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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 12/4/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Vitamin D decreases pain in women with type 2 diabetes, depression - Science Daily, 12/2/13 - "Researchers in this study tested the efficacy of weekly vitamin D2 supplementation (50,000 IUs) for six months on depression in women with type 2 diabetes. Depression significantly improved following supplementation. In addition, 61 percent of patients reported shooting or burning pain in their legs and feet (neuropathic pain) and 74 percent reported numbness and tingling in their hands, fingers, and legs (sensory pain) at the beginning of the study. Researchers found a significant decrease in neuropathic and sensory pain at three and six months following vitamin D2 supplementation" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Oxytocin Found to Stimulate Social Brain Regions in Children With Autism - NYTimes.com, 12/2/13 - "the first study of how oxytocin affects the brains of children with autism finds hints of promise — and also suggestions of what its limitations might be ... the hormone, given as an inhalant, generated increased activity in parts of the brain involved in social connection. This suggests not only that oxytocin can stimulate social brain areas, but also that in children with autism these brain regions are not irrevocably damaged but are plastic enough to be influenced" - See Oxy Pro (Oxytocin) Nasal Spray at International Anti-aging Systems.

Daily Multivitamin May Lower Risk for Cataracts - Medscape, 12/2/13 - "The eye disease component of PHS II involved 11,497 male physicians randomly assigned to take a daily multivitamin (Centrum Silver, Pfizer) (n = 5736) or placebo (n = 5761) in the cataract part of the study, and 14,233 men randomly assigned to a multivitamin (n = 7111) or placebo (n = 7122) in the AMD part of the study. Study participants reported no cataract or AMD incidence at baseline ... The researchers found a 9% lower risk for cataract among participants in the multivitamin group compared with the placebo" - Note:  My opinion is that Centrum is one of those supplement designed by an accountant.  Examples, the dl-Alpha form of vitamin E, the least absorbable for of copper, etc.

New study suggests low vitamin D causes damage to brain - Science Daily, 12/2/13 - "Published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine, the UK study showed that middle-aged rats that were fed a diet low in vitamin D for several months developed free radical damage to the brain, and many different brain proteins were damaged as identified by redox proteomics. These rats also showed a significant decrease in cognitive performance on tests of learning and memory" - [Abstract] - Note:  By UK, I assume they mean University of Kentucky as apposed to United Kingdom.  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

High cholesterol fuels growth, spread of breast cancer - Science Daily, 11/28/13 - "the research for the first time explains the link between high cholesterol and breast cancer, especially in post-menopausal women, and suggests that dietary changes or therapies to reduce cholesterol may also offer a simple, accessible way to reduce breast cancer risk ... What we have now found is a molecule -- not cholesterol itself, but an abundant metabolite of cholesterol -- called 27HC that mimics the hormone estrogen and can independently drive the growth of breast cancer ... the findings suggest there may be a simple way to reduce the risk of breast cancer by keeping cholesterol in check, either with statins or a healthy diet. Additionally, for women who have breast cancer and high cholesterol, taking statins may delay or prevent resistance to endocrine therapies such as tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.

20 Surprising Ways to Prevent Colds and Flu - ABC News, 11/28/13 - "If I don't have any hand sanitizer with me, I'll pour a little vodka on my hands. Vodka's high alcohol content makes it a great disinfectant" - I thought I was the only one who realized that.  It doesn't create toxic fumes that make you itch all over like chlorine and rubbing alcohol.  I used it for a lot more such as keyboards, kitchen counters, etc.  It comes to about $17 per gallon if you buy the x-brands in the half gallons in the case of 6 which gets you a 10% discount at the military bases.

FDA OKs New Minimally Invasive Treatment for Varicose Veins - Medscape, 11/26/13 - "Varithena (formerly known as Varisolve) is a pharmaceutical-grade, low-nitrogen, polidocanol foam dispensed from a proprietary canister device. It is a "minimally invasive, non-surgical procedure that requires neither tumescent anesthesia nor sedation,""

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Omega 3:6 ratio intake and incidence of glaucoma: The SUN cohort - Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 12 - "followed-up 17,128 participants initially free of glaucoma for a median time of 8.2 years. Validated data of diet were collected at baseline with a 136-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and information of new diagnosis of glaucoma in biennial follow-up questionnaires ... median follow-up time of 8.2 years ... Participants in the highest quintile of omega 3:6 ratio intake had a significantly higher risk of glaucoma than participants in the lowest quintile (hazard ratio (HR): 1.91 [95%CI: 1.05-3.46], p for trend 0.03). The association became stronger (HR for the comparison of the 5th versus the 1st quintile: 2.43 [95%CI: 1.17-5.03], p for trend 0.02) when we considered only those participants who were ≥40 years old" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Life-long endurance exercise in humans: Circulating levels of inflammatory markers and leg muscle size - Mech Ageing Dev. 2013 Nov 25 - "endurance training (Tr) ... we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young-Tr (Y-Tr) and 12 Young-Un (Y-Un) ... Tr was associated with an improved insulin profile (p<0.05), and lower leucocyte (p<0.05) and triglyceride levels (p<0.05), independent of age. Aging was associated with poorer glucose control (p<0.05), independent of training. The age-related changes in waist circumference, VO2 peak, cholesterol, LDL, leg muscle size, CRP and IL-6 were counteracted by physical activity (p<0.05). A significant increase in suPAR with age was observed (p<0.05). Most importantly, life-long endurance exercise was associated with a lower level of the inflammatory markers CRP and IL-6 (p<0.05), and with a greater thigh muscle area (p<0.05), compared to age-matched untrained counterparts. These findings in a limited group of individuals suggest that regular physical endurance activity may play a role in reducing some markers of systemic inflammation, even within the normal range, and in maintaining muscle mass with aging"

Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 27 - "myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) ... A low-protein (6.25 g) mixed macronutrient beverage can be as effective as a high-protein dose (25 g) at stimulating increased MPS rates when supplemented with a high (5.0 g total leucine) amount of leucine. These results have important implications for formulations of protein beverages designed to enhance muscle anabolism" - [Nutra USA] - Note:  That's about what I take per day in the one heaping scoop.  It's got to be the worst tasting substance in the world.  I put the scoop in a small jar with about a third cup of water, shake it and swill in then rinse the jar a couple more times to get it all.  See leucine products at Amazon.com.

Dietary trans-10,cis-12 CLA Reduces Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis in a Dose-Dependent Manner - J Nutr. 2013 Nov 27 - "Mice were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments upon the establishment of arthritis: corn oil (CO) or 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375%, or 0.5% t10c12-CLA (wt:wt) for 84 d. Sham mice (no arthritis) were fed CO and served as controls. Arthritic paw score, based on subjective assessment of arthritic severity, and paw thickness decreased linearly overall [16-65% (P < 0.001) and 0.5-12% (P < 0.001), respectively] as dietary t10c12-CLA increased (P < 0.001, R2 < 0.81). Increasing dietary t10c12-CLA was associated with a decrease in plasma interleukin (IL)-1β at days 21 and 42 compared with CO-fed arthritic mice, such that mice fed ≥0.25% t10c12-CLA had IL-1β concentrations that were similar to sham mice. Plasma cytokines returned to sham mice concentrations by day 63 regardless of treatment; however, an arthritis-induced elevation in paw IL-1β decreased linearly as dietary t10c12-CLA concentrations increased at day 84 (P = 0.007, R2 = 0.92). Similarly, increasing dietary t10c12-CLA linearly decreased paw tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.

Anthocyanin supplementation improves HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 activity and enhances cholesterol efflux capacity in subjects with hypercholesterolemia - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov 27 - "Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-PON1), is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties ... A total of 122 hypercholesterolemic subjects were given 160 mg of anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 61 of each group) for 24 wk in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial ... Anthocyanin consumption significantly increased HDL cholesterol and decreased LDL cholesterol concentrations compared with placebo (P < 0.018 and P<0.001, respectively). Anthocyanin supplementation also increased the activity of HDL-PON1 compared with placebo (P<0.001)" - See anthocyanin products at iHerb.

  • Anthocyanin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - "Anthocyanins ... are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue depending on the pH. They belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway; they are odorless and nearly flavorless, contributing to taste as a moderately astringent sensation ... Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant peel, black rice, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

High homocysteine is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer independently of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities - Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 13 - "Increased homocysteine was strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer independently of oxidative stress indicators and antioxidant capacities"

Effect of statin treatment on coronary plaque progression - A serial coronary CT angiography study - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Dec;231(2):198-204 - "The study included 100 consecutive patients who underwent serial Coronary CTA (mean follow up: 406 ± 92 days) for evaluation of CAD without known prior heart disease or revascularization. We performed volumetric assessment of low attenuation plaque (LAP < 30 Hounsfield units), non-calcified (NCP) and calcified plaque volumes at baseline and follow up scans for vessels >2 mm in diameter ... Statin therapy resulted in significantly lower progression of LAP and NCP plaques compared to non-statin users"

Statins and the risks of stroke recurrence and death after ischemic stroke: The Fukuoka Stroke Registry - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Dec;231(2):211-5 - "CVEs: stroke recurrence or transient ischemic attack) and all-cause mortality in a cohort of Japanese patients with first-ever ischemic stroke ... The 2822 eligible patients registered in the Fukuoka Stroke Registry with first-ever acute ischemic stroke from June 2007 to February 2011 were classified into statin users (n = 993) and non-users (n = 1829) at discharge, and followed up until March 2012 ... The cumulative risks of CVE and death after 4 years were significantly lower in statin users than in non-users (13.8% versus 19.5%, P = 0.005 for CVE; 11.8% versus 21.7%, P < 0.001 for death). After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, statin treatment significantly reduced the risks of CVE (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.92; P = 0.011) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.89; P = 0.006)"

