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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 1/16/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Strawberries, blueberries may cut heart attack risk in women - Science Daily, 1/14/13 - "Blueberries and strawberries contain high levels of naturally occurring compounds called dietary flavonoids, also found in grapes and wine, blackberries, eggplant, and other fruits and vegetables. A specific sub-class of flavonoids, called anthocyanins, may help dilate arteries, counter the buildup of plaque and provide other cardiovascular benefits ... Nurses' Health Study II ... women completed questionnaires about their diet every four years for 18 years ... Women who ate the most blueberries and strawberries had a 32-percent reduction in their risk of heart attack compared to women who ate the berries once a month or less" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

Early Surgical Menopause Linked to Declines in Memory and Thinking Skills - Science Daily, 1/14/13 - "While we found a link between surgical menopause and thinking and memory decline, women on longer hormone replacement therapies had slower declines ... among women who underwent surgical menopause, earlier age of the procedure was associated with a faster decline in long-term memory related to concepts and ideas, in memory that relates to time and places and in overall thinking abilities"

Do herbal flu treatments work? - Fox News Video, 1/13/13 - "The only one that comes close to Tamiflu is Andrographis, which shortens the period that people suffer from flu symptoms." - See Andrographis products at iHerb.

At what point after a cold are you no longer contagious? - askville.amazon.com - "Cold symptoms settle in between one and four days after you are infected by a cold virus and typically last for about three days. At that point the worst is over, but you may feel congested for a week or more. During the first three days that you have symptoms, you are contagious"

  • Discovery Health "When are colds and the flu the most contagious? - health.howstuffworks.com - "So, when are you most contagious? Most experts agree that adults with a cold or the flu start being contagious about a day before they start experiencing symptoms. For the flu, the contagious period then lasts five to seven days into the illness"

Effects of China's One Child Policy on its children - Science Daily, 1/10/13 - "individuals who grew up as single children as a result of China's OCP were significantly less trusting, less trustworthy, more risk-averse, less competitive, more pessimistic, and less conscientious individuals ... In 2011 an official Chinese outlet cited the numbers of births prevented at 400 million"

FDA Requires Lower Doses for Sleep Drugs - ABC News, 1/10/13 - "Regulators are ordering drug manufacturers [Ambien (zolpidem tartrate)] to cut the dose of the medications in half for women, who process the drug more slowly. Doses will be lowered from 10 milligrams to 5 milligrams for regular products, and 12.5 milligrams to 6.25 milligrams for extended-release formulations" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.

Limiting Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels in Pregnancy May Influence Body Fat of Children - Science Daily, 1/10/13 - "mothers who have higher levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in cooking oils and nuts, during pregnancy have fatter children ... assessed the fat and muscle mass of 293 boys and girls at four and six years, who are part of the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS), a large prospective mother-offspring cohort ... the higher the level of n-3 the less fat and more muscle and bone in the baby ... This could suggest that a pregnancy supplementation strategy would be beneficial" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Effects of antibiotics on gut flora analyzed - Science Daily, 1/9/13 - "In the gut live one trillion bacteria, which are known as microbiota or gut flora, and that have co-evolved in symbiosis with humans. According to this study, treatment with antibiotics can alter this symbiosis from early stages of the treatment. "Although some of the changes are oscillatory and can be reversed at the end of the treatment, others seem irreversible,"" - Note:  I read the article three times and I'm not sure what they are trying to say.  It says it's a reprint from Asociación RUVID.  Maybe it lost something in the translation.  See probiotic products at Amazon.com.

High Fiber Diet Prevents Prostate Cancer Progression, Study Shows - Science Daily, 1/9/13 - "The rate of prostate cancer occurrence in Asian cultures is similar to the rate in Western cultures, but in the West, prostate cancer tends to progress, whereas in Asian cultures it does not. Why? .... the answer may be a high-fiber diet ... The study compared mice fed with of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a major component of high-fiber diets, to control mice that were not. Then the study used MRI to monitor the progression of prostate cancer in these models ... The study's results were really rather profound. We saw dramatically reduced tumor volumes, primarily due to the anti-angiogenic effects of IP6 ... Basically, feeding with the active ingredient of a high-fiber diet kept prostate tumors from making the new blood vessels they needed to supply themselves with energy" - See IP-6 products at Amazon.com.

Passive smoking increases risk of severe dementia, according to study in China - Science Daily, 1/9/13 - "The study of nearly 6,000 people in five provinces in China reveals that people exposed to passive smoking have a significantly increased risk of severe dementia syndromes"

Hold the diet soda? Sweetened drinks linked to depression, coffee tied to lower risk - Science Daily, 1/8/13 - "The study involved 263,925 people between the ages of 50 and 71 at enrollment. From 1995 to 1996, consumption of drinks such as soda, tea, fruit punch and coffee was evaluated. About 10 years later, researchers asked the participants whether they had been diagnosed with depression since the year 2000 ... People who drank more than four cans or cups per day of soda were 30 percent more likely to develop depression than those who drank no soda. Those who drank four cans of fruit punch per day were about 38 percent more likely to develop depression than those who did not drink sweetened drinks. People who drank four cups of coffee per day were about 10 percent less likely to develop depression than those who drank no coffee. The risk appeared to be greater for people who drank diet than regular soda, diet than regular fruit punches and for diet than regular iced tea"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Vitamin D status and the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in cardiac surgery - Eur Heart J. 2013 Jan 12 - "We aimed to investigate the association of pre-operative 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with major cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in cardiac surgical patients ... Of the study cohort, 38.0% had deficient 25(OH)D values (<30 nmol/L) and additional 32.3% had insufficient values (30-49.9 nmol/L), whereas only 3.1% had values >100 nmol/L. The incidence of MACCE was 11.5%. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, the odds ratio of MACCE at deficient, inadequate, and high 25(OH)D levels was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-3.79], 1.73 (95% CI: 1.01-2.96) and 2.34 (95% CI: 1.12-4.89), respectively, compared with 25(OH)D levels of 75-100 nmol/L. A U-shaped association with circulating 25(OH)D was also present for duration of mechanical ventilatory support and intensive care unit stay. Multivariable-adjusted 6- and 12-month mortality were higher in patients with deficient 25(OH)D levels compared with patients with 25(OH)D levels of 75-100 nmol/L" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

The anti-inflamm-aging and hepatoprotective effects of huperzine A in D-galactose-treated rats - Mech Ageing Dev. 2013 Jan 8 - "Oxidative stress contributes to a chronic inflammatory process referred to as "inflamm-aging". Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) can enhance cholinergic transmission and act as anti-inflammatory agents via immunocompetent cells expressing α-7 acetylcholine receptors (AChR) ... Huperzine A exhibited protective effects against D-gal-induced hepatotoxicity and inflamm-aging by inhibiting AChE activity and via the activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The huperzine A mechanism might be involved in the inhibition of DAMPs-mediated NF-κB nuclear localization and activation" - See huperzine at Amazon.com.

Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Sensitive Biomarkers of Copper Status in Healthy Boys - J Nutr. 2013 Jan - "Traditional (plasma copper and ceruloplasmin activity) and more sensitive biomarkers of copper status, including erythrocyte SOD1 activity and the erythrocyte CCS:SOD1 protein ratio, were unchanged in zinc-supplemented boys, demonstrating that copper status was not depressed"

High Blood Pressure and Cognitive Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Jan 10 - "Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR Sum) score ... Participants with MCI with two or three annual occasions of high BP values (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg) had significantly faster decline on neuropsychological measures of visuomotor sequencing, set shifting, and naming than those who were normotensive on all three occasions. High systolic BP values were associated as well with faster decline on the CDR Sum score"

Lower Adiponectin Levels at First Trimester of Pregnancy Are Associated With Increased Insulin Resistance and Higher Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - Diabetes Care. 2013 Jan 8 - "Pregnant women with lower adiponectin levels at 1st trimester have higher levels of insulin resistance and are more likely to develop GDM independently of adiposity or glycemic measurements"

