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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending
12/4/13. You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.
D decreases pain in women with type 2 diabetes, depression - Science Daily,
12/2/13 - "Researchers in this study tested the efficacy
of weekly vitamin D2 supplementation (50,000
IUs) for six months on depression in women
with type 2 diabetes. Depression significantly improved following
supplementation. In addition, 61 percent of patients reported shooting or
burning pain in their legs and feet (neuropathic
pain) and 74 percent reported numbness and tingling in their hands, fingers,
and legs (sensory pain) at the beginning of the study. Researchers found a
significant decrease in neuropathic and sensory pain at three and six months
following vitamin D2 supplementation" - See
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
Oxytocin Found to Stimulate Social Brain Regions in Children With Autism -
NYTimes.com, 12/2/13 - "the first study of how
affects the brains of children with autism finds hints of promise — and also
suggestions of what its limitations might be ... the hormone, given as an
inhalant, generated increased activity in parts of the brain involved in social
connection. This suggests not only that oxytocin can stimulate social brain
areas, but also that in children with autism these
brain regions are not irrevocably damaged but are plastic enough to be
influenced" - See
Oxy Pro (Oxytocin) Nasal Spray at International Anti-aging Systems.
Daily Multivitamin May
Lower Risk for Cataracts - Medscape, 12/2/13 - "The
eye disease component of PHS II involved 11,497 male physicians randomly
assigned to take a daily multivitamin (Centrum Silver, Pfizer) (n = 5736) or
placebo (n = 5761) in the cataract part of the
study, and 14,233 men randomly assigned to a multivitamin (n = 7111) or placebo
(n = 7122) in the AMD part of the study. Study participants reported no cataract
or AMD incidence at baseline ... The researchers found a 9% lower risk for
cataract among participants in the multivitamin group compared with the placebo"
- Note: My opinion is that Centrum is one of those supplement designed by
an accountant. Examples, the dl-Alpha form of vitamin E, the least
absorbable for of copper, etc.
study suggests low vitamin D causes damage to brain - Science Daily, 12/2/13
- "Published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine, the
UK study showed that middle-aged rats that were fed a diet low in
vitamin D for several months developed free
radical damage to the brain, and many different brain proteins were damaged as
identified by redox proteomics. These rats also showed a significant decrease in
cognitive performance on tests of learning and memory" - [Abstract]
- Note: By UK, I assume they mean University of Kentucky as apposed to
United Kingdom. See
vitamin D at Amazon.com.
cholesterol fuels growth, spread of breast cancer - Science Daily, 11/28/13
- "the research for the first time explains the link
between high cholesterol and
breast cancer, especially in post-menopausal
women, and suggests that dietary changes or therapies to reduce cholesterol may
also offer a simple, accessible way to reduce breast cancer risk ... What we
have now found is a molecule -- not cholesterol itself, but an abundant
metabolite of cholesterol -- called 27HC that mimics the hormone estrogen and
can independently drive the growth of breast cancer ... the findings suggest
there may be a simple way to reduce the risk of breast cancer by keeping
cholesterol in check, either with statins or a healthy diet. Additionally, for
women who have breast cancer and high cholesterol, taking statins may delay or
prevent resistance to endocrine therapies such as tamoxifen or aromatase
inhibitors" - See
red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
20 Surprising Ways to Prevent Colds and Flu - ABC News, 11/28/13 -
"If I don't have any hand sanitizer with me, I'll pour a
little vodka on my hands. Vodka's high alcohol content makes it a great
disinfectant" - I thought I was the only one who realized that. It
doesn't create toxic fumes that make you itch all over like chlorine and rubbing
alcohol. I used it for a lot more such as keyboards, kitchen counters,
etc. It comes to about $17 per gallon if you buy the x-brands in the half
gallons in the case of 6 which gets you a 10% discount at the military bases.
FDA OKs New Minimally
Invasive Treatment for Varicose Veins - Medscape, 11/26/13 -
"Varithena (formerly known as Varisolve) is a
pharmaceutical-grade, low-nitrogen, polidocanol foam dispensed from a
proprietary canister device. It is a "minimally invasive, non-surgical procedure
that requires neither tumescent anesthesia nor sedation,""
Abstracts from this week's
Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics
plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here
for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):
ratio intake and incidence of glaucoma: The SUN cohort - Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov
12 - "followed-up 17,128 participants initially free of
glaucoma for a median time of 8.2 years.
Validated data of diet were collected at baseline with a 136-item
semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and information of new diagnosis
of glaucoma in biennial follow-up questionnaires ... median follow-up time of
8.2 years ... Participants in the highest quintile of
ratio intake had a significantly higher risk of glaucoma than participants in
the lowest quintile (hazard ratio (HR): 1.91 [95%CI: 1.05-3.46], p for trend
0.03). The association became stronger (HR for the comparison of the 5th versus
the 1st quintile: 2.43 [95%CI: 1.17-5.03], p for trend 0.02) when we considered
only those participants who were ≥40 years old" -
Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com
Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
endurance exercise in humans: Circulating levels of inflammatory markers and leg
muscle size - Mech Ageing Dev. 2013 Nov 25 - "endurance
training (Tr) ... we studied 15 old trained (O-Tr) healthy males and, for
comparison, 12 old untrained (O-Un), 10 Young-Tr (Y-Tr) and 12 Young-Un (Y-Un)
... Tr was associated with an improved insulin profile (p<0.05), and lower
leucocyte (p<0.05) and triglyceride levels (p<0.05), independent of age. Aging
was associated with poorer glucose control (p<0.05), independent of training.