Coffee consumption and total mortality: a meta-analysis of twenty prospective cohort studies - Br J Nutr. 2013 Nov 27:1-12 - "Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases for all articles published through June 2013 and reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles ... The RR of total mortality for the high v. low category of coffee consumption was 0.86 (95 % CI 0.80, 0.92). The pooled RR for studies using ≥ 2-4 cups/d as a cut-off for the high category was similar to that for studies using ≥ 5-9 cups/d as the cut-off ... A weak, but significant, inverse association was found with moderate coffee consumption (1-2 cups/d; RR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.87, 0.98)"

  • To the K-Cup and beyond: Single serve coffee makers reviewed - CNET Reviews, 9/8/13 - "what really stood out for us was the differences in flavor between each unit, even using the same kind of coffee ... The sturdy Bunn MyCafe MCU is our favorite brewer so far, for its sturdy construction, retro design, and, most importantly because it makes the most flavorful cup of coffee" - See BUNN MCU Single Cup Multi-Use Brewer at Amazon.com.  It takes both pods and coffee grounds which isn't clear until you get toward the end of the full review.  Everyone seems to be selling the pods these days including Costco and the military commissaries.

Oxytocin enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female partner - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 25 - "The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems ... Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the attractiveness of other familiar women ... our results suggest that OXT could contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness and reward value compared with other women" - See Oxy Pro (Oxytocin) Nasal Spray at International Anti-aging Systems.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

Tripp-Lite TLP606DMUSB review: This surge suppressor clamps to your desk - PCWorld, 11/27/13 - I was looking for something like this when I found out that Velcro wasn't strong enough.  See Tripp-Lite TLP606DMUSB at Amazon.  Also see the MonoPrice version Monoprice 6 Outlet Desk Mountable Power Surge Protector w/ 2 Built-In USB Charger - 2100 Joules - Plastic w/ 6ft Cord.

Google's new Chrome voice extension lets you search hands-free (video) - engadget.com, 11/26/13 - Google’s voice search works on your desktop now, not just smart phones. I just tried it.  Click on the picture of the microphone just to the right of the Google search box using the Google Chrome browser (you also need a microphone attached to your desktop).  Make sure you click ‘Allow’ in the dialog box at the top of the Chrome browser the first time you use it.  See the following for a microphone: Plantronics Audio 478 Stereo USB Headset (Audio 478).

Dymo LabelWriter 450 - PC Magazine, 11/26/13 - I bought two of these years ago. I use one just for printing stamps and the other to print the three-part stamp, address and return address labels. It works through stamps.com and saves a lot of trips to the post office especially if you have a small scale to determine the weight for the postage.  You need to buy the rolls to print the stamps directly from stamps.com. The three part label is the ‘Dymo 30383’ and Amazon sells it.  See DYMO LabelWriter 450 Turbo High-Speed Postage and Label Printer for PC and Mac, USB, Printer and Software, Black/Silver (1752265) and DYMO LabelWriter Postage Label, 3-Part Internet Postage, 2-1/4 "x 7", White, 150 per pack

Best sellers in Chinese language at Amazon.com - Population of the world = 7.127 billion. Population of China = 1.351 billion. 1.351 / 7.127 = 19% not counting other countries like Taiwan and Singapore. Wiki comes up with 14.1% but Mandarin still leaves all other languages in the dust. Seems like a no-brainer if you want to learn a second language. Fluenz has the best ratings.

Health Focus (Homocysteine):

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Alternative News:

  • Dietary protein and plasma total homocysteine, cysteine concentrations in coronary angiographic subjects - Nutr J. 2013 Nov 7;12(1):144 - "High animal-protein diet was positively associated with high tHcy concentrations, whereas high plant-protein diet was inversely associated with tHcy concentrations. Furthermore the total protein intake was strongly related to tCys concentrations"
  • Vitamin B Supplements May Lower Stroke Risk - Medscape, 9/18/13 - "Researchers searched for randomized controlled trials published before August 2012 that compared vitamin B supplementation with placebo, very-low-dose B vitamins, or usual care; had a minimum follow-up of 6 months; and included stroke events as a study endpoint ... The researchers noted a reduction in overall stroke events resulting from lowered homocysteine levels following B vitamin supplementation (risk ratio, 0.93"
  • Relationship between metformin use, vitamin B12 deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes - Endocr J. 2013 Sep 8 - "Metformin-induced B12 lowering in diabetes was associated with elevation of homocysteine, and hyperhomocysteinemia was independently related to retinopathy" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Association between low-dose folic acid supplementation and blood lipids concentrations in male and female subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors - Med Sci Monit. 2013 Sep 4;19:733-9 - "Folic acid (FA) is one of the B complex vitamins. It is thought that FA deficiency promotes atherosclerosis formation in arterial endothelium. FA, acting through reducing homocysteine (Hcy) levels, may contribute to decreased cholesterol (Ch) synthesis ... enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, ages 20-39; and 64 F, ages 19-39) with atherosclerosis risk factors ... participants were asked to take FA at a low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for 12 weeks ... FA levels increased in females (6.3 vs. 12.5 ng/dL; p=0.001) and males (6.4 vs. 11.4 ng/dL; p=0.001) and Hcy levels decreased (10.6 vs. 8.3 µmol/L; p=0.001 and 11.5 vs. 9.3; p=0.001, respectively). A significant reduction in mean concentration of total cholesterol in females (203.4 vs. 193.1 mg/dL; p=0.001) and in males (209.5 vs. 201.9; p=0.002) was observed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased in females and in males (107.4 vs. 99.9 mg/dL; p=0.001 and 121.5 vs. 115.1; p=0.002, respectively). The apoAI concentrations increased in smoking women and in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (p=0.032 and p=0.024, respectively)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Genistein in the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120 postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1 year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to 56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from 108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3 to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Preventing Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 20 - "Is it possible to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go further by demonstrating that B-vitamin treatment reduces, by as much as seven fold, the cerebral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically vulnerable to the AD process, including the medial temporal lobe ... B vitamins lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereby slowing cognitive decline" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and 10-y incidence of age-related macular degeneration - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 1 - "Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were determined from blood samples drawn in 1997-1999 from cohort members aged ≥55 y. AMD was assessed in 1760 survivors from retinal photographs taken in 2002-2004 and 2007-2009. Total intakes of folate and vitamin B-12 were assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire ... Elevated serum tHcy and folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies predicted increased risk of incident AMD, which suggests a potential role for vitamin B-12 and folate in reducing AMD risk" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of Mixed Dietary Supplements on Total Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations (tHcy): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2012 Aug 1;82(4):260-266 - "Two-hundred and thirty-six hospitalized, acutely ill older patients, who were part of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, were assigned to receive a daily oral nutritional supplement drink containing 1.3 mg of vitamin B2, 1.4 mg of vitamin B6, 1.5 μg of B12, 200 μg of folic acid, or a placebo, for 6 weeks ... A mixed nutrient supplement containing physiological amounts of B vitamins significantly reduced plasma tHcy concentrations in older patients recovering from acute illness"
  • B vitamins may slow cognitive decline: Oxford University study - Nutra USA, 10/25/11 - "A daily combination of folic acid, and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with a 30% reduction in levels of the amino acid homocysteine, and improvements in a range of mental tests, including global cognition and episodic memory ... One interpretation [of the data] is that lowering homocysteine concentrations by administering B vitamins slows brain atrophy, which in turn slows both cognitive and clinical decline ... The Vitacog study involved 266 people over the age of 70 with diagnosed mild cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a B vitamin supplement providing 0.8 mg per day of folic acid, 0.5 mg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6" - [Abstract]
