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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 5/13/20

Does Vitamin D Protect Against COVID-19? - Medscape, 5/11/20 - "There are laboratory (cell-culture) studies of respiratory cells that document some of these effects of vitamin D. There's also evidence that patients with respiratory infections tend to have lower blood levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D ... There's now some evidence from COVID-19 patients as well. In an observational study from three South Asian hospitals, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was much higher among those with severe COVID illness compared with those with mild illness. In fact, there was about an eightfold higher risk of having severe illness among those who entered with vitamin D deficiency compared with those who had sufficient vitamin D levels ... There's also evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation looking at acute respiratory tract infections (upper and lower). This was published in the British Medical Journal 2 years ago, showing that vitamin D supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in these respiratory tract infections. Overall, it was only a 12% reduction, but among the participants who had profound vitamin D deficiency at baseline (such as a blood level of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D of less than 10 ng/mL), there was a 70% lower risk of respiratory infection with vitamin D supplementation." - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Coffee Drinking Linked With Fewer Arrhythmias - Medscape, 5/8/20 - "on average each additional daily cup of coffee that people said they drank reduced the incidence of arrhythmic episodes by a statistically significant 3%, compared with those who drank fewer daily cups. The relationship held for people who reported drinking as many as five or six cups of coffee daily"

Vitamin D linked to low virus death rate, study finds - Science Daily, 5/7/20 - "Previous observational studies have reported an association between low levels of vitamin D and susceptibility to acute respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D modulates the response of white blood cells, preventing them from releasing too many inflammatory cytokines. The COVID-19 virus is known to cause an excess of pro-inflammatory cytokines ... We found a significant crude relationship between average vitamin D levels and the number COVID-19 cases, and particularly COVID-19 mortality rates, per head of population across the 20 European countries ... Vitamin D has been shown to protect against acute respiratory infections, and older adults, the group most deficient in vitamin D, are also the ones most seriously affected by COVID-19 ... A previous study found that 75% of people in institutions, such as hospitals and care homes, were severely deficient in vitamin D. We suggest it would be advisable to perform dedicated studies looking at vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with different degrees of disease severity" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Certain foods common in diets of US adults with inflammatory bowel disease - Science Daily, 5/6/20 - "Foods, such as French fries, cheese, cookies, soda, and sports and energy drinks, are commonly found in the diets of United States adults with inflammatory bowel disease"

FDA Approves Dapagliflozin (Farxiga) for Low-EF Heart Failure - Medscape, 5/6/20 - "In that study, treatment with dapagliflozin led to about a one fourth reduction in risk of a primary endpoint consisting primarily of CV death or heart-failure hospitalization in patients with chronic HFrEF, in both those with and without diabetes ... The latest approval for patients with NYHA functional class 3-4 HFrEF makes dapagliflozin the only SGLT2 inhibitor to be indicated for heart failure in the absence of diabetes ... We have to think of this as a drug that you would prescribe like an ACE inhibitor, or a beta-blocker, or a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, or sacubitril/valsartan [Entresto, Novartis]"

More berries, apples and tea may have protective benefits against Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 5/5/20 - "The research team determined that low intake of three flavonoid types was linked to higher risk of dementia when compared to the highest intake. Specifically: Low intake of flavonols (apples, pears and tea) was associated with twice the risk of developing ADRD ... Low intake of anthocyanins (blueberries, strawberries, and red wine) was associated with a four-fold risk of developing ADRD ... Low intake of flavonoid polymers (apples, pears, and tea) was associated with twice the risk of developing ADRD ... The results were similar for AD" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com.

US Calls Ingredients in Some Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizers Unsafe - Medscape, 5/1/20 - "The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on April 15 issued limits on certain chemicals permitted in alcohol-based hand sanitizer, updating temporary guidance it adopted last month as the health crisis deepened and more manufacturers registered to produce hand sanitizer ... Since then, the FDA has notified several fuel ethanol companies that their product does not meet safety standards, forcing them to halt production and cancel supply agreements ... In one case, the FDA said it had found significant levels of the carcinogen acetaldehyde in ethanol supplied by a company for use in hand sanitizer ... FDA has reviewed your ethanol data and determined that it is not acceptable as an ingredient under the Agency's temporary hand sanitizer policies" - See the write-up in my 3/18/20 newsletter about using 120 proof Vodka (Everclear at BevMo) with 1-ounce spray bottles from Amazon because of the concerns about it being absorbed into the bloodstream.

