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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 10/13/10.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Promising drug candidate reverses age-related memory loss in mice - Science Daily, 10/12/10 - "Such memory loss has been linked with high levels of 'stress' steroid hormones known as glucocorticoids which have a deleterious effect on the part of the brain that helps us to remember. An enzyme called 11beta-HSD1 is involved in making these hormones and has been shown to be more active in the brain during aging ... We found that life-long partial deficiency of 11beta-HSD1 prevented memory decline with aging. But we were very surprised to find that the blocking compound works quickly over a few days to improve memory in old mice suggesting it might be a good treatment for the already elderly ... We previously showed that carbenoxolone, an old drug that blocks multiple enzymes including 11beta-HSD1, improves memory in healthy elderly men and in patients with type 2 diabetes after just a month of treatment, so we are optimistic that our new compounds will be effective in humans. The next step is to conduct further studies with our preclinical candidate to prove that the compound is safe to take into clinical trials, hopefully within a year"

Too much light at night at night may lead to obesity, study finds - Science Daily, 10/11/10 - "mice exposed to a relatively dim light at night over eight weeks had a body mass gain that was about 50 percent more than other mice that lived in a standard light-dark cycle ... Something about light at night was making the mice in our study want to eat at the wrong times to properly metabolize their food ... So how does light at night lead to changes in metabolism? The researchers believe the light could disrupt levels of the hormone melatonin, which is involved in metabolism. In addition, it may disrupt the expression of clock genes, which help control when animals feed and when they are active"

Insulin resistance may be associated with stroke risk - Science Daily, 10/11/10 - "Individuals in the top quarter of insulin resistance had a 45 percent greater risk of any type of vascular event. However, insulin resistance was not associated with heart attack or vascular death separately"

Resveratrol shows metabolic benefits for obese: Study - Nutra USA, 10/11/10 - "When human fat cells were exposed to IL-1B, the researchers noted increases in the secretion of pro-inflammatory compounds, including IL6, IL8, MCP-1. However, when the cells were simultaneously exposed to resveratrol, a 16 to 36 percent reduction in the expression of these cytokines was observed" - [Abstract] - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Biothera's beta-glucan ingredient may reduce cold/flu incidence - Nutra USA, 10/8/10 - "Only 10 percent of women receiving supplements of Biothera’s Wellmune WGP branded ingredient reported upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, such as sore throat, stuffy or runny nose, and cough, compared with 29 percent of women in the control group" - See beta-glucan products at iHerb.

Finasteride May Be Helpful for Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy - Medscape, 10/8/10 - "Finasteride improves long-term urinary symptoms versus placebo, but is less effective than doxazosin," the study authors write. "Long-term combination therapy with alpha blockers (doxazosin, terazosin) improves symptoms significantly better than finasteride monotherapy. Finasteride + doxazosin improves symptoms equally — and clinically — to doxazosin alone. In comparison to doxazosin, finasteride + doxazosin appears to improve urinary symptoms only in men with medium (25 to < 40 mL) or large prostates (≥ 40 mL), but not in men with small prostates (25 mL)."

Got fish? Nutrition studies explore health benefits - Science Daily, 10/8/10 - "DHA protected the animals against two harmful side effects of CLA: CLA-induced insulin resistance and CLA-induced non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease. In contrast, EPA offered only partial protection against CLA-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and provided no protection against insulin resistance" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D deficiency rampant in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, damaging patient recovery - Science Daily, 10/6/10 - "Almost 50 percent of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery have vitamin D deficiency that should be corrected before surgery to improve patient outcomes"

Research identifies the herbal supplements that are effective in treating anxiety - Science Daily, 10/6/10 - "A systematic review of research into the use of nutritional supplements for the treatment of anxiety disorders has found strong evidence for the use of extracts of passionflower or kava and combinations of L-lysine and L-arginine ... We found mixed results -- while passionflower or kava and L-lysine and L-arginine appeared to be effective, St John's Wort and magnesium supplements were not"

Air pollution linked to breast cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/6/10 - "We found a link between post-menopausal breast cancer and exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which is a 'marker' for traffic-related air pollution ... Across Montreal, levels of NO2 varied between 5 ppb to over 30 ppb. We found that risk increased by about 25 per cent with every increase of NO2 of five parts per billion. Another way of saying this is that women living in the areas with the highest levels of pollution were almost twice as likely to develop breast cancer as those living in the least polluted areas" - SUVs!!!

