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Recent Longevity News for the week ending 4/29/20

EVMS Critical Care COVID-19 Management Protocol - Eastern Virginia Medical School - "Suggested approach to prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 ... Prophylaxis ... Vitamin C 500 mg BID and Quercetin 250-500 mg BID ... Zinc 75-100 mg/day (acetate, gluconate or picolinate). Zinc lozenges are preferred. After 1-2 months, reduce the dose to 30-50 mg/day ... Melatonin (slow release): Begin with 0.3mg and increase as tolerated to 1-2 mg at night ... Vitamin D3 1000-4000 u/day (optimal dose unknown). Likely that those with baseline low 25-OH vitamin D levels and those > living at 40 degree latitude will benefit the most" - See American Health, Ester-C with Citrus Bioflavonoids, 500 mg, 120 Capsules at iHerb and American Health, Ester-C with Citrus Bioflavonoids, 500 mg, 120 Capsules at Amazon.com (everyone seems to be sold out of the 240 capsule size).

Coronavirus can be prevented -Vitamin D Solution - YouTube video - Note:  I wouldn't go as far as to say that it can be prevented but there is science suggesting that it may help prevent it.  See vitamin D at Amazon.com and vitamin D at iHerb.

COVID-19: Home Pulse Oximetry Could Be Game Changer, Says ER Doc - Medscape, 4/24/20 - "Everybody's coming in too late ... use of home finger pulse oximeters by patients with COVID-19 could preempt the precipitous oxygen desaturation that leads to a crisis that needs intensive care ... The mortality in the red zone is 70% ... I am seeing patients with oxygen saturations of 50% ― roughly equivalent to what you'd see at the top of Everest ... It is amazing ― shockingly amazing ― that these people are alive and talking on their cell phones" - See finger pulse oximeters at Amazon.com.

How to make the healthiest coffee - Science Daily, 4/22/20 - "Overall, coffee drinking was not a dangerous habit. In fact, drinking filtered coffee was safer than no coffee at all. Compared to no coffee, filtered brew was linked with a 15% reduced risk of death from any cause during follow up. For death from cardiovascular disease, filtered brew was associated with a 12% decreased risk of death in men and a 20% lowered risk of death in women compared to no coffee. The lowest mortality was among consumers of 1 to 4 cups of filtered coffee per day ... For people who know they have high cholesterol levels and want to do something about it, stay away from unfiltered brew, including coffee made with a cafetière. For everyone else, drink your coffee with a clear conscience and go for filtered"

ACEI/ARBs Linked With Survival in Hypertensive, Chinese COVID-19 Patients - Medscape, 4/22/20 - "Among patients with hypertension hospitalized with COVID-19, inpatient treatment with ACEI [ACE inhibitor]/ARB [angiotensin receptor blocker] was associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality, compared with ACEI/ARB nonusers, during 28 days of follow-up. While study interpretation needs to consider the potential for residual confounders, it is unlikely that inpatient ACEI/ARB would be associated with an increased risk of mortality"

Daily Aspirin Tied to Lower Risk of Various Digestive Cancers - NYT, 4/21/20 - "Researchers pooled data from 113 studies and found that daily aspirin use among people aged 40 to 75 was associated with a 27 percent reduction in the risk for colorectal cancer, a 36 percent reduction in stomach cancer, a 33 percent reduction in esophageal cancer, a 38 percent reduction in liver and gallbladder cancer, and a 22 percent reduction in pancreatic cancer. For all these tumors, the favorable effect increased with duration of use"

HFpEF: Gender Difference in Sacubitril/Valsartan Response Remains Mystery - Medscape, 4/20/20 - "In women, however, who comprised more than half of the study population, the benefit of sacubitril/valsartan was larger: a 27% relative risk reduction compared to valsartan alone. That's a statistically significant difference in a prespecified subgroup analysis, but according to the rules of clinical trials and statistics it must be considered hypothesis-generating and nondefinitive, since the overall trial was negative. Men randomized to sacubitril/valsartan had a modest 3% increased risk of the primary endpoint compared to men on valsartan."

