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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 5/26/21

Study finds women with osteoporosis and low bone density are at increased risk of hearing loss - Science Daily, 5/24/21 - "researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital analyzed data from nearly 144,000 women who were followed for up to 34 years. They found that risk of subsequent moderate or worse hearing loss was up to 40 percent higher in study participants with osteoporosis or LB"

A natural food supplement may relieve anxiety, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/24/21 - "He identified five candidates and tested their effects on behavior in mice. That was how the researchers zeroed in on beta-sitosterol, a plant substance sold as a dietary supplement intended mainly to reduce cholesterol levels ... In a series of behavioral experiments, mice given beta-sitosterol showed much less anxiety than the controls. They were, for example, less fearful than the controls when placed in an illuminated enclosure, daring to walk into its brightly lit center, whereas regular mice were careful to stay on the darker periphery, avoiding the stress of the bright light. Moreover, the mice receiving beta-sitosterol did not exhibit any of the side effects that might be expected from antianxiety medications -- their locomotion was not impaired, and they did not refrain from exploring novel stimuli" - See beta-sitosterol at Amazon.com.

Cancer treatments may accelerate cellular aging - Science Daily, 5/24/21 - "Some individuals may experience epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) that puts them at a higher risk of age-related conditions than other individuals of the same chronological age. Investigators recently examined EAA changes during and following cancer treatment, and they looked for a potential link between these changes and fatigue in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) ... In the study of 133 patients with HNC, half of the patients experienced severe fatigue at some point. EAA was most prominent immediately after radiation therapy, when the average epigenetic age was accelerated by 4.9 years. Increased EAA was associated with elevated fatigue, and patients with severe fatigue experienced 3.1 years higher EAA than those with low fatigue. Also, patients with high levels of markers of inflammation exhibited approximately 5 years higher EAA, and inflammation appeared to account for most of the effects of EAA on fatigue."

Sotagliflozin's HFpEF Benefit Confirmed by New Analyses - Medscape, 5/24/21 - "The meta-analysis (Abstract 410-08) included 4,500 patients with type 2 diabetes and diagnosed heart failure at entry; its primary endpoint, which was the same in both trials, was the combined incidence of cardiovascular death and the total number of either hospitalization for heart failure or urgent outpatient visits for heart failure ... Compared with placebo, treatment with sotagliflozin for a median of about 15 months dropped this composite endpoint by a relative 33% among the 1,931 who began the study with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of at least 50% (HFpEF), by a relative 22% in the 1,758 patients who entered with an LVEF of less than 40% (patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction), and by a relative 43% among the 811 patients who began with an LVEF of 40%-49% (patients with heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction). The relative risk reductions were significant for all three subgroups, Deepak L. Bhatt, MD, reported at the meeting" - Note:  I see where it's been FDA approved for type 2 diabetes but I don't thinks it's arrived at the pharmacies yet.

Mild Cortisol Excess Increases Mortality in Adrenal Incidentaloma - Medscape, 5/24/21 - "Researchers found a linear increase in mortality risk with increasing cortisol values up to 200 nmol/L (7.25 µg/dL) following DST ... Over 14 years, 16.2% (170 patients) died. Compared with cortisol less than 50 nmol/L (1.8 µg/dL) following DST, adjusted hazard ratios for mortality were 2.30 and 3.04 for cortisol levels 83 to 137 nmol/L (3-5 µg/dL) and 138 nmol/L (5 µg/dL) or greater, respectively, and both were significant ... Among the patients who died, causes of death were cardiovascular disease in 38%, cancer in 30%, infection in 4%, and other diseases in 28% ... Patients with post-DST cortisol levels of 83 nmol/L (3 µg/dL) or higher had increased cardiovascular mortality, while those with levels of 50-82 nmol/L (1.8-3.0 µg/dL) did not. In contrast, mortality rates from cancer, infection, and other diseases didn't vary across groups"

Neutrons show a connection between lithium concentrations in the brain and depression - Science Daily, 5/21/21 - "Lithium is familiar to many of us from rechargeable batteries. Most people ingest lithium on a daily basis in drinking water. International studies have shown that a higher natural lithium content in drinking water coincides with a lower suicide rate among the population" - See lithium supplements at Amazon.com.

