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Home > Anti-aging Research > Mulberry Leaf

Mulberry leaf

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  • Mulberry extract activates brown fat, shows promise as obesity treatment - Science Daily, 10/26/16 - "a natural compound in mulberries, called "rutin," can activate the BAT in our bodies to increase metabolism and facilitate weight loss ... Rutin treatment significantly reduced adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and improved glucose homeostasis in both the genetically obese mice and the mice with diet-induced obesity. Specifically, the researchers found that rutin directly binds to and stabilizes SIRT1 (NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1), leading to hypoacetylation of PGC1α protein, which stimulates Tfam transactivation and eventually augments mitochondrial number and UCP1 activity in BAT" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
  • Cholesterol & Statin Drugs - Life Extension Magazine, 11/04 - "PGX™. A relatively small amount (one to three grams before each meal) of this highly viscous fiber blend of glucomannan, xanthan, and alginate may help lower LDL and total cholesterol"
  • Novel Fiber Limits Sugar Absorption - Life Extension Magazine, 9/04 - "With the introduction of a new highly viscous fiber blend trademarked under the name PGX™, it may now be possible to achieve the multiple documented benefits of fiber by swallowing only a few capsules before each meal. The longevity potential associated with reducing after-meal glucose and insulin blood levels, lowering total cholesterol and LDL, and losing some weight is enormous"
  • Novel Fiber Limits Sugar Absorption - Life Extension Magazine, 9/04 - "Life Extension recommends that people seeking to lose weight consume the following supplements: ... Chromium polynicotinate 600-1000 mcg daily ... Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) 3000-4000 mg daily ... PGX™ highly viscous fiber blend 1000-3000 mg 5-10 minutes before each meal with 8-16 ounces of water ... Consider asking your doctor to prescribe 500 mg two to three times daily of the insulin-normalizing drug metformin"
  • Solving Syndrome X - Dr. Murray's Natural Facts, 7/21/04 - "PGX lowers after meal blood sugar levels by approximately 20 to 40% and also lowers insulin secretion by approximately 40% producing a whole body insulin sensitivity index improvement of nearly 60%"  - See PGX at Amazon.com PGX products.


  • Mulberry leaf water extract alleviates type 2 diabetes in mice via modulating gut microbiota-host co-metabolism of branched-chain amino acid - Phytother Res 2023 Apr 4 - "The results showed that MLE administration improved blood glucose and insulin level, decreased inflammatory cytokines expression, and lowered serum and feces BCAAs levels. Furthermore, MLE reversed the abundance changes of the bacterial genera correlated with serum and feces BCAAs, such as Anaerovorax, Bilophila, Blautia, Colidextribacter, Dubosiella, Intestinimonas, Lachnoclostridium, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136, Oscillibacter, and Roseburia. Functionality prediction indicated that MLE potentially inhibited bacterial BCAAs biosynthesis, and promoted the tissue-specific expression of BCAAs catabolic enzyme. More importantly, MLE had obvious impacts on BCAA catabolism in germ-free-mimic T2DM mice. Those results indicated that MLE improving T2DM-related biochemical abnormalities is associated with not only gut microbiota modification but also the tissue-specific expression of BCAAs catabolic enzyme" - See mulberry leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of the timing of acute mulberry leaf extract intake on postprandial glucose metabolism in healthy adults: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study - Eur J Clin Nutr 2023 Jan 17 - "Glucose tolerance is controlled by the internal clock and is worse in the evening. From a chrononutrition perspective, diabetes prevention requires evaluating the antidiabetic effects of the timing of functional ingredients and nutrient intake ... MLE intake in the evening, but not in the morning, was effective in improving glucose tolerance" - See mulberry leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of mulberry leaf or mulberry leaf extract on glycemic traits: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Food Funct 2023 Jan 16 - "Mulberry leaf (ML) and mulberry leaf extract (MLE) have numerous biological properties, such as regulating sugar and lipid metabolism, reducing blood glucose, and increasing insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials to examine the effect of ML/MLE supplementation on glycemic traits in adults, including fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fasting plasma insulin (FPI) ... Meta-analysis showed that ML/MLE supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in FBG by -0.47 mmol L-1, HbA1c by -2.92 mmol mol-1, and FPI by -0.58 μIU mL-1. In addition, subgroup analysis indicated that long-term supplementation of ML/MLE (≥8 weeks) was more effective for regulation of the glycemic traits in the non-healthy and baseline FPG >6.1 mmol L-1 subgroups. Glycemic regulation by ML/MLE may be attributed to the phytochemicals they contain, which are mainly 1-deoxynojirimycin, flavonoids, phenolics, and polysaccharides"
