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Home > Anti-aging Research > Glycemic Index

Glycemic Index/Glycemic Load

Specific Recommendations:

News & Research:

  • Big Data 'Clinches' Link Between High Glycemic Index Diets and CVD - Medscape, 2/24/21 - "This new analysis from PURE — a massive prospective epidemiological study — shows people with a diet in the highest quintile of glycemic index had a significant 25% higher rate of combined total deaths and major CVD events during a median follow-up of nearly 10 years, compared with those with a diet in the lowest glycemic index quintile"
  • Lowering Dietary Glycemic Index Reduces Plasma Uric Acid - Medscape, 1/13/16 - "A low–glycemic index (GI) diet including foods such as legumes, dairy products, and some fruits might help prevent the development of gout or the occurrence of gout flares ... Reducing GI lowered uric acid by 0.24 mg/dL when the percentage of carbohydrates was low and by 0.17 mg/dL when the percentage of carbohydrates was high (both P < .001). Conversely, reducing the percentage of carbohydrates increased uric acid by 0.10 mg/dL when GI was high (P = .05) and had no significant effect when GI was low. The largest effect was seen with reducing the GI while increasing the percentage of carbohydrates, which reduced uric acid by 0.27 mg/dL (P < .001), an effect maintained even after adjustment for changes in kidney function, insulin sensitivity, and products of glycolysis"
  • Consuming highly refined carbohydrates increases risk of depression - Science Daily,  8/5/15 - "progressively higher dietary GI scores and consumption of added sugars and refined grains were associated with increased risk of new-onset depression in post-menopausal women. Greater consumption of dietary fiber, whole grains, vegetables and non-juice fruits was associated with decreased risk"
  • Choice of protein- and carbohydrate-rich foods may have big effects on long-term weight gain - Science Daily, 4/9/15 - "diets with a high glycemic load (GL) from eating refined grains, starches, and sugars were associated with more weight gain ... Increasing intakes of red meat and processed meat were most strongly associated with weight gain ... Increasing intakes of yogurt, seafood, skinless chicken, and nuts were most strongly associated with weight loss -- the more people ate, the less weight they gained ... Increasing other dairy products, including full-fat cheese, whole milk, and low-fat milk, did not significantly relate to either weight gain or weight loss ... The fat content of dairy products did not seem to be important for weight gain ... when people consumed more low-fat dairy products, they actually increased their consumption of carbs, which may promote weight gain"
  • Drop the cookie: Sweet, starchy foods 'probably' cause women’s cancer - today.com, 9/10/13 - "AICR now estimates that most cases of endometrial cancer (59 percent, or about 29,500 every year) could be prevented in the U.S. if women were active for at least 30 minutes a day and maintained a healthy body weight ... Estrogen is one known cause and women who take hormones, as in hormone replacement therapy, are usually given a form of progesterone, also, to protect against endometrial cancer ... Women who are obese have two to three times the rate of endometrial cancer .. There were eight studies showing coffee lowers the risk ... The team also found at least six studies that indicate glycemic load affects the risk ... The bottom line is you want to eat whole grains instead of refined grains and sugary foods"
  • Excess sugar linked to cancer - Science Daily, 2/1/13 - "Dr Garcia Jimenez's laboratory was studying how cells in the intestine respond to sugars and signal to the pancreas to release insulin, the key hormone that controls blood sugar levels. Sugars in the intestine trigger cells to release a hormone called GIP that enhances insulin release by the pancreas ... the ability of the intestinal cells to secrete GIP is controlled by a protein called β-catenin, and that the activity of β-catenin is strictly dependent on sugar levels ... high (but not normal) sugar levels induce nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and leads to cell proliferation"
  • Starchy, high carbohydrate diet associated with recurrence of colon cancer - Science Daily, 11/7/12 - "Recent studies have shown that colorectal cancer survivors whose diet and activity patterns lead to excess amounts of insulin in the blood have a higher risk of cancer recurrence and death from the disease. High insulin levels can be produced by eating too many starchy and sugar-laden foods ... They found that participants with the highest dietary levels of glycemic load and carbohydrate intake had an 80 percent increased risk of colon cancer recurrence or death compared with those who had the lowest levels ... we theorize that factors including a high glycemic load may stimulate the body's production of insulin"
  • Good news about the glycemic index of rice - Science Daily, 7/9/12 - "Research analyzing 235 types of rice from around the world has found its glycemic index (GI) varies from one type of rice to another with most varieties scoring a low to medium GI ... The study found that the GI of rice ranges from a low of 48 to a high of 92, with an average of 64 ... Rice varieties like India's most widely grown rice variety, Swarna, have a low GI and varieties like Doongara and Basmati from Australia have a medium GI ... Low GI diets can reduce the likelihood of developing Type 2 diabetes, and are also useful for helping diabetics better manage their condition ... Low GI foods are those measured 55 and less, medium GI are those measured between 56 and 69, while high GI measures 70 and above"
  • Glycemic index foods at breakfast can control blood sugar throughout the day - Science Daily, 3/30/12 - "Mattes' research specifically focused on the advantages of having almonds, a low glycemic index food, with the morning meal. In his study, published last year in the Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, participants who ate a breakfast containing whole almonds experienced longer feelings of fullness and had lower blood glucose concentrations after breakfast and lunch, compared to those who did not have a low-glycemic breakfast"
  • A diet rich in slowly digested carbs reduces markers of inflammation in overweight and obese adults - Science Daily, 1/11/12 - "Among overweight and obese adults, a diet rich in slowly digested carbohydrates, such as whole grains, legumes and other high-fiber foods, significantly reduces markers of inflammation associated with chronic disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet reduced a biomarker of inflammation called C-reactive protein by about 22 percent ... C-reactive protein is associated with an increased risk for many cancers as well as cardiovascular disease ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin ... a low-glycemic-load diet modestly increased -- by about 5 percent -- blood levels of a protein hormone called adiponectin. This hormone plays a key role in protecting against several cancers, including breast cancer, as well as metabolic disorders such as type-2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hardening of the arteries"