  • Low vitamin B12 levels may lead to brain shrinkage, cognitive problems - Science Daily, 9/26/11 - "Older people with low blood levels of vitamin B12 markers may be more likely to have lower brain volumes and have problems with their thinking skills ... An average of four-and-a-half years later, MRI scans of the participants' brains were taken to measure total brain volume and look for other signs of brain damage ... Having high levels of four of five markers for vitamin B12 deficiency was associated with having lower scores on the cognitive tests and smaller total brain volume ... On the cognitive tests, the scores ranged from -2.18 to 1.42, with an average of 0.23. For each increase of one micromole per liter of homocysteine -- one of the markers of B12 deficiency -- the cognitive scores decreasedby 0.03 standardized units or points" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • B-complex vitamins may help slow progression of dementia - Science Daily, 10/27/10 - "Large doses of B-complex vitamins could reduce the rate of brain shrinkage by half in elderly people with memory problems and slow the progression of dementia ... patients who already exhibit signs of dementia and test positive for high levels of homocysteine are more likely to respond well to the large doses of B vitamins. Homocysteine is an amino acid in the blood, and high blood levels are linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease"
  • Homocysteine and holotranscobalamin and the risk of Alzheimer disease: A longitudinal study - Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1408-14 - "homocysteine (tHcy) and holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the active fraction of vitamin B12 ... The odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for AD were 1.16 (1.04-1.31) per increase of 1 μmol/L of tHcy at baseline and 0.980 (0.965-0.995) for each increase of 1 pmol/L baseline holoTC ... This study suggests that both tHcy and holoTC may be involved in the development of AD. The tHcy-AD link may be partly explained by serum holoTC. The role of holoTC in AD should be further investigated"
  • Vitamin B12 May Curb Risk for Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 10/18/10 - "holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the biologically active fraction of vitamin B12 ... for each 1-µmol/L increase in the baseline concentration of tHcy, the risk for AD increased by 16% (odds ratio [OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 – 1.31). On the other hand, for each 1-pmol/L increase in baseline holoTC, the risk for AD was reduced by 2% (OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.965 – 0.995)" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • B vitamins slow brain atrophy in people with memory problems - Science Daily, 9/12/10 - "on average the brains of those taking the folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 treatment shrank at a rate of 0.76% a year, while those in the placebo group had a mean brain shrinkage rate of 1.08%. People with the highest levels of homocysteine benefited most, showing atrophy rates on treatment that were half of those on placebo"
  • Vitamin B may help prevent Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA, 9/9/10 - "The authors concluded that an accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment could be slowed via dietary supplementation with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins"
  • Effects of metformin with or without supplementation with folate on homocysteine levels and vascular endothelium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome - Diabetes Care. 2009 Nov 23 - "Metformin exerts a slight but significant deleterious effect on serum Hcy levels in patients with PCOS, and supplementation with folate is useful to increase the beneficial effect of metformin on the vascular endothelium"
  • Impact of Homocysteine-Lowering Vitamin Therapy on Long-Term Outcome of Patients With Coronary Artery Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2009 Sep 15;104(6):745-749 - "Folic acid >/=400 mug/day with or without additional B vitamins was administered at the attending physicians' discretion ... Treatment was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality in patients with homocysteine levels >15 mumol/L (4% vs 32%, p <0.001) but not in patients with lower levels (5% vs 7%, p >0.05)" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • High-Dose B Vitamin Supplementation and Progression of Subclinical Atherosclerosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial - Stroke. 2008 Dec 31 - "high-dose B vitamin supplementation (5 mg folic acid+0.4 mg vitamin B12+50 mg vitamin B6) or matching placebo for 3.1 years ... High-dose B vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid artery intima media thickness) in well-nourished healthy B vitamin "replete" individuals at low risk for cardiovascular disease with a fasting tHcy >/=9.1 micromol/L"
  • Effects of folic acid and N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease - Acta Cardiol. 2007 Dec;62(6):579-85 - "either folic acid 5 mg or NAC 600 mg or placebo daily for eight weeks ... endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) ... Folic acid and NAC therapies decreased plasma homocysteine (from 21.7 +/- 8.7 micromol/l to 12.5 +/- 2.5 micromol/l, P < 0.001; from 20.9 +/- 7.6 micromol/l to 15.6 +/- 4.3 micromol/l, P = 0.03, respectively), and increased EDD (6.7 +/- 6.1% P = 0.002, 4.4 +/- 2.6% P < 0.001, respectively) compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in improving EDD between the folic acid and the NAC group"
  • Folic acid supplementation in early second trimester and the risk of preeclampsia - Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;198(1):45.e1-7 - "Supplementation of multivitamins containing folic acid was associated with increased serum folate (on average 10.51 micromol/L), decreased plasma homocysteine (on average 0.39 micromol/L), and reduced risk of preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.75)" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B-12 Function May Be Diminished By Excessive Folate - Science Daily, 12/21/07 - "homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are at much higher levels in individuals who have a combination of vitamin B12 deficiency and high blood folate levels than in individuals who are also vitamin B12 deficient but have normal folate levels"
  • Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1384-91 - "concentrations of holoTC (a marker of reduced vitamin B-12 status), tHcy, and MMA predicted cognitive decline, but folate did not. A doubling in holoTC concentrations (from 50 to 100 pmol/L) was associated with a 30% slower rate of cognitive decline (-0.137 to -0.083), whereas a doubling in tHcy (from 10 to 20 mumol/L) or MMA (from 0.25 to 0.50 mumol/L) was associated with >50% more rapid cognitive decline (-0.090 to -0.169) and (-0.104 to -0.169), respectively" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Homocysteine, vitamins, and vascular disease prevention - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1563S-8S - "Dietary deficiency of vitamin B-6 and folic acid and absorptive deficiency of vitamin B-12, which result from traditional food processing or abnormal absorption of B vitamins, are important factors in causing elevations in blood homocysteine. Numerous clinical and epidemiologic studies have established elevated blood homocysteine as a potent independent risk factor for vascular disease in the general population. Dietary improvement, providing abundant vitamin B-6, folic acid, and cobalamin, may prevent vascular disease by lowering blood homocysteine. The dramatic decline in cardiovascular mortality in the United States since 1950 may possibly be attributable in part to voluntary fortification of the food supply with vitamin B-6 and folic acid. Fortification of the US food supply with folic acid in 1998, as mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration, was associated with a further decline in mortality from vascular disease, presumably because of increased blood folate and decreased blood homocysteine in the population"
  • The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma concentrations of homocysteine in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):1073-1081 - "Total choline + betaine intake was inversely associated with tHcy, as was choline from 2 water-soluble choline-containing compounds. Remethylation of tHcy may be more dependent on the betaine pathway when methyl sources are low as a result of either inadequate folate intake or heavier alcohol consumption"
  • B Vitamin Plasma Levels and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in a German Cohort - Stroke. 2007 Sep 20 - "Our data suggest that low vitamin B12 plasma levels, particularly in combination with low folate levels, increase the risk of cerebral ischemia. This effect may be mediated at least partly through elevations of homocysteine levels"
  • Review of the role of hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency in neurological and psychiatric disorders - Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2007 Sep;75(9):e1-e18 - "Elevated concentration of total homocysteine (Hcy) in plasma (> 12 micromol/l) is a risk factor for several diseases of the central nervous system. Epidemiological studies have shown a dose-dependent relationship between concentrations of Hcy and the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Hcy is a marker for B-vitamin deficiency (folate, B (12), B (6)). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) causes hypomethylation which is an important mechanism that links Hcy to dementia ... Current evidence suggests that Hcy-lowering treatment has a positive effect for the secondary and primary prevention of stroke. HHcy is very common in patients with Parkinson disease particularly those who receive L-dopa treatment. Furthermore, a positive association has been reported between HHcy and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, HHcy and vitamin B deficiency are reported to have a causal role in depression, and epilepsy. In addition several anti-epileptic drugs cause secondary HHcy. Therefore, sufficient intakes of the vitamins are recommended for patients who have already developed neuropsychiatric diseases. Vitamin B deficiency should be suspected in children with development disorders, failure to thrive and unexplained neurological manifestations. Elderly people are also an important at-risk group where vitamin B deficiency and HHcy have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Treatment with folate, B (12), and B (6) can improve cerebral function. Preventive vitamin B supplementation and sufficient intake seem very important for secondary and primary prevention of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially in subjects with a low intake or status of the vitamins"
  • WENBIT: No Benefit of B Vitamins - Medscape, 9/4/07 - "Homocysteine is a definite risk marker in heart disease, but it may not be causal"
  • Correlations between folate, B12, homocysteine levels, and radiological markers of neuropathology in elderly post-stroke patients - J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Jun;26(3):272-8 - "folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are prevalent in elderly post-stroke patients. These two conditions are strongly and independently associated with the development of brain atrophy"
  • Effects of folic acid and vitamin B complex on serum C-reactive protein and albumin levels in stable hemodialysis patients - Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Jun 29 - "Folic acid and vitamin B complex co-administration effectively lowers tHcy and hs-CRP levels and increases albumin levels in stable hemodialysis subjects, underscoring their potential benefit to attenuate the state of inflammation and possibly improve the nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis"
  • Vitamin link to bone loss probed - BBC News, 11/14/06 - "Increased amounts of homocysteine in the blood may increase the risk of developing osteoporosis ... Individuals who have a poor dietary intake of B-vitamins tend to have high homocysteine levels"