The age-related changes in waist circumference, VO2 peak, cholesterol, LDL, leg
muscle size, CRP and IL-6 were counteracted by physical activity (p<0.05). A
significant increase in suPAR with age was observed (p<0.05). Most importantly,
life-long endurance exercise was associated with a lower level of the
inflammatory markers CRP and IL-6 (p<0.05), and with a greater thigh muscle area
(p<0.05), compared to age-matched untrained counterparts. These findings in a
limited group of individuals suggest that regular physical endurance activity
may play a role in reducing some markers of systemic inflammation, even within
the normal range, and in maintaining muscle mass with aging"
supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances
myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double-blind, randomized trial
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Nov 27 - "myofibrillar protein
synthesis (MPS) ... A low-protein (6.25 g) mixed macronutrient beverage can be
as effective as a high-protein dose (25 g) at stimulating increased MPS rates
when supplemented with a high (5.0 g total leucine) amount of
leucine. These results have important
implications for formulations of protein beverages designed to enhance muscle
anabolism" - [Nutra
USA] - Note: That's about what I take per day in the one heaping
scoop. It's got to be the worst tasting substance in the world. I
put the scoop in a small jar with about a third cup of water, shake it and swill
in then rinse the jar a couple more times to get it all. See
leucine products at Amazon.com.
trans-10,cis-12 CLA Reduces Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis in a
Dose-Dependent Manner - J Nutr. 2013 Nov 27 - "Mice
were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments upon the
establishment of arthritis: corn oil (CO) or 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375%, or 0.5%
t10c12-CLA (wt:wt) for 84 d. Sham mice (no
arthritis) were fed CO and served as controls. Arthritic paw score, based on
subjective assessment of arthritic severity, and paw thickness decreased
linearly overall [16-65% (P < 0.001) and 0.5-12% (P < 0.001), respectively] as
dietary t10c12-CLA increased (P < 0.001, R2 < 0.81). Increasing dietary
t10c12-CLA was associated with a decrease in plasma interleukin (IL)-1β at days
21 and 42 compared with CO-fed arthritic mice, such that mice fed ≥0.25%
t10c12-CLA had IL-1β concentrations that were similar to sham mice. Plasma
cytokines returned to sham mice concentrations by day 63 regardless of
treatment; however, an arthritis-induced
elevation in paw IL-1β decreased linearly as dietary t10c12-CLA concentrations
increased at day 84 (P = 0.007, R2 = 0.92). Similarly, increasing dietary
t10c12-CLA linearly decreased paw tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α" - See
conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
supplementation improves HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 activity and enhances
cholesterol efflux capacity in subjects with hypercholesterolemia - J Clin
Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Nov 27 - "Paraoxonase 1 (PON1),
an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein
(HDL-PON1), is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties ...
A total of 122 hypercholesterolemic subjects were given 160 mg of
anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 61 of
each group) for 24 wk in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial
... Anthocyanin consumption significantly increased HDL cholesterol and
decreased LDL cholesterol concentrations compared with placebo (P < 0.018 and
P<0.001, respectively). Anthocyanin supplementation also increased the activity
of HDL-PON1 compared with placebo (P<0.001)" - See
anthocyanin products at iHerb.
Anthocyanin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia -
"Anthocyanins ... are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red,
purple, or blue depending on the pH. They belong to a parent class of
molecules called flavonoids synthesized via
the phenylpropanoid pathway; they are odorless and nearly flavorless,
contributing to taste as a moderately astringent sensation ... Plants rich
in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and
bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and
blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant peel, black rice, Concord grape,
muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals" - See
Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
homocysteine is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer
independently of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities - Clin Nutr.
2013 Nov 13 - "Increased
homocysteine was strongly associated with
the risk of colorectal cancer independently of
oxidative stress indicators and antioxidant capacities"
statin treatment on coronary plaque progression - A serial coronary CT
angiography study - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Dec;231(2):198-204 -
"The study included 100 consecutive patients who
underwent serial Coronary CTA (mean follow up: 406 ± 92 days) for evaluation of
CAD without known prior heart disease or revascularization. We performed
volumetric assessment of low attenuation plaque (LAP < 30 Hounsfield units),
non-calcified (NCP) and calcified plaque
volumes at baseline and follow up scans for vessels >2 mm in diameter ...