Plant extract combo may relieve hangover symptoms - Science Daily, 4/30/20 - "The plant extracts included Barbados cherry (Acerola), prickly pear, ginkgo biloba, willow and ginger root. The vitamins and minerals included magnesium, potassium, sodium bicarbonate, zinc, riboflavin, thiamin and folic acid ... The first group (69) were given a supplement containing the plant extracts, vitamins and minerals, and additional antioxidant compounds -- steviol glycosides and inulin. The second group (76) were given a supplement minus the plant extracts, while the third group (69) were given glucose alone (placebo) ... But compared with the glucose only supplement, those taking the full supplement of plant extracts, minerals/vitamins, and antioxidants reported less severe symptoms ... Average headache intensity was 34% less, nausea 42% less, while feelings of indifference fell by an average of 27% and restlessness by 41%. No significant differences or reductions were reported for any of the other symptoms ... No significant difference in any symptom was reported by those taking the supplement minus the plant extracts, suggesting that plant extracts were largely responsible for the observed changes"

Immune-regulating drug improves gum disease in mice - Science Daily, 4/28/20 - "Rapamycin is an immune-suppressing drug currently used to prevent organ rejection in transplant recipients. Previous studies in mice have also suggested that it may have life-extending effects, which has led to interest in studying the drug's effects in many age-related diseases ... added the drug to the food of middle-aged mice for eight weeks and compared their oral health with untreated mice of the same age ... the treated mice had more bone than the untreated mice, and had actually grown new bone during the period they were receiving rapamycin ... The work also showed that rapamycin-treated mice had less gum inflammation. Genetic sequencing of the bacteria in their mouths also revealed that the animals had fewer bacteria associated with gum disease and a mix of oral bacteria more similar to that found in healthy young mice ... By targeting this aging process through rapamycin treatment, our work suggests that we can delay the progress of gum disease and actually reverse its clinical features ... while rapamycin is already used to treat certain conditions, it can make people more susceptible to infections and may increase their risk of developing diabetes, at least at the higher chronic doses typically taken by organ transplant patients" - See Sirolimus at reliablerxpharmacy.

  • Sirolimus - wiki - "Sirolimus, also known as rapamycin, is a macrolide compound that is used to coat coronary stents, prevent organ transplant rejection and treat a rare lung disease called lymphangioleiomyomatosis.[4][5][6] It has immunosuppressant functions in humans and is especially useful in preventing the rejection of kidney transplants"

Abstracts from this week:

Vitamin D’s Effect on Immune Function - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 28 - "In vitro, the overwhelming effect of supra-physiological doses of vitamin D on the individual components of the immune system is very clear. Despite these promising pre-clinical results, the translation of the in vitro observations to solid clinical effects has mostly failed. Nevertheless, the evidence of a link between vitamin D deficiency and adverse outcomes is overwhelming and clearly points towards avoidance of vitamin D deficiency especially in early life" - [Nutra USA} - vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Key Vitamin D Target Genes with Functions in the Immune System - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 19 - "The biologically active form of vitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), modulates innate and adaptive immunity via genes regulated by the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR)" - [Nutra USA}

Schisandra Extract and Ascorbic Acid Synergistically Enhance Cognition in Mice through Modulation of Mitochondrial Respiration - Nutrients. 2020 Mar 25 - "Here, we demonstrate that a mixture of Schisandra chinensis extract (SCE) and ascorbic acid (AA) improved cognitive function and induced synaptic plasticity-regulating proteins by enhancing mitochondrial respiration. Treatment of embryonic mouse hippocampal mHippoE-14 cells with a 4:1 mixture of SCE and AA increased basal oxygen consumption rate. We found that mice injected with the SCE-AA mixture showed enhanced learning and memory and recognition ability. We further observed that injection of the SCE-AA mixture in mice significantly increased expression of postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), an increase that was correlated with enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. These results demonstrate that a mixture of SCE and AA improves mitochondrial function and memory, suggesting that this natural compound mixture could be used to alleviate AD and aging-associated memory decline" - [Nutra USA] - See Schizandra at Amazon.com and Schizandra at iHerb.com and vitamin C products at Amazon.com and vitamin C at iHerb.com.