Omega-3 fatty acids in cancer - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2013 Jan 7 - "Inflammation dictates tumour initiation, progression and growth. Omega-3 fatty acids exert anti-inflammatory effects, and therefore recent studies investigated their role in cancer prevention, in cancer cachexia treatment and in enhancement of antitumour therapies. Limited evidence suggests a role for omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in cancer prevention, but they have been shown to preserve muscle mass and function in cancer patients even during active treatment. During chemotherapy, omega-3 fatty acids may contribute to a reduced inflammatory response, but whether cancer treatment toxicity can be prevented remains to be assessed. Finally, small studies showed that omega-3 fatty acids increase response rate to chemotherapy" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Diets rich in n-6 PUFA induce intestinal microbial dysbiosis in aged mice - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jan 8:1-9 - "With present 'Western' diets predominantly composed of n-6 PUFA, we hypothesised that PUFA-rich diets cause intestinal dysbiosis in an aged population. C57BL/6 mice (aged 2 years) were fed a high-fat (40 % energy), isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diet composed of rapeseed oil, maize oil or maize oil supplemented with fish oil ... feeding high-fat diets rich in n-6 PUFA promoted bacterial overgrowth but depleted microbes from the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla. This corresponded with increased body mass and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. Fish oil supplementation (rich in long-chain n-3 PUFA like DHA and EPA) restored the microbiota and inflammatory cell infiltration and promoted regulatory T-cell recruitment. However, fish oil supplementation was associated with increased oxidative stress, evident by the increased presence of 4-hydroxynonenal, a product of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that an n-6 PUFA-rich diet can cause dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation in aged mice. However, while fish oil supplementation on an n-6 PUFA diet reverses dysbiosis, the combination of n-6 and n-3 PUFA, like DHA/EPA, leads to increased oxidative stress, which could exacerbate gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jan 9:1-7 - "The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy ... The children's plasma free choline concentration (9.17 (sd 2.09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine ... Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale - total language scores (β = 0.066; P= 0.04), but no other associations were evident" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.

Calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation facilitated Fat loss in overweight and obese college students with very-low calcium consumption: a randomized controlled trial - Nutr J. 2013 Jan 8;12(1):8 - "to receive either an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal/d) supplemented with 600 mg elemental calcium and 125 IU vitamin D3 or energy restriction alone for 12 weeks. Repeated measurements of variance were performed to evaluate the differences between groups for changes in body weight, BMI, body composition ... A significantly greater decrease in fat mass loss was observed in the calcium + D group (-2.8+/-1.3 vs.-1.8+/-1.3 kg; P=0.02) than in the control group, although there was no significant difference in body weight change (P>0.05) between groups. The calcium + D group also exhibited greater decrease in visceral fat mass and visceral fat area" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

The Impact of Supplemental n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Dietary Antioxidants on Physical Performance in Postmenopausal Women - Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(1):76-80 - "126 postmenopausal women. Intervention: 2 fish oil (1.2g eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or 2 placebo (olive oil) capsules per day for 6 months ... Physical performance, measured by change in walking speed, was significantly affected by fish oil supplementation. Dietary intake of antioxidants (selenium and vitamin C) and changes in TNFα also contributed to change in walking speed suggesting LCPUFA may interact with antioxidants and inflammatory response to impact physical performance" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Association of Marine-Origin n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Consumption and Functional Mobility in the Community-Dwelling Oldest Old - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(1):82-9 - "Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a lower habitual intake of EPA+DHA was significantly associated with poor functional mobility in men but not in women (OR (95%CI) per 1 SD increase of EPA+DHA intake; 0.55 (0.33-0.91), 0.88 (0.59-1.32), men and women respectively)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Metformin and Prostate Cancer: Reduced Development of Castration-resistant Disease and Prostate Cancer Mortality - Eur Urol. 2012 Dec 14 - "castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) ... prostate-specific antigen-recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), overall survival (OS) ... With a median follow-up of 8.7 yr, the 10-yr actuarial rates for metformin, diabetic non-metformin, and nondiabetic patients for PCSM were 2.7%, 21.9%, and 8.2% (log-rank p ≤ 0.001), respectively. Metformin use independently predicted (correcting for PSA, T stage, Gleason score, age, diabetic status, and androgen-deprivation therapy use) improvement in all outcomes compared with the diabetic non-metformin group; PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.99 [1.24-3.18]; p=0.004), DMFS (adjusted HR: 3.68 [1.78-7.62]; p<0.001), and PCSM (HR: 5.15 [1.53-17.35]; p=0.008). Metformin use was also independently associated with a decrease in the development of CRPC in patients experiencing biochemical failure compared with diabetic non-metformin patients (odds ratio: 14.81 [1.83-119.89]; p=0.01)" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.

Total and specific fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of stroke: A prospective study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Dec 28 - "We prospectively followed 74,961 participants (34,670 women and 40,291 men) who had completed a food frequency questionnaire in the autumn of 1997 and were free from stroke, coronary heart disease, and cancer at baseline ... 10.2 years of follow-up ... The multivariable relative risk (RR) of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest category of total fruit and vegetable consumption was 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.97; P for trend = 0.01). The association was confined to individuals without hypertension (corresponding RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.93; P for trend = 0.01). Among individual fruits and vegetable subgroups, inverse associations with total stroke were observed for apples/pears (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.98; P for trend = 0.02) and green leafy vegetables (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.81-1.04; P for trend = 0.03) ... Particularly consumption of apples and pears and green leafy vegetables was inversely associated with stroke"

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's" (Running gear):

Health Focus (Vitamin C):

