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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 12/19/12.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

A Quantitative Synthesis of Mercury in Commercial Seafood and Implications for Exposure in the United States - Medscape, 12/18/12 - "U.S. Food and Drug Administration Hg Monitoring Program (FDA-MP) ... Mean Hg concentrations for each seafood item were highly variable among studies, spanning 0.3–2.4 orders of magnitude. Farmed fish generally had lower grand mean Hg concentrations than their wild counterparts, with wild seafood having 2- to12-fold higher concentrations, depending on the seafood item. However, farmed fish are relatively understudied, as are specific seafood items and seafood imports from Asia and South America. Finally, we found large discrepancies between mean Hg concentrations estimated from our database and FDA-MP estimates for most seafood items examined ... The FDA action level for MeHg of 1.0 ppm represents the threshold above which the agency can take legal action (e.g., removing the product from the marketplace) (FDA 2007). The U.S. EPA MeHg criterion of 0.3 ppm represents the fish tissue concentration that should not be exceeded for safe consumption of sport-caught fish in local waters based on average consumption (U.S. EPA 2001)"

Two cups of milk a day ideal for children's health, new research shows - Science Daily, 12/17/12 - "looked at how cow's milk affected body stores of iron and vitamin D -- two of the most important nutrients in milk -- in more than 1,300 children aged two to five years ... children who drank more cow's milk had higher Vitamin D stores but lower iron stores ... two cups of cow's milk per day was enough to maintain adequate vitamin D levels for most children, while also maintaining iron stores. With additional cow's milk, there was a further reduction in iron stores without greater benefit from vitamin D" - Yeah but if that were the only reason to drink milk you could take a supplement for those two nutrients.

FDA Approves Pasireotide for Cushing's Disease - Medscape, 12/17/12 - "the US Food and Drug Administration has approved pasireotide diaspartate injection for the treatment of patients with Cushing's disease for whom surgery has been unsuccessful or who are not surgical candidates ... Pasireotide is administered twice daily ... a year-long double-blind phase 3 trial in which 162 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 600 or 900 μg subcutaneously delivered pasireotide twice daily ... Twelve (15%) participants in the lower-dose group and 21 (26%) of the higher-dosage group met the trial's primary endpoint (free urinary cortisol levels at or below the upper limit of normal with no dose increase at month 6) ... Although those success rates were relatively low, nearly 60% of 103 patients for whom urinary free cortisol levels were available at baseline and at 6 months had cortisol reductions of at least 50% ... nearly three quarters of the study participants experienced hyperglycemia-related adverse events, leading to 6% leaving the study and 46% requiring a new glucose-lowering medication"

Cartenoids found to reduce hip fracture risk in lean men - Science Daily, 12/16/12 - "Elderly who are lean (BMI <20 kg/m2) are at higher risk of hip fracture compared to those with higher BMI ... researchers examined the association between dietary antioxidant carotenoids and hip fracture risk across a range of BMI in elderly Chinese men and women using data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study ... low BMI is a stronger risk factor for hip fracture risk among elderly men compared to women ... Also, in men, hip fracture risk decreased with increasing intakes of total vegetables and of total carotenoids, particularly β-carotene" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.

Aerobic exercise trumps resistance training for weight and fat loss - Science Daily, 12/15/12 - "Participants were randomly assigned to one of three exercise training groups: resistance training (three days per week of weight lifting, three sets per day, 8-12 repetitions per set), aerobic training (approximately 12 miles per week), or aerobic plus resistance training (three days a week, three set per day, 8-12 repetitions per set for resistance training, plus approximately 12 miles per week of aerobic exercise) ... The groups assigned to aerobic training and aerobic plus resistance training lost more weight than those who did just resistance training. The resistance training group actually gained weight due to an increase in lean body mass ... The combination exercise group, while requiring double the time commitment, provided a mixed result. The regimen helped participants lose weight and fat mass, but did not significantly reduce body mass nor fat mass over aerobic training alone. This group did notice the largest decrease in waist circumference, which may be attributed to the amount of time participants spent exercising ... Balancing time commitments against health benefits, our study suggests that aerobic exercise is the best option for reducing fat mass and body mass"