Editorial: low population mortality from COVID‐19 in countries south of latitude 35 degrees North supports vitamin D as a factor determining severity - Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 20 Apr 2020 - "Evidence that vitamin D might protect against infection is modest but it is important to note that the hypothesis is not that vitamin D would protect against SARS‐CoV‐2 infection but that it could be very important in preventing the cytokine storm and subsequent acute respiratory distress syndrome that is commonly the cause of mortality ... Research is urgently needed to assess whether there may be a correlation between vitamin D status and severity of COVID‐19 disease. Meanwhile, the evidence supporting a protective effect of vitamin D against severe COVID‐19 disease is very suggestive, a substantial proportion of the population in the Northern Hemisphere will currently be vitamin D deficient, and supplements, for example, 1000 international units (25 micrograms) per day are very safe. It is time for governments to strengthen recommendations for vitamin D intake and supplementation, particularly when under lock‐down" - [Nutra USA] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

Xerostomia: prevention with Pycnogenol® supplementation: a pilot study - Minerva Stomatol. 2019 Dec;68 - "In total, 48 subjects were included in the study; 24 diabetics and 24 non-diabetics. 12 diabetics and 12 non-diabetics took Pycnogenol® and 12 diabetics and 12 non-diabetics were followed up with standard management only and served as controls. No side effects and no tolerability problems were observed with Pycnogenol®. The registry groups were comparable for characteristics and symptoms at baseline. All otherwise healthy subjects had a BMI<26 kg/m2. In 2 weeks, salivary flow and oxidative stress improved significantly in both groups of subjects (non-diabetics and diabetics) with 150 mg/day Pycnogenol® (P<0.05), while minimal improvements in salivary flow were seen with SM. The subjective score and the number of mucosal breaks and ulcerations, all minimal (<1 mm in length or diameter), were significantly decreased with Pycnogenol® supplementation (P<0.05) with minimal variations in the SM controls. Finally, the mean lysozyme level in parotid saliva samples was significantly increased in the Pycnogenol® group (P<0.05) both in diabetics and non-diabetics" - [Nutra USA] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com and Pycnogenol at iHerb.com.

Reduced Vitamin K Status as A Potentially Modifiable Prognostic Risk Factor in COVID-19 - pharmacology & toxicology 24 Apr 2020 - "We hypothesized that vitamin K status is reduced in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: Vitamin K status was assessed by measuring desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP; inversely related to vitamin K status) and the rate of elastin degradation by measuring desmosine. We included 123 patients who were admitted with COVID-19 and 184 controls. Results: Dp-ucMGP levels were significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients (1,673Å}1,584 pmol/L) compared to controls (536±291 pmol/L; p<0.0005). Dp-ucMGP levels were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with unfavorable outcome compared to those with less severe disease. Furthermore, dp-ucMGP and desmosine levels were significantly associated (r=0.65; p<0.0005). Conclusions: Vitamin K status was reduced in patients with COVID-19 and related to poor prognosis. Also, low vitamin K status seems to be associated with accelerated elastin degradation. An intervention trial is now needed to assess whether vitamin K administration improves outcome in patients with COVID-19" -  [Nutra USA] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com and vitamin K at iHerb.com.