Statin therapy resulted in significantly lower
progression of LAP and NCP plaques compared to non-statin users"
the risks of stroke recurrence and death after ischemic stroke: The Fukuoka
Stroke Registry - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Dec;231(2):211-5 -
"CVEs: stroke recurrence
or transient ischemic attack) and all-cause
mortality in a cohort of Japanese patients with first-ever ischemic stroke
... The 2822 eligible patients registered in the Fukuoka Stroke Registry with
first-ever acute ischemic stroke from June 2007 to February 2011 were classified
into statin users (n = 993) and non-users (n =
1829) at discharge, and followed up until March 2012 ... The cumulative risks of
CVE and death after 4 years were significantly lower in statin users than in
non-users (13.8% versus 19.5%, P = 0.005 for CVE; 11.8% versus 21.7%, P < 0.001
for death). After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, statin treatment
significantly reduced the risks of CVE (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.92; P =
0.011) and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.89; P = 0.006)"
consumption and total mortality: a meta-analysis of twenty prospective cohort
studies - Br J Nutr. 2013 Nov 27:1-12 - "Eligible
studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases for all
articles published through June 2013 and reviewing the reference lists of the
retrieved articles ... The RR of total mortality
for the high v. low category of coffee consumption
was 0.86 (95 % CI 0.80, 0.92). The pooled RR for studies using ≥ 2-4 cups/d as a
cut-off for the high category was similar to that for studies using ≥ 5-9 cups/d
as the cut-off ... A weak, but significant, inverse association was found with
moderate coffee consumption (1-2 cups/d; RR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.87, 0.98)"
To the K-Cup and beyond: Single serve coffee makers reviewed - CNET
Reviews, 9/8/13 - "what really stood out for us was
the differences in flavor between each unit, even using the same kind of
coffee ... The sturdy Bunn MyCafe MCU is our favorite brewer so far, for its
sturdy construction, retro design, and, most importantly because it makes
the most flavorful cup of coffee" - See
BUNN MCU Single Cup Multi-Use Brewer at Amazon.com.
It takes both pods and coffee grounds which isn't clear until you get toward
the end of the
full review. Everyone seems to be selling the pods these days
including Costco and the military commissaries.
enhances brain reward system responses in men viewing the face of their female
partner - Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 25 -
"The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin
(OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via
interactions with brain dopamine reward systems ... Here, we report the results
of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind,
placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20
heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers. In both experiments, intranasal OXT
treatment (24 IU) made subjects perceive their female partner's face as more
attractive compared with unfamiliar women but had no effect on the
attractiveness of other familiar women ... our results suggest that OXT could
contribute to romantic bonds in men by enhancing their partner's attractiveness
and reward value compared with other women" - See
Oxy Pro (Oxytocin) Nasal Spray at International Anti-aging Systems.
Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":
Tripp-Lite TLP606DMUSB review: This surge suppressor clamps to your desk -
PCWorld, 11/27/13 - I was looking for something like this when I found out that
Velcro wasn't strong enough. See
Tripp-Lite TLP606DMUSB at Amazon.
Also see the MonoPrice version
Monoprice 6 Outlet Desk Mountable Power Surge Protector w/ 2 Built-In USB
Charger - 2100 Joules - Plastic w/ 6ft Cord.
Google's new Chrome voice extension lets you search hands-free (video) -
engadget.com, 11/26/13 - Google’s voice search works on your desktop now, not
just smart phones. I just tried it. Click on the picture of the microphone
just to the right of the Google search box using the Google Chrome browser (you
also need a microphone attached to your desktop). Make sure you click
‘Allow’ in the dialog box at the top of the Chrome browser the first time you
use it. See the following for a microphone:
Plantronics Audio 478 Stereo USB Headset (Audio 478).
Dymo LabelWriter 450 - PC Magazine, 11/26/13 - I bought two of these years
ago. I use one just for printing stamps and the other to print the three-part
stamp, address and return address labels. It works through stamps.com and saves
a lot of trips to the post office especially if you have a small scale to
determine the weight for the postage. You need to
buy the rolls to print the stamps directly from stamps.com. The three part
label is the ‘Dymo 30383’ and Amazon sells it. See
DYMO LabelWriter 450 Turbo High-Speed Postage and Label Printer for PC and Mac,
USB, Printer and Software, Black/Silver (1752265)
DYMO LabelWriter Postage Label, 3-Part Internet Postage, 2-1/4 "x 7", White, 150
Best sellers in Chinese language at Amazon.com
- Population of the world = 7.127 billion. Population of China = 1.351 billion.
1.351 / 7.127 = 19% not counting other countries like Taiwan and Singapore.
Wiki comes up with 14.1% but Mandarin still leaves all other languages in
the dust. Seems like a no-brainer if you want to learn a second language. Fluenz
has the best ratings.