  • The phenolic components extracted from mulberry fruits as bioactive compounds against cancer: A review - Phytother Res 2023 Jan 2 - "There is growing evidence that mulberry fruits can potentially prevent cancer and other aging-related disorders due to their high concentration of bioactive polyphenolic-rich compounds and macro and micronutrients"
  • Impact of mulberry consumption on cardiometabolic risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials - J Clin Pharm Ther 2022 Dec 12 - "The quantitative meta-analysis of 12 eligible RCTs demonstrated a significant reducing effect of mulberry consumption on haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -0. 55, 95% CI: -1.08, -0.02, p = 0.044), serum total cholesterol (TC) (WMD: -13.13 mg/dl, 95% CI: -19.06, -7.20, p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein levels (LDL-C) (WMD: -8.84 mg/dl, 95% CI: -13.26, -4.42, p < 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (WMD: -19.67 mg/dl, 95% CI: -30.13, -9.22, p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD: -1.60, mg/L, 95% CI: -3.07, -0.12, p = 0.034). Also, >300 mg daily intake of mulberry exhibited a favourable effect on serum high-density lipoprotein levels (HDL-C) ... The current systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that incorporating mulberry into the diet may favourably affect several cardiometabolic risk factors"
  • Hepatoprotective effects of different mulberry leaf extracts against acute liver injury in rats by alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response - Food Funct 2022 Jul 27 - "This study investigated the hepatoprotective effects of various mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaf extracts (MLEs), including mulberry ethanol extract (MEE), aqueous extract (MAE) and a combination extract (MCE) against D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury in rats ... These results indicated that the active components from mulberry leaves protected rats against acute liver injury, attributed to a reduction in both oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The protective effect may be implicated in regulating the Nrf2, NLRP3 and MAPK signaling pathways" - See mulberry leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Mulberry Leaf Flavonoids Inhibit Liver Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Rats by Regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF- κ B Signaling Pathway - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 Jul 6 - "The incidence of liver-related complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasing, which affects the physical and mental health of T2DM patients. Mulberry leaf flavonoids (MLF) were confirmed to have certain effects on lowering blood glucose and anti-inflammation ... Our results indicated that MLF could reduce blood glucose and inhibit the development of liver inflammation"
  • Preparation, structural characterization and prebiotic potential of mulberry leaf oligosaccharides - Food Funct 2022 Apr 20 - "These results suggest that MLO 1-2 could be an excellent prebiotic for intestinal flora regulation and the promotion of gut health"
  • Lipid metabolism disorders and lipid mediator changes of mice in response to long-term exposure to high-fat and high sucrose diets and ameliorative effects of mulberry leaves - Food Funct 2022 Mar 31 - "Mulberry leaves exhibit anti-lipogenic and lipid-lowering effects. However, the lipid biomarkers and underlying mechanisms for the improvement of the action of mulberry leaves on obesity and lipid metabolism disorders have not been sufficiently investigated yet ... mulberry leaf water extract (MLWE) ... Our results showed that MLWE supplementation not only decreased body weight gain, serum total triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels, but also increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In addition, MLWE supplementation also ameliorated hepatic steatosis and lipid accumulation"
  • In vitro bioactivity evaluation of mulberry leaf extracts as nutraceuticals for the management of diabetes mellitus - Food Funct 2022 Mar 17 - "There is an increasing need for new options to treat diabetes mellitus at its early stage and natural remedies have been recently reassessed as potential candidates owing to their low-cost and effectiveness. Genus Morus plants contain many active compounds with hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects ... Antiglycative and hypoglycaemic effects of leaf extracts were evaluated using different in vitro models. The results indicate that the inhibitory effect on carbohydrate digestive enzymes was likely mediated by 1-deoxynojirimycin, kaempferol, quercetin, and chlorogenic acid, acting in a synergistic way. Besides, the combined antiglycative and carbonyl trapping capacities, tested here for the first time, may help in preventing long-term complications related to AGEs in diabetic patients"