Blueberry Prevents the Bladder Dysfunction in Bladder Outlet Obstruction Rats by Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Suppressing Bladder Remodeling - Nutrients. 2020 May 1 - "Various berries demonstrate antioxidant activity, and this effect is expected to prevent chronic diseases. We examined whether a diet containing blueberry powder could prevent the development of bladder dysfunction secondary to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Eighteen 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham (sham operated + normal diet), N-BOO (BOO operated + normal diet) and B-BOO (BOO operated + blueberry diet). Four weeks after BOO surgery, the N-BOO group developed bladder dysfunction with detrusor overactivity. The B-BOO group showed significantly improved micturition volume and micturition interval. The urinary levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured as oxidative stress markers. In the N-BOO group, 8-OHdG increased 1.6-fold and MDA increased 1.3-fold at 4 weeks after surgery, whereas the increase in 8-OHdG was significantly reduced by 1.1-fold, despite a similar increase in MDA, in the B-BOO group. Bladder remodeling was confirmed due to bladder hypertrophy, fibrosis and increased connexin43 expression in the N-BOO group, but these histological changes were reduced in the B-BOO group. The intake of blueberries prevented the development of bladder dysfunction secondary to BOO. This effect seems to be related to antioxidation and the inhibition of bladder remodeling" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and blueberry extract at iHerb.

Effectiveness of Mediterranean Diet Implementation in Dry Eye Parameters: A Study of PREDIMED-PLUS Trial - Nutrients. 2020 May 1 - "The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil and nuts on dry eye parameters. The participants in this study were randomized into one of the two interventional arms: (1) a standard intervention group, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil and nuts; and (2) an intensive intervention group, based on a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and an intensive lifestyle program with physical activity and weight-loss goals. In both groups, common dry eye tests were conducted at baseline and after six months: the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), the Dry Eye Scoring System (DESS), tear break-up time (TBUT), the Schirmer's test, and the Oxford staining grade. Sixty-seven eyes were examined. After six months, dry eye parameters improved in both groups; differences between groups were favorable for the intensive intervention group. The implementation of a Mediterranean diet pattern was beneficial for the selected patients with dry eye, and could be beneficial for patients with dry eye in general. Behavioral support for diet adherence and the promotion of healthy lifestyles (exercise) and weight loss (calorie restriction) have an added positive effect"

Influence of Hesperidin on Systemic Immunity of Rats Following an Intensive Training and Exhausting Exercise Nutrients. 2020 May 1 - "Intensive training and exhausting exercise can disrupt innate and acquired immunity. The flavanone hesperidin has shown immunomodulatory properties in physiological and some pathological conditions, and positive effects on exercise-induced oxidative stress ... female Wistar rats were randomized into an intensive training group or a sedentary group. Intensive training was induced by running in a treadmill 5 days per week (including two exhausting tests) for five weeks. Throughout the training period, 200 mg/kg of hesperidin or vehicle was administered by oral gavage three times per week. At the end, blood, thymus, spleen and macrophages were collected before, immediately after and 24 h after an additional final exhaustion test. Hesperidin supplementation enhanced natural killer cell cytotoxicity and the proportion of phagocytic monocytes, attenuated the secretion of cytokines by stimulated macrophages, prevented the leukocytosis induced by exhaustion and increased the proportion of T helper cells in the thymus, blood and spleen. These results suggest that hesperidin can prevent exhausting exercise-induced immune alterations" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com and hesperidin at iHerb.

Leucine Supplementation: A Novel Strategy for Modulating Lipid Metabolism and Energy Homeostasis - Nutrients. 2020 May 2 - "Lipid metabolism is an important and complex biochemical process involved in the storage of energy and maintenance of normal biological functions. Leucine, a branched amino acid, has anti-obesity effects on glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. Leucine also modulates mitochondrial dysfunction, representing a new strategy to target aging, neurodegenerative disease, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Although various studies have been carried out, much uncertainty still exists and further studies are required to fully elucidate the relationship between leucine and lipid metabolism. This review offers an up-to-date report on leucine, as key roles in both lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis in vivo and in vitro by acceleration of fatty acid oxidation, lipolysis, activation of the adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-silent information regulator of transcription 1 (SIRT1)-proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway, synthesis, and/or secretion of adipokines and stability of the gut microbiota" - See leucine products at Amazon.com and leucine at iHerb.

Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Athletic Performance Based on Energy Metabolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2020 May 2 - "Results revealed that Arg supplementation could improve aerobic (SMD, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.56; magnitude of SMD (MSMD), large; I2, 89%; p = 0.02) and anaerobic (SMD, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.43; MSMD, small; I2, 0%; p = 0.01) performance tests. In conclusion, acute Arg supplementation protocols to improve aerobic and anaerobic performance should be adjusted to 0.15 g/kg of body weight ingested between 60-90 min before. Moreover, chronic Arg supplementation should include 1.5-2 g/day for 4-7 weeks in order to improve aerobic performance, and 10-12 g/day for 8 weeks to enhance anaerobic performance" - See L-arginine products at Amazon.com and L-arginine at iHerb.

Walnut Oil Alleviates Intestinal Inflammation and Restores Intestinal Barrier Function in Mice - Nutrients. 2020 May 2 - "Ulcerative colitis belongs to inflammatory bowel diseases, which is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a debilitating condition with a wide range of symptoms including rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and visceral pain. Current dietary habits often lead to imbalance in n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in favor of n-6 PUFA. Recent data showed the potential anti-inflammatory advantage of n-3 PUFA. Walnut oil (WO) is rich in those fatty acids and mainly consists of linoleic and linolenic acids that may act via free fatty acids receptors (FFARs). We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of WO in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined changes in the expression of tight junction proteins (TJ), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and FFAR proteins in the inflamed mouse colon. WO improves the damage score in inflamed tissue, significantly restoring ion transport and colonic wall permeability. Inflammation caused changes in TJ, FFAR, and pro-inflammatory gene proteins expression, which WO was able to partially reverse. WO has anti-inflammatory properties; however, its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. This stems from the pleiotropic effects of n-3 PUFA ligands associated with receptor distribution and targeted signaling pathways" - See walnut oil at Amazon.com and walnut oil at iHerb.

The Protective Effect of Rosmarinic Acid Against Unfavorable Influence of Methylparaben and Propylparaben on Collagen in Human Skin Fibroblasts - Nutrients. 2020 May 1 - "Parabens, which are widely used in food, medicines and cosmetics, have a harmful effect on human health. People are most exposed to parabens transdermally by using cosmetic products containing these preservatives. The purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of parabens (methylparaben-MP and propylparaben-PP) on the metabolism of collagen in the human skin fibroblasts and above all, to assess whether rosmarinic acid (RA-50, 100, or 150 M) can protect these cells from the adverse effects of parabens (0.001% MP and 0.0003% PP, 0.003% MP and 0.001% PP, and ​​0.01% MP and 0.003% PP). The possible mechanisms of RA action were estimated as well. Parabens decreased the expression of collagen type I and III at mRNA and protein levels, while RA (depending on the concentration) provided partial or total protection against these changes. The effective protection against the adverse effects of parabens on cell viability and proliferation was also provided by RA. The beneficial impact of RA on collagen and the fibroblasts resulted from an independent action of this compound and its interaction with parabens. This study allows us to conclude that this polyphenolic compound may protect from unfavorable health outcomes caused by lifetime human exposure to parabens contained in cosmetic products" - See rosemary extract at Amazon.com and rosemary extract at iHerb.

Metformin in COVID-19: A Possible Role Beyond Diabetes - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Apr 29 - "The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of influenza, besides modulating antibody response for cross-protective immunity against infective influenza viruses. Metformin activates AMPK via liver kinase B1 (LKB1), inhibiting the mTOR pathway. It also indirectly attenuates AKT activation through phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) resulting in inhibition of the mTOR signalling cascade [11]. Other biguanide molecules, buformin and phenformin have been associated with better survival outcomes in animal models of influenza [12,13]. Further, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway plays major roles in MERS CoV infection [14]. Since metformin inhibits the same pathway, it would be interesting to decipher its role against SARS-CoV-2" - See metformin at ReliableRxPharmacy.