Emotional effects of heavy combat can be lifelong for veterans - Science Daily, 10/6/10 - "heavy combat exposure at a young age had a detrimental effect on physical health and psychological well-being for about half of the men well into their 80s ... about half of the veterans who experienced a high level of combat showed signs of stress-related growth at mid-life, leading to greater wisdom and well-being in old age than among veterans who witnessed no combat ... Firing at the enemy, killing people and watching others die is enormously stressful, but it can result in personal growth as with survivors of cancer and sexual assault" - See the bold faced.  I was an army helicopter pilot in Vietnam for a year and a half before joining the navy.  I also survived a 25% chance of survival from head and necks cancer.

New findings pull back curtain on relationship between iron and Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 10/6/10 - "there is a very close link between elevated levels of iron in the brain and the enhanced production of the amyloid precursor protein, which in Alzheimer's disease breaks down into a peptide that makes up the destructive plaques ... it had been known that an abundance of iron in brain cells somehow results in an abundance of amyloid precursor protein, or APP, and its destructive peptide offspring"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Long-term exposure to elevated blood pressure and mortality from cardiovascular disease in a Japanese population: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study - Hypertens Res. 2010 Oct 7 - "Multivariate HRs (95% confidence interval) associated with a 10 mm Hg increase in systolic BP were measured in 1993 and 1998, and their averages were 1.11 (1.05-1.16), 1.13 (1.07-1.18) and 1.17 (1.10-1.27), respectively. Multivariate HRs for a 10 mm Hg increase in time-averaged systolic BP were 1.12 (1.03-1.21) in men and 1.24 (1.13-1.35) in women. The subgroup analysis of antihypertensive use showed that multivariate HRs for time-averaged systolic BP were 1.20 (1.11-1.29) in sustained non-users and 1.17 (1.04-1.32) in sustained users. Similar results were also obtained for diastolic BP. In conclusion, long-term exposure to elevated BP substantially associates with excess risk for cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese subjects, irrespective of antihypertensive medication use. Thus, appropriate management of BP is important in both users and non-users of antihypertensive medication"

Resting heart rate in patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the Heart - Eur Heart J. 2010 Oct 8 - "resting heart rate (RHR) ... cardiovascular events (CVE) ... Overall, median RHR was 70 (62-78) b.p.m. The RHR quartile stratification was significantly associated with outcome in the overall population (P = 0.002 and P = 0.021 for survival and CVE, respectively), whereas it was not in patients without DM. In patients with DM, the RHR quartiles correlated with survival (P = 0.032). In an adjusted regression model performed in patients without DM, RHR associated with neither survival [hazard ratio (HR): 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-1.27; P = 0.804] nor CVE (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.71-1.01, P = 0.068). In contrast, a 10-b.p.m. increase in RHR was independently associated with survival (HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.06-1.69, P = 0.015), but not with CVE (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.84-1.18; P = 0.359) in patients with DM. Conclusion The present report, based on patients with stable CAD, is the first to reveal that the association between RHR and CVE seems to subsist in those with DM, however, not in those without DM"

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Prostate Cancer Risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Oct 8 - "NSAID use was not associated with prostate cancer risk in the VITAL cohort.Impact: Our findings do not support the use of NSAIDs for chemoprevention of prostate cancer"

High dietary niacin intake is associated with decreased chromosome translocation frequency in airline pilots - Br J Nutr. 2010 Oct 8:1-9 - "Experimental studies suggest that B vitamins such as niacin, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 may protect against DNA damage induced by ionising radiation (IR) ... We observed a significant inverse association between translocation frequency and dietary intake of niacin (P = 0.02): adjusted rate ratio for subjects in the highest tertile compared with the lowest tertile was 0.58 (95 % CI 0.40, 0.83). Translocation frequency was not associated with total niacin intake from food and supplements as well as dietary or total intake of folate, riboflavin or vitamin B6 or B12. However, the adjusted rate ratios were significant for subjects with ≥ median compared with < median intake of whole grains (P = 0.03) and red and processed meat (P = 0.01): 0.69 (95 % CI 0.50, 0.96) and 1.56 (95 % CI 1.13, 2.16), respectively. Our data suggest that a high intake of niacin from food or a diet high in whole grains but low in red and processed meat may protect against cumulative DNA damage in IR-exposed persons"

  • Airplane Radiation Exposure Protection - "During a cross country flight from NY to LA you are subjected to more radiation from the plane then you are during a chest X-ray" - Note:.  Think about it, if a pilot were to average two round trips per week (very reasonable), that's 4 chest x-rays per week or 208 chest x-rays per year.