  • Older Adults May Need B12 Dose More Than 200 Times the RDA to Normalize Mild Vitamin Deficiency - Medscape, 5/26/06 - "As both methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (MMA) and homocysteine are metabolized by vitamin B12, elevated levels of these compounds in the plasma can reflect vitamin deficiency ... One analysis yielded 500 μg of vitamin B12 as the minimum dose necessary to produce the greatest effect on MMA levels. There was little additional benefit in using daily doses of vitamin B12 of more than 500 μg"
  • B12, Folate May Reduce Homocysteine Levels Without Affecting Cognition - Medscape, 12/19/05 - "randomized to receive (1) folic acid, 2.5 mg plus 400 µg of vitamin B12 or placebo, (2) 25 mg of vitamin B6 or placebo, or (3) 25 mg of riboflavin or placebo ... Homocysteine levels were significantly reduced by an average of 33% in the folic acid plus vitamin B12 group after 3 months ... B6 and riboflavin supplementation had no effect on homocysteine levels"
  • B vitamins to lower homocysteine may prevent strokes - Nutra USA, 11/10/05
  • Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in age-related macular degeneration - Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005 Sep 15;:1-5 - "Patients with both exudative and dry types of AMD had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels ... Plasma vitamin B12 levels were found to be significantly lower in the exudative AMD group"
  • Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease - Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):636-43 - "Elevated plasma tHcy concentrations and low serum folate concentrations are independent predictors of the development of dementia and AD"
  • Vitamin B12, homocysteine and carotid plaque in the era of folic acid fortification of enriched cereal grain products - CMAJ. 2005 Jun 7;172(12):1569-73 - "Vitamin B12 deficiency is surprisingly common among patients with vascular disease, and, in the setting of folic acid fortification, low serum vitamin B12 levels are a major determinant of elevated homocysteine levels and increased carotid plaque area"
  • Homocysteine and vitamin b(12) status relate to bone turnover markers, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and fractures in healthy elderly people - J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Jun;20(6):921-9 - "High Hcy and low vitamin B(12) concentrations were significantly associated with low BUA, high markers of bone turnover, and increased fracture risk"
  • Blood chemical is a stroke risk - BBC News, 1/14/05 - "looked at people genetically prone to high homocysteine levels and found they had a higher stroke risk than other individuals ... the risk can be reversed by taking folic acid ... Too much folic acid is also known to impact on a person's levels of vitamin B12 ... If this falls too low could, at worst, result in irreversible nerve damage"
  • The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers - Br J Nutr. 2004 Oct;92(4):665-9 - "plasma tHcy is lowered rapidly and significantly by 3 or 6 g betaine/d in healthy men and women"
  • Impairment of coronary circulation by acute hyperhomocysteinaemia and reversal by antioxidant vitamins - J Intern Med. 2004 Nov;256(5):398-405 - "Our data suggest that acute hyperhomocysteinaemia reduces CFVR and increases plasma MCP-1 and IL-8 levels in healthy subjects. Pretreatment with antioxidant vitamin E and ascorbic acid prevents the effects of hyperhomocysteinaemia, suggesting an oxidative mechanism"
  • Treatment With Folate to Lower Homocysteine - Medscape, 7/29/04 - "For patients with known cardiovascular disease, it is generally recommended to treat with folic acid (1 mg/day), vitamin B6 (10 mg/day), and vitamin B12 (0.4 mg/day). Folic acid can be increased up to 5 mg/day to reach a goal of lowering homocysteine levels below 15 mmol/L"
  • Vitamins May Lower Osteoporosis Fractures - Intelihealth, 5/13/04 - "B vitamins are known to reduce levels of homocysteine ... high levels of homocysteine at least double the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures"
  • 48,000 Lives Saved by Vitamin Additive - WebMD, 3/5/04 - "folic acid has another benefit -- this one for adults. It lowers blood levels of a bad actor called homocysteine. High homocysteine levels weaken the walls of blood vessels, making a person more prone to heart disease and stroke" - See iHerb folic acid products.
  • Folic acid and vitamin B(12) are more effective than vitamin B(6) in lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary artery disease - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar;58(3):481-7 - "The mean fasting plasma homocysteine concentration, however, decreased significantly after 12 weeks of folic acid combined with vitamin B(12) supplementation"
  • Low Dose Betaine Supplementation Leads to Immediate and Long Term Lowering of Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Men and Women - J. Nutr. 133:4135-4138, December 2003 - "doses of betaine in the range of dietary intake reduce fasting and postmethionine loading plasma homocysteine concentrations. A betaine-rich diet might therefore lower cardiovascular disease risk" - See iHerb betaine products.
  • Elevated Homocysteine Raises Risk of Stroke, Dementia - Life Extension Magazine, 12/03
  • Mediterranean Diet Lowers C-reactive Protein Levels - Medscape, 11/11/03 - "For each 10-point increase in diet score, there was a corresponding 0.22 mg/dL reduction in C-reactive protein levels, a 0.21 pg/ml reduction in interleukin-6, a 12.5 mg/dL decrease in fibrinogen, and a 0.87 mmol/L decrease in homocysteine levels (P < .05), he said. Also, white blood cell count decreased significantly"
  • Startling New Findings About Homocysteine - Life Extension Magazine, 11/03 - "a startling 100% of French elderly hospitalized patients showed higher than desired homocysteine levels, with 45% suffering from severe hyperhomocysteinemia ... Administration of vitamins B6 and B12, and folate, causes a significant decrease of elevated serum homocysteine concentrations in older persons ... More recent studies not only confirm the cardiovascular dangers of homocysteine, but also its toxic effect on the brain. It turns out that high blood levels of homocysteine increase the incidence of depression, memory impairment, and even Alzheimer’s disease"