  • Mulberry leaf polysaccharides ameliorate obesity through activation of brown adipose tissue and modulation of the gut microbiota in high-fat diet fed mice - Food Funct 2021 Dec 24 - "Improving energy homeostasis and the gut microbiota is a promising strategy to improve obesity and related metabolic disorders. Mulberry leaf is one of the traditional Chinese medicines and functional diets. In this work, a mouse model induced by high-fat diet (HFD) was used to reveal the role of mulberry leaf polysaccharides (MLP). It was found that MLP had a significant effect in limiting body weight gain (reduced by 19.95%, 35.47% and 52.46%, respectively), ameliorating hepatic steatosis and regulating lipid metabolism in HFD induced obese mice (P < 0.05). RT-PCR and western blot analysis suggested that these metabolic improvements were mediated by inducing the development of brown-like adipocytes in inguinal white adipose tissue and enhancing brown adipose tissue activity. Besides, 16S rRNA sequencing results led to the inference that MLP could mitigate the composition and function of the gut microbiota. Together, these findings indicated that MLP possess great potential as a diet supplement or medication for obesity"
  • Mulberry leaf activates brown adipose tissue and induces browning of inguinal white adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic rats through regulating AMPK signaling pathway - Br J Nutr 2021 May 11 - "Activation of brown adipocytes and browning of white adipocytes are considered as a promising molecular target for T2DM treatment. Mulberry leaf, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been demonstrated to have multi-biological activities, including anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Our experiment results showed that mulberry leaf significantly alleviated the disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats including reducing body weight (BW) gain, Lee's index, food intake, inguinal white adipose tissue (IWAT) accumulation, blood lipid fasting insulin level and fasting blood glucose level, increasing the ratios of brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass to BW, and improving insulin sensitivity and liver function. In addition, mulberry leaf induced browning of IWAT by enhancing the expressions of brown-mark genes as well as beige-specific genes, including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing protein 16 (PRDM16), cell death inducing DFFA like effector A (Cidea), CD137 and transmembrane protein 26 (TMEM26). Mulberry leaf also activated BAT by increasing the expressions of brown-mark genes including UCP1, PGC-1α, PPARα, PRDM16 and Cidea. Moreover, mulberry leaf enhanced the expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) genes that are responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis in IWAT and BAT. Importantly, mulberry leaf also increased the expression of UCP1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) protein in both IWAT and BAT via a mechanism involving Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and PGC-1α pathway. In conclusion, our findings identify the role of mulberry leaf in inducing adipose browning, indicating that mulberry leaf may be used as a candidate browning agent for the treatment of T2DM" - See Mulberry leaf extract.
  • Mulberry fruit improves memory in scopolamine-treated mice: role of cholinergic function, antioxidant system, and TrkB/Akt signaling - Nutr Neurosci. 2019 Dec 2:1-11 - "we examined whether mulberry fruit extract (MFE) protected neuronal cells against oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration ... MFE protects neuronal cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through upregulating the expression of BDNF and antioxidant enzymes by stabilizing the activation of the TrkB/Akt pathway"
  • Differential effects of red yeast rice, Berberis aristata and Morus alba extracts on PCSK9 and LDL uptake - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2019 Jun 14 - "The novel nutraceutical combination containing red yeast rice (monacolin K 3.3 mg), Berberis aristata cortex extract (Berberine 531.25 mg) and Morus alba leaves extract (1-deoxynojirimycin 4 mg) is effective in the management of elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels ... B. aristata cortex extract (BCE), red yeast rice (RYR) and M. alba leaves extract (MLE) ... The positive effect of MLE on PCSK9 supports the rationale of using the nutraceutical combination of RYR, BCE and MLE to control hyperlipidemic conditions" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com, berberine at Amazon.com and Morus alba at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Fibre Supplementation on Body Weight and  Composition, Frequency of Eating and Dietary  Choice in Overweight Individuals - Nutrients. 2017 Feb 16;9(2) - "In the PGXG group, intention-to-treat analysis showed there was a significant reduction in waist circumference (2.5 cm; p = 0.003) [about an inch]" - [Nutra USA] - See PGX at Amazon.com.
