults and those with chronic diseases. These individuals are also at greatest risk for morbidity and mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 complications include cytokine storm and multi-organ failure mediated by the same factors as often produced by SnCs through their senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP can be amplified by infection-related pathogen-associated molecular profile factors (PAMPs). Senolytic agents, such as Fisetin, selectively eliminate SnCs and delay, prevent, or alleviate multiple disorders in aged experimental animals and animal models of human chronic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and respiratory diseases. Senolytics are now in clinical trials for multiple conditions linked to SnCs, including frailty, obesity/diabetes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular, kidney, and lung diseases, which are also risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality. A clinical trial is underway to test if senolytics decrease SARS-CoV-2 progression and morbidity in hospitalized older adults" - See fisetin at Amazon.com.

Ginsenoside Rb1 induces a pro-neurogenic microglial phenotype via PPARγ activation in male mice exposed to chronic mild stress - J Neuroinflammation 2021 Aug 9 - "Anti-inflammatory approaches are emerging as a new strategy for the treatment of depressive disorders. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of Panax ginseng, can inhibit inflammatory cascade and alleviate depressive-like behaviors. Microglia can promote or inhibit adult hippocampal neurogenesis according to their functional phenotypes ... These findings demonstrated that GRb1 alleviated depressive-like behaviors of CMS-exposed male mice mainly through PPARγ-mediated microglial activation and improvement of adult hippocampus neurogenesis" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Ginsenoside F2 Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Obesity in Mice via the AMPK Pathway - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 3 - "Ginsenoside F2 (GF2) is a protopanaxdiol saponin from Panax ginseng leaves and possesses many potential pharmacological properties. GF2 may prevent obesity by directly binding to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation ... GF2 suppressed adipogenesis and obesity by regulating the expression of adipokines and activating the AMPK pathway. Hence, the findings suggest that GF2 may have potential therapeutic implications to treat obesity" - See Panax ginseng at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Neuroprotective Efficacy of Apple Cider Vinegar on Zinc-High Fat Diet-Induced Mono Amine Oxidase Alteration in Murine Model of AD - J Am Coll Nutr 2021 Jul 29 - "Monoamine Oxidase (MAO), which catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines present in the brain and peripheral tissues, is involved in the metabolism of monoamines and is vital for cognition. This study was designed to examine the protective effect of Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) on MAO and amine neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), non-adrenaline (NA) levels ... The findings suggest that ACV, might prove to be a beneficial nutraceutical & provide a protective effect against Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurological diseases" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com.

The negative relationship of dietary inflammatory index and sleeping quality in obese and overweight women - Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2021 Aug 4 - "Based on the present observational study, obese and overweight females with higher adherence of the anti-inflammatory diet may have better sleeping status"

Serum creatinine levels and risk of nonalcohol fatty liver disease in a middle-aged and older Chinese population: a cross-sectional analysis - Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2021 Aug 3 - "Serum creatinine concentration is independently associated with NAFLD in a middle aged and older Chinese population. Elevated SCr levels, even within normal ranges, were associated with higher risk of NAFLD"