Significant link found between daytime sleepiness and vitamin D - Science Daily, 12/14/12 - "progressively higher levels of daytime sleepiness were correlated inversely with progressively lower levels of vitamin D" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Low adiponcetin associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk - Science Daily, 12/14/12 - "Low adiponectin plasma levels are associated with the insulin resistance that manifests in obesity and diabetes mellitus, both of which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer ... The researchers found a statistically significant inverse association between prediagnostic plasma adiponectin levels and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the five prospective cohorts"

Vitamin D can help infection-prone patients avoid respiratory tract infection - Science Daily, 12/13/12 - "researchers examined whether treatment with vitamin D can prevent and relieve respiratory tract infections in particularly infection-prone patients. All the 140 participants from the Immunodeficiency Unit had symptoms of disease in their respiratory tracts for at least 42 days prior to the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, one of which received vitamin D in relatively high doses, the other a placebo. They were also asked to keep a diary recording their state of health every day during the year-long study period ... The results show that symptoms of respiratory tract infection declined by almost a quarter and the use of antibiotics by almost half. Vitamin D treatment was also tolerated well by all patients and gave no serious side-effects" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Aerobic Exercise Boosts Brain Power, Review Finds - Science Daily, 12/13/12 - "this is published in a new review by Hayley Guiney and Liana Machado from the University of Otago, New Zealand ... fitter individuals scored better in mental tests than their unfit peers. In addition, intervention studies found scores in mental tests improved in participants who were assigned to an aerobic exercise regimen compared to those assigned to stretch and tone classes"

Vegetable compound could become ingredient to treating leukemia - Science Daily, 12/12/12 - "A concentrated form of a compound called sulforaphane found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables has been shown to reduce the number of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in the lab setting ... performed this work while a clinical fellow in the Texas Children's Cancer and Hematology Centers, incubated human-derived leukemic cell lines and primary lymphoblasts from pediatric patients with the compound. The cancer cells died while the healthy cells obtained from healthy donors were unaffected. Studies tested in pre-clinical mouse models showed similar results" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.

Recreational Marijuana: Are There Health Effects? - WebMD, 12/11/12 - "Smoking marijuana produces a nearly threefold increase of inhaled tar compared with tobacco, according to some studies ... For cigarette smokers who also smoke marijuana, there may be an additive effect ... Some research shows that marijuana smoke has up to 70% more cancer-causing substances than tobacco smoke ... Long-term, heavy use of marijuana can lead to impaired thinking skills and memory problems ... Numerous studies have linked marijuana use with schizophrenia. In this brain disorder, people may think they hear voices and that others are controlling their minds and thoughts"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

A Prospective Study of Plasma Adiponectin and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Five US Cohorts - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Dec 14 - "The adipocyte-secreted hormone adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Although development of pancreatic cancer is associated with states of insulin resistance and chronic inflammation, the mechanistic basis of the associations is poorly understood ... conducted a nested case-control study of 468 pancreatic cancer case subjects and 1080 matched control subjects from five prospective US cohorts: Health Professionals Follow-up Study, Nurses' Health Study, Physicians' Health Study, Women's Health Initiative, and Women's Health Study ... Plasma adiponectin was inversely associated with pancreatic cancer risk, which was consistent across the five prospective cohorts (P (heterogeneity) = .49) and independent of other markers of insulin resistance (eg, diabetes, body mass index, physical activity, plasma C-peptide). Compared with the lowest quintile of adiponectin, individuals in quintiles 2 to 5 had multivariable odds ratios ([ORs] 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of OR = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.43 to 0.86), OR = 0.58 (95% CI = 0.41 to 0.84), OR = 0.59 (95% CI = 0.40 to 0.87), and OR = 0.66 (95% CI = 0.44 to 0.97), respectively (P (trend) = .04)"