Could Preoperative Metformin Improve Major-Surgery Outcomes? - Medscape, 4/17/20 - "The primary outcome, 90-day mortality, occurred in 3% of patients who received preoperative metformin and 5% of patients who did not ... Patients receiving metformin therefore had a 28% lower risk of death at 90 days (hazard ratio [HR], 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 - 0.95; P = .02) ... Patients in both groups had the same rate of 30-day mortality (2%) ... However, 5-year mortality was lower in the group with, versus without, preoperative metformin, at 13% versus 17% (HR, 0.74; P < .001) ... The 30-day readmission rate was also lower in the preoperative metformin group than in the other group, at 11% versus 13% (HR, 0.84; P = .02) ... Similarly, the 90-day readmission rate was lower in the metformin group, at 20% versus 23% (HR, 0.86; P = .01) ... Preoperative inflammation was also lower in the patients with versus without preoperative metformin; the mean neutrophil to leukocyte ratio was 4.5 versus 5.0 (P < .001) ... These better outcomes in the metformin group were consistent across different types of surgeries" - See metformin at ReliableRX.

Abstracts from this week:

Oral administration of a novel hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract (BioCell Collagen®) reduces UVB-induced photoaging in mice - J Funct Foods. 2020 May - "Excessive exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causes skin aging (a process known as photoaging). This study examined whether subchronic (14-week) oral administration of a novel hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract—comprising naturally-occurring primarily hydrolyzed type II collagen peptides, chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid, extracted from a single source—could reduce signs associated with photoaging in hairless mice. Administration of the extract to UVB-irradiated mice led to significant increases in skin elasticity and hyaluronic acid content, compared with UVB-irradiated controls. Matrix metalloproteinase expression, transepidermal water loss, dermal inflammatory cells and wrinkles were all significantly reduced by administration of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract. This study is the first to demonstrate that oral administration of this novel extract, containing a unique single-source complex of primarily hydrolyzed type II collagen (rather than the more widely studied type I form), chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid, reduces UVB-induced photoaging in hairless mice." - [Nutra USA] - See Biocell Collagen II at Amazon.com and Biocell Collagen II at iHerb.com.

Chrysin Protects against Memory and Hippocampal Neurogenesis Depletion in D-Galactose-Induced Aging in Rats - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 16 - "The interruption of hippocampal neurogenesis due to aging impairs memory. The accumulation of D-galactose (D-gal), a monosaccharide, induces brain aging by causing oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in neuronal cell damage and memory loss. Chrysin, an extracted flavonoid, has neuroprotective effects on memory ... Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either D-gal (50 mg/kg) by i.p. injection, chrysin (10 or 30 mg/kg) by oral gavage, or D-gal (50 mg/kg) and chrysin (10 or 30 mg/kg) for 8 weeks. Memory was evaluated using novel object location (NOL) and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. Hippocampal neurogenesis was evaluated using Ki-67, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and doublecortin (DCX) immunofluorescence staining to determine cell proliferation, cell survival, and number of immature neurons, respectively. We found that D-gal administration resulted in memory impairment as measured by NOL and NOR tests and in depletions in cell proliferation, cell survival, and immature neurons. However, co-treatment with chrysin (10 or 30 mg/kg) attenuated these impairments. These results suggest that chrysin could potentially minimize memory and hippocampal neurogenesis depletions brought on by aging" - See chrysin at Amazon.com and chrysin at iHerb.com.

Sturgeon (Acipenser)-Derived Chondroitin Sulfate Suppresses Human Colon Cancer HCT-116 Both In Vitro and In Vivo by Inhibiting Proliferation and Inducing Apoptosis - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 17 - "Chondroitin sulfate (CS), mainly present in the cartilage and bone of animals, is known as a potential food-derived bioactive that has several biological functions, such as anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory activity ... sturgeon-derived chondroitin sulfate (SCS) ... The in vitro study indicated that SCS could inhibit the proliferation of the human colon cancer cell line HCT-116 in a dose-dependent manner, which was associated with cell cycle arrest. In addition, SCS also led to extensive cellular apoptosis in colon cancer cell HCT-116 cells. Meanwhile, an in vivo study showed that SCS treatment significantly inhibited the tumor development of xenograft HCT-116 in mice via proliferation suppression and apoptosis induction. Further, a mechanistic study demonstrated that the apoptosis induction was mainly due to the activation of the Bcl-2 family-associated mitochondrial pathway. Overall, our results provided a basis for SCS as a promising agent against colon cancer" - See chondroitin sulfate at Amazon.com and chondroitin sulfate at iHerb.com.