Human trial of liposomal lactoferrin supplementation for periodontal disease - Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33(10):1758-62 - "The PD was significantly reduced by L-bLF supplementation, but the BOP and GCF volume were not significantly changed. The MCP-1 level in GCF was significantly reduced, while levels of other cytokines were not changed. Four-week L-bLF supplementation also showed significant decreases of LPS-induced cytokine production from PBMCs. Relative gene expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 did not change. These results suggest that L-bLF supplementation can be effective in the treatment of periodontal disease, although prospective controlled large-scale studies are required" - See lactoferrin products at iHerb.

Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Protection from Carnosine in the Striatum of MPTP-Treated Mice - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Oct 6 - "The preintake of carnosine significantly attenuated MPTP-induced glutathione loss, retained the activity of GPX and SOD, diminished oxidative stress, and lowered inflammatory cytokines and nitrite levels as well as suppressed iNOS activity (P < 0.05). MPTP treatment significantly suppressed GPX mRNA expression and enhanced iNOS mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Carnosine preintake significantly elevated GPX mRNA expression and declined iNOS mRNA expression (P < 0.05). Preintake of carnosine also significantly improved MPTP-induced dopamine depletion and maintained 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels (P < 0.05). These results suggest that carnosine could provide antioxidative and anti-inflammatory protection for the striatum against the development of Parkinson's disease" - See l-carnosine at Amazon.com.

Dietary Glycemic Load Is a Predictor of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Older Adults - J Nutr. 2010 Oct 6 - "Participants in the highest quartile of mean dietary GL intake compared with those in the lowest quartile had a 76% greater risk of developing incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.04). Higher carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.03 and P-trend = 0.05, respectively). In summary, a high-GL diet was a predictor of incident hearing loss, as was higher intake of total carbohydrate. Hence, high postprandial glycemia might be a potential underlying biological mechanism in the development of age-related hearing loss"

Dietary fatty acid composition alters 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene expression in rat retroperitoneal white adipose tissue - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Oct 8;9(1):111 - "The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) amplifies intracellular glucocorticoid action by converting inactive glucocorticoids to their active forms in vivo. Adipose-specific overexpression of 11beta-HSD1 induces metabolic syndrome in mice, whereas 11beta-HSD1 null mice are resistant to it. Dietary trans and saturated fatty acids (TFAs and SFAs) are involved in the development of metabolic syndrome, whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) offer protection against this. Here, we report the effects of chronic feeding of different diets containing vanaspati (TFA rich), palm oil (SFA rich) and sunflower oil (PUFA rich) at 10%level on 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in rat retroperitoneal adipose tissue. 11beta-HSD1 gene expression was significantly higher in TFA rich diet-fed rats compared to SFA rich diet-fed rats, which in turn was significantly higher than PUFA rich diet-fed rats. Similar trend was observed in the expression of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha), the main transcription factor required for the expression of 11beta-HSD1. We propose that TFAs and SFAs increase local amplification of glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue by upregulating 11beta-HSD1 by altering C/EBP--gene expression. The increased levels of glucocorticoids in adipose tissue may lead to development of obesity and insulin resistance, thereby increasing the risk of developing metabolic syndrome" - Note:  11beta-HSD1 goes hand in hand with cortisol.

Effect of High-dose Vitamin C on Oxygen Free Radical Production and Myocardial Enzyme after Tourniquet Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury during Bilateral Total Knee Replacement - J Int Med Res. 2010 Jul-Aug;38(4):1519-29 - "In the VC group, malondialdehyde levels were lower, and arterial oxygen tension and mean blood pressure were higher, than in controls after post-operative deflation of both knee tourniquets. Troponin I levels were lower in the VC group than in controls 8 h post-operation. Administering high-dose vitamin C during bilateral TKR could prevent oxygen free radical production and a decline in arterial oxygen tension and mean blood pressure induced by ischaemia-reperfusion injury, thereby protecting the myocardium"

Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review - Nutr J. 2010 Oct 7;9(1):42 - "based on this systematic review, strong evidence exists for the use of herbal supplements containing extracts of passionflower or kava and combinations of L-lysine and L-arginine as treatments for anxiety symptoms and disorders. Magnesium-containing supplements and other herbal combinations may hold promise, but more research is needed before these products can be recommended to patients. St. John's wort monotherapy has insufficient evidence for use as an effective anxiolytic treatment"

Anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol on adipokine expression and secretion in human adipose tissue explants - Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Jun 8 - "This study is the first to show anti-inflammatory effects of RSV on adipokine expression and secretion in human adipose tissue in vitro through the SIRT1 pathway. Thus, RSV is hypothesized to possess beneficial effects and might improve the metabolic profile in human obesity" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and cancer risk: a network of case-control studies from Italy - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):871-7 - "Total flavonoids, flavanones, and flavonols were inversely related to oral and laryngeal cancers (ORs, respectively 0.56 and 0.60 for total flavonoids; 0.51 and 0.60 for flavanones; and 0.62 and 0.32 for flavonols). Flavanols were also inversely related to laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.64), whereas flavanones were inversely related to esophageal cancer (OR = 0.38). A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was found for high intake of anthocyanidins (OR = 0.67), flavonols (OR = 0.64), flavones (OR = 0.78), and isoflavones (OR = 0.76). Inverse relations with breast cancer were found for flavones (OR = 0.81) and flavonols (OR = 0.80). Flavonols (OR = 0.63) and isoflavones (OR = 0.51) were inversely associated to ovarian cancer, whereas flavonols (OR = 0.69) and flavones (OR = 0.68) were inversely associated to renal cancer. No association between flavonoids and prostate cancer emerged. We found inverse associations between proanthocyanidins and colorectal cancer. These associations appeared stronger for proanthocyanidins with a higher degree of polymerization (OR = 0.69 for ≥ 10 mers)" - See bioflavonoids at Amazon.com.

Allicin purified from fresh garlic cloves induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via nrf2 - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):947-57 - "Treatment with allicin resulted in HCT-116 apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by enhanced hypodiploid DNA content, decreased levels of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), increased levels of bax and increased capability of releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. Allicin also induced translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) to the nuclei of HCT-116 cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay showed that allicin induces Nrf2-mediated luciferase transactivation activity. SiRNA knock down of Nrf2 significantly affected the capacity of allicin to inhibit HCT-116 proliferation. These results suggest that Nrf2 mediates the allicin-induced apoptotic death of colon cancer cells" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.

Soy isoflavones in conjunction with radiation therapy in patients with prostate cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):996-1000 - "Soy isoflavones sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation therapy by inhibiting cell survival pathways activated by radiation. At the same time, soy isoflavones have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, which may help prevent the side effects of radiation ... Adverse effects of radiation therapy on bladder, bowel, and sexual function were assessed by a self-administered quality of life questionnaire at 3 and 6 mo. Only 26 and 27 patients returned completed questionnaires at 3 and 6 mo, respectively. At each time point, urinary, bowel, and sexual adverse symptoms induced by radiation therapy were decreased in the soy isoflavone group compared to placebo group. At 3 mo, soy-treated patients had less urinary incontinence, less urgency, and better erectile function as compared to the placebo group. At 6 mo, the symptoms in soy-treated patients were further improved as compared to the placebo group. These patients had less dripping/leakage of urine (7.7% in Group 1 vs. 28.4% in Group 2), less rectal cramping/diarrhea (7.7% vs. 21.4%), and less pain with bowel movements (0% vs. 14.8%) than placebo-treated patients. There was also a higher overall ability to have erections (77% vs. 57.1%). The results suggest that soy isoflavones taken in conjunction with radiation therapy could reduce the urinary, intestinal, and sexual adverse effects in patients with prostate cancer" - See soy isoflavones at Amazon.com.

Effects of PGX, a novel functional fibre, on acute and delayed postprandial glycaemia - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct 6 - "Granular PGX at breakfast time at doses of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g reduced the incremental area under the curve by up to 50% in a linear dose-response fashion (P<0.001). The granular form of PGX (5 g), but not the capsules, reduced glycaemia by up to 28% when consumed from -45 to +15 min (P<0.001). Capsules containing 3, 4.5 and 6 g PGX consumed with the evening meal reduced glycaemia at breakfast by up to 28% (P<0.001)" - See PGX at Amazon.com.

