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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 11/30/11.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Is a Ban on Drinking Water Hours Before Surgery Necessary? - New York Times, 11/28/11 - "The well-known rule that a preoperative patient should have “nothing by mouth after midnight” was not based on scientific evidence ... The midnight cutoff was applied to both eating and drinking sometime in the 1960s ... “drinking clear fluids up to a few hours before surgery did not increase the risk of regurgitation during or after surgery” and that drinking water actually reduced gastric volume"

Wifi-enabled laptops may be nuking sperm - MSNBC, 11/28/11 - "placed a few drops under a laptop connected to the Internet via Wi-Fi and then hit download ... Four hours later, the semen was, eh, well-done ... A quarter of the sperm were no longer swimming around, for instance, compared to just 14 percent from semen samples stored at the same temperature away from the computer ... nine percent of the sperm showed DNA damage, three-fold more than the comparison samples"

Glyburide a Risk for Diabetes Patients With Emergent PCI?: Glyburide Increases Risk in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus After Emergent Percutaneous Intervention for Myocardial Infarction – A Nationwide Study - Medscape, 11/28/11 - "The adjusted Cox models showed an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality with glyburide (hazard ratio [HR], 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-6.72; P = .012) compared with metformin. The risk for cardiovascular mortality and nonfatal MI (HR, 2.69; CI, 1.21-6.00; P = .016) and the risk for all-cause mortality (HR, 2.46; CI, 1.11-5.47; P = .027) were also increased in patients receiving glyburide"

Omega-3 again linked to lower inflammation: Study - Nutra USA, 11/28/11 - "the researchers analyzed blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids, CRP, as well as methylmercury levels in the hair of Finnish men aged between 42 and 60 ... Results showed that as omega-3 levels increased, CRP levels decreased, with “statistically significant inverse associations were also observed with the total serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration and with the individual long-chain n-3 PUFAs docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, but not with eicosapentaenoic acid or with the intermediate-chain n-3 PUFA alpha-linolenic acid” ... the anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 may be linked to the compounds' unsaturated double bonds" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

7 easy ways to boost your immune system - MSNBC, 11/25/11 - "Cook with olive and canola oils ... Research shows that people who consume disproportionately more 6s (found in the soybean oil used in most processed snack foods) than 3s are at higher risk for inflammation and immune system problems" - It's just one more reason for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.

Diabetes drug shows promise in reducing risk of cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 11/23/11 - "People with Type-2 diabetes are known to be at high risk for several diabetes-associated cancers, such as breast, liver and pancreatic cancers ... While metformin has been shown in population studies to reduce the risk of these cancers, there was no evidence of how it worked ... estrogen and the chemicals caused the mammospheres to increase in numbers and size. However, with metformin added, the numbers and size of the mammospheres were dramatically reduced. While each of the chemicals enhanced growth by different means, metformin seemed to be able to inhibit their stimulated growth in all cases" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.

Elevated Risk for Prostate Cancer Found With Vitamin E - Medscape, 11/22/11 - "vitamin E (400 IU)  ... The overall risk for prostate cancer was significantly elevated (by 17%) in the vitamin E group" - Note:  It's the alpha-tocopherol that's measured in IU like that and it's the form in most supplement.  Here's what I take: Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com

Can of Soup a Day Linked to High BPA Levels in Urine - WebMD, 11/22/11 - "Eating just one 12-ounce serving of canned soup a day for five days straight may lead to more than a 1,000% increase in the amount of the controversial chemical bisphenol A (BPA) in your urine ... the canned soup used in the study was a single brand, Progresso, "it is not about the brand of soup or canned soup, it is about the cans," ... She says the findings likely apply to other canned foods that use BPA in the liner"

Hope for muscle wasting disease - Science Daily, 11/22/11 - "The amino acid L-tyrosine had a "rapid and dramatic impact" on Nemaline Myopathy (NM) in laboratory tests on mice, significantly improving symptoms of the muscle wasting disease ... consuming L-tyrosine could significantly improve muscle strength and mobility in NM, raising the possibility it also could be effective in a range of other muscular dystrophies ... What's more, the rapid and dramatic impact of L-tyrosine in NM mice also raises the possibility the supplement may be beneficial for dystrophy patients and other muscle degenerative conditions" - See n-acetyl tyrosine at Amazon.com.

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

A Prospective Cohort Study of Coffee Consumption and Risk of Endometrial Cancer over a 26-Year Follow-Up - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Nov 22 - "Coffee has been reported to lower levels of estrogen and insulin, two hormones implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis, but prospective data on the relation between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer are limited ... Fewer than 4 cups of coffee per day were not associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, women who consumed 4 or more cups of coffee had 25% lower risk of endometrial cancer than those who consumed less than 1 cup per day (multivariable RR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.57-0.97; P(trend) = 0.02). We found the similar association with caffeinated coffee consumption (RR for ≥4 vs. <1 cup/d = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.51-0.95). For decaffeinated coffee consumption, a suggestive inverse association was found among women who consumed 2 or more cups per day versus <1 cup/mo. Tea consumption was not associated with endometrial cancer risk"

Improved survival among patients with base of tongue and tonsil cancer in the United States - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Nov 20 - "From the 1980s to the 2000s, the 5-year overall survival rates statistically significantly improved by 100% from 25 to 51% among patients with one primary base of tongue cancer and 28-60% among those with one primary tonsil cancer (p values for trend <0.001). In addition, the 5-year cancer-specific survival improved by 222.4 and 276%, respectively, among two types of patients. Survival improvement was more pronounced among male patients than among female patients regardless of young or old age, while the improvement was generally consistent among patients with different tumor stages and treatment methods. In contrast, however, those patients with subsequent multiple cancers showed no improvement in overall survival over time" - Note:  By multiple cancers I assume they mean it has spread to the lymph nodes.  Last I read, the survival rate was 25% in those cases.

Processed and Unprocessed Red Meat Consumption and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Among French Women - Diabetes Care. 2011 Nov 18 - "Comparing the highest category of processed meat intake, ≥5 servings/week (median, 48 g/day), to the lowest, <1 serving/week (median, 5 g/day), processed meat was significantly associated with incident diabetes (hazard ratio 1.30 [95% CI 1.07-1.59], P trend = 0.0007; for 1 serving/day, 1.29 [1.14-1.45]). Unprocessed red meat was not associated with diabetes"

Health Focus (Insulin and Aging):