  • AMD-like lesions delayed in mice fed lower glycemic index diet - Science Daily, 11/14/11 - "The dietary glycemic index (DGI) measures the rate at which glucose is delivered to the bloodstream after consuming carbohydrates. Higher GI foods including white bread and white potatoes trigger a rapid delivery of glucose that pushes the body to work overtime to absorb, whereas lower GI foods, like whole grain bread and fruits and vegetables, initiate a slower release of glucose that is more easily processed by cells ... Compared to the mice on the lower GI diet, mice on the higher GI diet demonstrated elevated accumulations of debris known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the whole retina, particularly in the cells of the RPE. The RPE plays a crucial role in maintaining vision and its dysfunction results in the gradual central vision loss that is the hallmark of AMD. AGE accumulation has also been linked to tissue damage in other age-related diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease"
  • Eating the Wrong Kind of Carbohydrates Increases Heart Disease Risk - U.S. News and World Report, 4/12/10 - "women who ate the most "high-glycemic" carbohydrates—which cause quick spikes in blood sugar levels—had more than twice the risk of having heart disease as those who ate the least. (The study didn't find the same association in men.) What's interesting, though, is that it was the type of carbs, not the amount, that had the health impact. "High consumption of carbohydrate from high-glycemic foods, rather than overall quantity of carbohydrate consumed, appears to influence the risk of developing heart disease in women,""
  • High Carbohydrate Foods Can Cause Heart Attacks - Science Daily, 6/25/09 - "Doctors have known for decades that foods like white bread and corn flakes aren't good for cardiac health ... foods with a high glycemic index distended brachial arteries for several hours ... Enormous peaks indicating arterial stress were found in the high glycemic index groups: the cornflakes and sugar group ... During the consumption of foods high in sugar, there appears to be a temporary and sudden dysfunction in the endothelial walls of the arteries ... Endothelial health can be traced back to almost every disorder and disease in the body. It is "the riskiest of the risk factors,""
  • Low Glycemic Breakfast May Increase Benefits Of Working Out - Science Daily, 4/15/09 - "Overall, fat oxidation was higher in the LGI treatment than in the HGI treatment (P < 0.05) during the post-breakfast and exercise periods. Following lunch, fullness scores were higher in the LGI trial than in the HGI trial (P < 0.05). The authors concluded that consuming a LGI breakfast increases fat oxidation during subsequent exercise and improved satiety during recovery in sedentary females. As such, individuals trying to shed fat may consider choosing LGI foods eaten prior to when they exercise"
  • Scientists Discover Why A Low GI Meal Makes You Feel Full - Science Daily, 3/18/09 - "Eating a meal with a low GI (glycaemic index) increases gut hormone production which leads to suppression of appetite and the feeling of fullness"
  • Low Glycemic Diets Help Diabetics Control Blood Sugar, Review Suggests - Science Daily, 1/2/0/09 - "Clinicians measured hemoglobin A1c levels, which give a picture of a person's blood glucose control over several weeks or months. The reviewers found that levels decreased by 0.5 percent with a low GI diet, noting that the findings were significant, both statistically and clinically"
  • Glycemic Stability May Be Important Key To Recovery From Critical Illness - Science Daily, 5/20/08 - "We found that patients with wide fluctuation were significantly more likely to die in the intensive care unit and the hospital than those who experience low glycemic variability"
  • Dietary Strategies for Improving Post-Prandial Glucose, Lipids, and More - Medscape, 1/29/08 - "The amount and type of carbohydrate consumed with a meal is a major determinant of the post-prandial glucose excursion.[21] The glycemic index of a food is defined as the incremental increase in the area under the post-prandial glucose curve after ingestion of 50 g of a specific food compared with that noted after ingestion of 50 g of oral glucose. A meal such as white bread and jelly with a glycemic index of 80 will result in a 2-fold higher incremental increase in glucose compared with an isocaloric meal of whole-grain bread and peanut butter with a glycemic index of 40. Most studies show that diets rich in high-glycemic-index, low-fiber foods independently increase the risk of both CV disease and type 2 diabetes ... Excess intake of processed carbohydrates sets up a vicious cycle whereby the transient spikes in blood glucose and insulin early after a meal trigger reactive hypoglycemia and hunger.[25] The chronic consumption of a diet high in processed carbohydrates leads to excess visceral fat, which increases both insulin resistance and inflammation and predisposes to diabetes, hypertension, and CV disease.[25] In contrast, restriction of refined carbohydrates will improve the post-prandial levels of both glucose and triglycerides and can reduce intra-abdominal fat, particularly in individuals with insulin resistance ... Recent studies show that 1 to 2 tablespoons of vinegar, when added to a meal containing high-glycemic-index foods such as white bread or white rice, will both: 1) lower post-prandial glucose by 25% to 35% (Fig. 5), and 2) increase post-meal satiety by more than 2-fold.[32] Thus the addition of vinegar to a standard meal can not only improve the meal-induced oxidant stress by blunting the post-prandial glucose excursion, but also can increase and prolong satiety, which should help to reduce food cravings and lower caloric intake over the subsequent 2 to 4 h" - See apple cider vinegar at Amazon.com - 4.5 tablets equals about 3 tablespoons by my calculations.  I've been popping 4 of these with meals for years and more and more research keeps backing me up.    If 1 to 2 tablespoons is correct you could get by with just two tablets.
  • Sugar and Alzheimer's: Are They Linked? - WebMD, 12/7/07 - "The brains of the sugar-fed mice had about twice as many plaque deposits as the mice fed regular water"
  • Diets With High Glycemic Index May Raise Cataract Risk - Medscape, 11/30/07 - "Glycemic load, a food's glycemic index multiplied by the total available carbohydrate content, was used to gauge both carbohydrate quantity and quality ... each standard deviation increase in dietary glycemic index was associated with a 19% increase in the risk of cortical cataract. Subjects in the highest glycemic index quartile were 77% more likely to develop cataract than those in the lowest quartile"
  • High-Carb Diet, Bigger Prostate Tumor? - WebMD, 11/27/07
  • High Carb Diet Linked to Prostate Tumor Growth - Science Daily, 11/27/07 - "A diet high in refined carbohydrates, like white rice or white bread, is associated with increased prostate tumor growth in mice ... Having too much insulin in the blood, a condition called hyperinsulinemia, is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with prostate cancer"
  • High-glycemic Index Carbohydrates Associated With Risk For Developing Type 2 Diabetes In Women - Science Daily, 11/26/07 - "Our results indicate that black women can reduce their risk of diabetes by eating a diet that is high in cereal fiber ... In another study ... Women who consumed more carbohydrates overall were more likely to develop diabetes--when they were split into five groups based on carbohydrate intake, those in the group consuming the most (about 337.6 grams per day) had a 28 percent higher risk than those in the group consuming the least (about 263.5 grams per day). Women who ate diets with a higher glycemic index and who ate more staples such as bread, noodles and rice specifically also had an increased risk. Women who ate 300 grams or more of rice per day were 78 percent more likely to develop diabetes than those who ate less than 200 grams per day"