Participant experiences from chronic administration of a multivitamin versus placebo on subjective health and wellbeing: a double-blind qualitative analysis of a randomised controlled trial - Nutr J. 2012 Dec 14;11(1):110 - "Semi-structured and open-ended written questions were incorporated into a 16-week double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups trial of once-daily multivitamin administration. At the final study visit (week 16), three open-ended questions were posed to elucidate any positive, negative or unusual experiences from taking either the multivitamin or matched placebo. Qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken by researchers who were blind as to treatment condition of participants, and triangulation (independent analysis from three researchers) was employed to ensure methodological rigour ... Thematic analysis revealed significant effects in favour of the multivitamin over placebo for participants experiencing increased energy levels (p=.022) and enhanced mood (p=.027). The beneficial effect on energy levels was particularly evident among female participants. A trend was found for participants reporting better sleep in the multivitamin over placebo. The multivitamin and placebo groups did not significantly differ in perceived positive or negative effects in areas relating to other aspects of mental function or physical health. No significant negative effects were revealed, although there was a non-significant trend for more people in the multivitamin group having minor digestive complaints" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

Antioxidant supplementation has a positive effect on oxidative stress and hematological toxicity during oncology treatment in cervical cancer patients - Support Care Cancer. 2012 Dec 14 - "Hematological toxicity and oxidative stress are common in cancer patients ... Randomized, single-blinded controlled trial in women with cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cisplatin. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive antioxidant supplement or placebo supplement ... At the end of the oncology treatment, hemoglobin levels were maintained, and global QoL was better only in the supplemented group ... Antioxidant supplementation in patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy apparently decreased oxidative stress, maintained hemoglobin levels, and improved QoL" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

Fruits and vegetables consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A meta-analysis of observational studies - Int J Cancer. 2012 Dec 13 - "searched on PubMed database from January 1966 through September 2012 to indentify case-control and cohort studies ... For vegetables, the summary relative risks (RRs) of NHL for high vs low intake for case-control, cohort and all studies were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.60-0.94; N=8), 0.90 (95% CI, 0.81-1.00; N=5) and 0.81 (95%CI, 0.71-0.92; N=13) ; and the corresponding RRs for intake of 1 serving per day were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80-0.96; N=8), 0.96 (95% CI, 0.92-1.00; N=5) and 0.92 (95%CI, 0.87-0.96; N=13). For fruits and vegetables combined, the summary RR for high vs low intake was 0.78 (95%CI, 0.66-0.92; N=4), and for intake of 1 serving per day was 0.95 (95%CI, 0.91-1.00; N=4) ... Fruits intake was generally not associated with total NHL, or any histological subtypes. Our findings suggest that intakes of vegetables, and fruits and vegetables combined, but not fruits alone, significantly reduce risk of NHL"

Platelet Redox Balance in Diabetic Patients With Hypertension Improved by n-3 Fatty Acids - Diabetes Care. 2012 Dec 13 - "Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, largely as a result of defective production of cardioprotective nitric oxide and a concomitant rise in oxidative stress ... We randomized hypertensive T2DM patients (T2DM HT; n = 22) and age-and-sex matched hypertensive study participants without diabetes (HT alone; n = 23) in a double-blind, crossover fashion to receive 8 weeks of n-3 PUFAs (1.8 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.5 g docosahexaenoic acid) or identical olive oil capsules (placebo), with an intervening 8-week washout period ... Our finding that n-3 PUFAs diminish platelet superoxide production in T2DM HT patients in vivo suggests a therapeutic role for these agents in reducing the vascular-derived oxidative stress associated with diabetes" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com and Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.

Effects of telmisartan therapy on interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Hypertens Res. 2012 Dec 13 - "A recent meta-analysis of randomized head-to-head trials suggests that therapy with telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, may increase adiponectin levels more strongly than other ARB therapies. Therefore, telmisartan would be expected to reduce interleukin-6 (IL-6) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) ... based on a meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials, telmisartan therapy is likely effective in reducing IL-6 and TNF-α levels" - See my Telmisartan as a first line treatment for hypertension page.  See telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.