  1. Insulin Plays Central Role In Aging, Brown Scientists Discover - Science Daily, 6/4/04 - "insulin regulates its own production and that it directly regulates tissue aging. The principle: Keep insulin levels low and cells are stronger, staving off infection and age-related diseases such as cancer, dementia and stroke" - [Abstract] Related articles:
    1. Riverside Professor Receives First Age-Reversal Prize - Science Daily, 1/7/05 - "According to Spindler's research, the fewer calories an animal consumes - provided malnutrition is avoided - the slower an animal ages and the lower the death rate from cancer, heart disease and diabetes" - Some theorize that calorie restriction slows aging because it keeps insulin level low (there are other ways that may keep insulin low such as PGX, chromium, Glucophage (metformin), Actos (pioglitazone), Avandia (rosiglitazone), etc).  See:
      1. Key to a long life -- less insulin in the brain - Reuters, 7/19/07 - "people who live to be 100 or more often have reduced insulin levels and their cells show better insulin sensitivity ... New diabetes drugs that increase insulin sensitivity may help"
      2. Insulin and Aging - Brown University - "Keep insulin levels low and cells are stronger, staving off infection and age-related diseases such as cancer, dementia and stroke"
      3. Resisting Insulin - USC Health Magazine Cover Story, Fall '06 - "Insulin, according to a slew of new studies, may play a role in everything from cancer to hypertension to cardiovascular disease"
      4. Growth hormone, insulin may be key to longevity - WorldHealth.net, 5/24/06 - "it is reasonable to suggest that treatment(s) causing an improvement in insulin sensitivity combined with modest reduction in insulin release would reduce risk of age-related disease and likely also delay aging"
      5. Insulin plays central role in aging, explains benefits of calorie reduction - Nutra USA, 6/3/04 - "if insulin levels remain low, cells are stronger and can ward off infection and age-related diseases such as cancer, dementia and stroke"
      6. Insulin and Aging - drlam.com - "there are 3 consistent blood metabolic indicators of all centenarians that are relatively consistent: low sugar, low triglyceride, and low insulin. All three are relatively low for age. Among these three variables, insulin is the common denominator. The level of insulin sensitivity of the cell is one of the most important markers of lifespan"
      7. Does Insulin Regulate the Variability in Life Span? - ezinearticles.com - "But they still have something in common: a low sugar level in their blood, relatively for their age"
      8. Fish Oil and Carb Restriction on the Anti-Aging Front A review of The Anti-Aging Zone - Life Extension Magazine, 3/00 - "individuals with low blood sugar and low insulin have been found to be healthiest and to live the longest ... Insulin is a potent accelerator of aging for many reasons ... That's why Sears calls elevated insulin "your worst aging nightmare"
      9. Calorie Restriction without Hunger! - Life Extension Magazine, 7/06 - "excess insulin functions as a death hormone that devastates virtually every cell and organ system in the body"
      10. An intervention resembling caloric restriction prolongs life span and retards aging in yeast - FASEB J. 2000 Nov;14(14):2135-7 - "this study raises the possibility that reduced glucose alters aging at the cellular level in mammals"
      11. Insulin and aging How you can help your patients - Chiropractic Economics - "Bottom line: A major focus of any anti-aging program is to keep insulin levels in a low normal range"
      12. Popular Anti-Aging Techniques: Find Out Which Ones Work and Which Ones Don't - Mercola.com, 5/19/04 - "I suspect the majority of the benefits from calorie restriction are related to its influence on insulin, as reducing calories also reduces insulin, the major accelerant of aging"
      13. New Clue Into How Diet And Exercise Enhance Longevity - Science Daily, 7/19/07 - "Diet, exercise and lower weight keep your peripheral tissues sensitive to insulin. That reduces the amount and duration of insulin secretion needed to keep your glucose under control when you eat. Therefore, the brain is exposed to less insulin. Since insulin turns on Irs2 in the brain, that means lower Irs2 activity, which we've linked to longer lifespan in the mouse"
  2. Sugar and Your Skin - ABC News, 11/30/10 - It's a video.
  3. Metabolic Syndrome: Don't Blame The Belly Fat - Science Daily, 7/19/07 - "insulin resistance in skeletal muscle leads to alterations in energy storage that set the stage for the metabolic syndrome"
  4. Drug prevents Type 2 diabetes in majority of high-risk individuals - Science Daily, 3/23/11 - "A pill taken once a day in the morning prevented type 2 diabetes in more than 70 percent of individuals whose obesity, ethnicity and other markers put them at highest risk for the disease ... The team also noted a 31 percent decrease in the rate of thickening of the carotid artery, the major vessel that supplies blood to the brain ... The 72 percent reduction is the largest decrease in the conversion rate of pre-diabetes to diabetes that has ever been demonstrated by any intervention, be it diet, exercise or medication ... pioglitazone, which is marketed as Actos® ... It is the most efficacious method we have studied to date to delay or prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes ... This particular medication does two things -- improves insulin resistance and improves beta cell function, which are the two core defects of diabetes"
  5. High Blood Sugar Raises Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/11/05 - "the men in the study with the highest fasting blood sugar levels (those greater than 140 mg/dl) were 29% more likely to die of cancer than men with the lowest levels (those less than 90 mg/dl). The difference among women with the highest and lowest blood sugar levels was 23%"
  6. Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Nov 26 - "GSE prevented in part these effects, reducing insulinemia and leptinemia by 16.5 and 45%, respectively, whereas adiponectin level increased by 61% compared with obese controls. GSE lowered glycemia and HOMA-IR and strongly prevented cardiac production of superoxide by 74% and NAD(P)H oxidase expression by 30%. This is the first time that chronic consumption of grape phenolics is shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  7. Reduction of Postprandial Glycemia by the Novel Viscous Polysaccharide PGX, in a Dose-Dependent Manner, Independent of Food Form - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Apr;29(2):92-8 - "The objective of the study therefore was to determine palatability and effectiveness of escalating doses of PGX, a novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), in reducing postprandial glycemia when added to a liquid and a solid meal ... Addition of NVP to the meal reduced blood glucose incremental areas under the curve irrespective of dose, reaching significance at the 7.5 g dose when added to glucose (p < 0.01), and at the 5 and 7.5 g doses when added to WB + Marg (p < 0.001). The GI values of glucose with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP were (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) 100.0 +/- 0.0, 83.7 +/- 9.0, 77.7 +/- 8.2, and 72.5 +/- 5.9, respectively; the GI of the WB alone, or of WB + Marg, with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP was 71.0 +/- 0.0, 66.8 +/- 3.0, 47.5 +/- 5.9, 37.3 +/- 5.9, and 33.9 +/- 3.6, respectively. CONCLUSION: Addition of NVP to different food matrices is highly effective in lowering the glycemic index of a food in a dose-responsive manner" - See PGX at Amazon.com.
  8. Adiposity and Insulin Resistance Correlate with Telomere Length in Middle-aged Arabs: The Influence of Circulating Adiponectin - Eur J Endocrinol. 2010 Aug - "Studies in obesity have implicated adipocytokines in the development of insulin resistance, which in turn may lead to accelerated aging ... HOMA-IR was the most significant predictor for TL in males, explaining 35% of the variance (p = 0.01). In females, adiponectin, accounted for 28% of the variance in TL (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with chromosomal TL among adult Arabs. Evidence of causal relations needs further investigation. The positive association of adiponectin to TL has clinical implications as to the possible protective effects of this hormone from accelerated aging" - Note:  HOMA-IR = (glucose x insulin)/405 for glucose in mass units (US units) mg/dL.  See my adiponectin page for ways to increase it.
  9. Impaired glucose metabolism and diabetes and the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Jun 19 - "Diabetes was associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43). An indication of a slightly elevated breast cancer risk was also found in postmenopausal women with impaired glucose metabolism (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.96-1.28). Diabetes (HR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.09-1.96) and impaired glucose metabolism (HR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.85) were associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer"
  10. Diabetes linked to cognitive impairment in older adults, study suggests - Science Daily, 11/8/11 - "in older patients with diabetes, two adhesion molecules -- sVCAM and sICAM -- cause inflammation in the brain, triggering a series of events that affect blood vessels and, eventually, cause brain tissue to atrophy. Importantly, they found that the gray matter in the brain's frontal and temporal regions -- responsible for such critical functions as decision-making, language, verbal memory and complex tasks -- is the area most affected by these events ... at the age of 65, the average person's brain shrinks about one percent a year, but in a diabetic patient, brain volume can be lowered by as much as 15 percent ... Diabetes develops when glucose builds up in the blood instead of entering the body's cells to be used as energy. Known as hyperglycemia, this condition often goes hand-in-hand with inflammation ... Once chronic inflammation sets in, blood vessels constrict, blood flow is reduced, and brain tissue is damaged"
  11. Insulin metabolism and the risk of Alzheimer disease: The Rotterdam Study - Neurology. 2010 Nov 30;75(22):1982-7 - "Diabetes mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), but how it exerts its effect remains controversial ... Levels of insulin and insulin resistance were associated with a higher risk of AD within 3 years of baseline. After 3 years, the risk was no longer increased. Glucose was not associated with a higher risk of AD"
  12. Avoiding or controlling diabetes may reduce cancer risk and mortality - Science Daily, 4/3/11 - "Previous epidemiologic studies have shown an association between diabetes and an increased risk for cancers including colorectal, liver and pancreas ... As for mortality, diabetes was associated with an 11 percent increased risk in women and a 17 percent increased risk in men ... diabetes was associated with a significant increase in risk for colon, rectal and liver cancers among men and women. In men, diabetes was associated with an increased risk for pancreatic and bladder cancers; in women, it was associated with an increased risk for stomach, anal and endometrial cancers. No association was found between diabetes and lung, skin or other cancers"
  13. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets may reduce both tumor growth rates and cancer risk - Science Daily, 6/14/11 - "The first diet, a typical Western diet, contained about 55 percent carbohydrate, 23 percent protein and 22 percent fat. The second, which is somewhat like a South Beach diet but higher in protein, contained 15 percent carbohydrate, 58 percent protein and 26 percent fat. They found that the tumor cells grew consistently slower on the second diet ... As well, mice genetically predisposed to breast cancer were put on these two diets and almost half of them on the Western diet developed breast cancer within their first year of life while none on the low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet did. Interestingly, only one on the Western diet reached a normal life span (approximately 2 years), with 70 percent of them dying from cancer while only 30 percent of those on the low-carbohydrate diet developed cancer and more than half these mice reached or exceeded their normal life span ... tumor cells, unlike normal cells, need significantly more glucose to grow and thrive. Restricting carbohydrate intake can significantly limit blood glucose and insulin, a hormone that has been shown in many independent studies to promote tumor growth in both humans and mice"
  14. Inverse association between serum phospholipid oleic acid and insulin resistance in subjects with primary dyslipidaemia - Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 30 - "oleic acid (OA) ... By adjusted logistic regression, including the proportions of other fatty acids known to relate to IR, the odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals) for IR were 0.75 (0.62-0.92) for 1% increase in OA and 0.84 (0.71-0.99) for 1% increase in linoleic acid. Other fatty acids were unrelated to IR. When using the alternate definition of IR, OA remained a significant predictor (0.80 [0.65-0.99]) ... Higher phospholipid proportions of OA relate to less IR, suggesting an added benefit of increasing olive oil intake within the Mediterranean diet" - Note: I saw olive oil mayonnaise advertised and I thought that would be a good way to increase the omega-9 in my diet. When I read the label in the store, olive oil was the main ingredient however it had three omega-6 oils listed after that so I’m sure it had much more omega-6 than omega-9. Bottom line, I started making my own omega-9 mayo. See the recipe at http://allrecipes.com//HowTo/making-mayonnaise/Detail.aspx.
  15. Metabolic syndrome may increase risk for liver cancer - Science Daily, 4/3/11 - "metabolic syndrome, a constellation of conditions that increases the risk of heart disease and diabetes, may also increase the risk of the two most common types of liver cancer ... The prognosis for liver cancer is only marginally better than the prognosis for pancreatic cancer, with a five-year survival of approximately 10 percent ... the persons with liver cancer were significantly more likely than cancer-free persons to have a prior history of metabolic syndrome: 37.1 percent of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had pre-existing metabolic syndrome, as did 29.7 percent of patients with intraheptic carcinoma; only 17.1 percent of the cancer-free adults had metabolic syndrome"