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Fetus suffers when mother lacks vitamin C - Science Daily, 11/16/12 - "Maternal vitamin C deficiency during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the fetal brain. And once brain damage has occurred, it cannot be reversed by vitamin C supplements after birth ... Even marginal vitamin C deficiency in the mother stunts the fetal hippocampus, the important memory centre, by 10-15 per cent, preventing the brain from optimal development"
  • Vitamin C prevents bone loss in animal models - Science Daily, 10/9/12 - "What this study shows is that large doses of vitamin C, when ingested orally by mice, actively stimulate bone formation to protect the skeleton. It does this by inducing osteoblasts, or premature bone cells, to differentiate into mature, mineralizing specialty cells."
  • Vitamin C and beta-carotene might protect against dementia - Science Daily, 9/11/12 - "A total of 74 AD-patients and 158 healthy controls were examined for the study that has been published in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (JAD) ... The concentration of vitamin C and beta-carotene in the serum of AD-patients was significantly lower than in the blood of control subjects. Whereas no such difference between the groups could be found for the other antioxidants (vitamin E, lycopene, coenzyme Q10)" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com and vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C may lessen harmful effects of air pollution- USA Today, 8/17/12 - "Results showed that with every increase in course particulate matter of 10 micrograms per cubic meter (mcg/m3), there was a 35 percent increased risk of hospital admission for people with asthma or COPD ... However, the risk of admission was 1.2 times greater among people with low levels of vitamin C"
  • Increased recommended dietary Vitamin C could help reduce heart disease, stroke, cancer - Science Daily, 7/16/12 - "The recommended dietary allowance, or RDA, of vitamin C is less than half what it should be, scientists argue in a recent report, because medical experts insist on evaluating this natural, but critical nutrient in the same way they do pharmaceutical drugs and reach faulty conclusions as a result ... the RDA of vitamin C should be raised to 200 milligrams per day for adults, up from its current levels in the United States of 75 milligrams for women and 90 for men ... Rather than just prevent the vitamin C deficiency disease of scurvy, they say, it's appropriate to seek optimum levels that will saturate cells and tissues, pose no risk, and may have significant effects on public health at almost no expense ... higher levels of vitamin C could help reduce the chronic diseases that today kill most people in the developed world -- heart disease, stroke, cancer, and the underlying issues that lead to them, such as high blood pressure, chronic inflammation, poor immune response and atherosclerosis"
  • Big doses of vitamin C may lower blood pressure - Science Daily, 4/18/12 - "Miller and his colleagues reviewed and analyzed data from 29 randomized, controlled, previously published clinical trials that reported systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure values and also compared vitamin C intake to a placebo. What they found is that taking an average of 500 milligrams of vitamin C daily -- about five times the recommended daily requirement -- reduced blood pressure by 3.84 millimeters of mercury in the short term. Among those diagnosed with hypertension, the drop was nearly 5 millimeters of mercury ... By comparison, Miller says, patients who take blood pressure medication such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics (so-called "water pills") can expect a roughly 10 millimeter of mercury reduction in blood pressure" - Note:  I don't consider 500 mg "Big doses".
  • Treatment with vitamin C dissolves toxic protein aggregates in Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 8/18/11 - "The brains of people with Alzheimer's disease contain lumps of so-called amyloid plaques which consist of misfolded protein aggregates. They cause nerve cell death in the brain and the first nerves to be attacked are the ones in the brain's memory centre ... When we treated brain tissue from mice suffering from Alzheimer's disease with vitamin C, we could see that the toxic protein aggregates were dissolved ... The notion that vitamin C can have a positive effect on Alzheimer's disease is controversial, but our results open up new opportunities for research into Alzheimer's and the possibilities offered by vitamin C"
  • Scientists discover new role for vitamin C in the eye and the brain - Science Daily, 7/15/11 - "cells in the retina need to be 'bathed' in relatively high doses of vitamin C, inside and out, to function properly ... Because the retina is part of the central nervous system, this suggests there's likely an important role for vitamin C throughout our brains, to a degree we had not realized before ... The findings could have implications for other diseases, like glaucoma and epilepsy. Both conditions are caused by the dysfunction of nerve cells in the retina and brain that become over excited in part because GABA receptors may not be functioning properly"
  • Vitamin C may offer potential life-saving treatment for sepsis - Science Daily, 11/17/10 - "vitamin C can not only prevent the onset of sepsis, but can reverse the disease"
  • Vitamin C rapidly improves emotional state of acutely hospitalized patients, study suggests - Science Daily, 9/23/10 - "Treatment with vitamin C rapidly improves the emotional state of acutely hospitalized patients ... About one in five acute-care patients in our hospital have vitamin C levels so low as to be compatible with scurvy ... But patients are rarely given vitamin supplements. Most physicians are simply unaware of the problem"
  • Omega-3, vitamins C and E may boost pancreatic health - Nutra USA, 9/9/10 - "consuming at least 850 milligrams of omega-3 fatty acids per day was associated with a 53 percent reduction in the risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to intakes of between 330 and 580 milligrams per day ... According to findings published in the International Journal of Cancer, benefits were also observed for intakes of vitamin C and E, the highest average intakes associated with 31 and 33 percent reductions, respectively, compared with the lowest average intakes" - [Abstract]
  • Citrus surprise: Vitamin C boosts the reprogramming of adult cells into stem cells - Science Daily, 12/29/09 - "The researchers found that adding vitamin C, an essential nutrient that is abundant in citrus fruits, enhanced iPSC generation from both mouse and human cells. Vitamin C accelerated gene expression changes and promoted a more efficient transition to the fully reprogrammed state. Somewhat to their surprise, they found that other antioxidants do not have the same effect, but vitamin C does seem to act at least in part through slowing cell senescence ... It is also of interest that a vitamin with long-suspected anti-aging effects has such a potent influence on reprogramming, which can be considered a reversal of the aging process at the cellular level"
  • Antioxidant compound reduced incidence of colorectal metachronous adenomas - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "The researchers randomized 411 participants to the placebo group or to receive an antioxidant compound -- specifically selenomethionnine 200 μg, zinc 30 mg, vitamin A 6,000 IU, vitamin C 180 mg and vitamin E 30 mg ... individuals who consumed antioxidants had a 40 percent reduction in the incidence of metachronous adenomas of the large bowel ... It is noteworthy that the benefit observed after the conclusion of the trial persisted through 13 years of follow up"
  • New Role Of Vitamin C In Skin Protection; Relevance To The Cosmetics Industry - Science Daily, 9/8/09 - "a form of Vitamin C helped to promote wound healing and also helped protect the DNA damage of skin cells ... Previously, the group has published evidence that DNA repair is upregulated in people consuming vitamin C supplements ... The results demonstrated that vitamin C may improve wound healing by stimulating quiescent fibroblasts to divide and by promoting their migration into the wounded area. Vitamin C could also protect the skin by increasing the capacity of fibroblasts to repair potentially mutagenic DNA lesions ... Free radicals are associated with premature skin aging, and antioxidants, such as vitamin C, are known to counter these highly damaging compounds. This new evidence suggest that, in addition to ‘mopping up’ free radicals, vitamin C can help remove the DNA damage they form, if they get past the cell’s defences"
  • Vitamin C Deficiency Impairs Early Brain Development, Guinea Pig Study Finds - 9/4/09 - "guinea pigs subjected to moderate vitamin C deficiency have 30 per cent less hippocampal neurones and markedly worse spatial memory than guinea pigs given a normal diet. Like guinea pigs, human beings are dependent on getting vitamin C through their diet, and Jens Lykkesfeldt therefore speculate that vitamin C deficiency in pregnant and breast-feeding women may also lead to impaired development in foetuses and new-born babies"