  • Konjac Glucomannan Dietary Supplementation Causes Significant Fat Loss in Compliant Overweight Adults - J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Oct 22 - "supplement containing either 3 g of konjac glucomannan ... 30 minutes before eating ... when subjects were classified as either compliant or partially compliant using the compliance measures, statistically significant reductions in scale weight, percentage body fat, fat mass, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were found in the glucomannan group compared to the placebo group" - See konjac glucomannan at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibitive effects of mulberry leaf-related extracts on cell adhesion and inflammatory response in human aortic endothelial cells - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:267217 - "bombyx faces tea (BT) ... Acidic methanolic and water extracts of mulberry leaf tea (MT), mulberry leaf (M), and BT significantly inhibited DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes based on the comet assay as compared to the H2O2-treated group" - See PGX at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary supplementation with purified mulberry (Morus australis Poir) anthocyanins suppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice - Food Chem. 2013 Nov 1 - "Three kinds of anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside) purified from Chinese mulberry (Morus australis Poir) were evaluated for suppressing body weight gain of the male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results from a 12-week experiment show that consumption of purified mulberry anthocyanins (MACN) of 40 or 200mg/kg can significantly inhibit body weight gain, reduce the resistance to insulin, lower the size of adipocytes, attenuate lipid accumulation and decrease the leptin secretion. Thus, dietary supplementation with MACN can protect against body weight gain of the diet-induced obese mice" - [Nutra USA] - See PGX at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of added PGX®, a novel functional fibre, on the glycaemic index of starchy foods - Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct 10:1-4 - "Healthy subjects (n 10) consumed glucose sugar (50 g in water × 3) and six starchy foods with a range of GI values (52-72) along with 0 (inert fibre), 2.5 or 5 g granular PGX® dissolved in 250 ml water ... PGX® significantly reduced the GI of all six foods (P < 0.001), with an average reduction of 19 % for the 2.5 g dose and 30 % for the 5 g dose, equivalent to a reducing the GI by 7 and 15 units, respectively. Consuming small quantities of the novel functional fibre PGX®, mixed with water at the start of a meal, is an effective strategy to reduce the GI of common foods"
  • Effects of PGX, a novel functional fibre, on acute and delayed postprandial glycaemia - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct 6 - "Granular PGX at breakfast time at doses of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 g reduced the incremental area under the curve by up to 50% in a linear dose-response fashion (P<0.001). The granular form of PGX (5 g), but not the capsules, reduced glycaemia by up to 28% when consumed from -45 to +15 min (P<0.001). Capsules containing 3, 4.5 and 6 g PGX consumed with the evening meal reduced glycaemia at breakfast by up to 28% (P<0.001)"
  • Reduction of Postprandial Glycemia by the Novel Viscous Polysaccharide PGX, in a Dose-Dependent Manner, Independent of Food Form - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Apr;29(2):92-8 - "The objective of the study therefore was to determine palatability and effectiveness of escalating doses of PGX, a novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), in reducing postprandial glycemia when added to a liquid and a solid meal ... Addition of NVP to the meal reduced blood glucose incremental areas under the curve irrespective of dose, reaching significance at the 7.5 g dose when added to glucose (p < 0.01), and at the 5 and 7.5 g doses when added to WB + Marg (p < 0.001). The GI values of glucose with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP were (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) 100.0 +/- 0.0, 83.7 +/- 9.0, 77.7 +/- 8.2, and 72.5 +/- 5.9, respectively; the GI of the WB alone, or of WB + Marg, with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP was 71.0 +/- 0.0, 66.8 +/- 3.0, 47.5 +/- 5.9, 37.3 +/- 5.9, and 33.9 +/- 3.6, respectively. CONCLUSION: Addition of NVP to different food matrices is highly effective in lowering the glycemic index of a food in a dose-responsive manner" - See PGX at Amazon.com.
  • Increased plasma PYY levels following supplementation with the functional fiber PolyGlycopleX in healthy adults - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul 28 - "A variety of dietary fibers have been shown to alter satiety hormone gene expression and secretion. The objective of this study was to examine plasma satiety hormone concentrations in healthy subjects consuming either PolyGlycopleX (PGX) or control (skim milk powder) for 21 days ... Primary outcomes measured at three visits (V1, V2 and V3) were plasma active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) total ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and insulin. Results: There was a significant effect of visit for fasting PYY with control participants experiencing decreased PYY levels over time while PGX prevented this decline. When stratified by body mass index (BMI), PGX increased fasting PYY levels from week 1 to week 3 compared with control in participants with BMI <23 kg/m(2). There was a significant effect of visit for fasting ghrelin with levels decreasing in both PGX and control groups over time. No differences were detected in fasting GLP-1 levels. Although there was a 14% reduction in fasting insulin between V1 and V3 with PGX this was not significantly different from control" - Note:  I don't know how they determine that a 14% reduction isn't significant.  See PGX at Amazon.com.