Pulse pressure and heart rate in patients with metabolic syndrome across Europe: insights from the GOOD survey - J Hum Hypertens. 2012 Dec 13 - "When compared with patients with no metabolic syndrome or diabetes, patients with metabolic syndrome had higher pulse pressure (59+/-14 vs 55+/-14 mm Hg) and heart rate (75.2+/-11.0 vs 72.5+/-10.0 beats per min) (P<0.001 for both), independent of the concomitant presence or absence of diabetes, despite a more prevalent use of β-blockers. In conclusion, in hypertensive outpatients the presence of metabolic syndrome is associated with increased heart rate and pulse pressure, which may at least in part reflect increased arterial stiffness and increased sympathetic tone"

Possible link of pioglitazone with bladder cancer in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012 Dec 7 - "Among a total of 663 patients identified to be taking pioglitazone, 9 had bladder cancer (1.36%). Overall the hazard ratio of 1.75 [95% CI: 0.89-3.45] for pioglitazone for bladder cancer was not significant. However the prevalence of bladder cancer was 2.10% in patients taking pioglitazone for less than 24 months which was significant increased (HR 2.73 [95% CI: 1.11-6.72])"

Use of antihypertensive medications and breast cancer risk - Cancer Causes Control. 2012 Dec 8 - "antihypertensive medications (AHTs) ... We re-evaluated the relationship between AHT use and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of 3,201 women ≥65 years of age at recruitment now with more than double the length of follow-up (12 vs. 5 years) and substantially more breast cancer diagnoses (188 compared with 75 cases) ... Compared with women who reported no use of AHTs, women who had used calcium channel blockers (CCB) within the past two years had a 1.6-fold increased risk of breast cancer (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.0-2.5), and in particular, recent users of immediate-release CCBs had a 2.4-fold increased risk (95 % CI: 1.3-4.5). Neither ever nor recent use of any other type of AHT was associated with breast cancer risk"

Dietary fibre consumption and insulin resistance - the role of body fat and physical activity - Br J Nutr. 2012 Dec 7:1-9 - "Fibre and energy consumption were assessed using 7 d weighed food records ... In women who had high soluble fibre intake (upper 50 %), the OR of having an elevated HOMA-IR level was 0.58 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.94) times that of women with low soluble fibre intake (lower 50 %). After controlling for all of the potential confounding factors simultaneously, the OR was 0.52 (95 % CI 0.29, 0.93). High fibre intake, particularly soluble fibre, is significantly related to lower levels of insulin resistance in women" - See Garden of Life, RAW Fiber at Amazon.com.

Effect of a High-Protein Diet on Kidney Function in Healthy Adults: Results From the OmniHeart Trial - Am J Kidney Dis. 2012 Dec 4 - "Participants were fed each of 3 diets for 6 weeks. Feeding periods were separated by a 2- to 4-week washout period. Weight was held constant on each diet. The 3 diets emphasized carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat; dietary protein was either 15% (carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets) or 25% (protein diet) of energy intake ... Compared with the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets, the protein diet increased cystatin C-based eGFR by ~ 4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P < 0.001) ... A healthy diet rich in protein increased eGFR. Whether long-term consumption of a high-protein diet leads to kidney disease is uncertain"

Circulating Carotenoids and Risk of Breast Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Eight Prospective Studies - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Dec 6 - "pooled analysis of eight cohort studies comprising more than 80% of the world's published prospective data on plasma or serum carotenoids and breast cancer ... ResultsStatistically significant inverse associations with breast cancer were observed for α-carotene (top vs bottom quintile RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.71 to 1.05, Ptrend = .04), β-carotene (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.98, Ptrend = .02), lutein+zeaxanthin (RR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.70 to 1.01, Ptrend = .05), lycopene (RR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.99, Ptrend = .02), and total carotenoids (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.68 to 0.96, Ptrend = .01) ... This comprehensive prospective analysis suggests women with higher circulating levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids may be at reduced risk of breast cancer" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com or Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

Docosahexaenoic acid for the treatment of fatty liver: Randomised controlled trial in children - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Dec 7 - "Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in children ... The odds of more severe versus less severe liver steatosis decreased to the same degree at 6 months in children treated with DHA 250 mg/day and DHA 500 mg/day vs. placebo and persisted virtually unmodified for 24 months (OR ≤ 0.02, p ≤ 0.05 for all time points). Triglycerides were lower in the DHA groups than in the placebo group at any time point and ALT was lower in these groups from month 12 onwards. HOMA was lower in the DHA 250 mg group vs. placebo at months 6 and 12 ... DHA supplementation improves liver steatosis in children with NAFLD. Doses of 250 mg/day and 500 mg/day of DHA appear to be equally effective in reducing liver fat content" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

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