Effects of probiotics on body adiposity and cardiovascular risk markers in individuals with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 3 - "Evidence suggests that gut microbiota is a potential factor in the pathophysiology of both obesity and related metabolic disorders ... The present meta-analysis suggests that probiotics consumption may be helpful for improving body weight, body adiposity and some CVD risk markers in individuals with overweight and obesity" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Effects of Probiotic NVP-1704 on Mental Health and Sleep in Healthy Adults: An 8-Week Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Nutrients 2021, 13(8) - "The human gut microbiome is closely linked to mental health and sleep. We aimed to verify the efficacy and safety of probiotic NVP-1704, a mixture of Lactobacillus reuteri NK33 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis NK98, in improving stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances, along with the measurement of some blood biomarkers. A total of 156 healthy adults with subclinical symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia were retrospectively registered and randomly assigned to receive either NVP-1704 (n = 78) or a placebo (n = 78) for eight week ... After intervention, gut microbiota composition was quantified by pyrosequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The NVP-1704 group had a more significant reduction in depressive symptoms at four and eight weeks of treatment, and anxiety symptoms at four weeks compared to the placebo group. Those receiving NVP-1704 also experienced an improvement in sleep quality. NVP-1704 treatment led to a decrease in serum interleukin-6 levels. Furthermore, NVP-1704 increased Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillacea, whereas it decreased Enterobacteriaceae in the gut microbiota composition. Our findings suggest that probiotic NVP-1704 could be beneficial for mental health and sleep" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Gut Microbiota and Pathophysiology of Depressive Disorder - Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Jul 28 - "Accumulating evidence has suggested that the bi-directional communication pathway, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric diseases including major depressive disorder (MDD) ... There are at least 4 key biological molecules/systems underlying the pathophysiology of MDD: central dopamine, stress responses by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, inflammation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Animal experiments in several depression models have clearly indicated that gut microbiota is closely related to these molecules/systems and administration of probiotics and prebitotics may have beneficial effects on them ... Clinical trials of probiotics have emerged, and the majority of the studies have reported beneficial effects on depression symptoms and related biological markers. Key Messages: The accumulating evidence suggests that research on the microbiota-gut-brain axis in major depressive disorder (MDD) is promising to elucidate the pathophysiology and to develop novel treatment of MDD, although there is still a long distance yet to reach the goals" - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Neuroprotective effects of salidroside on ageing hippocampal neurons and naturally ageing mice via the PI3K/Akt/TERT pathway - Phytother Res 2021 Aug 9 - "Studies have found that salidroside, isolated from Rhodiola rosea L, has various pharmacological activities, but there have been no studies on the effects of salidroside on brain hippocampal senescence ... our findings suggest that salidroside has the potential to be used as a therapeutic strategy for anti-ageing and ageing-related disease treatment" - See Rhodiola rosea at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Potential protective effects of Aloe vera gel on cardiovascular diseases: A mini-review - Phytother Res 2021 Aug 5 - "Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) comprise the most prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality in both men and women worldwide. CVDs are associated with several risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, tobacco smoking and an unhealthy diet. Currently, in addition to the use of related pharmacological treatments in the management of CVDs, the investigation of other suitable healthcare approaches for these disorders such as the identification of herbal medicines has been considered in the scientific communities. Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is a perennial medicinal plant. The innermost leaf layer of this plant contains transparent gel, which is used as food. Pre-clinical studies have shown several biological activities of A. vera gel (AVG), including antidiabetic, lipid-lowering, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, hepatoprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Other pharmacological activities of AVG such as anti-fibrotic, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherosclerotic effects have been reported. Moreover, several clinical studies have demonstrated the ameliorating effects of AVG on some markers of CVDs risk factors" - See aloe vera supplements at Amazon.com.