Final SPRINT Data Confirm Lower BP Is Better - Medscape, 5/20/21 - "Final results from the landmark SPRINT study confirm that aggressive blood pressure (BP) management, targeting a systolic blood pressure (SBP) below 120 mm Hg, significantly reduces the risk for heart disease, stroke, and death from these diseases, as well as death from all causes ... researchers enrolled 9361 adults 50 years and older with a SBP between 130 and 180 mm Hg who were at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but did not have a history of diabetes or stroke. Patients were randomly assigned to an intensive treatment target (SBP < 120 mm Hg) or a standard treatment target (SBP < 140 mm Hg) ... In the final analysis, the rate of the primary outcome was 1.77% per year in the intensive-treatment group and 2.40% per year in the standard-treatment group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.63 - 0.86; P < .001), similar to the earlier SPRINT findings ... All-cause mortality was 1.06% per year in the intensive-treatment group and 1.41% per year in the standard-treatment group"

Why Your Dentist Might Seem Pushy - WebMD, 5/19/21 - "But sometimes dentists escalate to outright fraud. A recent article in the Journal of Insurance Fraud in America put it plainly: “Medicaid fraud is the most lucrative business model in U.S. dentistry today.”"

Brink of a fertility crisis: Scientist says plummeting sperm counts caused by everyday products - CBS, 5/19/21 - "Phthalates are the culprit. Remember that word. Phthalates are chemicals in plastics that lower the bodies’ testosterone. ... Any food product that is passed through a soft tube in the manufacturing process has likely absorbed harmful chemicals that could creep into our bodies ... If you eat unprocessed food, particularly, if you can afford it, organic food, then you are avoiding a lot of exposure ... However, it's not just food. Swan said creams, nail polishes, fragrances and other health, beauty and cleaning products are oozing with phthalates"

Sacubitril/Valsartan: Trending Toward PARADISE Post MI? - Medscape, 5/19/21 - See the graph.  The thing is, ramipril has has an annoying side effect (a hacking cough).  Also notice how Entresto and ramipril compare to the ARB valsartan.

Icing muscle injuries may delay recovery - Science Daily, 5/18/21 - "The research results revealed that applying an ice pack to a severe muscle injury resulting from eccentric contraction may prolong the time it takes to heal ... The cause of this phenomenon is that icing delays the arrival of pro-inflammatory macrophages, which are responsible for the phagocytosis (*5), or removal, of damaged tissue. Furthermore, this makes difficult for the macrophages to sufficiently infiltrate the damaged muscle cells"

Dapagliflozin Misses as Treatment for COVID-19 but Leaves Intriguing Signal for Benefit - Medscape, 5/18/21 - "At the end of 30 days, 11.2% of the dapagliflozin group and 13.8% of the placebo group had an event. By hazard ratio, dapagliflozin was linked to 20% nonsignificant relative protection from events (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.10) ... The trend (P = .168) for the primary endpoint for prevention was reflected in the individual components. For dapagliflozin related to placebo, there were generally similar or greater reductions in new or worsening organ failure (HR, 0.80), cardiac decompensation (HR, 0.81), respiratory decompensation (HR, 0.85), and kidney decompensation (HR, 0.65). None were statistically significant, but the confidence intervals were tight with the upper end never exceeding 1.20 ... Moreover, the relative risk reduction for all-cause mortality moved in the same direction (HR, 0.77 ... In safety analyses, dapagliflozin consistently outperformed placebo across a broad array of safety measure, including any severe adverse event (65% vs. 82%), any adverse event with an outcome of death (32% vs. 48%), discontinuation caused by an adverse event (44% vs. 55%), and acute kidney injury (21% vs. 34%) ... These data show that these drugs are not going to lead to harm, but they might lead to benefit" - See dapagliflozin at reliablerxpharmacy.com.