  16. A1c Levels: Is Lower Always Better? - Medscape, 4/23/10 - "A1c values in the lowest decile (median, 6.4%) were associated with an increased risk for mortality for all patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-1.64). This finding was stronger in the INS cohort (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.45-1.22) than in the SUMET cohort (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.07-1.58). Only the 10th decile (median, 10.4%) was also associated with increased mortality risk in the SUMET cohort (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.55-2.42); but in the INS cohort, deciles 2 (median, 6.95%; HR,1.45; 95% CI, 1.17-1.80), 3 (median, 7.3%; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.09-1.67), 9 (median, 9.4%; HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.77), and 10 (median, 10.6%; HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.49-2.17) were all associated with greater risk. The combined model yielded results similar to the INS cohort, and the inclusion of a variable for membership in the INS cohort was significantly associated with increased mortality (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.39-1.59). The adjusted risk for progression to large-vessel disease had the same general U-shaped association as for all-cause mortality, and insulin treatment was associated with an increased risk for a first large-vessel disease event"
  17. Metformin and incident breast cancer among diabetic women: a population-based case-control study in Denmark - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Nov 30 - "Metformin users were less likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer (OR=0.77; 95% CI=0.61, 0.99) than non-metformin users. Adjusting for diabetes complications, clinically diagnosed obesity, and important predictors of breast cancer did not substantially alter the association (OR=0.81; 95%CI=0.63, 0.96). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that metformin may protect against breast cancer in type 2 diabetic peri- or postmenopausal women. Impact: This study supports the growing evidence of a role for metformin in breast cancer chemoprevention"
  18. Insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes linked to plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 8/25/10 - "People with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes appear to be at an increased risk of developing plaques in the brain that are associated with Alzheimer's disease ... people who had abnormal results on three tests of blood sugar control had an increased risk of developing plaques. Plaques were found in 72 percent of people with insulin resistance and 62 percent of people with no indication of insulin resistance" -  [Abstract]
  19. Metformin Might Prevent Colorectal, Lung Cancers - Medscape, 9/3/10 - "The chance observation that diabetes patients taking metformin have a 40% reduced risk for cancer triggered intense research interest in this old off-patent drug ... After about 10% of the mouse lifespan — about 12 weeks — with the highest dose in the drinking water, we found a 33% reduction in tumor multiplicity and a 34% reduction in tumor size in the mice. In mice that did not get metformin, 100% got tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumors ... metformin might prevent tumors by reducing levels of insulin and IGF-1" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  20. Experts explore emerging evidence linking diabetes and cancer - Science Daily, 6/16/10 - "Possible mechanisms for a direct link between diabetes and cancer include hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and inflammation"
  21. Increased Cancer Risk Seen With Higher Blood Glucose Levels - Medscape, 1/28/10 - "in men, each 1 mmol/L (18 mg/dL) increment in blood glucose level was associated with a 5% increase in incident cancer risk and a 15% increase in fatal cancer risk ... In women, each 1 mmol/L increase in blood glucose level was associated with an 11% increase in incident cancer risk and a 21% increase in fatal cancer risk ... For men, there were glucose-related increases in the risks of incident and fatal cancer of the liver, gallbladder, and respiratory tract; incident thyroid cancer and multiple myeloma; and fatal rectal and colon cancer .... For women, there were glucose-related increases in the risks of incident and fatal pancreatic and stomach cancer; incident urinary bladder cancer and endometrial cancer; and fatal cervical and uterine corpus cancer. In women, there was also an inverse association of blood glucose with incident thyroid cancer risk ... For men and women combined, higher glucose increased the risk of death from oropharyngeal and esophageal cancers"
  22. Dietary patterns may be linked to increased colorectal cancer risk in women - Science Daily, 10/24/11 - "High red meat intake, fish intake, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, but low coffee, whole grains and high-fat dairy intake, when taken as a whole, seemed to be associated with higher levels of C-peptide in the blood ... C-peptide is a marker of insulin secretion that can be measured in a person's blood. High levels of insulin may promote cell growth and multiplication. One of the major characteristics of cancer is aberrant cell growth. Higher levels of C-peptide, and therefore insulin, may promote cancer cell growth ... Colon cancer seems to be one of the cancers that are sensitive to insulin ... women who most often consumed high amounts of red meat, fish and sugar-sweetened beverages and low amounts of high-fat dairy, coffee and whole grains had a 35 percent increased risk for colorectal cancer"
  23. Insulin resistance may be associated with stroke risk - Science Daily, 10/11/10 - "Individuals in the top quarter of insulin resistance had a 45 percent greater risk of any type of vascular event. However, insulin resistance was not associated with heart attack or vascular death separately"
  24. Insulin used to treat diabetes may be linked to increased cancer risk, review suggests - Science Daily, 3/2/10 - "Research suggests that metformin, which is used to treat some patients with diabetes, may provide a protective effect, while insulin and/or certain insulin analogues may promote tumour growth ... Diabetic patients were 30 per cent more likely to develop colorectal cancer ... Women with diabetes had a 20 per cent greater risk of developing breast cancer ... People with diabetes had an 82 per cent higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer" -  Note:  I think it's like what came first the chicken or the egg.  I don't believe they know whether it's the insulin or the high blood sugar.  This seems to support that it's the high insulin.
  25. Pioglitazone attenuates prostatic enlargement in diet-induced insulin-resistant rats by altering lipid distribution and hyperinsulinemia - Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug 19 - "Increased incidence of benign prostatic hyperplasia among insulin-resistant individuals suggest a role for hyperinsulinemia in prostatic enlargement ... High fat diet led to the accumulation of fat in non-adipose tissues, insulin resistance, compensatory hyperinsulinemia and prostatic enlargement in rats. Pioglitazone treatment altered fat distribution, improved insulin-sensitivity and normalized lipid and insulin level in rats on the high-fat diet. The improved metabolic parameters led to decreased cellular proliferation and increased apoptosis in the prostate gland. High-fat diet feeding and pioglitazone treatment did not change plasma testosterone levels. However, significant prostatic atrophy was observed in castrated, rats irrespective of dietary intervention" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.  Some doctors think I'm crazy but pioglitazone is one of the drugs I take for anti-aging.
  26. Pioglitazone improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in hypertensive patients with impaired glucose tolerance in part through a decrease in oxidative stress - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Jan 4 - "Pioglitazone improved endothelial function in hypertensive patients with IGT through an increase in nitric oxide bioavailability by, in part, a decrease in oxidative stress" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.  Pioglitazone is one that I take to help prevent diabetes and for anti-aging.
  27. Diabetes treatment may also provide protection against endometrial cancer - Science Daily, 4/5/11 - "Recent research has found that metformin has anti-cancer properties, e.g., in breast cancer ... samples from PCOS women who had completed the 6 month course of metformin the rate of spread of endometrial cancer cells was around 25% lower than in the serum samples from PCOS women who had not started that treatment" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  28. Scientists find molecular trigger that helps prevent aging and disease - Science Daily, 11/18/09 - "diabetes reduces activation of CBP, leading Dr. Mobbs to conclude that a high-calorie diet that leads to diabetes would have the opposite effect of dietary restriction and would accelerate aging"
  29. Dietary Glycemic Load Is a Predictor of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Older Adults - J Nutr. 2010 Oct 6 - "Participants in the highest quartile of mean dietary GL intake compared with those in the lowest quartile had a 76% greater risk of developing incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.04). Higher carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.03 and P-trend = 0.05, respectively). In summary, a high-GL diet was a predictor of incident hearing loss, as was higher intake of total carbohydrate. Hence, high postprandial glycemia might be a potential underlying biological mechanism in the development of age-related hearing loss"
  30. Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased Cardiovascular Risk. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy - Hypertension. 2009 Jul 20 - "glucose disposal rate (GDR) ... Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144.0+/-13.6 to 135.1+/-8.4 mm Hg and from 130.8+/-12.4 to 123.8+/-10.8 mm Hg in the lower and higher GDR groups, respectively (P<0.05 for both; P<0.001 overall) and progressively recovered toward baseline over 8 weeks posttreatment. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
  31. Metabolic Factors May Play A Role In Risk For Breast Cancer - Science Daily, 6/30/09 - "The metabolic syndrome is characterized by elevated insulin levels, and in recent years scientists have proposed that insulin may contribute directly or indirectly to the development of breast cancer ... women who had the metabolic syndrome during the three to five years prior to breast cancer diagnosis had roughly a doubling of risk ... Findings also showed significant associations with elevated blood glucose levels, triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure. For diastolic blood pressure, the result was stronger, with more than a two-fold increased risk (relative risk = 2.4). Generally, for both triglycerides and glucose the relative risk was about 1.7 for all breast cancer"
  32. Coffee and tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes - Diabetologia. 2009 Sep 1 - "After adjustment for potential confounders, coffee and tea consumption were both inversely associated with type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.95) for 4.1-6.0 cups of coffee per day (p for trend = 0.033) and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.47-0.86) for >5.0 cups of tea per day (p for trend = 0.002). Total daily consumption of at least three cups of coffee and/or tea reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes by approximately 42%"
  33. Click here of a 10/5/09 news clip (I put it on YouTube) that claims that metformin may provide the same anti-aging benefits as calorie restriction (you won't need to look like a POW).  Metformin is another one I take for anti-aging.
  34. Dietary Anthocyanin-Rich Bilberry Extract Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin Sensitivity via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Diabetic Mice - J Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "Blueberries or bilberries contain large amounts of anthocyanins, making them one of the richest sources of dietary anthocyanin ... bilberry extract (BBE) ... Dietary BBE significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration and enhanced insulin sensitivity ... These findings provide a biochemical basis for the use of bilberry fruits and have important implications for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes via activation of AMPK" - See bilberry at Amazon.com.
  35. Calorie restriction: Scientists take important step toward 'fountain of youth' - Science Daily, 12/26/09 - "They found that the normal cells lived longer, and many of the precancerous cells died, when given less glucose. Gene activity was also measured under these same conditions. The reduced glucose caused normal cells to have a higher activity of the gene that dictates the level of telomerase, an enzyme that extends their lifespan and lower activity of a gene (p16) that slows their growth. Epigenetic effects (effects not due to gene mutations) were found to be a major cause in changing the activity of these genes as they reacted to decreased glucose levels" - Insulin controls glucose levels.  Insulin resistance causes high glucose.
  36. Pioglitazone Prevents Conversion to Diabetes Among Insulin-Resistant Patients - Doctor's Guide, 6/11/08 - "Patients with impaired glucose tolerance treated with pioglitazone were able to stave off conversion to type 2 diabetes by 81% when compared with individuals who received placebo"
  37. Hyperglycemia: New mechanism underlying cardiovascular disease described - Science Daily, 12/12/09 - "Hyperglycemia starts a complex chain of events that damages blood vessels and cause cardiovascular disease"
  38. High Serum Insulin Levels And Risk Of Prostate Cancer - Science Daily, 8/23/09 - "when subjects in the second through fourth quartiles of serum insulin concentration were compared with those in the first or lowest quartile, higher insulin levels within the normal range were associated with statistically significantly increased risk of prostate cancer. Risk was not associated with serum glucose concentration"