Health Focus (Homocysteine):
protein and plasma total homocysteine, cysteine concentrations in coronary
angiographic subjects - Nutr J. 2013 Nov 7;12(1):144 -
"High animal-protein diet was positively associated with
high tHcy concentrations, whereas high plant-protein diet was inversely
associated with tHcy concentrations. Furthermore the total protein intake was
strongly related to tCys concentrations"
Vitamin B Supplements May
Lower Stroke Risk - Medscape, 9/18/13 - "Researchers
searched for randomized controlled trials published before August 2012 that
compared vitamin B supplementation with placebo, very-low-dose B vitamins, or
usual care; had a minimum follow-up of 6 months; and included stroke events as a
study endpoint ... The researchers noted a reduction in overall stroke events
resulting from lowered homocysteine levels following B vitamin supplementation
(risk ratio, 0.93"
Relationship between metformin use, vitamin B12 deficiency,
hyperhomocysteinemia and vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes
- Endocr J. 2013 Sep 8 -
"Metformin-induced B12 lowering in diabetes was associated with elevation of
homocysteine, and hyperhomocysteinemia was independently related to retinopathy"
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
between low-dose folic acid supplementation and blood lipids concentrations in
male and female subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors - Med Sci Monit.
2013 Sep 4;19:733-9 - "Folic acid (FA) is one of the B
complex vitamins. It is thought that FA deficiency promotes atherosclerosis
formation in arterial endothelium. FA, acting through reducing homocysteine
(Hcy) levels, may contribute to decreased cholesterol (Ch) synthesis ...
enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, ages 20-39; and 64 F, ages 19-39) with
atherosclerosis risk factors ... participants were asked to take FA at a low
dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for 12 weeks ... FA levels increased in females (6.3 vs.
12.5 ng/dL; p=0.001) and males (6.4 vs. 11.4 ng/dL; p=0.001) and Hcy levels
decreased (10.6 vs. 8.3 µmol/L; p=0.001 and 11.5 vs. 9.3; p=0.001,
respectively). A significant reduction in mean concentration of total
cholesterol in females (203.4 vs. 193.1 mg/dL; p=0.001) and in males (209.5 vs.
201.9; p=0.002) was observed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)
levels decreased in females and in males (107.4 vs. 99.9 mg/dL; p=0.001 and
121.5 vs. 115.1; p=0.002, respectively). The apoAI concentrations increased in
smoking women and in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (p=0.032 and p=0.024, respectively)"
folic acid products at Amazon.com.
the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin
Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120
postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly
assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1
year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin,
and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in
placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to
56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from
108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3
to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in
genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse
effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See
genistein at Amazon.com.
Alzheimer's disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment -
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 20 - "Is it possible
to prevent atrophy of key brain regions related to cognitive decline and
Alzheimer's disease (AD)? One approach is to modify nongenetic risk factors, for
instance by lowering elevated plasma homocysteine using B vitamins. In an
initial, randomized controlled study on elderly subjects with increased dementia
risk (mild cognitive impairment according to 2004 Petersen criteria), we showed
that high-dose B-vitamin treatment (folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, vitamin
B12 0.5 mg) slowed shrinkage of the whole brain volume over 2 y. Here, we go
further by demonstrating that B-vitamin treatment reduces, by as much as seven
fold, the cerebral atrophy in those gray matter (GM) regions specifically
vulnerable to the AD process, including the medial temporal lobe ... B vitamins
lower homocysteine, which directly leads to a decrease in GM atrophy, thereby
slowing cognitive decline" - See
folic acid products at Amazon.com
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and 10-y incidence of age-related
macular degeneration - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 1 -
"Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were
determined from blood samples drawn in 1997-1999 from cohort members aged
≥55 y. AMD was assessed in 1760 survivors from retinal photographs taken in
2002-2004 and 2007-2009. Total intakes of folate and vitamin B-12 were
assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire ... Elevated serum tHcy and
folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies predicted increased risk of incident
AMD, which suggests a potential role for vitamin B-12 and folate in reducing
AMD risk" - See
folic acid products at Amazon.com
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
of Mixed Dietary Supplements on Total Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations
(tHcy): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial - Int J
Vitam Nutr Res. 2012 Aug 1;82(4):260-266 -
"Two-hundred and thirty-six hospitalized, acutely ill older patients, who
were part of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, were
assigned to receive a daily oral nutritional supplement drink containing 1.3
mg of vitamin B2, 1.4 mg of vitamin B6, 1.5 μg of B12, 200 μg of folic acid,
or a placebo, for 6 weeks ... A mixed nutrient supplement containing
physiological amounts of B vitamins significantly reduced plasma tHcy
concentrations in older patients recovering from acute illness"
B vitamins may slow cognitive decline: Oxford University study - Nutra
USA, 10/25/11 - "A daily combination of folic acid,
and vitamins B6 and B12 was associated with a 30% reduction in levels of the
amino acid homocysteine, and improvements in a range of mental tests,
including global cognition and episodic memory ... One interpretation [of
the data] is that lowering homocysteine concentrations by administering B