PARADISE-MI: Sacubitril/Valsartan Can't Beat Ramipril in Patients With Acute MI - Medscape, 5/15/21 - "Treatment with sacubitril/valsartan, a pillar of therapy for patients with chronic heart failure with below-normal ejection fraction, came suggestively close to showing efficacy for preventing cardiovascular death or heart failure events in patients who have just had an MI but have no history of heart failure in a controlled trial with more than 5,600 patients ... Although sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto) fell short of producing a significant benefit, it did show good safety that was similar to the study's comparator treatment, ramipril, an agent from the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor class that is a mainstay of treatment in these patients ... To say that, with no run-in, sacubitril/valsartan is as well tolerated and as safe as one of the best-studied ACE inhibitors – ramipril – in acutely ill MI patients, is a big statement ... This high level of safety without gradual uptitration of sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto) "should lower barriers" to broader use of the dual-drug formulation for its approved indication in patients with chronic heart failure, especially patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction that is below normal. In addition, results from the PARADISE-MI trial suggested that "patients seemed to benefit before they develop heart failure. We couldn't prove that, but we should build on this, and make it easier for patients to use this treatment," Dr. Pfeffer said during a press briefing following his talk at the sessions"

Inflammation a Core Feature of Depression - Medscape, 5/14/21 - "In the largest-ever examination of genetic, environmental, lifestyle, and medical drivers of inflammation in major depressive disorder (MDD), levels of the key inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) were higher in patients with depression than in those with no mental disorder ... Humans with depression also produce more white blood cells, particularly monocytes. The release of these important immune cells into the bloodstream prompts further response elsewhere in the body ... High inflammation levels are associated with autoimmune disorders and can be risk factors for cardiovascular illness or other ailments ... The findings indicate there may be a benefit in including anti-inflammatories in the treatment regimens of patients with MDD whose condition does not respond to antidepressants. Changes to lifestyle and diet, such as adding high-dose fish oil supplements, and increased exercise could help as well" - Makes sense.  If you read my depression page and my inflammation page, the same supplements such as fish oil, quercetin, resveratrol, curcumin, etc., that fight inflammation, also help fight depression.  See omega-3 supplements at Amazon.com.

Study of 70,000 individuals links dementia to smoking and cardiovascular disease - Science Daily, 5/13/21 - "These results suggest that smoking and cardiovascular disease impact verbal learning and memory throughout adulthood, starting as early as age 18 ... Smoking is associated with decreased learning and memory function in women, while cardiovascular is associated with decreased learning and memory function in men"

Long term use of prescription meds for insomnia not linked to better quality sleep - Science Daily, 5/11/21 - "After 1 year, average ratings among those taking the meds were 2.6, 3.6, and 2.8, respectively. The equivalent average scores among those not using prescription meds for their sleep problems were 2.3, 3.5, and 2.5, respectively ... None of the 1 year changes was statistically significant nor did they differ between the two groups. And after 2 years there were no statistically significant reductions in sleep disturbances among those taking prescription meds compared with those who didn't"

TMS 'Surprisingly Effective' for Resistant Depression - Medscape, 5/12/21 - "In the analysis of patient self-reports (PHQ-9), the response rate, which was defined as resolution of 50% or more of symptoms, was from 58% to 69%. The remission rate, defined as becoming asymptomatic or having minimal symptoms, ranged from 28% to 36% ... Results were about 5% higher in the "completer" sample, which included 3814 patients who received at least 20 treatments and who completed a PHQ-9 assessment at the end the treatment course."