Exercise-induced changes in metabolic intermediates, hormones, and inflammatory markers associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity - Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct 4 - "exercise training (ET) ... With ET, improvements in S(I) were associated with reductions in by-products of fatty acid oxidation and increases in glycine and proline (P<0.05, R(2)=0.59); these relationships were retained 15 days after cessation of ET (P<0.05, R(2)=0.34). Conclusions: These observations support prior observations in animal models that ET promotes more efficient mitochondrial beta oxidation and challenges current hypotheses regarding ET and glycine metabolism"

Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits - Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug;104(S2):S1-S63 - "Numerous experimental studies have reported reduction in incidence of tumours and cancers after feeding specific food products with a prebiotic effect. Some of these studies (including one human trial) have also reported that, in such conditions, gut microbiota composition was modified (especially due to increased concentration of bifidobacteria). Dietary intake of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has been shown, especially in adolescents, but also tentatively in postmenopausal women, to increase Ca absorption as well as bone Ca accretion and bone mineral density. Recent data, both from experimental models and from human studies, support the beneficial effects of particular food products with prebiotic properties on energy homaeostasis, satiety regulation and body weight gain. Together, with data in obese animals and patients, these studies support the hypothesis that gut microbiota composition (especially the number of bifidobacteria) may contribute to modulate metabolic processes associated with syndrome X, especially obesity and diabetes type 2. It is plausible, even though not exclusive, that these effects are linked to the microbiota-induced changes and it is feasible to conclude that their mechanisms fit into the prebiotic effect. However, the role of such changes in these health benefits remains to be definitively proven. As a result of the research activity that followed the publication of the prebiotic concept 15 years ago, it has become clear that products that cause a selective modification in the gut microbiota's composition and/or activity(ies) and thus strengthens normobiosis could either induce beneficial physiological effects in the colon and also in extra-intestinal compartments or contribute towards reducing the risk of dysbiosis and associated intestinal and systemic pathologies" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.

Health Focus (Fructose):

News & Research:

  • Pancreatic cancers use fructose, common in the Western diet, to fuel their growth - Science Daily, 8/2/10 - "The bottom line is the modern diet contains a lot of refined sugar including fructose and it's a hidden danger implicated in a lot of modern diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and fatty liver ... the pancreatic cancer cells could easily distinguish between glucose and fructose even though they are very similar structurally, and contrary to conventional wisdom, the cancer cells metabolized the sugars in very different ways. In the case of fructose, the pancreatic cancer cells used the sugar in the transketolase-driven non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway to generate nucleic acids, the building blocks of RNA and DNA, which the cancer cells need to divide and proliferate"
  • High fructose diet may contribute to high blood pressure, study finds - Science Daily, 7/1/10 - "people who consumed a diet of 74 grams or more per day of fructose (corresponding to 2.5 sugary soft drinks per day) had a 26%, 30%, and 77% higher risk for blood pressure levels of 135/85, 140/90, and 160/100 mmHg, respectively. (A normal blood pressure reading is below 120/80 mmHg.)"
  • High fructose, trans fats lead to significant liver disease, says study - Science Daily, 6/22/10 - "mice fed the normal calorie chow diet remained lean and did not have fatty liver disease. Mice fed high calorie diets (trans-fat alone or a combination of trans-fat and high fructose) became obese and had fatty liver disease ... it was only the group fed the combination of trans-fat and high fructose which developed the advanced fatty liver disease which had fibrosis ... This same group also had increased oxidative stress in the liver, increased inflammatory cells, and increased levels of plasma oxidative stress markers"
  • Fructose sugar makes maturing human fat cells fatter, less insulin-sensitive, study finds - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "high levels of fructose, which may result from eating a diet high in fructose, throughout childhood may lead to an increase in visceral [abdominal] obesity, which is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk ... For both types of fat cells, maturation in fructose decreased the cells' insulin sensitivity, which is the ability to successfully take up glucose from the bloodstream into fat and muscles. Decreased insulin sensitivity is a characteristic of Type 2 diabetes"
  • Drinking fewer sugar-sweetened beverages may lower blood pressure - Science Daily, 5/24/10 - ""Our findings suggest that reducing sugar-sweetened beverages and sugar consumption may be an important dietary strategy to lower blood pressure and further reduce other blood pressure-related diseases," Chen said. "It has been estimated that a 3-millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) reduction in systolic blood pressure should reduce stroke mortality by 8 percent and coronary heart disease mortality by 5 percent. Such reductions in systolic blood pressure would be anticipated by reducing sugar-sweetened beverages consumption by an average of 2 servings per day ... a reduction of one serving/day of SSB was associated with a 1.8 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) drop in systolic pressure and a 1.1 mm Hg decline in diastolic pressure over 18 months"
  • Study: Too Much Sugar Increases Heart Risks - Time Magazine, 4/21/10 - "Compared with people consuming less than 5% of their daily calories in added sugar, those in the highest consumption group — who got 25% or more of their daily calories in added sugar — were twice as likely to have low levels of HDL cholesterol, the beneficial lipid that mops up artery-clogging LDL cholesterol. According to government health guidelines, HDL levels below 50 mg/dL for women and 40 mg/dL for men are considered low; 43% of the highest sugar consumers recorded low HDL, while only 22% of the lowest sugar consumers did ... People eating the most added sugar also recorded the highest triglyceride levels ... Low HDL and high triglyceride levels are two of the primary risk factors for heart disease"
  • High fructose corn syrup linked to liver scarring, research suggests - Science Daily, 3/22/10 - "The researchers found only 19 percent of adults with NAFLD reported no intake of fructose-containing beverages, while 52 percent consumed between one and six servings a week and 29 percent consumed fructose-containing beverages on a daily basis"
  • High-fructose corn syrup prompts considerably more weight gain, researchers find - Science Daily, 3/22/10
  • Drinking sugar-sweetened beverages daily linked to diabetes - Science Daily, 3/6/10 - "Using the Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model, a well-established computer simulation model of the national population age 35 and older, researchers estimate that the increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages between 1990 and 2000 contributed to 130,000 new cases of diabetes, 14,000 new cases of coronary heart disease (CHD), and 50,000 additional life-years burdened by coronary heart disease over the past decade"
  • Soft drink consumption may markedly increase risk of pancreatic cancer - Science Daily, 2/8/10 - "Consuming two or more soft drinks per week increased the risk of developing pancreatic cancer by nearly twofold compared to individuals who did not consume soft drinks" - [Abstract]
  • High Fructose Intake Linked to Metabolic Syndrome, Kidney Disease - Science Daily, 1/14/10 - "men who were randomized to receive 200 g fructose daily for 2 weeks without or without allopurinol ... Fructose intake was associated with an average increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 7 and 5 mm Hg, respectively ... Mean fasting triglyceride levels rose by 0.62 mmol/L (p < 0.002), while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels fell by 0.06 mmol/L ... the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased by 25% to 33%"