  39. High Carbohydrate Foods Can Cause Heart Attacks - Science Daily, 6/25/09 - "Doctors have known for decades that foods like white bread and corn flakes aren't good for cardiac health ... foods with a high glycemic index distended brachial arteries for several hours ... Enormous peaks indicating arterial stress were found in the high glycemic index groups: the cornflakes and sugar group ... During the consumption of foods high in sugar, there appears to be a temporary and sudden dysfunction in the endothelial walls of the arteries ... Endothelial health can be traced back to almost every disorder and disease in the body. It is "the riskiest of the risk factors,""
  40. Prehypertension is associated with insulin resistance - QJM. 2009 Aug 7 - "All subjects received a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the measurements of IR. RESULTS: The prehypertensive subjects were more obese and had higher levels of fasting triglycerides and 2-h insulin than the normotensives. The subjects with prehypertension were more insulin resistant than the counterparts, indicated by lower insulin sensitivity index, ISI(0,120), values. While there was no difference between the two groups in insulin response of OGTT after adjustments for confounders, the prehypertension group maintained significant between-group differences in glucose response even when the incremental insulin levels were added to covariates for adjustments. DISCUSSION: Our data show that prehypertension is associated with IR. The subjects with prehypertension have clinical characteristics of the IR syndrome. It seems that the prehypertension group cannot handle oral glucose challenge as well as the normotension, probably a consequence of IR in prehypertension"
  41. Diabetes Drug Fights Breast Cancer - WebMD, 9/14/09 - "And in mice carrying human breast cancers, metformin made standard chemotherapy vastly more effective. Mice treated with the combination remain cancer-free for four months, unlike mice treated with either drug alone ... A lot of data shows lower cancer risk -- not just breast cancer -- in people taking metformin for diabetes ... This drug at low doses can be considered a very good candidate for cancer prevention before a person has any cancer at all" - Note:  I've been taking metformin for years for anti-aging.  See metformin at IAS.
  42. Many Americans Have Prediabetes and Should Be Considered for Metformin Therapy - Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct 6 - "Criteria for consideration of metformin included the presence of both IFG and IGT, with >/=1 additional diabetes risk factor: age <60 years, BMI >/=35 kg/m(2), family history of diabetes, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL-cholesterol, hypertension, or A1c >6.0% ... To the extent that our findings are representative of the U.S. population, approximately 1 in 12 adults has a combination of prediabetes and risk factors which may justify consideration of metformin treatment for diabetes prevention" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  43. Examination of the Antiglycemic Properties of Vinegar in Healthy Adults - Ann Nutr Metab. 2010 Jan 4;56(1):74-79 - "Vinegar reduces postprandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy adults ... Two teaspoons of vinegar ( approximately 10 g) effectively reduced PPG, and this effect was most pronounced when vinegar was ingested during mealtime as compared to 5 h before the meal ... The antiglycemic properties of vinegar are evident when small amounts of vinegar are ingested with meals composed of complex carbohydrates. In these situations, vinegar attenuated PPG by approximately 20% compared to placebo" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com - 1 Source Natural 500 mg tablet equals 2 tsb of vinegar.  4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations.
  44. Prevention of insulin resistance by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Mar;12(2):138-46 - "n-3 PUFA supplementation has clinical significance in the prevention and reversal of insulin resistance" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  45. Pioglitazone Reduces Conversion From Impaired Glucose Tolerance to Diabetes - Medscape, 6/8/08 - "There was a weight gain of 3.9 kg in the pioglitazone group vs about 0.8 kg in the placebo group ... Over a mean follow-up of 2.6 years, pioglitazone markedly decreased, by 81%, the conversion rate of IGT to type 2 diabetes. IGT individuals who had the worst level of beta cell function and who were the most insulin resistant were the individuals who were most likely to develop type 2 diabetes, whether they were in the pioglitazone group...or the placebo group. Pioglitazone was quite safe and quite efficacious"
  46. An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women - Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb 12:1-8 - "Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased with the oily fish diet" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  47. HbA1c is associated with intima media thickness in individuals with normal glucose tolerance - Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct 6 - "normal glucose tolerant individuals (NGT) ... 1h-glucose and HbA1c were significantly correlated to carotid IMT in individuals with NGT, while fasting and 2h-glucose were not informative. Only HbA1c was associated with IMT independent of other confounders, while 1h-glucose was not informative ... HbA1c was the most informative glycemic marker with respect to IMT in individuals with NGT"
  48. Soft drink consumption may markedly increase risk of pancreatic cancer - Science Daily, 2/8/10 - "Consuming two or more soft drinks per week increased the risk of developing pancreatic cancer by nearly twofold compared to individuals who did not consume soft drinks"
  49. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise In Fighting Lethal Cancer Complication - Science Daily, 9/24/09 - "in an animal study, a diabetes drug that promotes insulin sensitivity slowed the progression of muscle wasting and fat loss, the main consequences of a syndrome called cachexia ... Research suggests that cachexia is responsible for between one-fifth and one-third of all cancer deaths ... These data provide evidence that in mice with colon cancer tumors, insulin resistance may be involved in the development of cachexia rather than occur as a result of cachexia ... Within eight days, the mice with cancer receiving the rosiglitazone showed more sensitivity to insulin than did the mice with tumors that received no medication. The insulin sensitivity of the medicated mice matched that of mice without tumors ... In addition to stopping fat and muscle loss, the rosiglitazone also dramatically reduced two biological markers present when proteins break down, particularly in muscles, and a third marker that indicates cells are eating their own amino acids in an attempt to survive" - Note:  I don't know why they did this study with rosiglitazone.  That's the one that may be connected to heart disease.  Pioglitazone is the same class of drug and is not connected to heart disease.
  50. Low Vitamin D Hurts Teenagers’ Hearts - WebMD, 3/11/09 - "Compared to the 25% of teens with the highest levels of vitamin D in their blood (more than 26 nanograms per milliliter), the 25% of teens with the lowest vitamin D levels (less than 15 ng/mL) had: ... Fourfold greater risk of metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors for diabetes ... 2.54 times greater risk of high blood sugar ... 2.36 times greater risk of high blood pressure" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  51. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Medical Complications Of Obesity, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "Our study shows for the first time that lipids called protectins and resolvins derived from omega-3 fatty acids can actually reduce the instance of liver complications, such as hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance, in obese people" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  52. High Insulin Level Is An Independent Risk Factor For Breast Cancer - Science Daily, 12/31/08 - "women with the highest insulin levels had nearly a 1.5-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer than the women with the lowest insulin levels. Further, the investigators separately analyzed women who were not using hormone therapy and found that, in these women, those individuals with the highest insulin levels had a 2.4-fold increased risk of developing breast cancer compared to those with the lowest levels, even after accounting for multiple other breast cancer risk factors, including estrogen levels"
  53. Metabolic Syndrome Ups Colorectal Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 10/6/08 - "metabolic syndrome patients had a 75 percent higher risk of colorectal cancer compared to those without metabolic syndrome"
  54. Statin Drugs May Cut Dementia Risk - WebMD, 7/14/09 - "people who took statin drugs were 58% less likely to develop dementia than those who did not ... So what is going on? A risk factor for dementia is high insulin; one theory is that statins may lower the high insulin levels in the brain. Statins have also been shown to reduce levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation that has been linked to the pathology that can lead to dementia"
  55. Hearing Loss Is Twice As Common In People With Diabetes Compared To Those WIthout The Disease - Science Daily, 6/18/08 - "Adults with pre-diabetes, whose blood glucose is higher than normal but not high enough for a diabetes diagnosis, had a 30 percent higher rate of hearing loss compared to those with normal blood sugar tested after an overnight fast ... Diabetes may lead to hearing loss by damaging the nerves and blood vessels of the inner ear" - That might be another good reason to take pioglitazone if you have pre-diabetes.
  56. Consuming A Little Less Salt Could Mean Fewer Deaths - Science Daily, 3/11/09 - "Participants who slept on average less than six hours a night during the work week, when followed over six years, were 4.56 times more likely than those getting six to eight hours of sleep to convert from normal blood sugar levels to impaired fasting glucose"
  57. Carbohydrate Restriction May Slow Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 5/26/09 - "The researchers believe that insulin and insulin-like growth factor contribute to the growth and proliferation of prostate cancer, and that a diet devoid of carbohydrates lowers serum insulin levels in the bodies of the mice, thereby slowing tumor growth"
  58. Gout Drug May Lower Blood Pressure - WebMD, 9/23/09 - "A new study suggests a direct link between a high-sugar diet and high blood pressure"
  59. Not So Sweet: Over-consumption Of Sugar Linked To Aging - Science Daily, 3/9/09 - "We know that lifespan can be extended in animals by restricting calories such as sugar intake ...it's not sugar itself that is important in this process but the ability of cells to sense its presence ... the lifespan of yeast cells increased when glucose was decreased from their diet. They then asked whether the increase in lifespan was due to cells decreasing their ability to produce energy or to the decrease in signal to the cells by the glucose sensor ... cells unable to consume glucose as energy source are still sensitive to the pro-aging effects of glucose. Conversely, obliterating the sensor that measures the levels of glucose significantly increased lifespan"
  60. Carnitine Supplements Reverse Glucose Intolerance In Animals - Science Daily, 8/17/09 - "After just eight weeks of supplementation with carnitine, the obese rats restored their cells' fuel- burning capacity (which was shut down by a lack of natural carnitine) and improved their glucose tolerance, a health outcome that indicates a lower risk of diabetes ... These results offer hope for a new therapeutic option for people with glucose intolerance, older people, people with kidney disease, and those with type 2 diabetes (what used to be called adult-onset diabetes) ... Carnitine is a natural compound known for helping fatty acids enter the mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells, where fatty acids are "burned" to give cells energy for their various tasks. Carnitine also helps move excess fuel from cells into the circulating blood, which then redistributes this energy source to needier organs or to the kidneys for removal" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  61. Insulin resistance independently predicts the progression of coronary artery calcification - Am Heart J. 2009 May;157(5):939-45 - "After controlling for these variables, higher fasting insulin levels independently predicted CAC progression"
  62. Diabetes May Raise Cancer Risk - WebMD, 9/25/06 - "Total cancer risk was found to be 27% higher for men with diabetes than for men without the disease ... It has been suggested that excess insulin in people with type 2 diabetes may promote the growth of pancreatic and liver cancers ... Preventing diabetes can certainly lower your cardiovascular risk, and it appears that the same is true for certain cancers"
  63. HbA1c Tied to Cardiovascular Risks in Patients With Symptomatic HF - Medscape, 8/28/08 - "Over a median follow-up period of almost 3 years, the researchers found that for each 1% rise in HbA1c, the risk of cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization and overall mortality rose by about 25%. Moreover, this was true in subjects with and without a history of diabetes and whether or not ejection fraction was reduced or preserved"
  64. Insulin May Protect Mind, Memory - WebMD, 2/2/09 - "lower insulin levels were enhanced by adding Avandia, which increases the body's sensitivity to insulin. Study authors say the discovery that diabetes drugs shield nerve junctions in the brain from memory loss offers new hope for fighting the disease" - Note:  Avandia is the one with increased heart disease.  I've been taking Actos (pioglitazone) for prevention.  See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  65. Recipe for Diabetes: Too Much Protein, Fat - WebMD, 4/7/09 - "A high-fat diet may lead to insulin resistance, a major step on the path to type 2 diabetes. But cutting back on fat may not help those who continue to eat too much protein"