How one of the oldest natural insecticides keeps mosquitoes away - Science Daily, 5/11/21 - "One of the oldest insecticides known, pyrethrum comes from the dried, crushed flowers of certain chrysanthemum species. Pyrethrum breaks down quickly in sunlight and isn't readily absorbed through the skin, so the insecticide has long been considered one of the safer options for use around children and pets ... What makes pyrethrum toxic to mosquitoes has been known for some time. It works by binding to tiny pores in the insects' nerve cells and paralyzing them on contact. But it has another property whose mode of action is more of a mystery. At lower concentrations it protects not by killing mosquitoes but by preventing them from getting close enough to land and bite in the first place" - See pyrethrum at Amazon.com.

Tips for Navigating Prior Authorization and Out-of-Pocket Costs for HFrEF Medications - Medscape, 5/11/21 - "Moreover, in the past decade, a series of large randomized trials have shown the efficacy of newer classes of medications in improving health outcomes of patients with HFrEF. These newer medications include the I f inhibitor ivabradine (SHiFT study); the angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) sacubitril-valsartan (PARADIGM-HF and PIONEER-HF trials); the sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors dapagliflozin (DAPA-HF study) and empagliflozin (EMPEROR-Reduced trial); and the soluble guanylate cyclase activator vericiguat (VICTORIA trial) ... Although these new treatment options for HFrEF are proven to be safe and well tolerated across a wide range of patients, there are obstacles to their widespread use — namely, the high cost of these drugs, prior authorization requirements, and out-of-pocket fees. Not only must patients often first obtain approval from their insurance companies for these prescriptions, but they are also required to pay greater out-of-pocket costs for them than generic drugs. Perhaps not surprisingly, the use of generic ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers for HFrEF remains high, whereas uptake of ivabradine and sacubitril-valsartan continues to be slow and SGLT2 inhibitors are only just beginning to be prescribed." - See dapagliflozin at ReliableRXPharmacy.  They don't carry empagliflozin, which in my view is better.  I read somewhere that India would no longer sell generic versions after a certain patent date until that drug goes generic.  I think that's the problem with buying generic empagliflozin from India.

'Calcium Imbalance' Linked to Bipolar Severity - Medscape, 5/11/21 - "The findings also highlight the importance of routinely assessing PTH, vitamin D, and calcium levels in patients with BD as a marker of clinical severity ― and may point to vitamin D "as a valid add-on treatment for these patients," Palummo added" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

What you need to know about research linking sleep deprivation and dementia - Washington Post, 5/8/21 - "In the study, European researchers followed nearly 8,000 people in Britain for 25 years, starting when subjects were 50. They found that those who consistently got six hours of sleep or less per night in their 50s and 60s were about 30 percent more likely to develop dementia later in life, compared to those who logged seven hours of sleep per night. That was independent of “sociodemographic, behavioural, cardiometabolic, and mental health factors,” the study authors wrote"

Abstracts from this week:

Lactoferrin Is a Potential Activator of the Vitamin D Receptor in Its Regulation of Osteogenic Activities in C57BL/6J Mice and MC3T3-E1 Cells - J Nutr 2021 May 12 - "Lactoferrin (LF) has been shown to promote bone anabolism, and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the effects of vitamin D on bone. We hypothesized that LF improves bone health by increasing VDR expression ... In vivo and in vitro, LF, a potential activator of VDR, promotes osteogenesis. This suggests that dairy products, which are rich in LF, may serve as a functional food to improve bone health" - See lactoferrin at Amazon.com.