  • Sugary cola drinks linked to higher risk of gestational diabetes - Science Daily, 11/30/09
  • High Fructose Corn Syrup: A Recipe For Hypertension, Study Finds - Science Daily, 11/10/09 - "people who ate or drank more than 74 grams per day of fructose (2.5 sugary soft drinks per day) increased their risk of developing hypertension. Specifically, a diet of more than 74 grams per day of fructose led to a 28%, 36%, and 87% higher risk for blood pressure levels of 135/85, 140/90, and 160/100 mmHg, respectively. (A normal blood pressure reading is below 120/80 mmHg.)"
  • High Fructose Intake May Raise Blood Pressure - WebMD, 11/2/09 - "About 2.5 sugary soft drinks a day is enough to elevate the pressure ... Overall, intakes of 74 grams or more daily was associated with a 36% higher risk of having blood pressure of 140/90 or higher, she found. Ideally, blood pressure should be below 120/80 ... ''We know that fructose has the potential to reduce nitric oxide production within the blood vessels,'' she says. "Nitric oxide relaxes the vessel and is supposed to lower blood pressure. Fructose reduces the production of nitric oxide and makes it difficult for the vessels to relax and dilate." ... Fructose also raises uric acid in the blood, she says, and that could raise blood pressure. "Fructose can tell the kidneys to 'hold onto' more salt, and that can contribute to high blood pressure,""
  • Health Buzz: Fructose-Heavy Diet Linked to Hypertension and Other Health News - US News and World Report, 9/24/09 - "A small study is among the first to show that regular consumption of fructose-heavy foods and drinks might raise blood pressure—at least in men"
  • Heat Forms Potentially Harmful Substance In High-fructose Corn Syrup - Science Daily, 8/26/09
  • Eating High Levels Of Fructose Impairs Memory In Rats - Science Daily, 7/16/09 - "What we discovered is that the fructose diet doesn't affect their ability to learn ... But they can't seem to remember as well where the platform was when you take it away. They swam more randomly than rats fed a control diet"
  • Fructose-Sweetened Beverages Linked to Heart Risks - NYTimes.com, 4/23/09 - "a controlled and randomized study has found that drinks sweetened with fructose led to higher blood levels of L.D.L, or "bad" cholesterol, and triglycerides in overweight test subjects, while drinks sweetened with another sugar, glucose, did not. Both L.D.L. and triglycerides have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease"
  • Fresh Take on Fructose vs. Glucose - WebMD, 4/21/09 - "Both the groups gained weight during the trial, but imaging studies revealed that most of the added fat in the fructose group occurred in the belly, while most of the fat gained by the glucose group was subcutaneous (under the skin) ... Belly fat, but not subcutaneous fat, has been linked to an increased risk for heart disease and diabetes ... The fructose group had higher total cholesterol and LDL "bad" cholesterol, plus greater insulin resistance, which are consistent with metabolic syndrome, while the glucose group did not"
  • High fructose corn syrup: How dangerous is it? - MSNBC, 4/17/09
  • Fructose Metabolism By The Brain Increases Food Intake And Obesity, Review Suggests - Science Daily, 3/25/09
  • Not So Sweet: Over-consumption Of Sugar Linked To Aging - Science Daily, 3/9/09 - "We know that lifespan can be extended in animals by restricting calories such as sugar intake ...it's not sugar itself that is important in this process but the ability of cells to sense its presence ... the lifespan of yeast cells increased when glucose was decreased from their diet. They then asked whether the increase in lifespan was due to cells decreasing their ability to produce energy or to the decrease in signal to the cells by the glucose sensor ... cells unable to consume glucose as energy source are still sensitive to the pro-aging effects of glucose. Conversely, obliterating the sensor that measures the levels of glucose significantly increased lifespan"
  • Why Diets High In High-fructose Corn Syrup (found In Soda And Processed Foods) Can Lead To Insulin Resistance - Science Daily, 3/3/09 - "mice on a high-fructose diet were protected from insulin resistance when a gene known as transcriptional coactivator PPARg coactivator-1b (PGC-1b) was "knocked down" in the animals' liver and fat tissue ... Fructose is much more readily metabolized to fat in the liver than glucose is and in the process can lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease ... NAFLD in turn leads to hepatic insulin resistance and type II diabetes"
  • Fructose-sweetened Drinks Increase Nonfasting Triglycerides In Obese Adults - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "Obese people who drink fructose-sweetened beverages with their meals have an increased rise of triglycerides following the meal ... Increased triglycerides after a meal are known predictors of cardiovascular disease"
  • Mercury in Some High Fructose Corn Syrup? - WebMD, 1/27/09 - "we found detectable mercury in 17 of 55 samples, or around 31%"
  • High-Fructose Corn Syrup’s Bad Rap Unfair? - WebMD, 12/11/08
  • Fructose Metabolism More Complicated Than Was Thought - Science Daily, 12/9/08
  • New data: High-fructose corn syrup no worse than sugar - USATODAY.com, 12/8/08 - "Now, the tide of research, if not public opinion, has shifted. This week, five papers published in a supplement to Clinical Nutrition find no special link between consumption of high-fructose corn syrup and obesity ... It doesn't appear that when you consume high-fructose corn syrup, you have any different total effect on appetite than if you consume any other sugar"