  66. Higher Blood Sugar Levels Linked to Lower Brain Function in Diabetics - Doctor's Guide, 2/11/09 - "The ongoing Memory in Diabetes (MIND) study, a sub-study of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Trial (ACCORD), found a statistically significant inverse relationship between A1C levels over a period of 2 to 3 months and subjects' scores on four cognitive tests ... This study adds to the growing evidence that poorer blood glucose control is strongly associated with poorer memory function and that these associations can be detected well before a person develops severe memory loss"
  67. High Bread Consumption Linked To Higher Risk Of Most Common Kidney Cancer - Science Daily, 10/20/06 - "The association between elevated cereal intake (bread, pasta and rice) "may be due to the high glycemic index of these foods"
  68. Blood Sugar Linked To Normal Cognitive Aging - Science Daily, 12/30/08 - "Beyond the obvious conclusion that preventing late-life disease would benefit the aging hippocampus, our findings suggest that maintaining blood sugar levels, even in the absence of diabetes, could help maintain aspects of cognitive health. More specifically, our findings predict that any intervention that causes a decrease in blood glucose should increase dentate gyrus function and would therefore be cognitively beneficial" - [WebMD]
  69. Diabetes Linked To Cognitive Deterioration - Science Daily, 3/5/09 - "people with diabetes were 1.5 more likely to experience cognitive decline, and 1.6 more likely to suffer from dementia than people without diabetes ... suggests that higher-than-average levels of blood glucose (blood sugar) may have a role in this relationship ... in people with type 2 diabetes, higher levels of haemoglobin A1C (a measure of average blood glucose) are significantly associated with poorer performance on three cognitive tasks which require memory, speed and ability to manage multiple tasks at the same time. A higher A1C level was also associated with a lower score on a test of global cognitive function ... lowering A1C levels could slow the accelerated rate of cognitive decline experienced by people with diabetes"
  70. Investigation on the relationship between diabetes mellitus type 2 and cognitive impairment - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Oct 8 - "Subjects with diabetes (n=60) had lower MMSE score than those without diabetes (P<.01). Diabetes was also associated with increased odds of cognitive decline as determined by MMSE scores (odds ratio=1.9; CI=95%, 1.01-3.6). A significant correlation between duration of disease and cognitive dysfunction was observed, P=0.001 ... Diabetes mellitus is associated with lower levels of cognitive function"
  71. Blood Pressure and Fasting Plasma Glucose rather than Metabolic Syndrome Predict Coronary Artery Calcium Progression: The Rancho Bernardo Study - Diabetes Care. 2008 Oct 13 - "In older adults without known heart disease, blood pressure levels and fasting plasma glucose were better independent determinants of CAC progression than MetS itself"
  72. Insulin Trouble Tied to Alzheimer's - WebMD, 4/9/08 - "the men took fasting glucose tests to show how well their body used insulin, a hormone that controls blood sugar ... Men who had a weaker insulin response to that test were 31% more likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease later in life"
  73. Vitamin K Linked To Insulin Resistance In Older Men - Science Daily, 11/26/08 - "Vitamin K slowed the development of insulin resistance in elderly men in a study of 355 non-diabetic men and women ages 60 to 80 who completed a three-year clinical trial at the Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  74. Pioglitazone Cuts Risk of Progression to Diabetes - Clinical Psychiatry News, 7/08 - "People with impaired glucose tolerance were 81% less likely to develop type 2 diabetes over a 3-year period if treated with pioglitazone ... Patients were randomized to treatment with placebo or 30 mg/day pioglitazone. If the drug was tolerated after 1 month, the dose could be increased up to 45 mg/day" - Note: Diabetes runs in my family.  I've been taking pioglitazone for several years for prevention.  See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  75. Insulin-Resistant Cardiomyopathy - Medscape, 1/15/08 - "Increasing evidence points to insulin resistance as a primary etiologic factor in the development of nonischemic heart failure (HF) ... Epidemiological evidence suggests more than simply a correlation between insulin resistance and HF, demonstrating that insulin resistance precedes HF rather than occurring as a consequence of it ... Medications that work primarily by improving insulin sensitivity (metformin, thiazolidinediones [TZDs]) might theoretically be the most attractive therapies"
  76. Pioglitazone Reduces ER Stress in the Liver: Direct Monitoring of in vivo ER Stress Using ER Stress-activated Indicator Transgenic Mice - Endocr J. 2009 Sep 29 - "8 weeks of pioglitazone treatment reduced the accumulation of fat droplets in the liver and attenuated the development of insulin resistance. In the liver of the ERAI transgenic mice, ERAI fluorescence activity was clearly reduced as early as after 4 weeks of pioglitazone treatment, preceding the improvement of insulin resistance. In addition, after the pioglitazone treatment, serum free fatty acid and triglyceride levels were decreased, and serum adiponectin levels were increased. These data indicate that pioglitazone treatment suppresses ER stress in the liver which may explain, at least in part, the pharmacological effects of pioglitazone to reduce insulin resistance" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  77. Getting Diabetes Before 65 More Than Doubles Risk For Alzheimer's Disease - WebMD, 1/28/09 - "getting diabetes before the age of 65 corresponds to a 125 percent increased risk for Alzheimer's disease"
  78. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Markers of the Insulin Resistant Phenotype in Nondiabetic Adults - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 23 - "Among adults without diabetes, vitamin D status was inversely associated with surrogate fasting measures of insulin resistance. These results suggest that vitamin D status may be an important determinant for type 2 diabetes mellitus" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  79. Diets With High Glycemic Index May Raise Cataract Risk - Medscape, 11/30/07 - "Glycemic load, a food's glycemic index multiplied by the total available carbohydrate content, was used to gauge both carbohydrate quantity and quality ... each standard deviation increase in dietary glycemic index was associated with a 19% increase in the risk of cortical cataract. Subjects in the highest glycemic index quartile were 77% more likely to develop cataract than those in the lowest quartile"
  80. Most People Who Have Prediabetes Don’t Know It - WebMD, 11/6/08 - "Though only 4% of participants reported having prediabetes, researchers believe that 26% of adults have it, a figure based on laboratory test results in the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey"
  81. Blood Pressure Response To Daily Stress Provides Clues For Better Hypertension Treatment - Science Daily, 8/14/08 - "America’s current obesity and type 2 diabetes epidemic also has them looking at insulin, glucose and cholesterol levels and whether fat exacerbates all the factors they are following, which they believe it does"
  82. Prevention of Type 2 diabetes: fact or fiction? - Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;8(18):3147-58 - "Both studies have shown that intensive lifestyle intervention could reduce the progression of IGT to diabetes by 58%. Furthermore, four currently-available drugs have been established as being effective in preventing diabetes in subjects with prediabetes. The Diabetes Prevention Program revealed that metformin 850 mg b.i.d. reduced the risk of diabetes by 31%. The STOP-NIDDM (Study To Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) trial (n = 1429) showed that acarbose 100 mg t.i.d. with meals decreased the incidence of diabetes by 36% when the diagnosis was based on 2 oral glucose tolerance tests. The XENDOS (Xenical in the Prevention of Diabetes in Obese Subjects) study examined the use of orlistat, an antiobesity drug, as an adjunct to an intensive lifestyle modification program in obese non-diabetic subjects. Orlistat treatment resulted in a 37% decline in the development of diabetes. More recently, the DREAM (Diabetes Reduction Assessment with Ramipril and Rosiglitazone Medication) study (n = 5269) demonstrated that rosiglitazone at 8 mg once/day in subjects with prediabetes (IGT and/or impaired fasting glucose) was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes by 60%. It can be concluded that Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modifications and/or pharmacologic interventions. This is a fact"
  83. Visceral Obesity and Insulin Resistance as Risk Factors for Colorectal Adenoma: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study - Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep 15 - "insulin resistance was associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma"
  84. High Carb Diet Linked to Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 11/27/07 - "A diet high in refined carbohydrates, like white rice or white bread, is associated with increased prostate tumor growth in mice ... Having too much insulin in the blood, a condition called hyperinsulinemia, is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with prostate cancer"
  85. Testosterone Gel Improves Insulin Sensitivity, Sexual Function in Hypogonadal Men With Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome - Doctor's Guide, 6/20/08 - "Among patients with type 2 diabetes with or without metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR improved from baseline in the testosterone-treated group compared with placebo at 6 months (testosterone: -0.62, placebo: +0.16; P = .049) and at 12 months (testosterone: -.58"
  86. Pioglitazone Improves Cardiac Function and Alters Myocardial Substrate Metabolism Without Affecting Cardiac Triglyceride Accumulation and High-Energy Phosphate Metabolism in Patients With Well-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - Circulation. 2009 Apr 6 - "were assigned to pioglitazone (30 mg/d) or metformin (2000 mg/d) and matching placebo for 24 weeks ... No patient developed heart failure. Both therapies similarly improved glycemic control, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure. Pioglitazone versus metformin improved the early peak flow rate (P=0.047) and left ventricular compliance. Pioglitazone versus metformin increased myocardial glucose uptake (P<0.001), but pioglitazone-related diastolic improvement was not associated with changes in myocardial substrate metabolism. Metformin did not affect myocardial function but decreased cardiac work relative to pioglitazone (P=0.006), a change that was paralleled by a reduced myocardial glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation. Neither treatment affected cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism or triglyceride content. Only pioglitazone reduced hepatic triglyceride content" - I still take pioglitazone even though I don't have diabetes because I feel that higher glucose levels are a major cause of aging.  There doesn't seem to be any evidence that it has the heart rises that rosiglitazone has.  See Pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  87. Catechin prevents endothelial dysfunction in the prediabetic stage of OLETF rats by reducing vascular NADPH oxidase activity and expression - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Feb 3 - "studies have indicated that regular intake of green tea reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study examined whether catechin prevents endothelial dysfunction and hyperglycemia in the prediabetic stage of a type 2 diabetic (T2D) rat ... Catechin significantly reduced blood pressure (OLETF vs. Catechin-OLETF; 138+/-16mmHg vs. 126+/-16mmHg, p=0.013), fasting sugar (129+/-11mg/dL vs. 118+/-9mg/dL, p=0.02) and the insulin level (2.13+/-1.29ng/mL vs. 0.53+/-0.27ng/mL, p=0.004). In the aorta of Catechin-OLETF at 25 weeks, endothelium-dependent relaxations were significantly improved and NADPH oxidase activity in aortic rings was markedly decreased compared with those of OLETF. Catechin reduced vascular reactive oxygen species formation in the aorta and suppressed the expression of p22phox and p47phox NADPH oxidase subunits" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  88. Whole Grains Shrink Belly Fat? - Dr. Weil, 3/31/08 - "the whole grains may have helped by stabilizing the dieters' blood sugar, which in turn may have had a beneficial effect on CRP levels"
  89. Limiting Refined Carbohydrates May Stall AMD Progression - Science Daily, 10/8/07 - "Our data showed those people in the high-glycemic-index group were at greater risk of AMD progression, especially those already in the late stages ... Participants who consumed the most refined carbohydrates were 17 percent more likely to develop blinding AMD than the group that consumed the least"
  90. Insulin Sensitivity, Insulin Secretion, and Abdominal Fat - Medscape, 10/23/03 - "Insulin resistance is associated with overall obesity and particularly abdominal obesity ... In normal individuals, as insulin sensitivity declines, the ß-cells of the pancreas compensate by secreting more insulin"
  91. The impact of antidiabetic therapies on cardiovascular disease - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2005 Feb;7(1):50-7 - "hyperinsulinemia is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease"
  92. Single Mechanism For Hypertension, Insulin Resistance And Immune Suppression - Science Daily, 6/30/08 - "spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) ... protein receptors on the surface of SHR cells become clipped off as the animals develop hypertension. They used a novel visualization technique to show that after several weeks of ingesting doxycycline in their drinking water, the SHR rats developed cells that again bristled with normal CD18 and insulin receptors. The animals' metabolic conditions simultaneously improved; blood pressure normalized and symptoms of immune suppression disappeared" - Note: I was taking Periostat (low dose doxycycline, 20 mg) for two reasons, the help prevent gum disease and to lower CRP.  Now I have a third reason.  See doxycycline at OffshoreRx1.com (you can use a pill cutter to quarter the pills).  See:

    • Low-dose Periostat (Doxycycline) Shows Benefits in Patients with Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/02 - "At six-month follow-up, sub-antimicrobial dose doxycyline significantly reduced CRP levels by 45.8 percent compared to baseline values (p<0.05). The drug was also associated with a 33.5 percent reduction in interleukin-6 and a 50 percent reduction in metalloproteinase ... The findings are exciting, since research is now showing that CRP is both a key marker of inflammation leading to future acute coronary events, but also that CRP itself may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis"
      • Blood Protein Predicts Stroke Risk - HealthDay, 6/23/03 - "whether the substance [CRP] is an independent risk factor for these episodes or merely a reflection of narrowed and crumbling arteries hasn't been entirely clear ... New research now suggests that the molecule, called C-reactive protein (CRP), is indeed its own oddsmaker ... The cholesterol-fighting drugs known as statins have been shown to lower CRP by about 25 percent or so, Stein says. However, it's not clear that that effect reduces cardiovascular trouble or increases survival"
  93. Prediabetes May Raise Heart Deaths - WebMD, 6/18/07 - "Adults with prediabetes may be more than twice as likely to die of heart disease as people without blood sugar (glucose) problems"
  94. Metformin May Delay Onset of Diabetes in At-Risk Subjects - Medscape, 3/24/08 - "Metformin treatment, compared with placebo or no treatment, reduced body mass index by 5.3%, fasting glucose by 4.5%, fasting insulin by 14.4%, and calculated insulin resistance by 22.6% ... Metformin treatment also reduced triglycerides and LDL cholesterol by 5.3% and 5.6%, respectively, and increased HDL cholesterol by 5.0% ... The incidence of new-onset diabetes was reduced by 40% (odds ratio, 0.6), with an absolute risk reduction of 6%, during a mean trial duration of 1.8 years" - I don't have diabetes yet still take 1,000 mg of metformin per day.  I still feel high blood sugar and advanced glycation end products are major causes of aging.  See metformin at OffshoreRx1.com.
  95. Vitamin C-rich diet may slash diabetes risk - Nutra USA, 7/29/08 - "Increased blood levels of vitamin C may reduce the risk of developing diabetes by 62 per cent ... Correlating blood levels of vitamin C and diabetes, the researchers found that men and women with the highest blood levels (at least 1.10 and 1.29 mg/dL, respectively) had a 62 per cent reduction in their risk of developing type-2 diabetes, compared to men and women with the lowest blood levels (less than 0.56 and 0.77 mg/dL, respectively)" - See vitamin C products at Amazon.com.
  96. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an Italian prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1160-1166 - "The relative risk (RR) of breast cancer in the highest (versus lowest) quintiles of GI and GL was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.36; P for trend = 0.040) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.54, 4.16; P for trend = 0.001), respectively. Total carbohydrate intake was not associated with greater breast cancer risk, but high carbohydrate from high-GI foods was. When women were categorized by baseline menopausal status and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), the increased risk of dietary GL was confined to those who were premenopausal (RR = 3.89; 95% CI: 1.81, 8.34) and who had normal BMI (ie, <25)"
  97. Insulin resistance is associated with arterial stiffness independent of obesity in male adolescents - Hypertens Res. 2007 Jan;30(1):5-11 - "insulin resistance (IR) ... IR is a risk factor for the development of early atherosclerosis. Interventions that decrease IR in addition to weight reduction may be necessary to alter the early development of cardiovascular risk"
  98. Type 2 Diabetes Is Linked to Increased Risk for Parkinson's Disease - Science Daily, 3/28/08 - "individuals who developed type 2 diabetes had an 83% increased risk for PD compared with the general population ... insulin may play a role in regulation of brain dopanergic activity"
  99. Insulin Resistance May Be an Important Factor in Nondipper Essential Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 12/5/03 - "This may suggest that insulin resistance plays an important role in the aetiology of nondipper essential hypertension"
  100. Elevated Insulin, Glucose Raise Risk of Polyp Recurrence - Medscape, 12/10/07 - "patients with elevated insulin or glucose at the time of adenoma removal are at increased risk for recurrent adenoma ... Levels of glucose that produced the increased risk in this study were actually not very high, 99 mg/dL, which is right at the border of what we would describe as impaired fasting glucose ... the odds ratio for a recurrent polyp with advanced histology or large size was 2.43 at a fasting glucose level above 99 mg/dL ... These results "fit with the theory that insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia promote the development of colorectal neoplasia,""
  101. High-normal fasting blood glucose in non-diabetic range is associated with increased coronary artery calcium burden in asymptomatic men - Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jun 30 - "coronary artery calcium (CAC) ... The prevalence of CAC was significantly higher among men with high-normal FBG (4th quartile: 94-125mg/dl) versus normal FBG group (lower three quartiles: 66-93mg/dl) (62% versus 35%, p<0.0001). In age adjusted analyses the odds ratio (OR) for any CAC among men with high-normal FBG versus normal FBG was 2.19"
  102. Insulin Resistance May Be a Common Cause of Treatment-Resistant Hypertension - Doctor's Guide, 8/7/03 - "They suggest that hyperinsulinaemia may increase blood pressure by several mechanisms, including stimulating the sympathetic nervous system, increasing renal sodium re-absorption, activating the Na+/H+ countertransport, and enhancing vessel wall cell proliferation and reactivity"
  103. Diabetes May Increase Woman's Risk of Colorectal Cancer - oncologystat.com, 12/7/07 - "There was about a 50% increased risk of colorectal cancer in women with diabetes ... The researchers hypothesized that the elevated levels of insulin typically seen in people with type 2 diabetes may play a central role. Insulin stimulates the growth of normal colonic and carcinoma cells"
  104. Research: Refined Grains Expand Girths - Intelihealth, 6/21/04 - "three years they were tracked ... At the end, the white bread group had three times the fiber group's gain at the gut ... abdominal fat cells may be more sensitive to insulin's effects than other fat cells in the body"
  105. Sugar and Alzheimer's: Are They Linked? - WebMD, 12/7/07 - "The brains of the sugar-fed mice had about twice as many plaque deposits as the mice fed regular water" - [Science Daily]
  106. Red Wine Compound May Curb Diabetes - WebMD, 10/2/07 - "Resveratrol curbs insulin resistance in mice ... According to our findings, people might need to drink about three liters of red wine each day to get sufficient resveratrol -- about 15 milligrams -- for its biological effects" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  107. Redefining Impaired Fasting Glucose - Physician's Weekly, 11/24/03 - "the cut point for IFG should be reduced to 100 mg/dl from the current 110 mg/dl"
  108. What You Don’t Know About Blood Sugar - Life Extension Magazine, 1/04 - "it now appears that optimal fasting blood glucose levels should probably be under 86 mg/dL ... Chromium supplements have been shown to reduce blood glucose significantly.70-74 The dose used in human studies ranges from 200 to 1000 mcg of elemental chromium a day, with best results occurring when 400 mcg or more of chromium is taken daily ... Nondiabetics using metformin may start off at 500 mg a day and gradually build up to 1000-1500 mg a day. The objective is not to take so much metformin as to induce a hypoglycemic state" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon chromium products.
  109. Metformin: The Most Effective Life Extension Drug is Also a Safe, Effective Weight Loss Drug - IAS Bulletin - "Metformin is also one of the most promising anti-aging, life extending drugs available"
  110. Supplemental Chromium Picolinate and Biotin Appear to Decrease Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Type 2 Diabetics: Presented at ADA - Doctor's Guide, 6/17/05 - "Our most important finding is that chromium picolinate and biotin help to decrease hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] values in poorly controlled diabetics ... 600 mcg chromium picolinate and biotin 2 mg/per day" - See Biotin products at iHerb and Chromium products at iHerb.
    1. Supplement May Lower Diabetes Heart Risks - WebMD, 5/10/04 - "Diachrome contains chromium, in the form of chromium picolinate, and biotin, which is thought to improve insulin's action to improve blood sugars ... After 30 days ... Average fasting blood glucose dropped by 26.2 mg/dL"
    2. Can a Mix of Chromium and Biotin Help Diabetics Control Blood Sugar? - WebMD, 10/15/01 - "when chromium and biotin are present together, they have more of a response than what would be expected by adding their effects separately. "As soon as you put those two together, you get a much greater increase in glucose metabolism,""
    3. Research Affirms the Benefits of Combination of Chromium Picolinate and Biotin for Improving Blood Sugar in People with Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 12/20/06 - "The 30-day study examined 36 overweight or obese poorly controlled patients with type 2 diabetes taking Diachrome who were already receiving oral anti-diabetic drug(s). The results also showed a significantly greater reduction in the total area under the curve for glucose (AUCg) during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for the treatment group (mean change -9.7%) compared with the placebo group (mean change +5.1%)"
    4. Treating Hair Loss Naturally - WebMD - "Daly says he routinely recommends up to 3 mg of biotin daily for his hair loss patients, while Lessman developed a healthy hair, skin, and nails product containing 2 mg of biotin per daily dosage, which he believes is the minimum for healthy hair"
  111. Effect of L-carnitine on plasma glycemic and lipidemic profile in patients with type II diabetes mellitus - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Mar 02 - "fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ... FPG in the L-carnitine group decreased significantly from 143+/-35 to 130+/-33 mg/dl (P=0.03) ... after 12 weeks of treatment" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  112. Metabolic Markers May Help Identify Insulin Resistance in Overweight Individuals - Doctor's Guide, 11/24/03 - "the optimal cut-off values for identifying insulin resistance were 1.47 mmol/L for triglycerides, 1.8 in SI units for triglyceride-HDL ratio, and 109 pmol/L for insulin"
  113. Low-glycemic-index plan is better than low-fat or low-carb diets, study says - HealthDay, 8/26/04 - "After two to four months, the researchers found that the rats given the high-glycemic-index diet had 71 percent more body fat and 8 percent less lean muscle mass, compared with rats on the low-glycemic-index diet ... the high-glycemic-index group had significantly higher blood sugar and insulin levels and higher triglyceride levels"
  114. Death Risk Rises With Blood Sugar - WebMD, 9/20/04 - "As your blood sugar level goes up, so does your risk of death and heart disease - even if you don't have diabetes ... every 1% increase in HbA1c ups the risk of death -- from all causes -- by 24% for men and 28% for women ... These are important studies because they show we should be concerned about blood glucose elevations even in people who do not have diabetes"
  115. Glycemic index, glycemic load and thyroid cancer risk - Ann Oncol. 2007 Oct 19 - "Compared with the lowest tertile, the ORs in subsequent tertiles were 1.68 and 1.73 for GI, and 1.76 and 2.17 for GL. The OR for highest tertile of GI compared with lowest one was 1.70 for papillary and 1.57 for follicular thyroid cancer. The ORs for GL were 2.17 for papillary and 3.33 for follicular thyroid cancer ... Our study shows that high dietary levels of GI and GL are associated with thyroid cancer risk"
  116. Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids Have Positive Effect On Muscle Mass, Study Shows - Science Daily, 5/9/07 - "In mammals, the ability to use nutrients from food and convert them into muscle proteins decreases with age. Though the exact cause of this phenomenon is still unclear, insulin resistance of aging muscle cells has been suggested as a possible answer ... omega-3 fatty acids are known to improve glucose metabolism in people and animals showing insulin resistance ... After five weeks, animals with the marine omega-3 diet showed increased sensitivity to insulin which, in turn, improved protein metabolism" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  117. Prediabetes May Raise Risk for Alzheimer's - Intelihealth, 7/17/06 - "people who had prediabetes at the beginning of the study had a 70% increased risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer's ... doctors tend to ignore the slightly high sugar levels until the levels reach the stage of full-blown diabetes"