Lactoferrin for Mental Health: Neuro-Redox Regulation and Neuroprotective Effects across the Blood-Brain Barrier with Special Reference to Neuro-COVID-19 - J Diet Suppl 2021 May 12 - "Overall mental health depends in part on the blood-brain barrier, which regulates nutrient transfer in-and-out of the brain and its central nervous system. Lactoferrin, an innate metal-transport protein, synthesized in the substantia nigra, particularly in dopaminergic neurons and activated microglia is vital for brain physiology. Lactoferrin rapidly crosses the blood-brain barrier via receptor-mediated transcytosis and accumulates in the brain capillary endothelial cells. Lactoferrin receptors are additionally present on glioma cells, brain micro-vessels, and neurons. As a regulator of neuro-redox, microglial lactoferrin is critical for protection/repair of neurons and healthy brain function. Iron imbalance and oxidative stress are common among patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, depression, and multiple sclerosis. As an endogenous iron-chelator, lactoferrin prevents iron accumulation and dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease patients. Oral lactoferrin supplementation could modulate the p-Akt/PTEN pathway, reduce Aβ deposition, and ameliorate cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are widely reported in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and multiple sclerosis patients with aggravated clinical outcomes. Lactoferrin, credited with several neuroprotective benefits in the brain could serve as a potential adjuvant in the clinical management of Neuro-COVID-19" - See lactoferrin at Amazon.com.

Dietary n-3 PUFA Deficiency Increases Vulnerability to Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Male C57BL/6 Mice - J Nutr 2021 May 12 - "DHA (22:6n-3), a long-chain n-3 PUFA, is essential for normal brain development and function. Our previous study demonstrated that DHA significantly improves scopolamine-induced dementia ... Dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency significantly decreases brain DHA concentrations and increases vulnerability to scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in C57BL/6 male mice" - See docosahexaenoic acid at Amazon.com.

Citicoline and Memory Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial - J Nutr 2021 May 12 - "Supplementation of citicoline (CDP-choline), a naturally occurring mononucleotide, has shown beneficial effects on memory function and behavior in populations with a wide range of impairments ... age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) ... A total of 100 healthy men and women aged between 50 and 85 y with AAMI participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized to receive placebo (n = 51) or citicoline (n = 49; 500 mg/d) for 12 wk ... After the 12-wk intervention, participants supplemented with citicoline showed significantly greater improvements in secondary outcomes of episodic memory (assessed by the Paired Associate test), compared with those on placebo (mean: 0.15 vs. 0.06, respectively, P = 0.0025). Composite memory (secondary outcome), calculated using the scores of 4 memory tests, also significantly improved to a greater extent following citicoline supplementation (mean: 3.78) compared with placebo ... Dietary supplementation of citicoline for 12 wk improved overall memory performance, especially episodic memory, in healthy older males and females with AAMI. The findings suggest that regular consumption of citicoline may be safe and potentially beneficial against memory loss due to aging" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.

Long-Term Administration of Metformin Ameliorates Age-Dependent Oxidative Stress and Cognitive Function in Rats - Behav Brain Res 2021 May 6 - "Recently, metformin, as the first-line treatment for type II diabetes, has been shown to increase the life expectancy of diabetic patients ... 32 normal male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control and metformin groups ... It can be concluded that long-term metformin intake, by modulating the oxidant/antioxidant mechanisms, prevents the loss of hippocampal neurons caused by age-dependent oxidative stress and improves memory" - See metformin at ReliableRX.

Predicting risk of erectile dysfunction in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease - Andrologia 2021 May 5 - "NAFLD was found to be a significantly independent associated with ED. We also found that patients with NAFLD have risk of ED 2.92 times higher than without NAFLD (OR: 2.92). For the patients presenting with erectile dysfunction, hepatic steatosis should also be considered"

Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and bone health: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Nutr J 2021 May 5 - "The meta-analysis showed that SSBs consumption such as carbonated beverages were inversely related to BMD in adults"

Progresses in both basic research and clinical trials of NAD+ in Parkinson's disease - Mech Ageing Dev 2021 May 11 - "The decline of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels is a hallmark of aging in multiple organisms and tissues, including the human brain. Hence, agents that increase intracellular NAD + could have beneficial effects in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Disturbances in NAD + metabolism have also been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD), supporting a link between neuronal bioenergetics failure and disease pathogenesis" - See nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide at Amazon.com.