Effects of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on VO2max: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 17 - "The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature about the effects of supplementation with Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), as well as to provide directions for clinical practice ... Results showed a significant enhancement in VO2max in healthy adults and athletes (p = 0.04). The mean difference was 3.00 (95% CI from 0.18 to 5.82) with high heterogeneity. In conclusion, Ashwagandha supplementation might improve the VO2max in athlete and non-athlete people. However, further research is need to confirm this hypothesis since the number of studies is limited and the heterogeneity was high" - See Ashwagandha at Amazon.com and Ashwagandha at iHerb.com.

The 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone Suppresses Sarcopenia by Regulating Protein Turnover and Mitochondria Biogenesis-Related Pathways - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 13 - "Sarcopenia is a muscle disease featured by the loss of muscle mass and dysfunction with advancing age. The 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF), a major flavone found in Kaempferia parviflora, has biological activities, including anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammation ... Eighteen-month-old mice were orally administered DMF at the dose of 25 mg·kg-1·day-1 or 50 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 8 weeks. DMF not only stimulated grip strength and exercise endurance but also increased muscle mass and volume. Besides, DMF stimulated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway, consequently activating the mammalian target of rapamycin-eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1-70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase pathway for protein synthesis. DMF reduced the mRNA expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase- and autophagy-lysosomal-related genes involved in proteolysis via the phosphorylation of Forkhead box O3. DMF upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A along with the increase of relative mitochondrial DNA content. DMF alleviated inflammatory responses by reducing the tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 serum and mRNA levels. Collectively, DMF can be used as a natural agent to inhibit sarcopenia via improving protein turnover and mitochondria function" - See Kaempferia parviflora at Amazon.com and Kaempferia parviflora at iHerb.com.

Cytoprotective Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Rutin against Oxidative Changes in the Proteome of Skin Fibroblasts Cultured in a Three-Dimensional System - Nutrients. 2020 Apr 13 - "The combination of ascorbic acid and rutin, commonly used in oral preparations for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, can also be used to protect skin cells from the effects of UV radiation in sunlight ... Proteomic findings revealed a combined effect of ascorbic acid and rutin in UV-irradiated fibroblasts against overexpression of pro-inflammatory signaling proteins and DNA reorganization/expression. These effects were not observed when cells were treated with either compounds alone. The antioxidant effects of ascorbic acid and rutin also prevented protein modifications by lipid peroxidation products. Further, ascorbic acid stimulated rutin-protein adduct formation, which supports intra/extracellular signaling and the Nrf2/ARE antioxidant pathway, contributing to the protective effects against UV-induced oxidative stress. The combined effect of ascorbic acid and rutin suggests that this combination of compounds is potentially effective against skin damage caused by UV radiation" - See rutin at Amazon.com and rutin at iHerb.com and vitamin C products at Amazon.com and vitamin C at iHerb.com.

  • Rutin - Wiki - "Rutin, also called rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin, is the glycoside combining the flavonol quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose (α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranose). It is a citrus flavonoid found in a wide variety of plants including citrus fruit"

Long-term potassium intake and associated renal and cardiovascular outcomes in the clinical setting -  - "High potassium intake has been suggested to lower the risk for renal and cardiovascular outcome ... We performed a retrospective cohort study in 541 outpatient subjects with an estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who had sampled a 24-h urine collection between 1998 and 1999, and had at least 1 additional collection during a 17-year follow-up ... Average age of subjects was 47 years. Estimated mean potassium intake was 74 mmol/day and remained similar during follow-up. The highest tertile of estimated potassium intake was associated with a significant 76% reduction in renal outcome, and 73% decrease of cerebrovascular events, while no effect for overall cardiovascular outcome was found. A 20-mmol increase in potassium intake during follow-up was associated with a 24% reduction in renal outcome" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com and potassium citrate at iHerb.com.

Long-term dietary flavonoid intake and risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias in the Framingham Offspring Cohort - Clin Nutr. 2020 Apr 1 - Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Apr 22 - "Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD) ... We used data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort exams 5 through 9. Participants were ADRD-free with a valid FFQ at baseline. Flavonoid intakes were updated at each exam to represent the cumulative average intake across the 5 exams, and were expressed as percentile categories of intake (≤15th, >15th to 30th, >30th to 60th, >60th) to handle their nonlinear relation with ADRD and AD ... Over an average follow-up of 19.7 y in 2801 participants (mean baseline age = 59.1 y; 52% females), there were 193 ADRD events of which 158 were AD. After multivariate and dietary adjustments, individuals with the highest (>60th percentile) intakes of flavonols, anthocyanins, and flavonoid polymers had a lower risk of ADRD relative to individuals with the lowest intakes (≤15th percentile), with HRs (95% CI; P-trend) of 0.54 (0.32, 0.90; P = 0.003) for flavonols, 0.24 (0.15, 0.39; P < 0.001) for anthocyanins, and 0.58 (0.35, 0.94; P = 0.03) for flavonoid polymers. The same pattern of associations was seen with AD for flavonols and anthocyanins but not for flavonoid polymers" - See flavonoids at Amazon.com and flavonoids at iHerb.com.