Curcumin-cisplatin chemotherapy: A novel strategy in promoting chemotherapy efficacy and reducing side effects - Phytother Res 2021 Aug 4 - "The efficacy of chemotherapy in cancer therapy is limited due to resistance, treatment selectivity, and severe adverse effects. Immunotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation, and surgery are the most common therapeutic strategies for treatment, with chemotherapy being the most successful. Nonetheless, these treatments exhibit poor effectiveness due to toxicity and resistance. Therefore, combination therapies of natural products may be used as an effective and novel strategy to overcome such barriers. Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy agent, and when administered alone, it can lead to severe adverse effects and resistance mechanism resulting in therapeutic failure. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa) exhibiting anticancer potential with minimal adverse effects. The combination therapy of curcumin and cisplatin is a novel strategy to mitigate/attenuate cisplatin-related adverse effects and improve the barrier of resistance reducing unwanted effects. However, there are uncertainties on the efficacy of curcumin, and more in depth and high-quality studies are needed" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Regulation on Citrate Influx and Metabolism through Inhibiting SLC13A5 and ACLY: A Novel Mechanism Mediating the Therapeutic Effects of Curcumin on NAFLD - J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 11 - "Upregulated de novo lipogenesis (DNL) plays a pivotal role in the progress of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Cytoplasmic citrate flux, mediated by plasma membrane citrate transporter (SLC13A5), mitochondrial citrate carrier (SLC25A1), and ATP-dependent citrate lyase (ACLY), determines the central carbon source for acetyl-CoA required in DNL. Curcumin, a widely accepted dietary polyphenol, can attenuate lipid accumulation in NAFLD ... These findings confirm that curcumin improves the lipid accumulation in the liver by blocking citrate disposition and hence may be used to prevent NAFLD" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Assessing Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Low-Dose Turmeric Extract Formulation in Healthy Adults with Chronic Knee Pain - Clin Pharmacol 2021 May 21 - "subjects received either 250 mg WDTE60N capsule (150 mg curcuminoids; n = 53) or appearance-matched placebo capsule (n = 53) once daily for 90 days ... A total of 96 subjects completed the study. WDTE60N reduced VAS score from baseline (5.4 ± 0.9) to day 90 (3.8 ± 0.8) with greater mean reduction than placebo (-1.5 ± 0.7 vs -0.6 ± 0.8, p < 0.0001; 2.5 times). It also significantly improved the time taken for 80-m fast-paced walk test and 9-step stair-climb test; and improved all biomarkers compared to placebo" - [Nutra USA] - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation with curcumin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Nutr Rev 2021 Aug 9 - "Chronic inflammation is a major contributor to the development of noncommunicable diseases. Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol from turmeric, is a well-known anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical research ... These findings provide evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin and support further investigation to confirm dose, duration, and formulation to optimize anti-inflammatory effects in humans with chronic inflammation" - See curcumin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Anthocyanin-rich fraction from black rice, Oryza sativa L. var. indica "Luem Pua," bran extract attenuates kidney injury induced by high-fat diet involving oxidative stress and apoptosis in obese rats - Phytother Res 2021 Jul 29 - "Obesity is acknowledged as being a world health problem and increases the risk of several chronic diseases including chronic kidney disease. High-fat diet consumption and obesity-related renal disease show a close correlation with increased oxidative stress. Black rice bran extract, (BRE) Oryza sativa L. variety "Luem Pua" contains a high anthocyanin content ... Male Wistar rats were fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HF) for 16 weeks. After this, the rats were given either vehicle (HF), BRE 100 (HF100) or BRE 200 mg/kg/day (HF200) orally for 8 weeks. The HF rats had increased body weight, visceral fat weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. These parameters were normalized following HF100 administration and showed a decreasing trend with HF200. Serum creatinine and renal cortical MDA were increased in the HF group but these effects were attenuated by BRE. Negative kidney injury and histopathology changes were observed following a HF, but treatment with BRE reversed these deleterious effects. These results suggest that BRE could be used as a food supplement to improve metabolic disturbance and prevent kidney dysfunction in cases of obesity" - See black rice bran extract at Amazon.com.

Potential benefits of Berry Anthocyanins on Vascular function - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Aug 3 - "Cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as hypertension and atherosclerosis, are the leading cause of global death. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a strong predictor for most CVD making it a therapeutic target for both drug and nutrition interventions. It has been previously shown that polyphenols from wine and grape extracts possess vasodilator activities, due to the increased expression and phosphorylation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and consequent vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) production. This is vital in the prevention of endothelial dysfunction, as NO production contributes to the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis. Moreover, polyphenols have the ability to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can cause oxidative stress, as well as suppress the upregulation of inflammatory markers within the endothelium. However, while the majority of the research has focused on red wine, this has overshadowed the potential of other nutritional components for targeting ED, such as the use of berries. Berries are high in anthocyanin flavonoids a subtype of polyphenols with studies suggesting improved vascular function as a result of inducing NO production and reducing oxidative stress and inflammation" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and iHerb.

The levels of hemoglobin are positively associated with arterial stiffness in community-dwelling Chinese adults - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 12 - "The data indicate that high Hb concentration significantly correlate with increased baPWV in general Chinese population"

Leucine induces cardioprotection in vitro by promoting mitochondrial function via mTOR and Opa-1 signaling - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 10 - "Coronary heart disease is a major global health concern. Further, severity of this condition is greatly influenced by myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have cardioprotective effects against I/R via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity, wherein Leu is considered to particularly regulate mTOR activation ... Leu treatment is critical in rendering a cardioprotective effect exhibited by BCAAs via mTOR signaling" - See leucine products at Amazon.com and leucine at iHerb.