vitamins slows brain atrophy, which in turn slows both cognitive and
clinical decline ... The Vitacog study involved 266 people over the age of
70 with diagnosed mild cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly
assigned to receive either placebo or a B vitamin supplement providing
0.8 mg per day of folic acid, 0.5 mg of vitamin B12 and 20 mg of vitamin B6"
vitamin B12 levels may lead to brain shrinkage, cognitive problems -
Science Daily, 9/26/11 - "Older people with low
blood levels of vitamin B12 markers may be more likely to have lower brain
volumes and have problems with their thinking skills ... An average of
four-and-a-half years later, MRI scans of the participants' brains were
taken to measure total brain volume and look for other signs of brain damage
... Having high levels of four of five markers for vitamin B12 deficiency
was associated with having lower scores on the cognitive tests and smaller
total brain volume ... On the cognitive tests, the scores ranged from -2.18
to 1.42, with an average of 0.23. For each increase of one micromole per
liter of homocysteine -- one of the markers of B12 deficiency -- the
cognitive scores decreasedby 0.03 standardized units or points" - See
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
B-complex vitamins may help slow progression of dementia - Science
Daily, 10/27/10 - "Large doses of B-complex vitamins
could reduce the rate of brain shrinkage by half in elderly people with
memory problems and slow the progression of dementia ... patients who
already exhibit signs of dementia and test positive for high levels of
homocysteine are more likely to respond well to the large doses of B
vitamins. Homocysteine is an amino acid in the blood, and high blood levels
are linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease"
Homocysteine and holotranscobalamin and the risk of Alzheimer disease: A
longitudinal study - Neurology. 2010 Oct 19;75(16):1408-14 -
"homocysteine (tHcy) and holotranscobalamin
(holoTC), the active fraction of vitamin B12 ... The odds ratios (ORs) (95%
confidence interval [CI]) for AD were 1.16 (1.04-1.31) per increase of 1
μmol/L of tHcy at baseline and 0.980 (0.965-0.995) for each increase of 1
pmol/L baseline holoTC ... This study suggests that both tHcy and holoTC may
be involved in the development of AD. The tHcy-AD link may be partly
explained by serum holoTC. The role of holoTC in AD should be further
Vitamin B12 May Curb Risk for Alzheimer's Disease - Medscape, 10/18/10 -
"holotranscobalamin (holoTC), the biologically
active fraction of vitamin B12 ... for each 1-µmol/L increase in the
baseline concentration of tHcy, the risk for AD increased by 16% (odds ratio
[OR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 – 1.31). On the other hand,
for each 1-pmol/L increase in baseline holoTC, the risk for AD was reduced
by 2% (OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.965 – 0.995)" - [Science
Daily] - See
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
vitamins slow brain atrophy in people with memory problems - Science
Daily, 9/12/10 - "on average the brains of those
taking the folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 treatment shrank at a rate of
0.76% a year, while those in the placebo group had a mean brain shrinkage
rate of 1.08%. People with the highest levels of homocysteine benefited
most, showing atrophy rates on treatment that were half of those on placebo"
Vitamin B may help prevent Alzheimer’s - Nutra USA, 9/9/10 -
"The authors concluded that an accelerated rate of brain
atrophy in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment could be slowed via
dietary supplementation with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins"
of metformin with or without supplementation with folate on homocysteine
levels and vascular endothelium of women with polycystic ovary syndrome
- Diabetes Care. 2009 Nov 23 - "Metformin exerts a
slight but significant deleterious effect on serum Hcy levels in patients
with PCOS, and supplementation with folate is useful to increase the
beneficial effect of metformin on the vascular endothelium"
of Homocysteine-Lowering Vitamin Therapy on Long-Term Outcome of Patients
With Coronary Artery Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2009 Sep 15;104(6):745-749
- "Folic acid >/=400 mug/day with or without
additional B vitamins was administered at the attending physicians'
discretion ... Treatment was associated with significantly lower all-cause
mortality in patients with homocysteine levels >15 mumol/L (4% vs 32%, p
<0.001) but not in patients with lower levels (5% vs 7%, p >0.05)"
folic acid at Amazon.com.
High-Dose B Vitamin Supplementation and Progression of Subclinical
Atherosclerosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial - Stroke. 2008 Dec 31 -
"high-dose B vitamin supplementation (5 mg folic
acid+0.4 mg vitamin B12+50 mg vitamin B6) or matching placebo for 3.1 years
... High-dose B vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of
early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid artery intima media
thickness) in well-nourished healthy B vitamin "replete" individuals at low
risk for cardiovascular disease with a fasting tHcy >/=9.1 micromol/L"
Effects of folic acid
and N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine levels and endothelial function
in patients with coronary artery disease - Acta Cardiol. 2007
Dec;62(6):579-85 - "either folic acid 5 mg or NAC
600 mg or placebo daily for eight weeks ... endothelium-dependent dilation
(EDD) ... Folic acid and NAC therapies decreased plasma homocysteine (from
21.7 +/- 8.7 micromol/l to 12.5 +/- 2.5 micromol/l, P < 0.001; from 20.9 +/-
7.6 micromol/l to 15.6 +/- 4.3 micromol/l, P = 0.03, respectively), and
increased EDD (6.7 +/- 6.1% P = 0.002, 4.4 +/- 2.6% P < 0.001, respectively)
compared with placebo. There was no significant difference in improving EDD
between the folic acid and the NAC group"
supplementation in early second trimester and the risk of preeclampsia -
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan;198(1):45.e1-7 -
"Supplementation of multivitamins containing folic acid was associated with
increased serum folate (on average 10.51 micromol/L), decreased plasma
homocysteine (on average 0.39 micromol/L), and reduced risk of preeclampsia
(adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.75)" -
folic acid at Amazon.com.