Supplementation with phosphatidylethanolamine confers anti-oxidant and anti-aging effects via hormesis and reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling in C. elegans - Mech Ageing Dev 2021 May 8 - "Phosphatidylethanolamine is a major component of phospholipids with both structural and metabolic functions in cells. Previous studies have revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine can modulate autophagy with a protective effect against age-related diseases. We examined the effect of dietary supplementation with phosphatidylethanolamine on stress response and aging in Caenorhabditis elegans ... Both mean and maximum lifespans were significantly increased by phosphatidylethanolamine while fertility was reduced as a trade-off. Age-related decline of muscle function was delayed in animals treated with phosphatidylethanolamine. Supplementation with phosphatidylethanolamine suppressed toxic effect of amyloid β and high-glucose diet. Increased ROS levels and induction of stress-responsive genes after dietary supplementation with phosphatidylethanolamine suggest that anti-oxidative stress and anti-aging effects of phosphatidylethanolamine might be though hormesis. Genetic analysis using long-lived mutants and knockdown by RNAi revealed that the lifespan-extending effect of phosphatidylethanolamine overlapped with that of reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling and required DAF-16, a downstream transcription factor known to regulate the expression of many stress-responsive genes. These findings indicate that phosphatidylethanolamine has anti-oxidative stress and anti-aging activities with its underlying mechanisms involving hormesis and reduced insulin/IGF-1-like signaling in C. elegans" - Note:  I couldn't find phosphatidylethanolamine supplements.  Phosphatidylcholine complex may contain it. I need to study up on  it but Google doesn't show much. - See phosphatidylcholine at Amazon.com.

Effects of garlic powder supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, insulin resistance, fatty liver index, and appetite in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized clinical trial - Phytother Res 2021 May 11 - "The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing. It is closely linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Garlic consumption as a strategy for the management of MetS has been suggested ... Ninety subjects were assigned to receive 1,600 mg/d garlic powder or placebo for 3 months ... Garlic supplementation compared with the placebo led to a significant increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (4.5 vs. -1.8, p < .001) and a significant reduction in waist circumference (-1.3 vs. 0.0, p = .001), diastolic blood pressure (-6.7 vs. 0.0, p < .001), systolic blood pressure (-7.7 vs. 0.5, p < .001), triglyceride (-40.0 vs. 0.1, p < .001), γ-glutamyl transferase (-3.2 vs. 0.6, p = .01), FLI (-5.5 vs. 0.1, p < .001), insulin (-2.9 vs. -1.1, p < .001), homeostatic model of assessment for insulin resistance (-0.5 vs. -0.3, p < .001) and appetite (hunger: -11.7 vs. 1.7, p < .001; fullness: 10.0 vs. 0.3, p = .001; desire to eat: -6.7 vs. 2.1, p < .001; and ability to eat: -11.5 vs. -1.0, p < .001). Garlic improves MetS components, insulin resistance, FLI, and appetite" - See garlic powder capsules at Amazon.com.

Curcumin Attenuates Sarcopenia in Chronic Forced Exercise Executed Aged Mice by Regulating Muscle Degradation and Protein Synthesis with Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects - J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 5 - "The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of spray dry powders of Curcuma longa containing 40% curcumin (CM-SD), as a new aqueous curcumin formula, on sarcopenia in chronic forced exercise executed 10 month old ICR mice. CM-SD (80 and 40 mg/kg) increased calf thicknesses and strengths, total body and calf protein amounts, and muscle weights in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. mRNA expressions regarding muscle growth and protein synthesis were induced, while those of muscle degradation significantly declined in CM-SD treatment. CM-SD decreased serum biochemical markers, lipid peroxidation, and reactive oxygen species and increased endogenous antioxidants and enzyme activities. It also reduced immunoreactive myofibers for apoptosis and oxidative stress markers but increased ATPase in myofibers. These results suggest that CM-SD can be an adjunct therapy to exercise-based remedy that prevents muscle disorders including sarcopenia by anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation-mediated modulation of gene expressions related to muscle degradation and protein synthesis" - See curcumin at Amazon.com.