  • Fructose -- Found In High-fructose Corn Syrup, Sugar -- Sets Table For Weight Gain Without Warning - Science Daily, 10/16/08 - "Eating too much fructose can induce leptin resistance, a condition that can easily lead to becoming overweight when combined with a high-fat, high-calorie diet"
  • High Fructose Corn Syrup: Too Sweet to Eat? - Dr. Weil, 9/1/08
  • Fructose May Make You Fatter - WebMD, 7/31/08 - "Fructose gets made into fat more quickly, and when that process is turned on there seems to be a signal that goes to the liver that says store all the other fats you are seeing"
  • Limiting Fructose May Boost Weight Loss, Researcher Reports - Science Daily, 7/24/08 - "One of the reasons people on low-carbohydrate diets may lose weight is that they reduce their intake of fructose, a type of sugar that can be made into body fat quick ... Fructose, on the other hand, enters this metabolic pathway downstream, bypassing the traffic cop and flooding the metabolic pathway"
  • High Fructose Corn Syrup Gets Unlikely Ally - WebMD, 6/18/08 - "At a meeting in Chicago, AMA delegates backed a resolution that argues that there's no scientific proof that high fructose corn syrup deserves the blame for obesity more than sugar or other caloric sweeteners. The resolution also nixes putting warning labels on products containing high fructose corn syrup"
  • Sweet Soft Drinks, Fructose Linked to Increased Risk for Gout - Medscape, 2/4/08
  • Blame Sweet Soda for Gout? - WebMD, 1/31/08 - "Compared with men who almost never drank sugar-sweetened soft drinks -- fewer than one per month -- frequent soft-drink drinkers were significantly more likely to suffer gout: ... Two or more soft drinks each day upped gout risk by 85% ... One soft drink each day upped gout risk by 45% ... Five or six soft drinks each week upped gout risk by 29%"
  • Too Much Fructose Could Leave Dieters Sugar Shocked - Science Daily, 12/13/07 - "Eating too much fructose causes uric acid levels to spike, which can block the ability of insulin to regulate how body cells use and store sugar and other nutrients for energy, leading to obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes"
  • Too Much Sugar Turns Off Gene That Controls Effects Of Sex Steroids - Science Daily, 11/21/07 - "This discovery reinforces public health advice to eat complex carbohydrates and avoid sugar ... Glucose and fructose are metabolized in the liver. When there’s too much sugar in the diet, the liver converts it to lipid. Using a mouse model and human liver cell cultures, the scientists discovered that the increased production of lipid shut down a gene called SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin), reducing the amount of SHBG protein in the blood. SHBG protein plays a key role in controlling the amount of testosterone and estrogen that’s available throughout the body"
  • Sugary Drinks, Not Fruit Juice, May Be Linked To Insulin - Science Daily, 9/5/07 - "Study participants who consumed two or more sugar-sweetened beverages per day had significantly higher fasting blood levels of insulin as compared to participants who did not report consuming any such beverages, regardless of age, sex, weight, smoking status, or other dietary habits ... Higher fasting levels of insulin mean these study participants are more at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes ... consumption of 100 percent fruit juice was not significantly related to any of our measures of insulin resistance"
  • Soda Warning? High-fructose Corn Syrup Linked To Diabetes, New Study Suggests - Science Daily, 8/23/07 - "high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) ... Chi-Tang Ho, Ph.D., conducted chemical tests among 11 different carbonated soft drinks containing HFCS. He found 'astonishingly high' levels of reactive carbonyls in those beverages. These undesirable and highly-reactive compounds associated with "unbound" fructose and glucose molecules are believed to cause tissue damage ... Ho estimates that a single can of soda contains about five times the concentration of reactive carbonyls than the concentration found in the blood of an adult person with diabetes ... adding epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a compound in tea, significantly reduced the levels of reactive carbonyl species in a dose-dependent manner when added to the carbonated soft drinks studied. In some cases, the levels of reactive carbonyls were reduced by half"
  • Not Enough Evidence To Indict High Fructose Corn Syrup In Obesity - Science Daily, 7/27/07
  • Fructose: Sugar's Dark Side? - WebMD, 6/25/07
  • Fructose-Sweetened Drinks Tougher on Arteries - washingtonpost.com, 6/23/07 - "Fructose-sweetened drinks are more likely to provoke the development of fatty artery deposits in overweight adults than glucose-sweetened beverages ... Those who drank fructose-sweetened drinks also had a boost in fasting blood concentrations of LDL ("bad") cholesterol and other measures. Those levels were unaltered in those consuming glucose-sweetened drinks, however"
  • Fructose-sweetened Beverages Increases Risk Of Obesity In Rats - Science Daily, 3/16/07
  • Fructose-sweetened Beverages Increases Risk Of Diabetes In Rats - Science Daily, 3/15/07
  • Sugar intake may hurt liver - Reuters, 10/31/06 - "fatty liver disease was more common in the group given sugar water, especially when exposed to a type of sugar called fructose ... These data support the hypothesis that high fructose consumption may not only (damage) the liver through over-feeding, but may be directly" toxic"
  • Is Fructose Dangerous? - thenutritionreporter.com


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