Effects of metformin on lifespan, cognitive ability and inflammatory response in a short-lived fish - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2020 May 3 - "Metformin, an oral antidiabetic drug, prolongs the lifespan in nematode, silkworm and other transgenic rodents, but its effects on longevity and aging-related cognitive ability using natural aging vertebrate models remain poorly understood ... Total of 145 fish, 72 fish were fed with metformin in the concentration of 2mg/gram food and 73 fish without metformin from 16 weeks of age until the end of their lives. The chronic feeding with metformin prolonged the lifespan of the fish and delayed aging with retarded accumulation of lipofuscin in liver, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity in skin and serum levels of cholesterol and triglyceride significantly in the fish at 10-month-old. Furthermore, metformin improved motor, learning and memory skills by behavior tests accompanying with reduction of SA-β-gal activity and neurofibrillary degeneration and inhibition of inflammatory response including down-regulated NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNF-α and IL-1β expression and enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level in brain. These findings demonstrate that metformin prolongs the lifespan and exerts neuroprotective and anti-inflammation function to improve cognitive ability in annual fish. It might be an effective strategy by using metformin to raise the possibility of promoting healthy aging of old population in aging process" - See metformin at ReliableRxPharmacy.

Associations of Coffee Consumption with the Circulating Level of Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase. A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies - J Am Coll Nutr. 2020 Apr 28 - "A total of 19 observational studies, which involved 222,067 individuals, were included in this meta-analysis. The combined SMD suggested that coffee consumption was associated with a lower level of ALT (SMD = -0.14, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.06; p = 0.001) and AST (SMD = -0.17, 95% CI: -0.20 to -0.13; p < 0.001), respectively. Meanwhile, the overall multivariable adjusted OR showed that coffee consumption was inversely associated with the elevated ALT (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.79; p < 0.001) and AST (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.81; p < 0.001), respectively"

Oral administration of bovine lactoferrin accelerates the healing of fracture in ovariectomized rats - J Bone Miner Metab. 2020 Apr 2 - "Three months after bilateral ovariectomy, all rats underwent unilateral tibial osteotomy and were then randomly divided into control group and bovine lactoferrin (bLF) group. At 4 and 8 weeks post-fracture, animals were sacrificed, and the fractured tibiae and serum samples were collected for evaluation ... Our results showed that bLF treatment not only accelerated the bone growth at an early stage of OPF healing but also shortened the remolding process of OPF healing. When compared to control group, bLF treatment induced a significant rise in callus BMD (by 35.0% at 4 weeks and by 39.7% at 8 weeks; both p < 0.05) consistent with enhanced biomechanical strength of the callus, with ultimate force increased by 3.39-fold at 4 weeks (p < 0.05) and 1.95-fold at 8 weeks (p < 0.05). Besides, bLF administration resulted in a substantial increase in serum levels of BALP and a significant decrease in serum levels of TRAP 5b and TNF-α. Moreover, both the RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio and the expression of TNF-α in the callus of bLF-treated group were markedly lower than those in the control group" - See bovine lactoferrin at Amazon.com and bovine lactoferrin at iHerb.

Associations between consumption of dietary fibers and the risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, type 2 diabetes, and mortality in the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 May 5 - "different types [total (TDF), soluble (SF), insoluble (IF)] ... T2D risk was inversely associated with TDFs [HR for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.82), P-trend <0.001], SFs [HR: 0.77 (0.56, 1.08); P-trend = 0.02], and IFs [HR: 0.69 (0.50, 0.96); P-trend = 0.004]. SFs were associated with a decreased risk of CVD [HR: 0.80 (0.66, 0.98); P-trend = 0.01] and colorectal cancer [HR: 0.41 (0.21, 0.79); P-trend = 0.01]. IFs were inversely associated with mortality from cancer or CVDs [HR: 0.65 (0.45, 0.94); P-trend = 0.02]. TDF intake was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer [HR:: 0.79 (0.54, 1.13); P-trend = 0.04]. DF intake from fruit was associated with the risk of several chronic diseases ... Our results suggest that DF intake, especially SFs and DFs from fruits, was inversely associated with the risk of several chronic diseases and with mortality"