Effect of vitamin D supplementation on markers of cardiometabolic risk in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jun 30 - "Vitamin D supplementation appeared to have a beneficial effect on reducing fasting glucose and TG level when total vitamin D supplementation ≥200,000 IU but not HDL-C, LDL-C TC, blood pressure and waist circumferences levels in children and adolescents" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Dietary and serum vitamin D and preeclampsia risk in Chinese pregnant women: a matched case-control study - Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 6 - "this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, frailty, and mortality among the Chinese oldest old: Results from the CLHLS study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jun 12 - "Low serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with higher risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among the oldest old of the Chinese population, and the associations were significantly stronger in individuals with frailty" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

N-3 PUFA-Deficiency in Early Life Exhibits Aggravated MPTP-Induced Neurotoxicity in Old Age While Supplementation with DHA/EPA-Enriched Phospholipids Exerts a Neuroprotective Effect - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Aug 11 - "Malnutrition in early life affects the growth and development of fetus and children, which has a long-term impact on adult health. Previous studies revealed a relationship between dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) content, brain development, and the prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders and inflammation ... Dietary n-3 PUFA-deficiency in early life exhibits more aggravated MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in old age, then DHA/EPA-PLs supplementation recovers brain DHA levels and exerts neuroprotective effects in old age in long-term n-3 PUFA-deficient mice, which might provide a potential dietary guidance" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

The effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on seizure frequency in individuals with epilepsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Jul 30;1-10 - "In order, the duration of the intervention and dosage of omega-3 fatty acid supplement of the included studies ranged from 12 to 42 weeks and 1000-2880 mg/day. Pooled results from the random-effects model indicated that seizure frequency following supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid decreased significantly (WMD: -6.15, 95% CI: -7.78, -4.53, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results of the subgroup analysis revealed that seizure frequency was more alleviated in studies that used a daily dose of 1500 mg or less of omega-3 fatty acids as well as studies that had an intervention duration of more than 16 weeks. More importantly, our findings also showed that the effect of omega-3 intervention was greater in adults than in children with epilepsy" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Dietary and serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and PCOS: A matched case-control study - Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 10 - "omega-3 PUFAs in serum phospholipids were inversely associated with PCOS prevalence, including total, long-chain and individual PUFAs (e.g., docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)). Compared to the lowest tertile (T1), the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest tertile (T3) were 0.63 (0.40, 0.93) for total omega-3 PUFAs, 0.60 (0.38, 0.92) for long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, 0.68 (0.45, 1.01) for DHA, 0.70 (0.45, 1.05) for EPA and 0.72 (0.45, 1.08) for DPA. For dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs, significant inverse associations were found only for long-chain omega-3 PUFAs (p trend = 0.001), EPA (p trend = 0.047) and DHA (p trend = 0.030). Both dietary and serum omega-3 PUFAs, mainly EPA and DPA, were negatively correlated with PCOS-related parameters, such as BMI, fasting insulin, total testosterone and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), but positively correlated with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)" - See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com and iHerb.  Note:  That worries me.  Other sources claim that omega-3 lowers SHBG.

Pectins that Structurally Differ in the Distribution of Methyl-esters Attenuate Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Colitis - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Aug 9 - "Pectins have anti-inflammatory properties on intestinal immunity through direct interactions on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the small intestine or via stimulating microbiota-dependent effects in the large intestine. Both the degree of methyl-esterification (DM) and the distribution of methyl-esters (degree of blockiness; DB) of pectins contribute to this influence on immunity but whether and how the DB impacts immunity through microbiota-dependent effects in the large intestine is unknown ... Pectins prevent C. rodentium-induced colonic inflammation by lowering the C. rodentium load in the caecum independently of the DB" - See pectin supplements at Amazon.com.

Oral Spermidine Targets Brown Fat and Skeletal Muscle to Mitigate Diet-Induced Obesity and Metabolic Disorders - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Aug 7 - "Obesity causes many life-threatening diseases. It is important to develop effective approaches for obesity treatment. Oral supplementation with spermidine retards age-related processes, but its influences on obesity and various metabolic tissues remain largely unknow ... Spermidine serves as an oral supplement to attenuate obesity and metabolic disorders through hypothalamus-dependent or -independent BAT activation and skeletal muscle adaptation" - See spermidine at Amazon.com.