  • Stopping Diabetes Damage With Vitamin C - Science Daily, 6/10/09 - "While neither therapy produced desired results when used alone, the combination of insulin to control blood sugar together with the use of Vitamin C, stopped blood vessel damage caused by the disease in patients with poor glucose control"
  • Antioxidant vitamins may protect against female cancer - Nutra USA, 6/3/09 - "for every 1,000 microgram increase per 1,000 kcal of diet of beta-carotene was associated with a 12 per cent reduction in the risk of endometrial cancer ... Similarly, for every 50 milligram increase per 1,000 kcal of vitamin C the risk of endometrial cancer was reduced by 15 per cent, and for every 5 milligram increase per 1,000 kcal of vitamin E the risk of endometrial cancer was reduced by 9 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin C May Help Prevent Gout - WebMD, 3/9/09 - "men who had the highest vitamin C intake from supplements and food were up to 45% less likely to develop the painful condition than those who had the lowest ... the results suggest that taking vitamin C supplements at the levels in the study (less than 2,000 milligrams per day) may be a safe and effective way to prevent gout"
  • Support For Adjunctive Vitamin C Treatment In Cancer - Science Daily, 3/5/09 - "Challem points out two main problems with the study: the oxidized form of vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid) and not actual vitamin C (ascorbic acid) was used; and in the mouse experiments, the animals were given toxic doses of dehydroascorbic acid, a compound that is not used as a dietary supplement in humans ... This study and the subsequent headlines [it generated] were a grievous disservice to physicians and patients with cancer ... considerable positive research…has shown striking benefits from high-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in cancer cells and animals—and in actual human beings"
  • Vitamin C Production: Molecular Gatekeeper In Enzyme Discovered - Science Daily, 2/26/09
  • Vitamin C and BP - Medscape, 1/6/09 - "plasma vitamin-C concentrations were inversely associated with blood pressure in young women [1]. The results suggest that this nutrient may favorably influence blood pressure in healthy young adults ... plasma ascorbic acid at year 10 was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP. Those in the highest quartile of plasma vitamin C had 4.66-mm-Hg lower systolic BP and 6.04-mm-Hg lower diastolic BP (p=0.0002) than those in the lowest quartile ... Block says she has recently authored two papers detailing possible mechanisms by which vitamin C could lower BP. These show that vitamin C significantly lowers F2-isprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, and CRP, a marker of inflammation [2,3]. "Both inflammation and oxidative stress are pretty well established as having a role in hypertension ... Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant in vitro, and in some animal studies it has been shown to act as a vasodilator, possibly by enhancing the bioavailability of nitric oxide"
  • Vitamin C Lowers Levels Of Inflammation Biomarker Considered Predictor Of Heart Disease - Science Daily, 11/14/08 - "for people with elevated CRP levels, the amount of CRP reduction achieved by taking vitamin C supplements in this study is comparable to that in many other studies of cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins. They noted that several larger statin trials lowered CRP levels by about 0.2 milligrams per liter; in this latest study, vitamin C lowered CRP by 0.25 milligrams per liter" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C, Chemotherapy: Bad Combo? - WebMD, 10/1/08 - "What vitamin C does is protect the cancer cells from the chemotherapy mainly by protecting their mitochondria [the cell's power sources]"
  • Vitamin C May Prevent Hyperuricemia, Gout - Medscape, 9/26/08 - "Hyperuricemia is considered a precursor of gout, which is the most common inflammatory arthritis in adult men ... An association was observed between greater vitamin C intake and lower prevalence of hyperuricemia defined as > 6 mg/dL. The multivariable odds ratio for hyperuricemia for the highest intake of vitamin C (>1000 mg/d) compared to the lowest (<90 mg/d) was 0.34 ... These findings support a potential role of vitamin C in the prevention of hyperuricemia and gout"
  • Vitamin C linked to Reduced Bone Loss in Older Men - WebMD, 9/19/08 - "If you don't have enough vitamin C, you don't make bones right. Collagen is the principal protein of bones, accounting for nearly half the volume. What the collagen does is prevent bones from coming apart"
  • Vitamin C Intake May Reduce Fracture Risk - Medscape, 9/15/08 - "Basically, people who had higher levels of vitamin C intake had half the rate of hip fractures as people who had the lowest vitamin C [levels]"
  • Vitamin C may help lower diabetes risk - MSNBC, 8/7/08 - "the likelihood of developing diabetes was 62 percent lower in men and women with the highest circulating vitamin C levels, relative to men and women with the lowest vitamin C levels" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C Injections Slow Tumor Growth In Mice - Science Daily, 8/4/08 - "high concentrations of ascorbate had anticancer effects in 75 percent of cancer cell lines tested, while sparing normal cells. In their paper, the researchers also showed that these high ascorbate concentrations could be achieved in people" - Note:  I was taking about 8 grams of vitamin C per day when I had neck cancer.  Maybe that's what saved me.
  • Vitamin C-rich diet may slash diabetes risk - Nutra USA, 7/29/08 - "Increased blood levels of vitamin C may reduce the risk of developing diabetes by 62 per cent ... Correlating blood levels of vitamin C and diabetes, the researchers found that men and women with the highest blood levels (at least 1.10 and 1.29 mg/dL, respectively) had a 62 per cent reduction in their risk of developing type-2 diabetes, compared to men and women with the lowest blood levels (less than 0.56 and 0.77 mg/dL, respectively)"
  • How Humans Make Up For An 'Inborn' Vitamin C Deficiency - Science Daily, 3/20/08
  • Vitamin C can keep you healthy, looking younger - CNN.com, 2/27/08 - "people who ate foods rich in vitamin C had fewer wrinkles and less age-related dry skin than those whose diets contained only small amounts of the vitamin. C helps form collagen, which smooths fine lines and wrinkles ... Farris recommends La Roche-Posay Active C facial moisturizer or SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic topical antioxidant treatment ... taking more than 700 milligrams of C supplements daily reduced the risk of cardiovascular disease by 25 percent. And a recent study from Harvard University researchers hints that women who take a combo of 500 milligrams of vitamin C daily and 600 IU of vitamin E (another antioxidant) can cut their risk of stroke by 30 percent ... Pairing vitamins C and E is smart for another reason: It may lessen your Alzheimer's risks by as much as 64 percent ..." - See La Roche-Posay Active C facial moisturizer or SkinCeuticals C E Ferulic at Amazon.com and vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit, Vegetable Eaters Have Fewer Strokes - WebMD, 1/9/08 - "Specifically, vitamin C levels may prove to be a good predictive indicator of stroke risk, independent of known risk factors such as age, smoking history, blood pressure, and cholesterol, they write"
  • Vitamin C, Surgery, Arnica Montana - Dr. Weil, 1/4/08
  • Vitamin C linked to lower stroke risk: study - WebMD, 1/7/08 - "The highest average blood levels of vitamin C (greater than 66 micromoles per litre) were associated with a 42 per cent lower risk of stroke, compared to the lowest average blood levels (less than 41 micromoles per litre)"
  • Vitamin C and dairy linked to less abdominal weight - Nutra USA, 11/16/07 - "low vitamin C intake was associated with a 131 per cent increase in probability of central fat accumulation, while low calcium increased the probability by 30 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin C May Slow Skin Wrinkling - WebMD, 10/8/07 - "After adjusting for other factors likely to influence skin aging, such as sun exposure and smoking, vitamin C and linoleic acid were independently associated with skin aging ... After digestion, linoleic acid is converted to DHA and EPA -- two fatty acids" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com. - Note:  I'm not sure that is correct.  Linoleic acid is an omega-6, which is not converted to DHA and EPA.  Most Americans get about ten time too much omega-6 already.