A Novel Potent Sleep-promoting Effect of Turmeric: Turmeric Increases Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice Via H 1 -receptor Blockade - Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 May 18 - "turmeric extract (TE) ... TE has a sleep-promoting effect owing to reduction in sleep latency and enhancement of NREMS via H1 R blockade; therefore, it could be useful in insomnia" - See turmeric extract at Amazon.com.

Causal Effects of N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Age-related Macular Degeneration: A Mendelian Randomization Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 13 - "Our study provided genetic evidence that circulating LA accounted for protective effects of n-6 PUFAs against the risk of AMD, whereas AA was responsible for deleterious effects on higher AMD risk"

Free triiodothyronine /free thyroxine ratio as an index of deiodinase type 1 and 2 activities negatively correlates with casual serum insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Endocr J 2021 May 11 - "Free triiodothyronine/free thyroxine (FT3/FT4) ratio is considered as an index of the activities of iodothyronine deiodinase types 1 and 2 (DIO1 and DIO2, respectively) and is reportedly associated with insulin resistance in euthyroid adult ... The FT3/FT4 ratio was independently associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone, casual plasma glucose, and casual insulin levels. In terms of the regression coefficients of the univariate linear regression analysis, the FT3/FT4 ratio negatively correlated with the casual serum insulin levels. Therefore, the risk of FT3/FT4 ratio underestimation should be considered when diagnosing Graves' disease, which is often accompanied with insulin resistance" -

Comparison of morning versus evening aerobic-exercise training on heart rate recovery in treated hypertensive men: a randomized controlled trial - Blood Press Monit 2021 May 7 - "Heart rate recovery (HRR) is a marker of cardiac autonomic regulation and an independent predictor of mortality. Aerobic-exercise training conducted in the evening (evening training) produces greater improvement in resting cardiac autonomic control in hypertensives than morning training, suggesting it may also result in a faster autonomic restoration postexercise ... Only evening training increased HRR60s and HRR300 differently from control after morning CPET (+4 ± 5 and +7 ± 8 bpm, respectively, P < 0.05) and only evening training increased HRR300s differently from morning training and control after evening CPET (+8 ± 6 bpm, P < 0.05). Evening training improves HRR in treated hypertensive men, suggesting that this time of day is better for eliciting cardiac autonomic improvements via aerobic training in hypertensives"

Mulberry leaf activates brown adipose tissue and induces browning of inguinal white adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic rats through regulating AMPK signaling pathway - Br J Nutr 2021 May 11 - "Activation of brown adipocytes and browning of white adipocytes are considered as a promising molecular target for T2DM treatment. Mulberry leaf, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been demonstrated to have multi-biological activities, including anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Our experiment results showed that mulberry leaf significantly alleviated the disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats including reducing body weight (BW) gain, Lee's index, food intake, inguinal white adipose tissue (IWAT) accumulation, blood lipid fasting insulin level and fasting blood glucose level, increasing the ratios of brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass to BW, and improving insulin sensitivity and liver function. In addition, mulberry leaf induced browning of IWAT by enhancing the expressions of brown-mark genes as well as beige-specific genes, including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing protein 16 (PRDM16), cell death inducing DFFA like effector A (Cidea), CD137 and transmembrane protein 26 (TMEM26). Mulberry leaf also activated BAT by increasing the expressions of brown-mark genes including UCP1, PGC-1α, PPARα, PRDM16 and Cidea. Moreover, mulberry leaf enhanced the expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) genes that are responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis in IWAT and BAT. Importantly, mulberry leaf also increased the expression of UCP1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) protein in both IWAT and BAT via a mechanism involving Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and PGC-1α pathway. In conclusion, our findings identify the role of mulberry leaf in inducing adipose browning, indicating that mulberry leaf may be used as a candidate browning agent for the treatment of T2DM" - See Mulberry leaf extract.