Green Tea Suppresses Amyloid β Levels and Alleviates Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting APP Cleavage and Preventing Neurotoxicity in 5XFAD Mice - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Aug 3 - "Our findings indicated GTE suppresses Aβ levels and alleviates cognitive impairment in 5XFAD mice. These beneficial effects were accompanied by inhibition of APP cleavage pathways, suppression of glial cell activation and pro-inflammatory responses, and a reduction of synapse loss" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com and green tea extract at iHerb.

Daily Dose of Bovine Lactoferrin Prevents Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury and Death in Male Mice by Regulating Hepatic Alcohol Metabolism and Modulating Gut Microbiota - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Jul 30 - "Lactoferrin (Lf) possess a protective potential to liver, but whether it can prevent alcoholic liver injury (ALI) remains unclear ... LLf can ameliorate ALI, which is associated with the regulation of hepatic alcohol metabolism and the modulation of gut microbiota. However, excessive Lf intake may result in a diminished benefit" - See lactoferrin at Amazon.com.

The Association Between Coffee Consumption and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the South Korean General Population - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Jul 28 - "Coffee consumption of >3 cups per day has a protective effect against the development of NAFLD to a certain extent, and a negative association is found between coffee consumed with sugar and creamer and the FIB-4 index score in South Korean adults"

Se-Methylselenocysteine Alleviates Liver Injury in Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Rat Model by Reducing Liver Enzymes, Inhibiting Angiogenesis, and Suppressing Nitric Oxide (NO)/Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) Signaling Pathway - Med Sci Monit 2021 Aug 4 - "Hepatocellular carcinoma is the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of se-methylselenocysteine (MSC) on oncogenesis of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma ... MSC administration alleviated liver injury in a DEN-induced hepatocellular carcinoma rat model through reducing liver enzymes, inhibiting angiogenesis, and suppressing the NO/NOS signaling pathway" - See se-methyl l-selenocysteine at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Associations of homocysteine metabolism with the risk of spinal osteoarthritis progression in postmenopausal women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Aug 10 - "Although homocysteine accumulation is a reported risk factor for several age-related disorders, little is known on its relationship with osteoarthritis (OA) ... Circulating homocysteine and C677T variant in MTHFR are associated with the prevalence rate and ensuing progression, respectively, of spinal OA. These factors may represent potential interventional targets to prevent OA development and improve clinical outcomes" - See homocysteine formula at Amazon.com.

Effects of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris YRC3780 daily intake on the HPA axis response to acute psychological stress in healthy Japanese men - Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Aug 4 - "Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (YRC3780), which is isolated from kefir, has been associated with anti-allergic effects in humans ... Our study suggests that daily intake of YRC3780 improves the HPA axis response to acute psychological stress, which might be associated with a decrease in morning cortisol levels" - See kefir at Amazon.com.

Effects of Empagliflozin on Erythropoiesis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - data from a randomized, placebo controlled study - Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Aug 11 - "Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been shown to significantly reduce heart failure hospitalization (HHF) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality in various cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). SGLT2 inhibition further increased haemoglobin concentration and hematocrit by a yet unknown mechanism and this increase proved as an independent predictor for the CV benefit of these agent ... 44 patients with T2D were randomized into 2 groups and received empagliflozin 10 mg or placebo for a period of 3 months ... Empagliflozin increased hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit with a delayed time kinetic which was most likely attributable to increased erythropoiesis with augmented iron utilization and not hemoconcentration. This might be attributable to reduced tubular glucose reabsorption in response to SGLT2 inhibition possibly resulting in diminished cellular stress as a mechanism for increased renal erythropoietin secretion"

Effects of 1-year Treatment with Canagliflozin on Body Composition and Total Body Water in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Aug 2 - "107 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with canagliflozin 100 mg, as add-on therapy, for 12 months ... plasma volume (PV) ... Body weight showed a significant decrease from 1 month to 12 months of treatment with canagliflozin, with a higher rate of decrease in body fat in body composition. A significant decrease in mineral mass was also observed, but its rate was low. Following treatment with canagliflozin, changes in total body water did not affect intracellular water, and a significant decrease in extracellular water, including plasma components, was observed early and was sustained up to 12 months. Protein mass, a component of muscle mass, was not affected, with only a slight decrease in water volume observed ... Canagliflozin decreased extracellular fluid and PV in addition to decreasing fat in the body via calorie loss resulting from urinary glucose excretion. This study suggested that SGLT2 inhibitors might reduce body weight by regulating fat mass or water distribution in the body and might have cardiac and renal protective effects by resetting the homeostasis of fluid balance" - See canagliflozin at ReliableRXPharmacy.