  • Limiting Refined Carbohydrates May Stall AMD Progression - Science Daily, 10/8/07 - "Our data showed those people in the high-glycemic-index group were at greater risk of AMD progression, especially those already in the late stages ... Participants who consumed the most refined carbohydrates were 17 percent more likely to develop blinding AMD than the group that consumed the least"
  • Food for Thought: Fattening Carbs—Some Promote Obesity and Worse - Science News, 9/29/07 - "In the study, mice that chowed down on a type of rapidly digestible starch didn't gain any more weight than did animals eating a starch that digests slowly. But the first group did accumulate lots of excess fat"
  • Quick-burning Carbs May Cause Fatty Liver: Low-glycemic Diet Protected Mice - Science Daily, 9/21/07 - "After six months, the mice weighed the same. However, mice on the low-glycemic index diet were lean, with normal amounts of fat in throughout their bodies. Mice on the high-glycemic index diet had twice the normal amount of fat in their bodies, blood and livers"
  • Starchy diet 'may damage liver' - BBC News, 9/21/07 - ""High-glycaemic" foods - rapidly digested by the body - could be causing "fatty liver", increasing the risk of serious illness ... After six months on the diet, the mice weighed the same, but those on the high GI diet had twice the normal amount of fat in their bodies, blood and livers"
  • Sugary Drinks, Not Fruit Juice, May Be Linked To Insulin - Science Daily, 9/5/07 - "Study participants who consumed two or more sugar-sweetened beverages per day had significantly higher fasting blood levels of insulin as compared to participants who did not report consuming any such beverages, regardless of age, sex, weight, smoking status, or other dietary habits ... Higher fasting levels of insulin mean these study participants are more at risk for developing Type 2 diabetes ... consumption of 100 percent fruit juice was not significantly related to any of our measures of insulin resistance"
  • Right Breakfast Bread Keeps Blood Sugar In Check All Day - Science Daily, 9/5/07 - "It is known that a carbohydrate-rich breakfast with low GI can moderate increases in blood sugar after lunch. But my results show that low GI in combination with the right amount of so-called indigestible carbohydrates, that is, dietary fiber and resistant starch, can keep the blood-sugar level low for up to ten hours, which means until after dinner ... people with great fluctuations in their levels of blood sugar run a greater risk of having a generally lower cognitive ability"
  • Study links low-GI kids' breakfast to less calories - Nutra USA, 9/4/07 - "The children ate on average 61 kcal less over the days they were given the low-GI breakfast, compared with the days when they ate a high-GI breakfast"
  • High-Sugar Foods May Affect Eyesight - WebMD, 7/13/07 - "People with the diets highest on the glycemic index were the most likely to have advanced AMD in at least one eye"
  • Link Between Carbohydrate Quality And Vision Loss Is Strengthened By New Data - Science Daily, 7/11/07 - "the risk for AMD may be diminished by improving dietary carbohydrate quality, as defined by dietary glycemic index. This may be achieved by relatively simple dietary alterations, such as replacing white bread with whole grain bread"
  • Low-Glycemic Load Diet May Work for Dieters With Certain Insulin Response Patterns - Science Daily, 5/16/07
  • Biology Dictates Diet Success - WebMD, 5/15/07 - "The low-glycemic-load diet was effective for a lot of the individuals who were high-insulin secretors and who previously had challenges losing weight and keeping it off"
  • Low-Glycemic-Index Diet Slows AMD Progression - Medscape, 5/8/07 - "age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ... consumption of highly refined carbohydrates can lead to up to a 17% increased risk of AMD progression"
  • Low Glycaemic Index Diet Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Women - Doctor's Guide, 4/25/07
  • Study Examines Calorie Restriction and Glycemic Load - Doctor's Guide, 4/10/07 - "Unlike several other long-term studies, which have reported greater weight loss with low GL diets at six months but no differences by 12 months, our data show no significant short-term or long-term differences"
  • Low glycemic diet may help stay slim - MSNBC, 10/27/06 - "normal-weight women who ate a diet with a relatively high glycemic index gained more weight, more fat, and more padding around the middle over a six-year period than women who ate a low glycemic index diet"
  • High Bread Consumption Linked To Higher Risk Of Most Common Kidney Cancer - Science Daily, 10/20/06 - "A significant direct association was observed for bread consumption (OR=1.94) for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of intake ... By contrast, decreasing risk was associated with increasing intake of poultry, processed meat, and all vegetables, both raw and cooked ... The association between elevated cereal intake (bread, pasta and rice) "may be due to the high glycemic index of these foods"
  • Loss of Central Vision with Age May Be Linked to Quality of Dietary Carbohydrates - Doctor's Guide, 6/6/06 - "Women who consumed diets with a relatively high dietary glycemic index had greater risk of developing signs of early age-related macular degeneration when compared with women who consumed diets with a lower dietary glycemic index"
  • High Glycemic Index Diet May Increase Risk of Developing AMD - Medscape, 4/18/06 - "The age-adjusted model showed more than a 2-fold increase in risk for ARM for the third tertile of dietary GI"
  • Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load of Popular Diets - Medscape, 1/24/06 - "The impact of GI and GL on efforts to prevent and treat obesity remains to be determined"
  • Carbohydrate-rich diets may improve insulin control - Nutra USA, 1/11/06 - "Although an increasing body of evidence would suggest merit in adopting high-carbohydrate, low-GI diets, the charge that high-GI diets result in insulin resistance is unproven on the basis of current experimental data"
  • Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study - Diabetes Care. 2005;28(12):2832-2838 - "our results demonstrate a remarkable degree of consistency in finding a lack of association of glycemic index, glycemic load, and carbohydrate intake with measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and adiposity"
  • The Biggest Loser: Weight Loss May Depend On Where Calories Come From - Science Daily, 12/8/05
  • Low-Glycemic Load Diet Facilitates Weight Loss in Overweight Adults with High Insulin Secretion - Doctor's Guide, 12/7/05 - "The regulation of body weight is, at least in part, influenced by how much insulin a person secretes in response to a load of glucose, as well as by how sensitive that person is to insulin's glucose-lowering effects"
  • Reducing GI does not boost effects of low-calorie diet - Nutra USA, 10/26/05 - "although the new trial confirmed the benefit of lowering glycaemic index on insulin sensitivity, it did not impact the subjects' weight"
  • High Glycemic Index or High Carbohydrate Diet May Not Increase Risk of Insulin Resistance - Medscape, 6/6/05 - "Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic index and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance ... intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance"
  • Weight Watchers Diet Produces Same Results With or Without Emphasis on Low-Glycaemic Index - Doctor's Guide, 6/6/05 - "both groups lost an average of 5% of their initial body weight ... However, those who followed the low-glycemic diet had better satiety and less hunger and craving, the key problems that are the downfall of many dieters" - This article doesn't mention fat loss.  You can have the same loss in pounds yet have different percentages of lean muscle/fat loss as in the next article.