Vitamin B-12 Function May Be Diminished By Excessive Folate - Science
Daily, 12/21/07 - "homocysteine and methylmalonic
acid are at much higher levels in individuals who have a combination of
vitamin B12 deficiency and high blood folate levels than in individuals who
are also vitamin B12 deficient but have normal folate levels"
Low vitamin B-12 status and risk of cognitive decline in older adults -
Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1384-91 -
"concentrations of holoTC (a marker of reduced vitamin B-12 status), tHcy,
and MMA predicted cognitive decline, but folate did not. A doubling in
holoTC concentrations (from 50 to 100 pmol/L) was associated with a 30%
slower rate of cognitive decline (-0.137 to -0.083), whereas a doubling in
tHcy (from 10 to 20 mumol/L) or MMA (from 0.25 to 0.50 mumol/L) was
associated with >50% more rapid cognitive decline (-0.090 to -0.169) and
(-0.104 to -0.169), respectively" - See
vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
Homocysteine, vitamins, and vascular disease prevention - Am J Clin
Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1563S-8S - "Dietary deficiency
of vitamin B-6 and folic acid and absorptive deficiency of vitamin B-12,
which result from traditional food processing or abnormal absorption of B
vitamins, are important factors in causing elevations in blood homocysteine.
Numerous clinical and epidemiologic studies have established elevated blood
homocysteine as a potent independent risk factor for vascular disease in the
general population. Dietary improvement, providing abundant vitamin B-6,
folic acid, and cobalamin, may prevent vascular disease by lowering blood
homocysteine. The dramatic decline in cardiovascular mortality in the United
States since 1950 may possibly be attributable in part to voluntary
fortification of the food supply with vitamin B-6 and folic acid.
Fortification of the US food supply with folic acid in 1998, as mandated by
the US Food and Drug Administration, was associated with a further decline
in mortality from vascular disease, presumably because of increased blood
folate and decreased blood homocysteine in the population"
The association between betaine and choline intakes and the plasma
concentrations of homocysteine in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007
Oct;86(4):1073-1081 - "Total choline + betaine
intake was inversely associated with tHcy, as was choline from 2
water-soluble choline-containing compounds. Remethylation of tHcy may be
more dependent on the betaine pathway when methyl sources are low as a
result of either inadequate folate intake or heavier alcohol consumption"
B Vitamin Plasma Levels and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Transient
Ischemic Attack in a German Cohort - Stroke. 2007 Sep 20 -
"Our data suggest that low vitamin B12 plasma
levels, particularly in combination with low folate levels, increase the
risk of cerebral ischemia. This effect may be mediated at least partly
through elevations of homocysteine levels"
Review of the role of hyperhomocysteinemia and B-vitamin deficiency in
neurological and psychiatric disorders - Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2007
Sep;75(9):e1-e18 - "Elevated concentration of total
homocysteine (Hcy) in plasma (> 12 micromol/l) is a risk factor for several
diseases of the central nervous system. Epidemiological studies have shown a
dose-dependent relationship between concentrations of Hcy and the risk for
neurodegenerative diseases. Hcy is a marker for B-vitamin deficiency
(folate, B (12), B (6)). Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) causes hypomethylation
which is an important mechanism that links Hcy to dementia ... Current
evidence suggests that Hcy-lowering treatment has a positive effect for the
secondary and primary prevention of stroke. HHcy is very common in patients
with Parkinson disease particularly those who receive L-dopa treatment.