ATXN7L3B promotes hepatocellular carcinoma stemness and is downregulated by metformin - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Aug 6 - "Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major cause of liver cancer-associated morality. Metformin, used for treating type 2 diabetes, has antitumor activity and reduces the risk of some diabetes-related tumors, such as liver and breast cancer ... metformin reduced ATXN7L3B level in HCC cells. ATXN7L3B expression was significantly negatively correlated with survival in liver cancer patients. We also demonstrated that ATXN7L3B promoted HCC stemness. Metformin treatment decreased ATXN7L3B-induced tumor-initiating ability in a HCC mouse model, implying that metformin may inhibit cancer stemness by downregulating ATXN7L3B. Our study supports the antitumor activity of metformin and its potential as an anticancer drug for HCC treatment" - See metformin at ReliableRX.

Ginkgolide B protects against cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated P8 mice by mitigating oxidative stress, inflammation and ferroptosis - Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 28 - "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a destructive neurodegenerative disease that currently has no effective treatment option available. Ginkgolide B (GB) is a terpene lactone derivative of Ginkgo biloba that possesses neuroprotective effects in various diseases ... GB improved the cognitive dysfunction of SAMP8 mice in the Morris water maze and novel object recognition test, which was associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) pathway-mediated ferroptosis. Furthermore, Ras-selective lethal small molecule 3, a GPX4 inhibitor and ferroptosis inducer, compromised GB-induced cognitive performance in SAMP8 mice. These findings suggested that GB alleviated AD-induced cognitive defects by mitigating oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and ferroptosis, and that the inhibition of ferroptosis is required for GB to have beneficial effects in AD" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.

Is there a relationship between dietary sodium and potassium intake and clinical findings of a migraine headache? - Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 11 - "Migraine Headache Index Score (MHIS) ... After controlling for potential confounders, the 24-hour urine Na was positively associated with a longer headache duration (β=0.29; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53) in the group with the highest urine Na levels as compared to the group with the lowest levels. After adjustments for potential confounders, an increase of 13.05 in the MHIS was observed when the 24-hour urine Na level increased from the first to the third tertile ... Our findings suggested that a higher 24-hour urine Na level was positively associated with a longer duration of migraine headaches and a higher MHIS"

Potential of Olive oil and its phenolic compounds as therapeutic intervention against colorectal cancer: A comprehensive review - Br J Nutr 2021 Aug 2 - "Because of numerous side effects of CRC therapies available now, researchers all over the world looking for alternative treatment/preventive strategy with lesser/no side effects. Olive oil which is part of Mediterranean diet contains numerous phenolic compounds that fight against free radicals and inflammation and also well-known for protective role against CRC. The current review focused on the recent evidences where olive oil and its phenolic compounds such as Hydroxytyrosol, Oleuropein and Oleocanthal showed activities against CRC as well to analyze the cellular and molecular signaling mechanism through which these compounds act on. These compounds shown to combat CRC by reducing proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis through regulation of numerous signaling pathways including MAPK pathway, PI3K-Akt pathway, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway etc. and at the same time induce apoptosis in different CRC model" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.

Effects of dietary tryptophan on muscle growth, protein synthesis, and antioxidant capacity in hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris - Br J Nutr 2021 Jul 29 - "Trp improved muscle growth, protein synthesis as well as antioxidant capacity, which might be partly related to myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), IGFs/PIK3Ca/AKT/TOR, and Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathways" - See l-tryptophan at Amazon.com.

 Dietary sugar intake and risk of Alzheimer's disease in older women - Nutr Neurosci 2021 Jul 30;1-12 - "An estimated increase of 10 g/day in total sugar intake (about 2.4 teaspoons) was associated with an increased AD risk by 1.3-1.4%. Of six subtypes of sugar intake, lactose was significantly associated with AD risk."