  118. High Blood Sugar Linked To Lost Memory - Intelihealth, 2/4/03 - "middle-aged and elderly people with high blood sugar actually had a smaller hippocampus"
  119. High Insulin Levels Impair Intestinal Metabolic Function - Science Daily, 4/24/07 - "excessive insulin appears to slow the removal of chylomicrons from the blood stream following a fatty meal. Chylomicrons transport dietary fat from the intestine to the rest of the body ... excessive insulin appears to alter the mechanics of blood vessel walls, allowing chylomicrons and cholesterol to build up in them, which, over time, creates blockages in the blood stream, leading to heart problems"
  120. Chronically High Blood Sugar Linked To Risk Of Cognitive Impairment - Science Daily, 8/9/06 - "Women with a glycosylated hemoglobin of seven percent or higher at baseline were four times more likely to develop MCI or dementia than women who tested at less than seven percent"
  121. Hydroxycitric Acid Slows Glucose Uptake, Cuts Insulin Peaks/Valleys A La South Beach Diet - Science Daily, 5/23/05 - "sugar that is normally absorbed rather quickly -- within about 20 minutes -- took over 2 hours after HCA ingestion. This delay is good because it reduces the high peaks of glucose, which otherwise would require the body to produce a lot of insulin to deal with the 'meal.' ... we don't know how this will translate into humans ... Fast sugar is worse for you; slower is better" - See HCA products at iHerb.
  122. Supplementation With Chromium Picolinate Improves Glycemic Control, Attenuates Weight Gain - Doctor's Guide, 8/9/06 - "Blood sugar levels of study participants taking chromium picolinate in combination with the antidiabetic medication dropped significantly compared to the group taking the medication plus placebo ... Study participants taking chromium picolinate also experienced significantly lower abdominal body fat accumulation than the group taking medication and placebo, and experienced less overall weight gain" - See iHerb or Vitacosticon chromium products.
  123. Solving Syndrome X - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 7/21/04 - "PGX lowers after meal blood sugar levels by approximately 20 to 40% and also lowers insulin secretion by approximately 40% producing a whole body insulin sensitivity index improvement of nearly 60%"  - See iHerb or Vitacosticon PGX products.
  124. Novel Fiber Limits Sugar Absorption - Life Extension Magazine, 9/04 - "With the introduction of a new highly viscous fiber blend trademarked under the name PGX™, it may now be possible to achieve the multiple documented benefits of fiber by swallowing only a few capsules before each meal. The longevity potential associated with reducing after-meal glucose and insulin blood levels, lowering total cholesterol and LDL, and losing some weight is enormous"
  125. Cross-link Breakers and Inhibitors - International Anti-Aging Systems - "metformin has a dual effect. It lowers blood glucose, (a well-known and established activity) plus, as new research is revealing, it is an effective inhibitor of cross-linking" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.
  126. Effects of metformin on the body composition in subjects with risk factors for type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 Mar;7(2):189-92 - "In the metformin group, there was a decrease in fat weight from 25.9 +/- 9.4 to 20.8 +/- 9.2 kg, p < 0.01, an increase in lean weight from 57.05 +/- 13.6 to 61.9 +/- 16.5 kg, p < 0.01, an increase in basal metabolism from 1735 +/- 413 to 1878 +/- 505 calories/day, p < 0.05 and an increase in body water" - See metformin at The Antiaging Store.  Note:  That's a 19.7% decrease in fat (25.9-20.8)/25.9 = 19.7%, a 8.5% increase in lean weight (61.9-57.05)/57.05 = 8.5% and a 8.2% increase in basal metabolism (1878-1735)/1735 = 8.2%. - Ben
  127. Adherence to Preventive Medications: Predictors and outcomes in the Diabetes Prevention Program - Diabetes Care. 2006 Sep;29(9):1997-2002 - "There was a 38.2% risk reduction for developing diabetes for those adherent to metformin compared with those adherent to placebo" - See metformin at OffshoreRx1.comor International Anti-aging Systems (Glucophage).
  128. Insulin resistance and endothelial function are improved after folate and vitamin B12 therapy in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship between homocysteine levels and hyperinsulinemia -  Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 Oct;151(4):483-9 - "diet plus folic acid (5 mg/day) plus vitamin B12 (500 mg/day) ... A significant decrement was observed for insulin levels (19.9+/-1.7 vs 14.8+/-1.6 mU/ml"
  129. Extra Weight May Age You Faster - WebMD, 5/25/05 - "inflammation burns out white blood cells faster, and the effort of replacing them wears down the telomeres ... Insulin resistance and obesity are also associated with free radical damage"
  130. Insulin Resistance in Teens Raises High Blood Pressure Risk as Adults - Doctor's Guide, 11/11/04 - "What we're showing is that insulin resistance has an effect on systolic blood pressure that is independent of fatness and obesity"
  131. Impaired Fasting Glucose Screening Could Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: Presented at ADA - Doctor's Guide, 6/14/06 - "people with impaired fasting glucose have higher rates of cardiovascular disease risk factors than people with normal fasting glucose ... They defined impaired fasting glucose (IFG) as fasting blood sugar between 100 and 125 mg/dL"
  132. Metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting glucose: the 100 versus 110 mg/dL threshold - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007 Oct;23(7):547-550 - "IFG110 was associated with higher risk of post-challenge glucose intolerance as compared with IFG100. As compared with IFG100, subjects with IFG110 have significantly lower levels of circulating IGF-I. As compared with NFG, IFG110, but not IFG100, showed a significant association with increased levels of inflammatory markers including white blood cell count (WBCC), and C-reactive protein (CRP)"
  133. Exercise in Itself Improves Blood Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 7/24/06 - "exercise helps regulate blood glucose (sugar) levels, increases the body's sensitivity to insulin, and decreases blood lipids (fats) while also helping to burn body fat ... Participants who exercised had an overall decrease of 0.6% of A1c levels. While that may not sound like much, it represents a 30% improvement towards the goal of attaining an A1c of 7%, and a 20% improvement towards a normal A1c of 6%"
  134. High-Sugar Foods May Affect Eyesight - WebMD, 7/13/07 - "People with the diets highest on the glycemic index were the most likely to have advanced AMD in at least one eye"
  135. Exercise Lowers Insulin In Breast Cancer Survivors - Science Daily, 6/4/07 - "Studies have found an association between relatively high levels of insulin -- often seen in obese and sedentary people -- and an increased risk of breast cancer recurrence and breast cancer-related death"
  136. New Trial Shows Chromium Picolinate Reduces Weight Gain Associated with Diabetes Medication - Doctor's Guide, 6/16/05 - "The study participants who took 1,000 mcg of Chromax(R) chromium picolinate in combination with the antidiabetic medication experienced significantly lower body fat accumulation (0.12%) than the group taking medication and placebo (1.1%), particularly in the abdomen area ... chromium picolinate taken in combination with antidiabetic medication significantly improved both insulin sensitivity ... " - See iHerb or Vitacosticon chromium products.
  137. Some blood pressure medications may help to decrease insulin resistance.  See the First Line Treatment for Hypertension for why I feel that telmisartan may be the best choice for hypertension:
    1. Metabolic Effect of Telmisartan [Micardis] and Losartan [Cozaar] in Hypertensive Patients with Metabolic Syndrome - Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2005 May 15;4(1):6 - "Telmisartan, but not losartan, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced free plasma glucose, free plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and HbAic. Following treatment, plasma glucose and insulin were reduced during the oral glucose tolerance test by telmisartan, but not by losartan. Telmisartan also significantly reduced 24-hour mean systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) compared with losartan" - Note: Both telmisartan and losartan are ARBs.  See telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
    2. Valsartan Reduces Chance of Diabetes in High-Risk Hypertensive Patients - Doctor's Guide, 5/19/05 - "patients taking valsartan had a 23% lower risk of developing diabetes during the four or more years of the study. The two drugs had previously been shown to be roughly equivalent in reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke" - See valsartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
  138. Pioglitazone Lowers Blood Pressure in Patients With Diabetes - Medscape, 5/20/05 - "an average change of 2mm Hg will alter the incidence of cardiovascular disease by 17% and ischaemic heart disease by 10% ... Improving insulin sensitivity is associated with a decrease in blood pressure"
  139. Sugar intake may hurt liver - Scientific America, 11/1/06 - "fatty liver disease was more common in the group given sugar water, especially when exposed to a type of sugar called fructose ... These data support the hypothesis that high fructose consumption may not only (damage) the liver through over-feeding, but may be directly" toxic"
    1. Diabetes Drug May Treat Fatty Liver - WebMD, 11/30/06 - "during the study, the Actos patients cut their liver fat by 54%; the placebo group had no change in liver fat ... Actos patients also showed a bigger drop in liver inflammation and a greater improvement in insulin response than the placebo group"
    2. Obesity and Fatty Liver disease - MedicineNet.com - "Doctors also are using medications to treat non alcoholic fatty liver disease. For example, insulin-sensitizing agents, such as the thiazolidinediones, pioglitazone (Actos) and rosiglitazone (Avandia), and metformin (Glucophage) not only help to control blood glucose in patients with diabetes, but they also improve enzyme levels in patients with non alcoholic fatty liver disease" - See pioglitazone or rosiglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com, XlPharmacy or International Anti-aging Systems.
    3. Avandia Positively Impacts On Factors Linked With Insulin Resistance - Doctor's Guide, 9/18/00 - "Increased deposits of fat around the internal organs and in the liver are commonly associated with insulin resistance and are found in many type 2 diabetes patients ... Avandia helps prevent accumulation of fat around the internal organs and significantly reduces hepatic fat"
  140. Low glycemic diet may help stay slim - MSNBC, 10/27/06 - "normal-weight women who ate a diet with a relatively high glycemic index gained more weight, more fat, and more padding around the middle over a six-year period than women who ate a low glycemic index diet"
  141. Insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: the road map to cardiovascular diseases - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2006 Nov-Dec;22(6):423-36 - "Much evidence supports the presence of insulin resistance as the fundamental pathophysiologic disturbance responsible for the cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, known collectively as the metabolic syndrome"
  142. Lowering Resistance To Insulin May Delay Or Prevent Onset Of Type 2 Diabetes - Science Daily, 6/12/05 - "Type 2 diabetes may be significantly delayed or prevented through medication that takes the load off of the body's delicate insulin-producing cells ... our initial findings for diabetes prevention with troglitazone apply not only to this class of drugs-thiazolidinediones-but to the general mechanisms of reducing stress on beta cells by treating insulin resistance" - Note:  Actos and Avandia are in the thiazolidinedione class.
  143. Trial of Coenzyme Q10 in Isolated Systolic Hypertension - Medscape, South Med J 94(11):1112-1117, 2001 - "The mechanisms underlying essential hypertension remain uncertain. A causal role for insulin resistance has been suggested,[35] and high levels of plasma insulin have frequently been found in patients with high blood pressure"