  • Clearing up the confusion over carbs - MSNBC, 6/3/05 - "Both groups lost weight, and there was no difference in their weight loss or calorie intake. It should be noted, however, that the women who ate low GI foods lost more than twice as much body fat as women eating mainly high GI foods"
  • Healthy Carbs, Fats for Weight Loss - WebMD, 11/23/04 - "eating a so-called low-glycemic diet may overcome the body's natural tendency to slow metabolism when calories are restricted. A low-glycemic diet emphasizes healthy fats and carbohydrates"
  • Sick of Low-Carb Diets? Try Low-GI - WebMD, 8/26/04 - "The animals on the high-GI diet were gaining more weight with same amount of food, and we had to cut their food back increasingly over time to keep them at the same weight ... But what was really interesting to us was that even though they maintained the same weight because they got less food, the high-GI group in both rats and mice doubled their body fat and had a reduction ... in muscle mass, which is exactly what you don't want"
  • High-Glycemic Foods Linked to Colon Cancer - WebMD, 2/3/04 - "the future risk of colorectal cancers is nearly three times higher in women who eat the most high glycemic-load foods compared with those who eat lesser amounts"
  • Sugary Breakfast Boosts Lunchtime Hunger - WebMD, 11/3/03 - "A new study provides evidence favoring foods with low-glycemic indexes (GI) such as whole-grain breakfast cereals including oatmeal, bran cereal, and muesli (a Swedish tradition). It shows that foods with low GI's can keep us feeling full and that these foods may have an important role in weight loss and obesity management"
  • Focusing on Fiber? - Dr. Weil, 9/22/03 - "If you’ve tried but failed to lower your cholesterol with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet, the problem may have been the carbohydrates you were eating. Refined carbohydrates (those that are high on the glycemic index, a system of ranking foods by their effect on blood sugar) can cause rapid increases in blood sugar, prompting the pancreas to release insulin, which in turn signals the liver to pump more triglycerides into the bloodstream"
  • Dietary Experts Debate Carbohydrates - Intelihealth, 9/2/03 - "Blood sugar levels may shoot twice as high after a high-GI meal as after a low one, and that unleashes metabolic havoc: The body responds with a surge of insulin, which prompts it to quickly store the sugar in muscle and fat cells. The high sugar also inhibits another hormone, glucagon, which ordinarily tells the body to burn its stored fuel ... Blood sugar plunges. So much is stored so fast that within two or three hours, levels may be lower than they were before the meal. Suddenly, the body needs more fuel. But because glucagon is still in short supply, the body does not tap into its fat supply for energy. The inevitable result? Hunger ... After one year, the low-GI volunteers had dropped seven pounds of pure fat. The others had put on four"
  • Glycemic Index: New Way to Count Carbs? - WebMD, 8/20/03 - "Foods with a high glycemic index (and therefore a higher number) cause a sudden and drastic jump in blood sugar levels. Low-glycemic foods are more easily absorbed in the body and raise blood sugar more gradually ... The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition lists any food under 55 as a low-glycemic food and any food more than 70 as high glycemic"
  • New Diet Approach May Fight Child Obesity - WebMD, 8/12/03 - "a reduced-glycemic-load diet that emphasizes foods with a low to moderate glycemic index and allows children to eat until they're full was more effective than a traditional low-fat, calorie-restricted diet in helping obese children shed pounds and slow the progression of insulin resistance, a risk factor for diabetes ... Complex carbohydrates, such as whole-grain bread and cereals, brown rice, and vegetables, are foods with a low to moderate glycemic index"
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors Affected By Diet -  Doctor's Guide, 2/27/03 - "Although patients were advised to maintain an identical energy intake with the different diets, there was significant weight loss on the low glycaemic index diet compared with weight gain on the high sucrose diet"
  • What is hyperinsulimia? How is it controlled? What are the tests? What is Glucophage? - Dr. Weil, 9/3/02 - "People with the genetic tendency to develop metabolic syndrome can avoid it by getting regular exercise and by minimizing consumption of high-glycemic index carbohydrate foods"
  • Cracking the Fat Riddle - Time Magazine, 9/2/02 - "the food pyramid is due for an overhaul in 2003—although no one is yet willing to give any details. If Harvard's Willett has his way, the pyramid will make a greater distinction between the types of fats and carbs we should and shouldn't eat. Willett, unlike the USDA, does not lump most carbohydrates at the pyramid's base or all fats at the pyramid's eat-sparingly pinnacle. In fact, Willett places good fats—those from vegetables and fish—at the base and good carbohydrates—from whole-grain versions of bread and pasta—side by side at the base. Carbohydrates with a high glycemic load join saturated fats at the top"
  • Glycemic Index Helpful in Food Selection - Medscape, 5/8/02 - "11 healthy men were randomly allocated to 5 weeks of a low- or high-glycemic index (LGI or HGI) diet separated by a 5-week washout period in a crossover design. Compared with the HGI diet, the LGI diet resulted in lower postprandial plasma glucose and insulin profiles and areas under the curve, lower plasma triacylglycerol excursion after lunch, decreased total fat mass by approximately 700 g, and a tendency to increase lean body mass without changing body weight. Decreased leptin, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA quantities in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue accompanied decreased fat mass"
  • Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load And Certain Foods Linked To Breast Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 12/17/01 - "Consumption of foods that are associated with a high glycemic index, such as white bread, increased breast cancer risk: odds ratio 1.3. In contrast, pasta, which is associated with a medium glycemic index, did not seem to influence breast cancer risk: odds ratio 1.0 ... glycemic index and glycemic load show "moderate, direct associations" with breast cancer risk. This suggests that hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance might contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer"


  • Dietary Carbohydrate Intake Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load and the Risk of Prostate Cancer among Iranian Men: A Case-Control Study - Nutr Cancer 2021 Jun 7 - "The fully adjusted ORs for the top vs. the bottom quartile were 15.02 (P trend = 0.004), 1.04 (P trend = 0.003), and 10.35 (P trend = 0.002) for carbohydrate intake, GI and GL, respectively. Significant associations with prostate cancer remained only among men with reduced fiber intake for carbohydrate intake, GI and GL and among those had increased fiber intake for GI. These findings support the hypothesis that diet with high carbohydrate, GI and GL enhance risk of prostate cancer"
  • Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Are Positively Associated with Risk of Developing Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Oct;63(10):1991-2000 - "Dietary GI and GL have a potential role in the development of MetS and associated clinical features, with particular age-dependent considerations"
  • High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women's Health Initiative - Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Jun 24 - "We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth vs. first quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for the fifth vs. first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029). Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression"
  • Glycemic load and coronary heart disease in a Mediterranean population: The EPIC Greek cohort study - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Dec 11 - "High adherence to MD with low/moderate GL was associated with lower risk of CHD incidence (HR = 0.61, CI: 0.39-0.95) and mortality (HR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23-96)"
  • Association of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load with Endometrial Cancer Risk Among Chinese Women - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Dec 12:1-9 - "Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for increasing quartiles of intake were 1.0, 1.3, 1.4, and 2.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-4.0] for dietary GL (Ptrend = 0.02) and 1.0, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-2.0) for dietary GI (Ptrend = 0.02). High intake of staples, especially rice, was positively associated with endometrial cancer"
  • Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and risk of colorectal cancer: Results from the EPIC-Italy study - Int J Cancer. 2014 Nov 18 - "The adjusted HR of colorectal cancer for highest vs. lowest GI quartile was 1.35; 95% CI 1.03-1.78; p trend 0.031. Increasing high GI carbohydrate intake was also significantly associated with increasing colorectal cancer risk (HR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04-2.03; p trend 0.034); while increasing low GI carbohydrate was associated with reducing risk (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.98; p trend 0.033). High dietary GI, and high GI carbohydrate, were associated with increased risks of cancer at all colon sites (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00-1.88, HR 1.80;95% CI 1.22-2.65, respectively); whereas high GI carbohydrate and high GL, were associated with increased risk of proximal colon cancer (HR 1.94; 95% CI 1.18-3.16, HR 2.01; 95% CI 1.08-3.74, respectively)"
  • Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a Japanese community: the Takayama study - Br J Nutr. 2014 Oct 20:1-8 - "Diets with a high glycaemic index (GI) or glycaemic load (GL) have been hypothesised to increase the risk of diabetes, CVD and some cancers. In the present study, the associations of dietary GI and GL with the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality were prospectively examined in a general population in Japan, where white rice is the main contributor of dietary GI and GL ... Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ ... In men, dietary GI was found to be significantly inversely associated with the risk of all-cause and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality; the hazard ratios (HR) for the highest v. lowest quartile were 0.80 (95 % CI 0.68, 0.95) and 0.64 (95 % CI 0.49, 0.84), respectively. Dietary GL was found to be significantly inversely associated with the risk of all-cause, cancer, and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality; the HR for the highest v. lowest quartile were 0.71 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.86), 0.71 (95 % CI 0.52, 0.99) and 0.64 (95 % CI 0.48, 0.87), respectively. The results obtained for the GL derived from white rice, but not from other foods, closely mirrored those obtained for overall GL. In women, dietary GI was found to be significantly positively associated with the risk of cardiovascular mortality; the HR for the highest v. lowest quartile was 1.56 (95 % CI 1.15, 2.13)"
  • Potatoes, Glycemic Index, and Weight Loss in Free-Living Individuals: Practical Implications - J Am Coll Nutr. 2014 Oct 10:1-10 - "The results indicate that in a free-living population of men and women, weight loss is associated with energy intake reduction. Potato intake did not cause weight gain and following either a high- or low-GI dietary prescription was difficult for free-living subjects, emphasizing the complex nature of changing dietary patterns"
  • High Dietary Glycemic Load is Associated With Increased Risk of Colon Cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2014 Mar 10 - "GL was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire ... odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer increased significantly with increasing GL: compared to the bottom quartile of GL, the ORs (95% CI) for the 2nd through the upper quartiles were 1.38 (1.06, 1.80), 1.67 (1.30, 2.13), and 1.61 (1.25, 2.07), respectively ... the association was more pronounced among older participants [ORs (95% CI) for the 2nd through the upper quartiles were 1.35 (0.91, 2.00), 1.87 (1.29, 2.71), 2.02 (1.39, 2.95), respectively] than among younger participants [ORs were 1.46 (1.02, 2.10), 1.53 (1.09, 2.15), and 1.35 (0.96, 1.91), respectively"
  • Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and incidence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men and women: the Japan public health center-based prospective study - Nutr J. 2013 Dec 27;12(1):165 - "Japanese diets contain a relatively high amount of carbohydrates, and its high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load may raise the risk of diabetes in the Japanese population ... We observed 27,769 men and 36,864 women (45-75 y) who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. The dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were estimated using a food-frequency questionnaire ... The dietary glycemic load was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among women: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.52 (95% CI, 1.13-2.04; P-trend = 0.01). The association was implied to be stronger among women with BMI < 25 than the women with BMI >= 25. The dietary glycemic index was positively associated with the risk of diabetes among men with a high intake of total fat: the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio comparing the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.46 (95% CI, 0.94-2.28; P-trend = 0.04). Among women with a high total fat intake, those in the first and second quartiles of the dietary glycemic index had a significant reduced risk of diabetes, compared with those in the first quartile who had a lower total fat level (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio = 0.59 with 95% CI, 0.37-0.94, and odds ratio = 0.63 with 95% CI, 0.40-0.998 respectively)"
  • Associations of dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity in British adults - Br J Nutr. 2013 May 9:1-11 - "In conclusion, we found independent positive associations of dietary GI and GL with general and central obesity in British adults"
  • Is there a dose-response relation of dietary glycemic load to risk of type 2 diabetes? Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan 30 - "24 prospective cohort studies identified by August 2012 ... the GL was positively associated with RR of T2D of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.31, 1.61) for a 100-g increment in GL ... After we accounted for several sources of heterogeneity, findings from prospective cohort studies that related the GL to T2D appear robust and consistently indicate strong and significantly lower T2D risk in persons who consume lower-GL diets"
  • Habitually Higher Dietary Glycemic Index During Puberty Is Prospectively Related to Increased Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Younger Adulthood - Diabetes Care. 2013 Jan 24 - "A higher dietary GI was prospectively related to greater values of HOMA-IR (P(trend) = 0.03), ALT (P(trend) = 0.02), and GGT (P(trend) = 0.04). After adjustment for sex, adult age, baseline BMI, and early life and socioeconomic factors as well as protein and fiber intake, predicted mean HOMA-IR values in energy-adjusted tertiles of GI were 2.37 (95% CI 2.16-2.60), 2.47 (2.26-2.71), and 2.59 (2.35-2.85). The amount of carbohydrates, GL, and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake were not related to the analyzed markers ... Our data indicate that a habitually higher dietary GI during puberty may adversely affect risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood"
  • Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in relation to risk of diabetes-related cancers: a meta-analysis - Br J Nutr. 2012 Oct 18:1-14 - "Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) or glycaemic load (GL) have been hypothesised to increase the risks of certain cancers by increasing blood glucose or insulin concentrations ... We searched Pubmed, EMBASE and MEDLINE databases up to September 2011 and reference lists of relevant articles ... In a comparison of the highest and lowest categories, the pooled RR of DRC were 1.07 (95 % CI 1.04, 1.11; n 30) for GI and 1.02 (95 % CI 0.96, 1.08; n 33) for GL. In an analysis of site-specific cancer risks, we found significant associations for GI in relation to breast cancer (RR 1.06; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.11; n 11) and colorectal cancer (RR 1.08; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.17; n 9 studies). GL was significantly associated with the risk of endometrial cancer (RR 1.21; 95 % CI 1.07, 1.37; n 5). In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest a modest-to-weak association between a diet that induces a high glucose response and DRC risks"
  • Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul 3 - "The glycemic potential of a diet is associated with chronically elevated insulin concentrations, which may augment breast cancer (BC) risk by stimulating insulin receptor or by affecting insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. It is unclear whether this effect differs by BC phenotype ... The objective was to investigate the relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total carbohydrate intake with BC by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) ... Overall GI, GL, and carbohydrates were not related to BC. Among postmenopausal women, GL and carbohydate intake were significantly associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) BC when extreme quintiles (Q) were compared [multivariable HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.02, 1.82; P-trend = 0.010) and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.41 (1.05, 1.89; P-trend = 0.009), respectively]. Further stratification by progesterone receptor (PR) status showed slightly stronger associations with ER(-)/PR(-) BC [HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.07, 2.05; P-trend = 0.010) for GL and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.62 (1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.005) for carbohydrates]. No significant association with ER-positive BC was observed"
  • Glycemic load, glycemic index and risk of cardiovascular diseases: Meta-analyses of prospective studies - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jun 6 - "Fourteen studies were identified, involving 229,213 participants and more than 11,363 cases. The pooled RRs of CVDs risk for the highest vs lowest categories of GL and GI were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.11-1.36) and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04-1.22) respectively. Both the risk estimates of GL and GI for women (GL: RR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.18-1.55; GI: RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.06-1.34) were higher than men (GL: RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.95-1.28; GI: RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.94-1.17) ... High GL and GI were associated with significant increased risk of CVDs, specifically for women"
  • A Low-Glycemic Load Diet Reduces Serum C-Reactive Protein and Modestly Increases Adiponectin in Overweight and Obese Adults - J Nutr. 2011 Dec 21 - "Among participants with high-body fat mass (>32.0% for males and >25.0% for females), the low-GL diet reduced CRP (P = 0.02) and marginally increased adiponectin (P = 0.06). In conclusion, carbohydrate quality, independent of energy, is important. Dietary patterns emphasizing low-GL foods may improve the inflammatory and adipokine profiles of overweight and obese individuals"
  • Effects of added PGX®, a novel functional fibre, on the glycaemic index of starchy foods - Br J Nutr. 2011 Oct 10:1-4 - "Healthy subjects (n 10) consumed glucose sugar (50 g in water × 3) and six starchy foods with a range of GI values (52-72) along with 0 (inert fibre), 2.5 or 5 g granular PGX® dissolved in 250 ml water ... PGX® significantly reduced the GI of all six foods (P < 0.001), with an average reduction of 19 % for the 2.5 g dose and 30 % for the 5 g dose, equivalent to a reducing the GI by 7 and 15 units, respectively. Consuming small quantities of the novel functional fibre PGX®, mixed with water at the start of a meal, is an effective strategy to reduce the GI of common foods" - See Natural Factors, WellBetX PGX with Mulberry, 180 Capsules at iHerb.