 Melatonin induces Nrf2-HO-1 reprogramming and corrections in hepatic core clock oscillations in Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - FASEB J 2021 Sep;35(9):e21803 - "Melatonin pleiotropically regulates physiological events and has a putative regulatory role in the circadian clock desynchrony-mediated Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ... high-fat high fructose (HFHF) diet ... C57BL/6J mice subjected to HFHF and/or JL, and treated with melatonin showed an improvement in the profile of lipid regulatory genes (CPT-1, PPARa, and SREBP-1c), liver function (AST and ALT) and histomorphology of fatty liver ... Melatonin induced changes in oscillations of anti-oxidant genes (Nrf2, HO-1, and Keap1) subtly contributed in the overall improvement in NAFLD recorded herein. Taken together, melatonin induced reprograming of hepatic core clock and Nrf2-HO-1 genes leads to an improvement in HFHF/JL-induced NAFLD" - See melatonin at Amazon.com and iHerb.

The Effects of Limosilactobacillus reuteri LR-99 Supplementation on Body Mass Index, Social Communication, Fine Motor Function, and Gut Microbiome Composition in Individuals with Prader–Willi Syndrome: a Randomized Double-Blinded Placebo-Controlled Trial - Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Jun 11 - "Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder associated with developmental delay, obesity, and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Limosilactobacillus reuteri (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lact. reuteri) has demonstrated anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects in previous studies. In the present study, we aim to evaluate the effects of Lact. reuteri supplementation on body mass index (BMI), social behaviors, and gut microbiota in individuals with PWS ... Participants were randomly assigned to either receive daily Lact. reuteri LR-99 probiotic (6 × 1010 colony forming units) or a placebo sachet ... We found a significant reduction in BMI for the probiotic group at both 6 weeks and 12 weeks relative to the baseline (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed a significant improvement in social communication and interaction, fine motor function, and total ASQ-3 score in the probiotics group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.05). Altered gut microbiota was observed in the probiotic group to favor weight loss and improve gut health. The findings suggest a novel therapeutic potential for Lact. reuteri LR-99 probiotic to modulate BMI, social behaviors, and gut microbiota in Prader-Willi syndrome patients, although further investigation is warranted" - [Nutra USA] - See Limosilactobacillus reuteri at Amazon.com.

Safety and influence of a novel extract of fenugreek on healthy young women: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study - Clinical Phytoscience volume 7, Article number: 63 (2021) - "Earlier studies have shown that the hydro-ethanolic extracts of fenugreek are efficient in the management of a number of hormone related disorders in women, including post and peri-menopausal discomforts, sexual dysfunctions, lactation and even in amenorrhea ... Forty-eight healthy menstruating women aged 20 to 48 were randomized either to FHE (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) and supplemented with 250 mg × 2/day for 42 days. FHE did not produce any side effects or adverse events. It offered significant (P < 0.05) beneficial effects to sexual problems (41.6%) and irritability (40%) among the participants who had higher sexual dysfunctions scores (> 1) when monitored by the validated Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) scale. Further, hormone analysis indicated an enhancement in estradiol (P = 0.040), free testosterone (P = 0.025), and total testosterone (P = 0.012) in FHE group in comparison to placebo. There were no significant changes in progesterone (P = 0.174) and FSH (P = 0.879) upon FHE supplementation. The hematological and biochemical safety parameters were also at par with the safety of the extract" - [Nutra USA] - See fenugreek at Amazon.com and iHerb.

 Effects of l-Theanine on Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged and Older Subjects: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study - Journal of Medicinal FoodVol. 24, No. 4 - "The single dose of l-theanine reduced the reaction time to attention tasks (Stroop test, Part 1), and it increased the number of correct answers and decreased the number of omission errors in working memory tasks (4-Part continuous performance test, Part 4). In conclusion, our study indicated that l-theanine may contribute to improving attention, thus enhancing working memory and executive functions" - [Nutra USA] - See l-theanine at Amazon.com and iHerb.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

We went kayaking in La Jolla a couple Sundays ago. There were more Teslas than you could shake a stick at including a $100,000 model X. One Tesla had a vinyl license plate like this (no affliation). I'm going to try the no-front plate tactic but if I get a warning ticket, I might go this route. It doesn't say whether you can remove it though.

On the carpool stickers, I noticed that most Tesla owners are opting out of that also. They'd rather drive solo in the busy lanes rather than have stickers on their car.


Also, the SnapPlate:

Also the Quick Bandit (no affiliation).  The second video has a 10% discount code:

Health Focus (Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C)):