  144. Insulin resistance in essential hypertension - N Engl J Med. 1987 Aug 6;317(6):350-7 - "essential hypertension is an insulin-resistant state"
  145. Relations of glycemic index and glycemic load with plasma oxidative stress markers - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):70-6 - "Chronic consumption of high-GI foods may lead to chronically high oxidative stress. A low-GI diet, not a low-carbohydrate diet, appears to be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress"
  146. Lifestyle Modification, Metformin Effective Prevention for Type 2 Diabetes - Doctor's Guide, 7/31/03 - "Incidence of diabetes was 58% lower ... in the lifestyle intervention group and 31% lower ... in the metformin group than in the placebo group"
  147. Grain Fiber And Magnesium Intake Associated With Lower Risk For Diabetes - Science Daily, 5/14/07 - "those who consumed the most cereal fiber had a 33 percent lower risk of developing diabetes than those who took in the least, while those who consumed the most magnesium had a 23 percent lower risk than those who consumed the least. There was no association between fruit or vegetable fiber and diabetes risk"
  148. Clearing up the confusion over carbs - MSNBC, 6/3/05 - "the women who ate low GI foods lost more than twice as much body fat as women eating mainly high GI foods"
  149. Low-Glycemic Load Diet Facilitates Weight Loss in Overweight Adults with High Insulin Secretion - Doctor's Guide, 12/7/05 - "The regulation of body weight is, at least in part, influenced by how much insulin a person secretes in response to a load of glucose, as well as by how sensitive that person is to insulin's glucose-lowering effects"
  150. Pre-diabetes a Costly Condition for Patients - HealthDay, 6/11/05 - "In 2003, the cut-off point for pre-diabetes was lowered to 100 mg/dL from 110 mg/dL ... patients with normal blood glucose levels had annual costs of $3,799 versus $4,580 for those at the new cut-off point for pre-diabetes, and $4,960 for those at the old cut-off point"
  151. Insulin Resistance Associated With Increased Risk for Congestive Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 7/21/05 - "In this community-based sample of elderly men free of CHF and valvular disease at baseline, insulin resistance predicted CHF incidence independently of diabetes and other established risk factors for CHF"
  152. Metabolic syndrome - CNN - "Doctors believe that the underlying cause of this cluster of risk factors is resistance to insulin ... Doctors use thiazolidinediones and metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR) to decrease insulin resistance in people with diabetes. These medications may help improve insulin metabolism in people with metabolic syndrome" - See Glucophage at SuperSaverMeds.com or OffshoreRx1.com.
  153. Hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome:: implications for testosterone therapy - J Urol. 2005 Sep;174(3):827-34 - "Hypogonadism is likely a fundamental component of metabolic syndrome. Testosterone therapy may not only treat hypogonadism, but may also have tremendous potential to slow or halt the progression from metabolic syndrome to overt diabetes or cardiovascular disease via beneficial effects on insulin regulation, lipid profile and blood pressure. Furthermore, the use of testosterone to treat metabolic syndrome may also lead to the prevention of urological complications commonly associated with these chronic disease states, such as neurogenic bladder and erectile dysfunction"
  154. Tiny Roundworm's Telomeres Help Scientists To Tease Apart Different Types Of Aging - Science Daily, 8/8/05 - "telomeres alone do not dictate aging and lifespan ... For successful aging you have to control both, aging in your dividing cells, which hinges on telomere maintenance, but also aging in your non-dividing cells. We thought that telomeres might play a role in the later but that's clearly not the case ... What is probably playing a role in the other half of aging is the insulin signaling pathway, proper mitochondrial function and dietary restriction"
  155. Strategies to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 8/8/05 - "Low glycemic load, high fiber diet which contains adequate amounts of mono-unsaturated and omega-3 fats and lean protein can improve satiety and dietary thermo-genesis (basal metabolic rate) and decrease insulin resistance ... Nutrients that have also been associated with worsening insulin sensitivity include trans-fats and saturated fats ... Exercise improves insulin sensitivity and lowers glucose levels both acutely and for up to 48 h after physical activity ... metformin reduced the risk of diabetes by 31% ... Valsartan reduced the incidence of new-onset diabetes by 23% ... Traditional beta-blockers worsen insulin sensitivity and increase the risk of developing new diabetes"
  156. Elevated Insulin Levels Appear to Increase Levels of Inflammatory Markers and Beta-Amyloid, Which May Contribute to Alzheimer's Disease - Doctor's Guide, 8/8/05 - "Moderately elevated levels of insulin increase the levels of inflammatory markers and beta-amyloid in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid, and these markers may contribute to Alzheimer's disease"
    1. Obesity Today, Alzheimer's Disease Tomorrow? - WebMD, 8/8/05 - "people with high insulin levels -- long before they get diabetes -- already are on the road to Alzheimer's disease"
  157. Effect of Atorvastatin (10 mg/day) on Glucose Metabolism in Patients With the Metabolic Syndrome - Am J Cardiol. 2006 Jul 1;98(1):66-9 - "in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects, 6 weeks of atorvastatin (10 mg/day) resulted in significant improvement in insulin sensitivity"
  158. Cause Of Diabetes-related Erectile Dysfunction Is Clarified By Johns Hopkins Researchers - Science Daily, 8/11/05 - "one particular simple sugar, present in increased levels in diabetics, interferes with the chain of events needed to achieve and maintain erection and can lead to permanent penile impairment over time"
  159. The Metabolic Syndrome: a Cause of Sexual Dysfunction in Women - Medscape, 5/27/05 - "women with the metabolic syndrome reported significantly lower arousal, orgasm, and lubrication scores"
  160. Blood Glucose: A Strong Risk Factor for Mortality - Medscape, 8/19/05 - "BG even in the normal range is a strong independent predictor of mortality in all subjects with CVD" - [Abstract]
  161. Vinegar may help dieters eat less - Nutra USA, 9/7/05 - "Both glucose and insulin responses were about 25 per cent lower at 90 minutes when the volunteers had consumed the highest level of vinegar compared to the reference meal ... This level of vinegar is equivalent to about two to three tablespoons" - See Vinegar products at iHerb (1 - 500 mg tablet equals 2 tsb of vinegar.  4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations).
  162. Androgens, Insulin Resistance and Vascular Disease in Men - Medscape, 9/8/05 - "Studies in healthy men have shown an inverse correlation between testosterone and insulin levels ... physiological testosterone replacement improves insulin sensitivity ... Insulin resistance also plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension ... hypotestosteronaemia is associated with insulin resistance in men. Testosterone treatment inhibits the hyperinsulinaemia and thus may delay the onset of diabetes mellitus in men or even improve glycaemic control"
  163. Glycemic Control and Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Persons With and Without Diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study - Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1910-1916 - "In adults with diabetes, the relative risk (RR) of CHD was 2.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-3.72) for the highest quintile of HbA1c level compared with the lowest after adjustment for CHD risk factors ... Elevated HbA1c level is an independent risk factor for CHD in persons with and without diabetes"
  164. High Blood Sugar Levels a Risk Factor for Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 9/14/05 - "Lowering blood sugar levels could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in both diabetics and non-diabetics ... Non-diabetic persons with HbA1c levels of 6% or higher had almost a two-fold greater heart disease risk compared to persons with an HbA1c level below 4.6%"
  165. Normal Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels and Type 2 Diabetes in Young Men - N Engl J Med. 2005 Oct 6;353(14):1454-62 - "A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter"
  166. Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in the Metabolic Syndrome - Medscape, 10/10/05 - "As observed in animal studies, insulin-sensitizing medications may play a potential role in the reduction of blood pressure. Metformin treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats decreased blood pressure by 34 mmHg but had no effect on the blood pressure of normotensive rats.[9] Pioglitazone prevents hypertension in the Dahl salt-sensitive rats,[10] and rosiglitazone prevents development of hypertension in insulin-resistant rats"
  167. Pancreatic Cancer Tied to Insulin Woes - WebMD, 12/13/05 - "Some of the men's blood samples showed higher levels of blood glucose, insulin resistance, and high insulin levels. Those men were more likely to later develop pancreatic cancer than those without insulin problems"
  168. Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and ovarian cancer risk: a prospective cohort study - Public Health Nutr. 2007 Oct;10(10):1076-81 - "Glyacemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) .. GI and total carbohydrate and sugar intakes were not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the total cohort. GL was positively associated with a 72% increase in risk of ovarian cancer"
  169. Relation of increased hemoglobin a(1c) levels to severity of peripheral arterial disease in patients with diabetes mellitus - Am J Cardiol. 2007 May 15;99(10):1468-9 - "the higher the hemoglobin A(1c) levels in patients with diabetes with PAD, the higher the prevalence of severe PAD"
  170. Diabetics Face Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 11/2/05 - "hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia promote the growth of colorectal cancer"
  171. Blood sugar 'boosts cancer risk' - BBC, 3/21/07 - "women in the top 25% range of blood sugar readings after fasting had a 26% higher chance of developing cancer than those in the bottom quarter ... it is possible to reduce your blood sugar levels by eating a healthy balanced diet with lots of fruit and vegetables and maintaining a healthy weight ... 40% of cancer cases can be prevented by this type of healthy lifestyle"
  172. Study links diabetes to cancer risk - MSNBC, 1/11/05 - "diabetes can raise the risk of developing and dying from several types of cancer, including digestive-tract tumors"
  173. Hyperglycemia Linked to Cancer Risk - Physician's Weekly, 5/7/07 - "Risk of cancer of the pancreas, endometrium, urinary tract, and of malignant melanoma was statistically significantly associated with high fasting glucose with [relative risk ratios] of 2.49, 1.86, 1.69, and 2.16, respectively"
  174. High-Glycemic Foods Linked to Colon Cancer - WebMD, 2/3/04 - "the future risk of colorectal cancers is nearly three times higher in women who eat the most high glycemic-load foods compared with those who eat lesser amounts"
  175. Link Shown Between Insulin Resistance, Colon And Breast Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 6/12/97 - "Results showed that nearly 27 percent of the women who died from colon cancer had insulin resistance, compared to 3 percent of the controls"
  176. How hormones can affect breast cancer risk - MSNBC, 9/9/05 - "Research also consistently links high levels of the hormone insulin and insulin-like growth factors with increased rates of breast cancer, at least after menopause"
  177. Hormone Replacement Linked To Insulin Resistance, Regardless Of Adiposity - Doctor's Guide, 1/24/02 - "postmenopausal women taking oral estrogen, with or without progesterone, show a greater degree of insulin resistance than those not taking HRT, even allowing for total and abdominal adiposity"
  178. Calories Seen Outweighing Sugar as Diabetes Risk - Vital Choices Newsletter, 1/1/07 - "they found no link between consumption of sweetened beverages and the risk of developing diabetes ... men who drank four or more cups of coffee a day cut their risk of developing type-2 diabetes by more than 23 percent ... while a high sugar intake may not by itself cause diabetes, it can certainly be a major contributing factor to weight gain and obesity: factors that clearly do promote diabetes" - [Abstract / Abstract]