  • How Vitamin C Stops Cancer - Science Daily, 9/10/07 - "Both of these cancers produce high levels of free radicals that can be suppressed by feeding the mice supplements of antioxidants, either vitamin C or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) ... Some rapidly growing tumors consume enough energy to easily suck out the available oxygen in their vicinity, making HIF-1 absolutely critical for their continued survival. But HIF-1 can only operate if it has a supply of free radicals. Antioxidants remove these free radicals and stop HIF-1, and the tumor, in its tracks"
  • Fat Transforms Vitamin C From 'Good Cop' Into 'Bad Cop' - Science Daily, 9/4/07 - "Nitrites, which are present in human saliva, and in certain preserved foodstuffs, may be converted to cancer causing compounds called nitrosamines. Nitrosamines are formed in acidic conditions, such as those afforded by stomach acid, but vitamin C inhibits their formation, by converting nitrite to nitric oxide ... Without fat, vitamin C curbed the levels of two nitrosamines by a factor of between five and 1000. And it completely eliminated the production of the other two ... But when 10% fat was added, vitamin C actually boosted the production of nitrosamines between 8 and 140-fold"
  • Is there anything that I can do to aid recovery and reduce soreness [from exercise]? - Dr. Murray - "Take 3,000-8,000 mg of vitamin C and 400-800 IU of vitamin E in divided doses daily"
  • Vitamin C 'benefits diabetics' - BBC News, 6/28/07 - "Vitamin C neutralises free radicals, while Telmisarten stimulates the natural removal of the molecules by cells"
  • An Antioxidant Update? - Dr. Weil, 10/9/06
  • Ester-C gets tolerability boost - Nutra USA, 5/5/06
  • Vitamin C could lower body fat levels - Nutra USA, 4/6/06 - "As vitamin C blood concentrations fell, so did the participants' ability to oxidize fat (an 11 per cent reduction)"
  • Vitamin C could reduce inflammation - Nutra USA, 3/8/06 - "High blood levels of vitamin C were associated with a 45 per cent reduced risk of inflammation (with respect to CRP levels)"
  • Cortisol, Stress, and Health - Life Extension Magazine, 12/05 - "Supplements to reduce high cortisol levels secondary to stress ... Vitamin C: 1000-3000 mg/day ... Fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids):1-4 gm/day ... Phosphatidylserine: 300-800 mg/day ... Rhodiola rosea: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginseng: 100-300 mg/day, standardized extract ... Ginkgo biloba: 100-200 mg/day, standardized extract ... DHEA: 25-50 mg/day (any hormone supplementation should be monitored by your physician)"
  • Study: Vitamin C May Fight Cancer - WebMD, 9/12/05 - "Vitamin C appeared to boost production of hydrogen peroxide, which killed cancer cells and left healthy cells unharmed ... The levels of vitamin C were so high that they could only be achieved through IV infusions"
  • Vitamins E and C Confirmed Safe At High Doses - NPI Center, 4/29/05
  • Discovery Shows New Vitamin C Health Benefits - Science Daily, 1/12/05 - "the new discovery indicates it has a complex protective role against toxic compounds formed from oxidized lipids, preventing the genetic damage or inflammation they can cause"
  • Alternative Medicine: Vitamin C - The Epoch Times, 11/28/04 - "Guinea pigs and primates are the only mammals known that do not manufacture vitamin C in their gut. Other mammals not only manufacture vitamin C (ascorbic acid), but do it on an as-needed basis. For daily maintenance they manufacture what would be equivalent to a 150-pound man taking 5 to 50 grams a day"
  • Study Shows Vitamins C And E Can Prevent Metabolic Damaage In Extreme Exercise - Science Daily, 7/15/04 - "ultramarathon runners who used supplements of vitamins C and E for six weeks prior to their races totally prevented the increase in lipid oxidation that is otherwise associated with extreme exercise"
  • Vitamin C May Fight Rheumatoid Arthritis - WebMD, 6/9/04 - "people who ate the least amount of fruits and vegetables had double the risk of developing inflammatory arthritis ... People who got the least vitamin C in their diet had three times the risk of developing inflammatory arthritis than those who got the most"
  • Excess Vitamin C May Worsen Osteoarthritis - WebMD, 6/3/04
  • Vitamin C supplement to beat diabetes and heart disease - Nutra USA, 4/14/04 - "Researchers at the University of California say that participants who took about 500 milligrams of vitamin C supplements per day saw a 24 per cent drop in plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels after two months"
  • A Preferred Source of Vitamin C? - Dr. Weil, 3/9/04
  • Vitamins C and E May Lower Alzheimer's Risk - WebMD, 1/20/04
  • Vitamin Supplement Use May Reduce Effects Of Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 1/20/04
  • Ulcer Agent Lowered in Vitamin C Study - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 11/03
  • Diet Rich in Vitamin C Decreases Stroke Risk - Medscape, 11/10/03
  • Low Blood Levels of Vitamin C Linked to Mortality - Medscape, 11/6/03 - "Individuals in the lowest quintile for ascorbate concentration (<17 µmol/L) had the highest mortality, whereas those in the highest quintile (>66 µmol/L) had the lowest mortality ... After excluding subjects with cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline, mortality for those in the highest quintile was still about half of that in the lowest quintile"
  • Vitamin C Cream Reverses Skin Damage from Sun Exposure - Healthwell Exchange Daily News, 10/16/03
  • The Chromium Connection - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 9/03 - "The body requires certain nutrients to control glucose metabolism, especially chromium, zinc and vitamins B and C"
  • Vitamin Supplements Improve Blood Vessel Function - Physician's Weekly, 9/8/03 - "In a study where children with hyperlipidemia were given doses of the antioxidants vitamins C and E, researchers have found that the supplements can significantly improve blood vessel function ... the test group received 500 mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E daily. Both groups saw an 8% decline in LDL cholesterol and the test group had significant improvement in endothelial function comparable to the levels of normal healthy children"
  • Vitamins E and C Lower Kids' Heart Risks - WebMD, 8/11/03
  • E and C May Give Older Women a Mental Edge - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 8/03 - "The women who had taken vitamin C and E supplements for more than 10 years scored an average of 1.5 years younger in cognitive function than those not taking vitamins. The results were even more marked for those with low dietary vitamin E intake: Women with the lowest 30 percent of dietary vitamin E intake who did not take supplements tested two years older in mental function than women who compensated for low dietary intake with antioxidant supplements"
  • Low Vitamin C Tied to Ulcer Bug - WebMD, 8/4/03
  • Vitamin C May Protect Against Ulcer-Causing Bacteria - Doctor's Guide, 8/1/03 - "the lower the level of vitamin C in the blood the more likely a person will become infected by Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria that can cause peptic ulcers and stomach cancer ... The bottom line is that higher levels of vitamin C may have the potential to prevent peptic ulcers and stomach cancer"
  • Vitamin C Lowers Heart Disease Risk - WebMD, 7/15/03
  • Vitamin C Reduces Oxidant Stress In Renal Failure - Doctor's Guide, 3/26/03 - "The acute administration of vitamin C reduces oxidant stress in renal failure, and improves nitric oxide-mediated resistance-vessel dilatation ... In addition, vitamin C was found to increase the dilator response to acetylcholine in resistance vessels"
  • Vitamin C May Fight Colds After All - WebMD, 3/12/03 - "12 healthy subjects who took one gram of vitamin C a day for two weeks showed a boosted immune system response during that time ... in two of them, the response to vitamin C took place within five hours ... this might mean that taking a vitamin C tablet at the first sign of a cold could achieve an effect quickly enough to ward off that cold"
  • Vitamin C May Aid People with Diabetes - New Hope Natural Media, 2/13/03 - "randomly assigned to receive 500 mg of vitamin C per day or a placebo. After four weeks of treatment, the average blood pressure decreased significantly in the group taking vitamin C, whereas no change was seen in the placebo group. The systolic blood pressure (the higher number) decreased by an average of 9.8 mm Hg, while the diastolic blood pressure (the lower number) decreased by 4.4 mm Hg. These changes in blood pressure are nearly as great as one might expect from taking a prescription blood pressure-lowering medication. In addition, the stiffness of the arteries decreased significantly in the vitamin C group ... Vitamin C inhibits all three of the biochemical reactions that are believed to contribute to the development of these complications: (1) the production of oxygen-derived free radicals, (2) the accumulation of sorbitol within cells, and (3) a tissue-damaging reaction called glycosylation"