  • Dietary glycemic index and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in middle-aged Japanese men - Metabolism. 2011 Jul 29 - "During the study, 133 participants developed diabetes. Age- and body mass index-adjusted hazard ratios across the GI quintiles were 1.00 (reference), 1.62, 1.50, 1.68, and 1.80; and those of GL were 1.00 (reference), 1.07, 1.48, 0.95, and 0.98. The hazard ratio for the highest GI quintile was significantly greater than that for the lowest quintile. The influence of GI was more pronounced in the lowest insulin resistance subgroups. GI and pancreatic B-cell function were independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus; participants with low B-cell function and the highest tertile of GI had the highest risk of diabetes. Dietary GI is associated with the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged Japanese men. GI and B-cell function were independently associated with incidence of diabetes"
  • Impact of Consumption of Vegetable, Fruit, Grain, and High Glycemic Index Foods on Aggressive Prostate Cancer Risk - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jul 20 - "Here we further investigate such potential relationships with a case-control study of 982 men (470 more aggressive prostate cancer cases and 512 control subjects). Comparing the highest to lowest quartiles of intake, we found that increasing intakes of leafy vegetables were inversely associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.96; P trend = 0.02], as was higher consumption of high carotenoid vegetables (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.04; P trend = 0.04). Conversely, increased consumption of high glycemic index foods were positively associated with risk of aggressive disease (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.57; P trend = 0.02). These results were driven by a number of specific foods within the food groups. Our findings support the hypothesis that diets high in vegetables and low in high glycemic index foods decrease risk of aggressive prostate cancer"
  • Carbohydrate Nutrition Is Associated with the 5-Year Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease - J Nutr. 2011 Jan 12 - "participants in the 4th quartile of mean dietary GI intake compared with those in the first quartile (reference) had a 55% increased likelihood of having eGFR < 60 mL⋅min(-1)⋅1.73 m(-2) [multivariable-adjusted OR = 1.55 (95% CI = 1.07-2.26); P-trend = 0.01]. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the 4th quartile of dietary cereal fiber intake compared with those in the first quartile (reference) had a 50% reduced risk of incident moderate CKD (P-trend = 0.03). Higher baseline consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor sources of carbohydrate (e.g. cookies) yielded a 3-fold higher risk of incident CKD (P-trend = 0.01). In summary, we observed a novel link between high cereal fiber intake and reduced incidence of moderate CKD and this was supported by the cross-sectional association with dietary GI. Conversely, our data suggest that higher intake of energy-dense, nutrient-poor sources of carbohydrate, potentially through acute hyperglycemia, could impair renal function"
  • Effect of a low glycaemic index diet on blood glucose in women with gestational hyperglycaemia - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Nov 19 - "Diet GI on control (58, 95% CI: 56,60) was significantly higher than on low-GI (49, 95% CI: 47,51; p=0.001). Glycaemic control improved on both diets, but more postprandial glucose values were within target on low-GI (58.4% of n=1891) than control (48.7% of n=1834; p<0.001). SMBG post-breakfast was directly related to pre-pregnancy BMI in the control, but not the low-GI group (BMI*diet interaction; p=0.021). Participants accepted the study foods and were willing to consume them post-intervention ... A low-GI diet was feasible and acceptable in this sample and facilitated control of postprandial glucose. A larger study is needed to determine the effect of a low-GI diet on maternal and infant outcomes"
  • Dietary Glycemic Load Is a Predictor of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Older Adults - J Nutr. 2010 Oct 6 - "Participants in the highest quartile of mean dietary GL intake compared with those in the lowest quartile had a 76% greater risk of developing incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.04). Higher carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with incident hearing loss (P-trend = 0.03 and P-trend = 0.05, respectively). In summary, a high-GL diet was a predictor of incident hearing loss, as was higher intake of total carbohydrate. Hence, high postprandial glycemia might be a potential underlying biological mechanism in the development of age-related hearing loss"
  • Carbohydrate quantity and quality and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 4 - "glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI) ... During a mean follow-up of 10 y, 915 incident diabetes cases were documented. Dietary GL was associated with an increased diabetes risk after adjustment for age, sex, established diabetes risk factors, and dietary factors [hazard ratio (HR) per SD increase: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.54; P lt 0.001]. GI tended to increase diabetes risk (HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P equals 0.05). Dietary fiber was inversely associated with diabetes risk (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99; P lt 0.05), whereas carbohydrate intake was associated with increased diabetes risk (HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.32; P lt 0.05). Of the carbohydrate subtypes, only starch was related to increased diabetes risk [HR: 1.25 (1.07, 1.46), P lt 0.05]. All associations became slightly stronger after exclusion of energy misreporters. CONCLUSIONS: Diets high in GL, GI, and starch and low in fiber were associated with an increased diabetes risk. Both carbohydrate quantity and quality seem to be important factors in diabetes prevention. Energy misreporting contributed to a slight attenuation of associations"
  • Reduction of Postprandial Glycemia by the Novel Viscous Polysaccharide PGX, in a Dose-Dependent Manner, Independent of Food Form - J Am Coll Nutr. 2010 Apr;29(2):92-8 - "The objective of the study therefore was to determine palatability and effectiveness of escalating doses of PGX, a novel viscous polysaccharide (NVP), in reducing postprandial glycemia when added to a liquid and a solid meal ... Addition of NVP to the meal reduced blood glucose incremental areas under the curve irrespective of dose, reaching significance at the 7.5 g dose when added to glucose (p < 0.01), and at the 5 and 7.5 g doses when added to WB + Marg (p < 0.001). The GI values of glucose with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP were (mean +/- standard error of the mean [SEM]) 100.0 +/- 0.0, 83.7 +/- 9.0, 77.7 +/- 8.2, and 72.5 +/- 5.9, respectively; the GI of the WB alone, or of WB + Marg, with 0, 2.5, 5, or 7.5 g of NVP was 71.0 +/- 0.0, 66.8 +/- 3.0, 47.5 +/- 5.9, 37.3 +/- 5.9, and 33.9 +/- 3.6, respectively. CONCLUSION: Addition of NVP to different food matrices is highly effective in lowering the glycemic index of a food in a dose-responsive manner" - See PGX at Amazon.com.