Furthermore, a positive association has been reported between HHcy and
multiple sclerosis. Moreover, HHcy and vitamin B deficiency are reported to
have a causal role in depression, and epilepsy. In addition several
anti-epileptic drugs cause secondary HHcy. Therefore, sufficient intakes of
the vitamins are recommended for patients who have already developed
neuropsychiatric diseases. Vitamin B deficiency should be suspected in
children with development disorders, failure to thrive and unexplained
neurological manifestations. Elderly people are also an important at-risk
group where vitamin B deficiency and HHcy have been linked to
neurodegenerative diseases. Treatment with folate, B (12), and B (6) can
improve cerebral function. Preventive vitamin B supplementation and
sufficient intake seem very important for secondary and primary prevention
of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially in subjects with a low intake or
status of the vitamins"
- WENBIT: No Benefit
of B Vitamins - Medscape, 9/4/07 - "Homocysteine
is a definite risk marker in heart disease, but it may not be causal"
Correlations between folate, B12, homocysteine levels, and radiological
markers of neuropathology in elderly post-stroke patients - J Am Coll
Nutr. 2007 Jun;26(3):272-8 - "folate deficiency and
hyperhomocysteinemia are prevalent in elderly post-stroke patients. These
two conditions are strongly and independently associated with the
development of brain atrophy"
Effects of folic acid and vitamin B complex on serum C-reactive protein and
albumin levels in stable hemodialysis patients - Curr Med Res Opin. 2007
Jun 29 - "Folic acid and vitamin B complex
co-administration effectively lowers tHcy and hs-CRP levels and increases
albumin levels in stable hemodialysis subjects, underscoring their potential
benefit to attenuate the state of inflammation and possibly improve the
nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis"
Vitamin link to bone loss probed - BBC News, 11/14/06 -
"Increased amounts of homocysteine in the blood may
increase the risk of developing osteoporosis ... Individuals who have a poor
dietary intake of B-vitamins tend to have high homocysteine levels"
Older Adults May Need B12 Dose More Than 200 Times the RDA to Normalize Mild
Vitamin Deficiency - Medscape, 5/26/06 -
"As both methylmalonyl-coenzyme A (MMA) and
homocysteine are metabolized by vitamin B12, elevated levels of these
compounds in the plasma can reflect vitamin deficiency ... One analysis
yielded 500 μg of vitamin B12 as the minimum dose necessary to produce the
greatest effect on MMA levels. There was little additional benefit in using
daily doses of vitamin B12 of more than 500 μg"
- B12, Folate May
Reduce Homocysteine Levels Without Affecting Cognition - Medscape,
12/19/05 - "randomized to receive (1) folic acid,
2.5 mg plus 400 µg of vitamin B12 or placebo, (2) 25 mg of vitamin B6 or
placebo, or (3) 25 mg of riboflavin or placebo ... Homocysteine levels were
significantly reduced by an average of 33% in the folic acid plus vitamin
B12 group after 3 months ... B6 and riboflavin supplementation had no effect
on homocysteine levels"
B vitamins to lower homocysteine may prevent strokes - Nutra USA, 11/10/05
Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels in age-related macular
degeneration - Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2005 Sep 15;:1-5 -
"Patients with both exudative and dry types of AMD
had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels ... Plasma vitamin B12
levels were found to be significantly lower in the exudative AMD group"
Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer disease
- Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):636-43 - "Elevated
plasma tHcy concentrations and low serum folate concentrations are independent
predictors of the development of dementia and AD"
Vitamin B12, homocysteine and carotid plaque in the era of folic acid
fortification of enriched cereal grain products - CMAJ. 2005 Jun
"Vitamin B12 deficiency is surprisingly common among
patients with vascular disease, and, in the setting of folic acid
fortification, low serum vitamin B12 levels are a major determinant of
elevated homocysteine levels and increased carotid plaque area"
Homocysteine and vitamin b(12) status relate to bone turnover markers,
broadband ultrasound attenuation, and fractures in healthy elderly people
- J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Jun;20(6):921-9 -
"High Hcy and low vitamin B(12) concentrations were
significantly associated with low BUA, high markers of bone turnover, and
increased fracture risk"
- Blood chemical is
a stroke risk - BBC News, 1/14/05 -
"looked at people genetically prone to high
homocysteine levels and found they had a higher stroke risk than other
individuals ... the risk can be reversed by taking folic acid ... Too much
folic acid is also known to impact on a person's levels of vitamin B12 ...
If this falls too low could, at worst, result in irreversible nerve damage"
The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy
volunteers - Br J Nutr. 2004 Oct;92(4):665-9 -
"plasma tHcy is lowered rapidly and significantly by
3 or 6 g
betaine/d in healthy men and women"
Impairment of coronary circulation by acute hyperhomocysteinaemia and
reversal by antioxidant vitamins - J Intern Med. 2004 Nov;256(5):398-405
"Our data suggest that acute hyperhomocysteinaemia
reduces CFVR and increases plasma MCP-1 and IL-8 levels in healthy subjects.
Pretreatment with antioxidant vitamin E and ascorbic acid prevents the
effects of hyperhomocysteinaemia, suggesting an oxidative mechanism"
- Treatment With Folate
to Lower Homocysteine - Medscape, 7/29/04 -
"For patients with known cardiovascular disease, it
is generally recommended to treat with folic acid (1 mg/day), vitamin B6 (10
mg/day), and vitamin B12 (0.4 mg/day). Folic acid can be increased up to 5
mg/day to reach a goal of lowering homocysteine levels below 15 mmol/L"
Vitamins May Lower Osteoporosis Fractures - Intelihealth, 5/13/04 -
"B vitamins are known to reduce levels of
homocysteine ... high levels of homocysteine at least double the risk of
- 48,000 Lives
Saved by Vitamin Additive - WebMD, 3/5/04 -
"folic acid has another benefit -- this one for
adults. It lowers blood levels of a bad actor called homocysteine. High
homocysteine levels weaken the walls of blood vessels, making a person more
prone to heart disease and stroke" - See
iHerb folic acid
Folic acid and vitamin B(12) are more effective than vitamin B(6) in
lowering fasting plasma homocysteine concentration in patients with coronary
- Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar;58(3):481-7 - "The mean
fasting plasma homocysteine concentration, however, decreased significantly
after 12 weeks of folic acid combined with vitamin B(12) supplementation"
Low Dose Betaine Supplementation Leads to Immediate and Long Term Lowering
of Plasma Homocysteine in Healthy Men and Women - J. Nutr.