  • Vitamins C and E may enhance effectiveness of insulin for diabetes - University of California at Irvine, 1/29/03 - "Boosting insulin with vitamins C and E may improve the drug's effectiveness for treating diabetes ... the popular antioxidant supplements not only enhance insulin's ability to reduce blood sugar, but also lower the risks of organ damage that can occur despite insulin treatments"
  • Vitamins C and E Improve Outcome in Critically Ill Surgical Patients - New Hope Natural Media, 1/9/03 - "The incidence of multiple organ failure was significantly lower (by 57%) in the group receiving antioxidants than in the control group (2.7% vs. 6.1%). In addition, the average length of stay in the ICU was significantly lower (by 17%) in the antioxidant group.  After 28 days, the mortality rate was 44% lower in the antioxidant group than in the control group (1.3% vs. 2.4%), but this difference was not statistically significant"
  • Vitamin C, Fish, And A Gout Drug Target Artery Damage From Smoking - Intelihealth, 1/7/03 - "vitamin C and taurine, an amino acid in fish, reversed abnormal blood vessel response associated with cigarette smoking - a discovery that may provide insight into how smoking contributes to "hardening of the arteries,""
  • Antioxidant Vitamins Improve Surgical Outcomes - Medscape, 12/20/02 - "Compared with patients receiving standard care, those who received antioxidant supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and length of ICU stay, and lower relative risk (RR) of pulmonary morbidity (RR, 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 - 1.1) and of multiple organ failure (RR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19 - 0.96)"
  • Antioxidants May Reduce Alzheimer's Disease Risk - Clinical Psychiatry News, 10/02 - "Use of vitamins E and C together—which is what most subjects did—was associated with an eightfold reduction in prevalence and a fivefold lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease"
  • Vitamins C And E Support Breathing Following An Operation - Intelihealth, 9/12/02 - "Patients who have recently undergone an operation experience less breathing problems after being given a cocktail of vitamins C and E"
  • Low Vitamin C Increases Stroke Risk - WebMD, 6/7/02
  • Vitamin C May Prevent Platelet Aggregation - Doctor's Guide, 5/28/02 - "Vitamin C may inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation. This may add to the protection that vitamin C is already known to give against coronary heart disease ... In smokers who received vitamin C, there were significant decreases in platelet aggregation after six hours with both collagen concentrations compared to placebo. In non-smokers, there were significant decreases of platelet aggregation after three and six hours for both collagen concentrations"
  • Vitamin C Beneficial In Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 5/27/02 - "These two groups were split into subgroups: those who received 2 g of vitamin C and those who did not after eating high-fat meal ... Although the postprandial flow-mediated dilatation was significantly aggravated in people not taking vitamin C (both with and without heart disease), this parameter in patients and subjects taking vitamin C showed no significant change"
  • Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy Reduces Bioavailability of Dietary Vitamin C - Doctor's Guide, 5/20/02 - "The mean pre-treatment plasma vitamin C concentration in H. pylori -negative subjects was 25.1 mg/mL (range 16.1-33) and 17.4 mg/mL (6.7-29) in H. pylori-positive subjects (p<0.001). Mean daily dietary intake of vitamin C was 44 mg/day (range 10-130) in H. pylori positive subjects compared to 141 mg/day (range 23-282) negative subjects (p<0.001) ... Four week of omeprazole [Prilosec - the purple pill] treatment achieved reductions in mean plasma vitamin C concentrations of 15 percent (p=0.005) in H. pylori-positive and -negative subjects"
  • Vitamins Help After Heart Transplant - WebMD, 3/28/02 - "The plaque-fighting benefits of the antioxidant supplements were even greater than those found using statin medications, which have already been shown to slow hardening of the arteries after transplants. Previous research has shown that antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, can promote heart health by reducing blood clots and keeping the blood vessels flexible"
  • Few Vitamins Effectively Prevent or Reverse Skin Damage - Medscape, 3/02 - "Even minimal UV exposure can decrease the vitamin C levels in the skin by 30%, while exposure from the ozone of city pollution can decrease the level by 55%"
  • Vitamin C Reduces The Odds Of Developing Early-Onset Cataract - Doctor's Guide, 2/22/02 - "A significant interaction was observed between age, vitamin C intake, and the prevalence of cataracts. For women younger than 60 years, the consumption of vitamin C >/= 362 mg/day was associated with a 57 percent lower risk of developing cortical opacities, and the use of vitamin C supplements for at least 10 years was associated with a 60 percent reduction in the risk of cataracts, when compared to no supplement use ... the incidence of posterior subcapsulary cataracts was considerably lower in women who had never smoked and who had high intakes of folate and carotenoids"
  • Vitamin C May Improve Alzheimer's Treatments - WebMD, 1/14/02 - "When ascorbic acid -- better known as vitamin C -- is chemically attached to certain drugs, it allows them to penetrate the [blood brain] barrier, reaching more of its target cells within the brain ... they tested one of the modified drugs in mice with induced convulsions. They injected some of the animals with the normal version of the drug and others with the modified version. Only animals that received the drug with attached vitamin C had delayed convulsions -- indicating that the drug was more effective"
  • Antioxidants, At Certain Levels, May Reduce Blood Pressure - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/01 - "increasing levels of serum beta- carotene were associated with significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, while increasing levels of serum vitamin C were associated with significant reductions in diastolic pressure ... In contrast, serum levels of vitamin E were associated with significant increases in diastolic blood pressure"
  • Vitamin C Inhibits Cell Death In Congestive Heart Failure Patients - Intelihealth, 10/30/01
  • Zinc, Antioxidants Prevent Some Forms of Vision Loss - WebMD, 10/12/01 - "people at risk of losing more sight due to a condition called "age-related macular degeneration" (AMD) could prevent further vision loss by taking a combination of zinc and antioxidants, including vitamins C and E and beta-carotene ... The antioxidants were taken once a day at a dose of 500 mg of vitamin C, 400 IU of vitamin E, and 15 mg of beta-carotene. Zinc was given as 80 mg of zinc oxide along with 2 mg of copper in the form of cupric oxide to prevent anemia, which can occur from too much zinc ... the high levels of dietary supplements that were taken in this study are very difficult to achieve from diet alone"
  • Antioxidants Resolve Radiation Side Effects - Nutrition Science News, 9/01
  • Parkinson's Defense - Nutrition Science News, 5/01
  • Arterial Disease Depletes Body of Vitamin C - WebMD, 4/9/01 - "In atherosclerosis, arteries and other blood vessels are lined with fat deposits and buildup of cellular materials, including inflammatory cells, which release unstable molecules called free radicals. The free radicals do additional damage to the delicate vessels, says Langlois. Antioxidants such as vitamin C seek out and destroy free radicals, but in the process the antioxidants are themselves destroyed ... PAD appears to kick the body's inflammatory process into high gear, which then releases a free radical bombardment, that can "deplete the supply of vitamin C""
  • The Prediabetic Epidemic - Nutrition Science News, 3/01 - "Supplements to Regulate Glucose and Insulin ... Alpha-Lipoic Acid ... Vitamin E ... Vitamin C ... Some research has found that 2,000 mg/day vitamin C daily lowers both glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, the latter a standard marker of diabetic control ... Chromium ... Silymarin"
  • Vitamin C May Help Ward Off Osteoporosis - WebMD, 2/8/01 - "Researchers have found that postmenopausal women who took vitamin C supplements had a higher bone density than those who didn't. The highest bone densities were also found in the women who were taking more than 1,000 mg/d."
  • Antioxidant Vitamins Block Homocysteine's Acute Toxic Effects - Nutrition Science News, 12/00
  • Vitamins and Vision, Lots of "C" May Help You See Later in Life - WebMD, 12/11/00 - "Risk of cataracts was 60% lower among people who took multivitamins or any supplement containing vitamin C or E for more than 10 years."
  • Ulcer Therapy, Vitamins May Team Up to Prevent Stomach Cancer, Drugs Halted, Healed Abnormalities With Cancer Potential - WebMD, 12/8/00 - "people who took the three-drug combination alone or in combination with vitamin C and/or beta carotene were three to five times more likely than people who received no treatment to have a reduction in the size of precancerous stomach abnormalities."