Nicotinamide riboside supplementation alters body composition and skeletal muscle acetylcarnitine concentrations in healthy obese humans - Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Apr 22 - "A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover intervention study was conducted in 13 healthy overweight or obese men and women. Participants received 6 wk NR (1000 mg/d) and placebo supplementation ... NR increased body fat-free mass (62.65% ± 2.49% compared with 61.32% ± 2.58% in NR and placebo, respectively; change: 1.34% ± 0.50%, P = 0.02) and increased sleeping metabolic rate. Interestingly, acetylcarnitine concentrations in skeletal muscle were increased upon NR (4558 ± 749 compared with 3025 ± 316 pmol/mg dry weight in NR and placebo, respectively; change: 1533 ± 683 pmol/mg dry weight, P = 0.04) and the capacity to form acetylcarnitine upon exercise was higher in NR than in placebo (2.99 ± 0.30 compared with 2.40 ± 0.33 mmol/kg wet weight; change: 0.53 ± 0.21 mmol/kg wet weight, P = 0.01). However, no effects of NR were found on insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial function, hepatic and intramyocellular lipid accumulation, cardiac energy status, cardiac ejection fraction, ambulatory blood pressure, plasma markers of inflammation, or energy metabolism"

Artificial sweeteners impair endothelial vascular reactivity: Preliminary results in rodents - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2020 Feb 12 - "Healthy Wistar rats followed a 10-week standard diet including the consumption of water sweetened or not with a sucralose/acesulfame potassium solution at different concentrations: for moderate consumption at 1 and 2 mg.kg-1.day-1, respectively or high intake at 15 and 15 mg.kg-1.day-1 for both molecules (acceptable daily intake) ... Both groups of AS-treated rats showed a significant increase in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissue mass storage, without changes in total body mass. However, rats that have consumed AS at Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) concentration revealed a significant vascular endothelial dysfunction compared to other groups. These results are interesting because they will help to better explain the observed increase in cardiometabolic risk"

Red Wine Extract Disrupts Th17 Lymphocyte Differentiation in a Colorectal Cancer Context - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2020 Apr 18 - "Using an RWE containing 4.16 g of polyphenols/liter of wine, we showed that RWE decreased colorectal cancer cells (SW620, HCT116, MC38 and CT26) in vitro and that RWE induced a reduction in colorectal tumor growth associated with a decrease in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in vivo. The process of T-lymphocyte differentiation in Th17 cells was altered by RWE, as revealed by the decrease in the expression of key actors controlling this process, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and retinoid acid-related orphan receptorγt. This disruption was associated with an inhibition of inflammatory interleukin 17 secretion" - See red wine extract at Amazon.com.

Effect of garlic powder supplementation on hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes, and lipid profile in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial - Br J Nutr. 2020 Apr 21:1-18 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a range of disorders from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. There is no proven drug treatment for NAFLD and diet modification is considered part of the main line of treatment for this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of garlic supplementation in NAFLD patients. The effect of garlic powder supplementation on hepatic steatosis, liver enzymes, and lipid profile was investigated in NAFLD patients. Ninety NAFLD patients were randomly assigned to take either a garlic powder supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. The treatment group received four tablets of garlic daily (each tablet contained 400 mg garlic powder). The control group received four tablets of placebo (each placebo contained 400 mg starch). At the end of the study, hepatic steatosis significantly reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group (P = 0.001). In addition, a significant decrease was seen in the treatment group compared to the control group in the serum concentration of alanine transaminase (P < 0.001), aspartate transaminase (P = 0.002), gamma-glutamyltransferase (P = 0.003), as well as total cholesterol (P = 0.009), triglyceride (P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.001) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.01). No significant difference was seen between the two groups in serum concentration of alkaline phosphatase. Overall, garlic powder supplementation improved hepatic features and lipid profile among NAFLD patients" - See garlic at iHerb.com and garlic at Amazon.com.