  • Glycemic load, glycemic index and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Swedish women - Int J Cancer. 2009 Feb 3 - "In analyses stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of the breast tumors, we observed statistically significant positive associations of carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of ER+/PR- breast cancer; the multivariate relative risks comparing extreme quintiles were 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-1.94; p for trend = 0.04] for carbohydrate intake, 1.44 (95% CI = 1.06-1.97; p for trend = 0.01) for glycemic index and 1.81 (95% CI = 1.29-2.53; p for trend = 0.0008) for glycemic load. No associations were observed for ER+/PR+ or ER-/PR- breast tumors. These findings suggest that a high carbohydrate intake and diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load may increase the risk of developing ER+/PR- breast cancer"
  • Glycemic Index, Retinal Vascular Caliber, and Stroke Mortality - Stroke. 2008 Oct 23 - "high glycemic index (GI) and low cereal fiber (CF) ... Persons consuming food in the highest GI tertile and lowest CF tertile had a 5-fold increased risk of stroke death ... High-GI and low-CF diets predict greater stroke mortality and wider retinal venular caliber. The association between a high-GI diet and stroke death was partly explained by GI effects on retinal venular caliber, suggesting that a high-GI diet may produce deleterious anatomic changes in the microvasculature"
  • Dietary glycemic index and the risk of age-related macular degeneration - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1104-10 - "a higher mean dietary glycemic index was associated with an increased 10-y risk of early AMD in a comparison of quartiles 1 and 4 [relative risk (RR): 1.77; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.78; P for trend = 0.03]. Conversely, a greater consumption of cereal fiber (RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.04; P for trend = 0.05) and breads and cereals (predominantly lower glycemic index foods such as oatmeal) (RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.02; P for trend = 0.03) was associated with a reduced risk of incident early AMD ... A high-glycemic-index diet is a risk factor for early AMD-the recognized precursor of sight-threatening late AMD. Low-glycemic-index foods such as oatmeal may protect against early AMD"
  • Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cancer risk: a meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1793-801 - "Overall, both GL and GI were significantly associated with a greater risk of colorectal (summary RR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.44 and RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.34, respectively) and endometrial (RR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.62 and RR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49) cancer than of breast and pancreatic cancer"
  • The glycemic index and cardiovascular disease risk - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2007 Dec;9(6):479-85 - "dietary GI and/or glycemic load independently predict cardiovascular disease, with relative risk ratios of 1.2 to 1.7 comparing highest and lowest quintiles. In randomized controlled trials in overweight subjects, diets based on low-GI carbohydrates have produced better cardiovascular-related outcomes than conventional low-fat diets. Taken together, the findings suggest that health professionals may be able to improve cardiovascular outcomes by recommending the judicious use of low- GI/glycemic load foods"
  • The Canadian Trial of Carbohydrates in Diabetes (CCD), a 1-y controlled trial of low-glycemic-index dietary carbohydrate in type 2 diabetes: no effect on glycated hemoglobin but reduction in C-reactive protein - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):114-25 - "In subjects with T2DM managed by diet alone with optimal glycemic control, long-term HbA(1c) was not affected by altering the GI or the amount of dietary carbohydrate. Differences in total:HDL cholesterol among diets had disappeared by 6 mo. However, because of sustained reductions in postprandial glucose and CRP, a low-GI diet may be preferred for the dietary management of T2DM"
  • Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jan;87(1):126-31 - "These findings do not support a relation between dietary GI or GL and the risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults"
  • Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in US Black Women - Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 26;167(21):2304-9 - "Increasing cereal fiber in the diet may be an effective means of reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes, a disease that has reached epidemic proportions in black women"
  • Prospective Study of Dietary Carbohydrates, Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Middle-aged Chinese Women - Arch Intern Med. 2007 Nov 26;167(21):2310-6 - "High intake of foods with a high glycemic index and glycemic load, especially rice, the main carbohydrate-contributing food in this population, may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese women"
  • Dietary glycemic load, added sugars, and carbohydrates as risk factors for pancreatic cancer: the Multiethnic Cohort Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1495-501 - "Glycemic load and added sugars were not significantly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. The risk increased with higher intakes of total sugars, fructose, and sucrose, and the association with fructose was significant when the highest and lowest quartiles were compared (relative risk: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.80; P for trend = 0.046). A significant association was found with fruit and juices intake (1.37; 1.02, 1.84; P for trend = 0.04) but not with soda intake. Statistical evidence of a significant interaction with body mass index was present only for sucrose intake (P = 0.04). A comparison of the highest and lowest quartiles of sucrose intake in overweight or obese participants gave a relative risk of 1.46 (0.95-2.25; P for trend = 0.04), but the comparison was not significant in normal-weight participants"
  • Carbohydrate nutrition, glycemic index, and the 10-y incidence of cataract - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1502-8 - "poorer dietary carbohydrate quality, reflected by high GI, predicted incident cortical cataract"
  • Glycemic index, glycemic load and thyroid cancer risk - Ann Oncol. 2007 Oct 19 - "Compared with the lowest tertile, the ORs in subsequent tertiles were 1.68 and 1.73 for GI, and 1.76 and 2.17 for GL. The OR for highest tertile of GI compared with lowest one was 1.70 for papillary and 1.57 for follicular thyroid cancer. The ORs for GL were 2.17 for papillary and 3.33 for follicular thyroid cancer ... Our study shows that high dietary levels of GI and GL are associated with thyroid cancer risk"
  • Breakfast glycemic index affects subsequent daily energy intake in free-living healthy children - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):980-987 - "At all ages, among children who consumed their next meal in the early postprandial phase (after 3-4 h), children with a lower GI(br) consumed more calories throughout the remainder of the day than did children with a higher GI(br), independent of major dietary confounders"
  • Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline but not with increased risk of diabetes in the Whitehall II study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):988-994 - "At baseline, dietary GI and GL were associated inversely with HDL cholesterol, and GI was associated directly with triacylglycerols. Dietary GI and GL were related inversely to fasting glucose and directly to 2-h postload glucose ... The proposed protective effect of low-dietary GI and GL diets on diabetes risk could not be confirmed in this study"
  • Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of breast cancer in an Italian prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1160-1166 - "The relative risk (RR) of breast cancer in the highest (versus lowest) quintiles of GI and GL was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.36; P for trend = 0.040) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.54, 4.16; P for trend = 0.001), respectively. Total carbohydrate intake was not associated with greater breast cancer risk, but high carbohydrate from high-GI foods was. When women were categorized by baseline menopausal status and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), the increased risk of dietary GL was confined to those who were premenopausal (RR = 3.89; 95% CI: 1.81, 8.34) and who had normal BMI (ie, <25)"