  • Associations of intake of antioxidant vitamins and fatty acids with asthma in pre-school children - Public Health Nutr. 2012 Oct 1:1-6 - "Compared with children with the lowest intake tertile for vitamin C and vitamin E, those in the highest were significantly inversely associated with asthma; adjusted OR (95 % CI) were 0.35 (0.14, 0.88) and 0.32 (0.12, 0.85), respectively. A statistically significant trend was also observed. Fruit intake showed an inverse but insignificant association with asthma. There were no associations of any type of fatty acids with asthma" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C and A1c Relationship in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 - J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Dec;30(6):477-83 - "The consumption of foods high in vitamin C has been associated with lower risk of diabetes ... Vitamin C concentrations were inversely associated with A1c (p = 0.0202). Stronger inverse associations were observed in subjects 18-44 years of age (p = 0.0017), as well as in female (p = 0.0035) and Mexican American (p = 0.0149) subgroups. Evidence of a significant interaction between vitamin C and vitamin D was noted in subjects aged 18-44 years and in females (p = 0.0073 and 0.0095 respectively), with the inverse association tending to be evident at lower levels of vitamin D"
  • Plasma vitamin C concentrations in patients on routine hemodialysis and its relationship to patients morbidity and mortality Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011 Jul;81(4):197-203 - "hemodialysis (HD) patients ... Forty-nine patients (53.8 %) had low levels of vitamin C concentration. There was a significant relationship between vitamin C insufficiency and presence of any co-morbidity in HD patients (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference in vitamin C concentrations between patients without co-morbidities and those with cardiovascular ones (F[2,88]=3.447, p = 0.036). Twenty-two (24.2 %) patients died over a median duration of 227 days. There was a significant difference in time to death of patients with and without low levels of vitamin C concentration (p = 0.04). Conclusions: The results showed lower plasma vitamin C levels in HD patients who suffered any co-morbidity and sooner time to death in these patients"
  • Vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: Pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium - Int J Cancer. 2011 Dec 15 - "To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 case-control studies ... A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.59-0.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR=0.64, 95% CI=0.42-0.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.54-0.97) and more than 365 tablets of cumulative calcium intake (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.16-0.83), but linear trends were not observed for the frequency or duration of any supplement intake. We did not observe any strong associations between vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer"
  • Inhibitory Effect of Vitamin C in Combination With Vitamin K3 on Tumor Growth and Metastasis of Lewis Lung Carcinoma Xenografted in C57BL/6 Mice - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Sep 2 - "Vit CK3 restored the body weight of tumor-bearing mice to the level of tumor-free mice ... These results demonstrate that vit CK3 inhibits primary tumor growth and exhibits antimetastastic potential in vivo through attenuated tumor invasion and proliferation" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com and vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Intakes of Antioxidant Vitamins and Mortality From Cardiovascular Disease: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC) Study - Stroke. 2011 Apr 21 - "investigated the relation of dietary vitamins A, E, and C intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease for Japanese men and women ... The multivariable hazard ratios (95% CI) associated with the highest versus lowest quintiles of vitamin C intake were 0.70 (0.54 to 0.92) for total stroke, 0.63 (0.41 to 0.97) for coronary heart disease, and 0.79 (0.66 to 0.94) for total cardiovascular disease for women, but the inverse associations observed were weak and did not reach statistical significance for men. No significant association was observed between vitamins A or E intake and risk of mortality for either men or women"
  • Effect of vitamins C and E on antioxidant status of breast-cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy - J Clin Pharm Ther. 2011 Jan 4 - "VCE (vitamin C 500 mg tablet and vitamin E 400 mg gelatin capsule ... The untreated group showed significantly lower levels of antioxidant enzymes (P<0.001) and reduced glutathione (P<0.001), and more extensive lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) and DNA damage than healthy controls. Similar but less pronounced patterns were observed in the patients receiving chemotherapy alone. The group of patients receiving VCE supplementation had all the marker levels moving towards normal values. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase, and the levels of reduced glutathione were significantly increased (P<0.01) while, the levels of malondialdehyde and DNA damage were significantly (P<0.01) reduced in the VCE supplemented group relative to those of patients receiving chemotherapy alone as well as relative to the pretreatment levels"
  • Synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and thiazolidinedione on secretion of high molecular weight adiponectin from human adipocytes - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Dec;12(12):1084-9 - "AA supplementation significantly increased secretion of HMW adiponectin (1.7-fold) without altering adiponectin expression or total adiponectin secretion. TZD significantly increased expression (3-fold) and secretion of total (1.4-fold) but not HMW adiponectin. Combined supplementation resulted in a significant increase in expression (3-fold) and secretion of total (1.8-fold) and HMW (5-fold) adiponectin. Similar results were seen in cells co-treated with TNFα" - See my adiponectin page.  High adiponectin is a good thing.  Actos (pioglitazone) is a TZD and is something I've been taking for anti-aging for some time.  Not only does it increase adiponectin but it increases insulin sensitivity.  See my Insulin and Aging page.  See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Effect of High-dose Vitamin C on Oxygen Free Radical Production and Myocardial Enzyme after Tourniquet Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury during Bilateral Total Knee Replacement - J Int Med Res. 2010 Jul-Aug;38(4):1519-29 - "In the VC group, malondialdehyde levels were lower, and arterial oxygen tension and mean blood pressure were higher, than in controls after post-operative deflation of both knee tourniquets. Troponin I levels were lower in the VC group than in controls 8 h post-operation. Administering high-dose vitamin C during bilateral TKR could prevent oxygen free radical production and a decline in arterial oxygen tension and mean blood pressure induced by ischaemia-reperfusion injury, thereby protecting the myocardium"
  • Intake of fatty acids and antioxidants and pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area - Int J Cancer. 2010 Oct 15;127(8):1893-904 - "Positive associations were observed for high levels of the 8 individual saturated fatty acids (4th vs. 1st quartile: ORs ranged from 1.6 to 2.6; all p(trend) < 0.01), monounsaturated palmitoleic and oleic fatty acids [OR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2-2.1) and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.9); both p(trend) < 0.01], and polyunsaturated linolenic acid [OR = 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-2.0); p(trend) = 0.02]. Inverse associations were observed for high levels of gadolic acid [4th vs. 1st quartile: OR = 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50-0.92); p(trend) = 0.007] and omega-3 fatty acids [>or=0.85 g/day vs. 1st quartile: OR = 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.90)]. An inverse association was also observed for high total intake of vitamin C [4th vs. 1st quartile: OR = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.51-0.94); p(trend) = 0.004] and of vitamin E [OR = 0.67 (95% CI: 0.49-0.92); p(trend) = 0.01]"
  • The effects of vitamin C supplementation on incident and progressive knee osteoarthritis: a longitudinal study - Public Health Nutr. 2010 Aug 16:1-7 - "In the present prospective cohort study, we found no evidence to support a protective role of vitamin C in the progression of knee OA. However, after controlling for confounding variables, these data suggest that vitamin C supplementation may indeed be beneficial in preventing incident knee OA. Given the massive public health burden of OA, the use of a simple, widely available and inexpensive supplement to potentially reduce the impact of this disease merits further consideration"
  • Vitamin C requirement in surgical patients - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Aug 4 - "Blood vitamin C concentration falls after uncomplicated surgery and further decreases in surgical intensive care unit patients. The decline may be owing to increased demand caused by increased oxidative stress. To normalize plasma vitamin C concentration, much higher doses than the recommended daily allowance or doses recommended in parenteral nutrition guidelines are needed in these patients. In uncomplicated surgical patients, more than 500 mg/day of vitamin C may be required, with much higher doses in surgical intensive care unit patients. In uncomplicated gastrointestinal surgery, continuous parenteral administration of 500 mg/day of vitamin C reduced postoperative oxidative stress as manifested by reduced urinary excretion of isoprostane. In some studies, postoperative atrial fibrillation was prevented after cardiac surgery by perioperative vitamin C supplementation. In critically ill patients, some prospective randomized controlled trials support parenteral supplementation of high doses of vitamin C, E and trace elements"
  • High dose of ascorbic acid induces cell death in mesothelioma cells - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Feb 18 - "High dose of ascorbic acid induced cell death of all mesothelioma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner ... These data suggest that ascorbic acid may have benefits for patients with mesothelioma"
  • Ascorbic Acid for Anemia Management in Hemodialysis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis - Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Sep 22 - "Combining the 3 randomized clinical trials involving patients with baseline hemoglobin levels <11 g/dL, change in hemoglobin level was greater for ascorbic acid use compared with standard care (WMD, 0.9 g/dL; 95% CI, 0.5-1.2 g/dL). Compared with standard care, ascorbic acid use also was associated with a statistically significant decrease in rHuEPO dose (WMD, -17.1 U/kg/wk; 95% CI, -26.0 to -8.2 U/kg/wk) and improvement in transferrin saturation (WMD, 7.9%; 95% CI, 5.2-10.5%), with no change in ferritin concentration"
  • Serum vitamin C concentration and hs-CRP level in middle-aged Japanese men and women - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Aug 7 - "Inverse associations between serum vitamin C concentrations and hs-CRP levels were established for both men and women. Multivariable-adjusted mean values of hs-CRP for the lowest to highest quintiles of vitamin C levels were 0.75, 0.65, 0.61, 0.61 and 0.47mg/L (P for trend <0.001) for men, and 0.56, 0.51, 0.49, 0.41 and 0.41mg/L (P for trend <0.001) for women. The inverse association between vitamin C and hs-CRP was stronger for non-smoking men and women, non-overweight women and postmenopausal women ... Serum vitamin C concentrations were found to be inversely associated with hs-CRP levels in both men and women, primarily among non-smokers, non-overweight women and postmenopausal women"
  • Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life impairs spatial memory and reduces the number of hippocampal neurons in guinea pigs - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul 29 - "Our data show that vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life results in impaired neuronal development and a functional decrease in spatial memory in guinea pigs. We speculate that this unrecognized effect of vitamin C deficiency may have clinical implications for high-risk individuals, such as in children born from vitamin C-deficient mothers"
  • Antioxidant vitamins and the risk of endometrial cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Jul;20(5):699-711 - "Based on case-control data, the random-effects summary odds ratios (OR) were, for beta-carotene: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79-0.98) per 1,000 mcg/1,000 kcal (I2: 77.7%; p < 0.01); for vitamin C: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73-0.98) per 50 mg/1,000 kcal (I2: 66.1%; p < 0.01); and, for vitamin E: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.99) per 5 mg/1,000 kcal (I2: 0.0%; p: 0.45)"
  • Multivitamin use and telomere length in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;89(6):1857-63 - "After age and other potential confounders were adjusted for, multivitamin use was associated with longer telomeres. Compared with nonusers, the relative telomere length of leukocyte DNA was on average 5.1% longer among daily multivitamin users (P for trend = 0.002). In the analysis of micronutrients, higher intakes of vitamins C and E from foods were each associated with longer telomeres, even after adjustment for multivitamin use. Furthermore, intakes of both nutrients were associated with telomere length among women who did not take multivitamins"