The effect of green tea supplementation on obesity: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Phytother Res. 2020 May 5 - "Combined results using the random-effects model indicated that body weight (WMD: -1.78 kg, 95% CI: -2.80, -0.75, p = .001) and body mass index (BMI) (WMD: -0.65 kg/m2 , 95% CI: -1.04, -0.25, p = .001) did change significantly following GT administration. The reduction in waist circumference (WC) after GT consumption was significant in subjects in trials employing GT ≥800 mg/day (WMD: -2.06 cm) and with a treatment duration <12 weeks (WMD: -2.39 cm). Following the dose-response evaluation, GT intake did alter body weight, with a more important reduction when the GT dosage was <500 mg/day and the treatment duration was of 12 weeks. The results of present meta-analysis study support the use of GT for the improvement of obesity indices. Thus, we suggest that the use of GT can be combined with a balanced and healthy diet and regular physical exercise in the management of obese patients" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com and green tea extract at iHerb.

Supplementation of L-Arginine, L-Glutamine, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Folic Acid, and Green Tea Extract Enhances Serum Nitric Oxide Content and Antifatigue Activity in Mice - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Apr 11 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of a combined extract comprising L-arginine, L-glutamine, vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, and green tea extract (LVFG) on nitric oxide content to decrease exercise fatigue. Male ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and orally administered LVFG for 4 weeks. The 4-week LVFG supplementation significantly increased serum nitric oxide content in the LVFG-1X and LVFG-2X groups. Antifatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming test, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after an acute swimming exercise. LVFG supplementation dose-dependently improved exercise performance and nitric oxide content, and it dose-dependently decreased serum ammonia and CK activity after exhaustive swimming test. LVFG's antifatigue properties appear to manifest by preserving energy storage (as blood glucose) and increasing nitric oxide content. Taken together, our results show that LVFG could have the potential for alleviating physical fatigue due to its pharmacological effect of increasing serum nitric oxide content"

Association between overall fruit and vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable sub-types and blood pressure: the PRIME study (Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction) - Br J Nutr. 2020 May 4 - "A total of 10660 men aged 50-59 years were recruited from 1991 to 1994. Blood pressure was measured in a clinic setting, and dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). After adjusting for potential confounders, both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly inversely associated with total fruit, vegetable and fruit juice intake however when results were examined according to the sub-type of fruit or vegetable (citrus fruit, other fruit, fruit juices, cooked vegetables and raw vegetables), only the other fruit and raw vegetable categories were consistently associated with reduced SBP and DBP. In relation to the risk of hypertension based on systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg, the odds ratio for total fruit, vegetable and fruit juice intake (per fourth) was 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91, 1.00), with the same estimates being 0.98 (CI % 0.94, 1.02) for citrus fruit intake (per fourth), 1.02 (CI % 0.98, 1.06) for fruit juice intake (per fourth), 0.93 (CI % 0.89, 0.98) for other fruit intake (per fourth), 1.05 (CI % 0.99, 1.10) for cooked vegetable intake (per fourth) and 0.86 (CI % 0.80, 0.91) for raw vegetable intake (per fourth). Similar results were obtained for DBP"

Long-Term Effects of Early Adolescent Marijuana Use on Attentional and Inhibitory Control - J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2020 Mar - "High levels of early marijuana use at ages 12-14 significantly predicted low levels of adolescent attentional control at ages 18-21 (β = -.20, p < .05), above and beyond early attentional control, early alcohol use, and antisocial problems ... Findings suggest that marijuana use may adversely affect cognitive development, especially during the sensitive period of early adolescence. Results emphasize the need for further prospective work to investigate relationships between early adolescent marijuana use and the development of executive functioning"

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

I bought this setup to light a palm tree in my yard.  Love it.  The thing I like about the dusk to dawn switch is that you can set it 'dusk to dawn' or 2, 4, 6 or 8 hours after sunset.  That'd be great for Christmas lighting.

Health Focus (Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I)):