Orally administered mixed carotenoids protect human skin against ultraviolet A‐induced skin pigmentation: A double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, randomized clinical trial - Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2020 Feb 18 - "60 subjects (Fitzpatrick types II-IV) were randomized to receive Nutrilite™ Multi Carotene supplement or placebo for 12 weeks ... In the intervention group, a significant increase in comparison with the placebo group was observed in (a) skin carotenoid levels, (b) UVB-induced MED, and (c) UVA-induced MPPD values obtained by colorimetry ... Daily supplementation with carotenoids protects human skin against both UVB-induced erythema and UVA-induced pigmentation" - [Nutra USA] - See mixed carotenoids at Amazon.com and mixed carotenoids at iHerb.com.

A randomised controlled study shows supplementation of overweight and obese adults with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria reduces bodyweight and improves well-being - Sci Rep. 2020 Mar 6 - "220 Bulgarian participants (30 to 65 years old) with BMI 25–34.9 kg/m2 received Lab4P probiotic (50 billion/day) or a matched placebo for 6 months. Participants maintained their normal diet and lifestyle ... Significant between group decreases in body weight (1.3 kg, p < 0.0001), BMI (0.045 kg/m2, p < 0.0001), WC (0.94 cm, p < 0.0001) and WtHR (0.006, p < 0.0001) were in favour of the probiotic. Stratification identified greater body weight reductions in overweight subjects (1.88%, p < 0.0001) and in females (1.62%, p = 0.0005). Greatest weight losses were among probiotic hypercholesterolaemic participants (-2.5%, p < 0.0001) alongside a significant between group reduction in small dense LDL-cholesterol (0.2 mmol/L, p = 0.0241). Improvements in QoL and the incidence rate ratio of URTI (0.60, p < 0.0001) were recorded for the probiotic group. No adverse events were recorded. Six months supplementation with Lab4P probiotic resulted in significant weight reduction and improved small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (sdLDL-C) profiles, QoL and URTI incidence outcomes in overweight/obese individuals" - [Nutra USA] - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and probiotic supplements at iHerb.

Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 and Bifidobacterium lactis UABla-12 Improve Abdominal Pain Severity and Symptomology in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial - Nutrients. 2020 Jan 30 - "The primary outcome was the change in Abdominal Pain Severity - Numeric Rating Scale (APS-NRS). Over the intervention period, APS-NRS was significantly improved in both probiotic groups vs. placebo in absolute terms (DDS-1: -2.59 ± 2.07, p = 0.001; UABla-12: -1.56 ± 1.83, p = 0.001) and in percentage of significant responders (DDS-1: 52.3%, p < 0.001); UABla-12 (28.2%, p = 0.031). Significant amelioration vs. placebo was observed in IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) scores for L. acidophilus DDS-1 (-133.4 ± 95.19, p < 0.001) and B. lactis UABla-12 (-104.5 ± 96.08, p < 0.001) groups, including sub-scores related to abdominal pain, abdominal distension, bowel habits and quality of life. Additionally, a significant normalization was observed in stool consistency in both probiotic groups over time and as compared to placebo. In conclusion, L. acidophilus DDS-1 and B. lactis UABla-12 improved abdominal pain and symptom severity scores with a corresponding normalization of bowel habits in adults with IBS" - [Nutra USA]  - See probiotic supplements at Amazon.com and probiotic supplements at iHerb.

Testofen® (Fenugreek extract) increases strength and muscle mass compared to placebo in response to calisthenics. A randomized control trial - Trans Spt Medicine, 10 Mar 20 - "A total of 138 male participants (25‐47yrs) were enrolled and randomized to three equal groups: 600 mg Testofen®/day, 300 mg Testofen®/day or placebo ... All groups improved their maximal leg press from baseline to 8 weeks, however, both Testofen® treated groups improved more than placebo (P < .05). The 600 mg group showed decreases in body mass of 1.2 kg, −1.4% body fat and an increase in lean mass (1.8%) at 8 weeks. The 600 mg group also demonstrated an increase in testosterone concentration from baseline to 8 weeks. This study indicates that Testofen® may be an effective ergogenic aid for individuals wanting to rapidly improve their exercise performance capabilities and body composition above and beyond that of calisthenic exercise alone" - [Nutra USA] - See fenugreek at Amazon.com and fenugreek at iHerb.

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