Other News:

  • Homocysteine-related hTERT DNA demethylation contributes to shortened leukocyte telomere length in atherosclerosis - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Nov;231(1):173-179 - "Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is shortened in patients with clinical atherosclerosis (AS) ... human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) ... hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) ... Hcy was negatively correlated with LTL shortening in AS patients (r = -0.179, p = 0.015) and controls (r = -0.146, p = 0.031). Serum folate and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels significantly interacted with Hcy in LTL shortening. Hcy was related to hTERT mRNA downregulation and promoter demethylation, which combined was associated with LTL shortening in AS patients"
  • Higher plasma homocysteine is associated with increased risk of developing colorectal polyps - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Feb;65(2):195-201 - "participants with higher plasma homocysteine [odds ratio (OR) = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 3.08) level exhibited significantly increased risk of colorectal polyps after adjusting for potential confounders. Plasma homocysteine was a strong predictor of the risk of colorectal polyps in participants with adequate B-vitamins status"
  • Homocysteine and the risk of nursing home admission and mortality in older persons - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 9 - "In men, no significant associations were observed. In women, after adjustment for confounding, the highest quartile of homocysteine was associated with a significantly higher risk of NH admission compared with the first quartile (hazard ratio (HR)=2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.36-6.49). Both women in the third and the fourth quartile of homocysteine had a significantly higher mortality risk (HR=1.70, 95% CI=1.08-2.65 and HR=1.91, 95% CI=1.22-3.00, respectively) compared with the first quartile"
  • Plasma homocysteine and cognitive decline in older hypertensive subjects - Int Psychogeriatr. 2011 May 6:1-9 - "Higher homocysteine showed an independent association with greater cognitive decline in three domains: speed of cognition (β = -27.33, p = 0.001), episodic memory (β = -1.25, p = 0.02) and executive function (β = -0.05, p = 0.04). The association with executive function was no longer significant after inclusion of folate in the regression model (β = -0.032, p = 0.22). Change in working memory and attention were not associated with plasma homocysteine, folate or B12. High homocysteine was associated with greater decline with a Cohen's d effect size of approximately 0.7 compared to low homocysteine. Conclusions: In a population of older hypertensive patients, higher plasma homocysteine was associated with cognitive decline"
  • Homocysteine levels are associated with hippocampus volume in type 2 diabetic patients - Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Jan 20 - "Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with cognitive dysfunction, in which changes in the hippocampus plausibly play a pivotal role ... Our results indicate that the elevated levels of tHcy in Japanese nondementia patients with type 2 diabetes are characterised by hippocampal atrophy and insulin resistance and that the Z-score and HOMA index may be the primary factors that influence tHcy levels"
  • Homocysteine is associated with hippocampal and white matter atrophy in older subjects with mild hypertension - Int Psychogeriatr. 2010 Apr 7:1-8 - "In older hypertensives, plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased rates of progressive white matter and hippocampal atrophy"
  • Homocysteine may be best predictor of CV risk in elderly - theheart.org, 1/8/09 - "for primary prevention, homocysteine appears to be the best predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the very elderly [1]. The research also confirms what many had already suspected—that the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) is not very accurate at predicting risk in this age group"
  • Plasma homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in patients with laryngeal cancer - Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008 Dec;134(12):1328-33 - "The mean (SD) level of total homocysteine in patients with laryngeal carcinoma was 2.84 (1.62) mg/L vs 0.99 (0.24) mg/L in the control group"
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men with adult-onset diabetes mellitus - Urology. 2008 May;71(5):897-900 - "Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) ... those with HHcy had 5.2 times the odds of vasculogenic ED compared with men without HHcy"
  • Homocysteine and diabetic retinopathy - Diabetes Care. 2007 Sep 26 - "Plasma total homocysteine concentration may be a useful biomarker and/or a novel risk factor for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy in people with type 2 diabetes"
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia: a novel risk factor for erectile dysfunction - Metabolism. 2006 Dec;55(12):1564-1568 - "Hyperhomocysteinemia, known to be an important risk factor in endothelial dysfunction, seems to be an important determinant in ED. These data suggest that slightly elevated Hcys levels are significantly related with arterial and probably endothelial dysfunction in patients with ED"
  • Biomarker For Age-related Macular Degeneration Found - Science Daily, 1/8/06 - "elevated homocysteine in the blood may be another biomarker for increased risk of AMD"
  • Erectile Trouble May Signal Heart Disease - HealthDay, 5/24/05 - "Levels of homocysteine may be a sign of how severe erectile dysfunction is ... Nutrition can influence homocysteine levels positively, and substitution with folic acid, in combination with vitamin B6 and B12, can reduce homocysteine levels significantly"
  • Homocysteine and cognitive function - Medscape, 3/25/05 - "Higher homocysteine levels were associated with worse function across a broad range of cognitive domains, and the magnitude of the associations was large. The data suggest that homocysteine may be a potentially important modifiable cause of cognitive dysfunction"
  • New Research: What is Your Optimal TSH Level? - About.com, 9/30/04 - "normalizing the TSH with a target TSH level of less than 2 mIU/mL is advisable to lower CRP levels and homocysteine levels, and possibly the cholesterol levels"
  • Metformin Treatment Leads to Increased Homocysteine, Decreased Vitamin B12 and Folate in Type 2 Diabetes Patients - Doctor's Guide, 10/20/03 - "Homocysteine requires folate and vitamin B12 to be properly metabolised, and serum vitamin B12 levels are known to decrease during metformin treatment ... compared with placebo, metformin was associated with an increase in serum homocysteine levels (4% [0.2 to 8 µmol L-1]; P=0.039), and decreases in vitamin B12 (-14% [-4.2 to -24 pmol L-1]; P<0.0001) and folate (-7%"
  • Elevated Homocysteine May Be Linked to Glaucoma - Doctor's Guide, 10/22/02 - "Hyperhomocysteinemia could be a significant risk factor for a particular type of glaucoma"
  • Long-Time Hormone Therapy Lowers Postmenopausal Homocysteine - Doctor's Guide, 8/14/02 - "long-term HRT results in lower total homocysteine concentrations in all methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes with no demonstrable difference in effect between unopposed and opposed hormone replacement therapy"


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