  • Intake of plant foods and associated nutrients in prostate cancer risk - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):216-24 - "Plant foods and associated nutrients may impact prostate cancer (PC) risk and survival ... Reduced PC risk was associated with the highest tertile of cryptoxanthin (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.35-0.75), fiber (OR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.35-0.89), vitamin C (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.41-0.88), and fruits and/or fruit juices (OR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.31-0.68), with significant linear trends. Increased risk of PC was associated with the highest tertile of protein (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.05-3.79) and daily servings of grains (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.23-3.22) with significant linear trends"
  • Vitamin C-rich foods may boost artery health - Nutra USA, 2/17/09 - "increased intakes of vitamin C and fruit and berries were associated with less thickening of the carotid artery ... one mg per decilitre increase in blood vitamin C levels was linked to a 4.1 and 4.0 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressures" - [Abstract]
  • Vitamin C consumption is associated with less progression in carotid intima media thickness in elderly men: A 3-year intervention study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Jan;19(1):8-14 - "Vitamin C containing foods may protect against the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in elderly men"
  • Vitamin C: Is Supplementation Necessary for Optimal Health? - J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Nov 25 - "Consumption of vitamin C is essential for life in humans because the body does not synthesize it. Numerous studies have demonstrated that supplementation with vitamin C enhances the immune system, avoids DNA damage, and significantly decreases the risk of a wide range of pathologies, such as cancers, and degenerative and chronic diseases. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that modern crop production, transport, and food storage severely impair the quality of food and provoke a loss in micronutrients, such as vitamin C ... In this paper, we report that the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) in vitamin C is lower than the bodily needs. In fact, it does not seem to ensure true health protection and it appears difficult to reach an effective dose of vitamin C only through food consumption. Furthermore, the literature shows that vitamin C intake higher than the RDA is safe. Therefore, in order to achieve optimal health and avoid a number of diseases, we suggest that, in the present situation, vitamin C supplementation is required ... According to the current literature, we would like to emphasize that to ensure an optimal allowance of vitamin C, we advise 1 g daily intake of vitamin C supplementation, accompanied by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables"
  • Vitamin C-lipid metabolites: Uptake and retention and effect on plasma C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL levels in healthy volunteers - Med Sci Monit. 2008 Nov;14(11):CR547-551 - "ascorbic acid (AA), calcium ascorbate (CaA) ... PureWay-C(R) supplementation leads to the highest absolute serum vitamin C levels when compared to AA, CaA and Ester-C(R). PureWay-C(R) provides a statistically significant greater serum level than calcium ascorbate at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post oral supplementation whereas Ester-C(R) shows a less but slightly statistically significant increase at only 1 and 4 hours. Oral supplementation with PureWay-C(R) also led to a greater reduction in plasma C-reactive protein and oxidized LDL levels compared to the other vitamin C formulations. Conclusions: PureWay-C(R) is more rapidly absorbed and leads to higher serum vitamin C levels and greater reduction of plasma levels of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers than other forms of vitamin C, including Ester-C(R)" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin C consumption is associated with less progression in carotid intima media thickness in elderly men: A 3-year intervention study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 May 7 - "Vitamin C containing foods may protect against the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in elderly men"
  • Vitamin C Intake and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in Men - J Rheumatol. 2008 May 1 - "An inverse dose-response association was observed through vitamin C intake of 400-500 mg/day, and then reached a plateau ... Greater vitamin C intake was associated with lower prevalence of hyperuricemia (serum uric acid > 6 mg/dl). Multivariate odds ratios for hyperuricemia across total vitamin C intake categories were 1 (reference), 0.58, 0.57, 0.38, and 0.34 (95% CI 0.20-0.58; P for trend < 0.001). When we used dietary data, which were assessed 4-8 years before blood collection, as predictors, we observed similar inverse associations between vitamin C intake and uric acid ... These population-based data indicate that vitamin C intake in men is inversely associated with serum uric acid concentrations. These findings support a potential role of vitamin C in the prevention of hyperuricemia and gout"
  • A 12 week, open label, phase I/IIa study using apatone for the treatment of prostate cancer patients who have failed standard therapy - Int J Med Sci. 2008 Mar 24;5(2):62-7 - "oral Apatone (Vitamin C and Vitamin K3) administration in the treatment of prostate cancer ... 5,000 mg of VC and 50 mg of VK3 each day ... At the conclusion of the 12 week treatment period, PSAV decreased and PSADT increased in 13 of 17 patients (p < or = 0.05). There were no dose-limiting adverse effects. Of the 15 patients who continued on Apatone after 12 weeks, only 1 death occurred after 14 months of treatment"
  • Dehydroascorbic acid as an anti-cancer agent - Cancer Lett. 2008 Mar 28 - "dehydroascorbic acid has the remarkable ability to eliminate the aggressive mouse tumours, L1210, P388, Krebs sarcoma, and Ehrlich carcinoma"
  • Plasma vitamin C concentrations predict risk of incident stroke over 10 y in 20 649 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk prospective population study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):64-9 - "persons in the top quartiles of baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations had a 42% lower risk (relative risk: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.78) than did those in the bottom quartile"
  • Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):142-9 - "The administration of vitamin C significantly (P = 0.014) hampered endurance capacity"
  • Ascorbic Acid Decreases the Binding Affinity of the AT(1) Receptor for Angiotensin II - Am J Hypertens. 2008 Jan;21(1):67-71 - "Ascorbic acid decreases the binding affinity of the AT(1) receptor. These results offer a mechanistic explanation for the reported blood pressure lowering effect of ascorbic acid"
  • Dietary and non-dietary determinants of central adiposity among Tehrani women - Public Health Nutr. 2007 Sep 3;:1-7 - "Marriage (1.31; 1.10-1.82), menopause (1.22; 1.02-1.61), low vitamin C intake (2.31; 1.25-4.25) and low calcium intake (1.30; 1.07-3.78) were associated with central fat accumulation"
  • Dietary nutrient intakes and skin-aging appearance among middle-aged American women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1225-1231 - "Higher intakes of vitamin C and linoleic acid and lower intakes of fats and carbohydrates are associated with better skin-aging appearance. Promoting healthy dietary behaviors may have additional benefit for skin appearance in addition to other health outcomes in the population"
  • Supplementation with vitamins C and e improves arterial stiffness and endothelial function in essential hypertensive patients - Am J Hypertens. 2007 Apr;20(4):392-7 - "Combined treatment with vitamins C and E has beneficial effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and arterial stiffness in untreated, essential hypertensive patients"
  • Intravenously administered vitamin C as cancer therapy: three cases - CMAJ. 2006 Mar 28;174(7):937-942 - "We found 3 well-documented cases of advanced cancers, confirmed by histopathologic review, where patients had unexpectedly long survival times after receiving high-dose intravenous vitamin C therapy"
  • Associations of vitamin C status, fruit and vegetable intakes, and markers of inflammation and hemostasis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Mar;83(3):567-574 - "The findings suggest that vitamin C has antiinflammatory effects and is associated with lower endothelial dysfunction in men with no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes"
  • Immune-Enhancing Role of Vitamin C and Zinc and Effect on Clinical Conditions - Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2006;50:85-94 - "These trials document that adequate intakes of vitamin C and zinc ameliorate symptoms and shorten the duration of respiratory tract infections including the common cold"
  • Effects of vitamin C on intracoronary L-arginine dependent coronary vasodilatation in patients with stable angina - Heart. 2005 Oct;91(10):1319-23 - "L-arginine dependent coronary segment vasodilatation was augmented by the antioxidant vitamin C in patients with coronary artery disease. Thus, vitamin C may have beneficial effects on nitric oxide bioavailability induced by L-arginine"
  • Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):736-45 - "vitamin E supplements appear safe for most adults in amounts </=1600 IU (1073 mg RRR-alpha-tocopherol or the molar equivalent of its esters) and that vitamin C supplements of </=2000 mg/d are safe for most adults"
  • Antioxidant vitamins and mortality in older persons - Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Nov;78(5):999-1010 - "We found strong inverse trends for blood ascorbate concentrations with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality ... Low blood vitamin C concentrations in the older British population are strongly predictive of mortality"
  • Vitamin C Inhibits Lipid Oxidation in Human HDL - J Nutr. 2003 Oct;133(10):3047-51 - "In the absence of vitamin C, lipid oxidation in HDL began immediately and proceeded rapidly ... Vitamin C (50-200 micro mol/L) retarded initiation of lipid oxidation for at least 4 h under the same conditions ... Our results demonstrate that vitamin C inhibits lipid oxidation in HDL and preserves the antioxidant activity associated with this lipoprotein fraction"
  • Antioxidant vitamins C and E improve endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: Endothelial Assessment of Risk from Lipids in Youth (EARLY) Trial - Circulation. 2003 Sep 2;108(9):1059-63. Epub 2003 Aug 11
  • Oral Antioxidant Therapy Improves Endothelial Function in Type 1 but not Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Dec;285(6):H2392-8 - "subjects were randomized to oral vitamin C 1000 mg and vitamin E 800 IU daily or matching placebo for six months ... Oral antioxidant therapy improves EDV in T1 but not T2 diabetes" - The measurement of Vitamin E in IUs shows that they are still using d-alpha-tocopherol or worse, the dl-alpha-tocopherol instead of mixed tocopherols including the tocotrienols in studies.  Just for starters, the d-alpha lowers gamma.
  • Effect of Ascorbic Acid Consumption On Urinary Stone Risk Factors - J Urol. 2003 Aug;170(2):397-401
  • Influence of Vitamin C on Baroreflex Sensitivity in Chronic Heart Failure - Hypertension 2003 May 12 - "Chronic heart failure (CHF) reduces baroreflex sensitivity. Low baroreflex sensitivity, a risk factor for sudden death, could arise partly from CHF-dependent endothelial dysfunction. Vitamin C at high doses has a protective role against CHF-related endothelial damage ... In subjects with CHF, baroreflex sensitivity was significantly higher after vitamin C than after placebo infusion ... Acute administration of vitamin C at high doses improves baroreflex sensitivity and vagal sinus modulation in patients with CHF"
  • Plasma vitamin C, cholesterol and homocysteine are associated with grey matter volume determined by MRI in non-demented old people - Neurosci Lett 2003 May 8;341(3):173-6 - "We found that lower grey matter volume was associated with lower plasma vitamin C and higher homocysteine, cholesterol and LDL. Lower blood cell folate was also associated with lower grey matter volume ... These data are consistent with the putative benefits of dietary vitamin C and folate intake and the role of cholesterol in age related neurodegeneration"
  • High-dose antioxidant supplements and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly women - Am. J. of Clin. Nutr., 4/03 - "Long-term, current users of vitamin E with vitamin C had significantly better mean performance, as judged by a global score that combined individual test scores, than did women who had never used vitamin E or C (P = 0.03); there was a trend for increasingly higher mean scores with increasing durations of use (P = 0.04). These associations were strongest among women with low dietary intakes of alpha-tocopherol. Benefits were less consistent for women taking vitamin E alone, with no evidence of higher scores with longer durations of use. Use of specific vitamin C supplements alone had little relation to performance on our cognitive tests"
  • No contribution of ascorbic acid to renal calcium oxalate stones - Ann Nutr Metab 1997;41(5):269-82