  • Dietary carbohydrate and the progression of age-related macular degeneration: a prospective study from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1210-1218 - "The latter gives an estimate that 7.8% of new advanced AMD cases would be prevented in 5 y if people consumed the low-dGI diet"
  • Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and ovarian cancer risk: a prospective cohort study - Public Health Nutr. 2007 Oct;10(10):1076-81 - "Glyacemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) .. GI and total carbohydrate and sugar intakes were not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the total cohort. GL was positively associated with a 72% increase in risk of ovarian cancer"
  • Beneficial effects of a 5-week low-glycaemic index regimen on weight control and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight non-diabetic subjects - Br J Nutr. 2007 Jul 9;:1-11 - "Mean body weight decrease was significant in the LGI group ( - 1.1 (sEM 0.3) kg, P = 0.004) and was significantly greater than in the HGI group ( - 0.3 (sEM 0.2) kg, P = 0.04 between groups). Hunger sensation scales showed a trend towards a decrease in hunger sensation before lunch and dinner in the LGI group when compared with the HGI group (P = 0.09). No significant increase in insulin sensitivity was noticed. The LGI diet also decreased total cholesterol by 9.6 % (P < 0.001), LDL-cholesterol by 8.6 % (P = 0.01) and both LDL-:HDL-cholesterol ratio (10.1 %, P = 0.003) and total:HDL-cholesterol ratio (8.5 %, P = 0.001) while no significant changes were observed in the HGI group"
  • Association between dietary glycemic index and age-related macular degeneration in nondiabetic participants in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):180-8 - "Compared with eyes in the first quintile of dGI, eyes in the fourth and fifth quintiles had a significantly or suggestively higher risk of large drusen, geographic atrophy, and neovascularization. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest quintile were 1.42 (1.09, 1.84), 1.78 (0.81, 3.90), and 1.41 (0.95, 2.08), respectively, of which only the odds ratio for large drusen was significant. A significant positive relation between dGI and severity of AMD was also noted (P for trend < 0.001). There was a 49% increase in the risk of advanced AMD (geographic atrophy plus neovascularization) for persons with a dGI higher than the sex median"
  • High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women: a population-based follow-up study - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Jul 3;50(1):14-21 - "Dietary glycemic load (mean = 100; SD = 17) was associated with increased risk of CVD, adjusted for CVD risk factors and dietary variables, with a hazard ratio (HR) for the highest against lowest quartile of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 2.09; p(trend) = 0.03). Similar results were observed for dietary glycemic index with a corresponding HR of 1.33"
  • Dietary glycemic index, dietary glycemic load, and cardiovascular disease in middle-aged and older Swedish men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1521-1526 - "glycemic index (GI) and dietary glycemic load (GL) ... Dietary GI and dietary GL were not associated with ischemic cardiovascular disease or mortality, but dietary GL was associated with a greater risk of hemorrhagic stroke"
  • The effect of a 12-week low glycaemic index diet on heart disease risk factors and 24 h glycaemic response in healthy middle-aged volunteers at risk of heart disease: a pilot study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb 21 - "only the low GI group lost weight ... This pilot study provides some evidence that consuming a low GI diet in addition to weight loss and healthy eating may reduce cardiovascular risk"
  • Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women - N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 9;355(19):1991-2002 - "During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 1994 new cases of coronary heart disease. After multivariate adjustment, the relative risk of coronary heart disease comparing highest and lowest deciles of the low-carbohydrate-diet score was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.18; P for trend=0.19). The relative risk comparing highest and lowest deciles of a low-carbohydrate-diet score on the basis of the percentage of energy from carbohydrate, animal protein, and animal fat was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.19; P for trend=0.52), whereas the relative risk on the basis of the percentage of energy from intake of carbohydrates, vegetable protein, and vegetable fat was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.88; P for trend=0.002). A higher glycemic load was strongly associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (relative risk comparing highest and lowest deciles, 1.90"
  • Relations of glycemic index and glycemic load with plasma oxidative stress markers - Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):70-6 - "Chronic consumption of high-GI foods may lead to chronically high oxidative stress. A low-GI diet, not a low-carbohydrate diet, appears to be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress"
  • Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and risk of endometrial cancer: a prospective cohort study - Public Health Nutr. 2005 Oct;8(7):912-9 - "Our data suggest that diets with high glycaemic index or high glycaemic load may be associated with endometrial cancer risk overall, and particularly among obese women, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women who use hormone replacement therapy"
  • Dietary Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, Fiber, Simple Sugars, and Insulin Resistance: The Inter99 study - Diabetes Care. 2005 Jun;28(6):1397-1403 - "Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic index and high glycemic load or diets with a high content of total carbohydrate including simple sugars was not associated with the probability of having insulin resistance. Furthermore, intake of dietary fiber was inversely associated with the probability of having insulin resistance"
  • Low-fat, high-carbohydrate (low-glycaemic index) diet induces weight loss and preserves lean body mass in obese healthy subjects: results of a 24-week study - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 May;7(3):290-3 - "after 24 weeks the average weight loss was 8.9 kg (98.6 vs. 89.7 kg; p </= 0.0001). There was a significant 15% decrease in fat mass (42.5 vs. 36.4 kg; p </= 0.0001) and a decrease in lean body mass of 5%"
  • The beneficial effect of a diet with low glycaemic index on 24 h glucose profiles in healthy young people as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring - Br J Nutr. 2005 Feb;93(2):179-82 - "The present study provides important data on how a simple adjustment to the diet can improve glucose profiles that, if sustained in the long term, would be predicted from epidemiological studies to have a favourable influence on CVD"
  • Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss - JAMA. 2004 Nov 24;292(20):2482-90 - "Reduction in glycemic load may aid in the prevention or treatment of obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus"
  • Glycemic index and dietary fiber and the risk of type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2004 Nov;27(11):2701-6 - "Reducing dietary GI while maintaining a high carbohydrate intake may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. One way to achieve this would be to substitute white bread with low-GI breads"
  • Meta-analysis of the health effects of using the glycaemic index in meal-planning - Br J Nutr. 2004 Sep;92(3):367-81 - "Results of the present meta-analysis support the use of the GI as a scientifically based tool to enable selection of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce total cholesterol and to improve overall metabolic control of diabetes"
  • Glycemic index and glycemic load in endometrial cancer - Int J Cancer. 2003 Jun 20;105(3):404-7 - "Our study supports the hypothesis of a direct association between GI and endometrial cancer risk"