Usefulness of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for Primary Prevention of Heart Failure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Am J Cardiol 2021 May 15 - "The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) empagliflozin, canagliflozin, and dapagliflozin reduce the risk of heart failure (HF) events in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) at high risk for HF. Differences in HF outcomes between SGLT2i were demonstrated in a recent-published meta-analysis ... Our findings suggest that between the available SGLT2i, the cost of primary prevention of HF in patients with DM at high risk for HF is lowest with empagliflozin" - See dapagliflozin at ReliableRXPharmacy.  They don't carry empagliflozin, which in my view is better.  I read somewhere that India would no longer sell generic versions after a certain patent date until that drug goes generic.  I think that's the problem with buying generic empagliflozin from India.

Effect of empagliflozin on cardiorenal outcomes and mortality according to body-mass index: A subgroup analysis of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial with a focus on Asia - Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 May 5 - "Overall, hazard ratios for empagliflozin versus placebo for all-cause mortality, HHF or CV death, and incident or worsening nephropathy were 0.68 (95% CI 0.57, 0.82), 0.66 (0.55, 0.79), and 0.61 (0.53, 0.70), respectively, and were consistent across BMI categories (P-values for interaction between treatment and BMI: 0.6772, 0.3087, and 0.6265, respectively). Results were similar in Asians using these BMI categories and < 24, 24 to <28, ≥28 kg/m2 categories. Thus, empagliflozin reduced cardiorenal and mortality risk regardless of BMI at baseline, including in Asians with lower BMI"

The effects of wheat germ consumption on mental health and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - Nutr Neurosci 2021 May 13 - "Eighty participants with T2DM were randomly allocated to receive 20 g wheat germ (n = 40) or placebo (n = 40) in a randomized double-blind clinical trial for 12 weeks ... a significant increase in serum BDNF concentrations was observed in the wheat germ group ... wheat germ consumption for 12 weeks could significantly reduce the stress and depression scores but had no significant effects on anxiety scale and anthropometric outcomes in patients with T2DM" - See wheat germ at Amazon.com.

Grape seed extract effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and dark neurons production in old mice. Can this extract improve learning and memory in aged animals? - Nutr Neurosci 2021 May 10 - "During the elderly, hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis reduce and dark neurons (DNs) increase, leading to cognitive impairment. It is believed that natural products can protect the neural cells and system by protecting from damages or promoting regeneration ... Consuming GSE in the elderly can potentially alleviate the age-related reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. It is also able to decrease hippocampal DNs production and increase memory and learning" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.

Human Milk Oligosaccharides Support Normal Bowel Function and Improve Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter, Open-Label Trial - Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2020 Dec;11 - "Patients received daily orally administrated 5-g intervention of the HMOs 2'-fucosyllactose and lacto-N-neotetraose in a 4:1 mix ... Patients had a significant improvement from baseline to 12 weeks in total percentage of bowel movements with abnormal stool consistency (mean and [95% confidence interval]: 90.7 [88.9–92.9] vs 57.2% [53.9–60.5], P < 0.0001), overall IBS Symptom Severity Score (323 [314–332] vs 144 [133–155], P < 0.0001) and health-rela,ted quality of life (50.4 [48.0–52.8] vs 74.6 [72.3–76.9], P < 0.0001). Improvement was similar across IBS subtypes. Symptoms improved most in the first 4 weeks of intervention. The most common side effects were mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as flatulence, abdominal pain and discomfort, and distension" -  [Nutra USA] - See human milk oligosaccharides at Amazon.com.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

Zoom virtual office, free with watermark, $10 without the watermark: https://www.zoomvirtualoffice.com/ . You'll need a green background for it to work well: https://amzn.to/2PNEL8F and a tension rod: https://amzn.to/3uiogR5 .  Also, my favorite  light: https://amzn.to/3ul2I69

Health Focus (Alpha Lipoic Acid):