133:4135-4138, December 2003 -
"doses of betaine in
the range of dietary intake reduce fasting and postmethionine loading plasma
homocysteine concentrations. A betaine-rich diet might therefore lower
cardiovascular disease risk" - See
iHerb betaine products.
Elevated Homocysteine Raises Risk of Stroke, Dementia - Life Extension
- Mediterranean Diet
Lowers C-reactive Protein Levels - Medscape, 11/11/03 -
"For each 10-point increase in diet score, there was
a corresponding 0.22 mg/dL reduction in
C-reactive protein levels, a 0.21 pg/ml reduction in
interleukin-6, a 12.5 mg/dL
decrease in fibrinogen, and a 0.87 mmol/L decrease in homocysteine levels (P
< .05), he said. Also, white blood cell count decreased significantly"
Startling New Findings About Homocysteine - Life Extension Magazine,
"a startling 100% of French elderly hospitalized
patients showed higher than desired homocysteine levels, with 45% suffering
from severe hyperhomocysteinemia ... Administration of vitamins B6 and B12,
and folate, causes a significant decrease of elevated serum homocysteine
concentrations in older persons ... More recent studies not only confirm the
cardiovascular dangers of homocysteine, but also its toxic effect on the
brain. It turns out that high blood levels of homocysteine increase the
incidence of depression, memory impairment, and even Alzheimer’s disease"
Homocysteine-related hTERT DNA demethylation contributes to shortened leukocyte
telomere length in atherosclerosis - Atherosclerosis. 2013
Nov;231(1):173-179 - "Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is
shortened in patients with clinical atherosclerosis (AS) ... human telomerase
reverse transcriptase (hTERT) ... hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) ... Hcy was
negatively correlated with LTL shortening in AS patients (r = -0.179, p = 0.015)
and controls (r = -0.146, p = 0.031). Serum folate and high-sensitivity
C-reactive protein levels significantly interacted with Hcy in LTL shortening.
Hcy was related to hTERT mRNA downregulation and promoter demethylation, which
combined was associated with LTL shortening in AS patients"
plasma homocysteine is associated with increased risk of developing colorectal
polyps - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Feb;65(2):195-201 -
"participants with higher plasma homocysteine [odds ratio (OR) = 1.87, 95%
confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 3.08) level exhibited significantly increased
risk of colorectal polyps after adjusting for potential confounders. Plasma
homocysteine was a strong predictor of the risk of colorectal polyps in
participants with adequate B-vitamins status"
and the risk of nursing home admission and mortality in older persons - Eur
J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov 9 - "In men, no significant
associations were observed. In women, after adjustment for confounding, the
highest quartile of homocysteine was associated with a significantly higher risk
of NH admission compared with the first quartile (hazard ratio (HR)=2.97, 95%
confidence interval (CI)=1.36-6.49). Both women in the third and the fourth
quartile of homocysteine had a significantly higher mortality risk (HR=1.70, 95%
CI=1.08-2.65 and HR=1.91, 95% CI=1.22-3.00, respectively) compared with the
homocysteine and cognitive decline in older hypertensive subjects - Int
Psychogeriatr. 2011 May 6:1-9 - "Higher homocysteine
showed an independent association with greater cognitive decline in three
domains: speed of cognition (β = -27.33, p = 0.001), episodic memory (β = -1.25,
p = 0.02) and executive function (β = -0.05, p = 0.04). The association with
executive function was no longer significant after inclusion of folate in the
regression model (β = -0.032, p = 0.22). Change in working memory and attention
were not associated with plasma homocysteine, folate or B12. High homocysteine
was associated with greater decline with a Cohen's d effect size of
approximately 0.7 compared to low homocysteine. Conclusions: In a population of
older hypertensive patients, higher plasma homocysteine was associated with
levels are associated with hippocampus volume in type 2 diabetic patients -
Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Jan 20 - "Elevated total plasma
homocysteine (tHcy) levels are associated with cognitive dysfunction, in which
changes in the hippocampus plausibly play a pivotal role ... Our results
indicate that the elevated levels of tHcy in Japanese nondementia patients with
type 2 diabetes are characterised by hippocampal atrophy and insulin resistance
and that the Z-score and HOMA index may be the primary factors that influence
is associated with hippocampal and white matter atrophy in older subjects with
mild hypertension - Int Psychogeriatr. 2010 Apr 7:1-8 -
"In older hypertensives, plasma homocysteine levels are
associated with increased rates of progressive white matter and hippocampal
Homocysteine may be best predictor of CV risk in elderly - theheart.org,
1/8/09 - "for primary prevention, homocysteine appears
to be the best predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the very elderly .
The research also confirms what many had already suspected—that the Framingham
Risk Score (FRS) is not very accurate at predicting risk in this age group"
homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels in patients with laryngeal cancer
- Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008 Dec;134(12):1328-33 -
"The mean (SD) level of total homocysteine in patients
with laryngeal carcinoma was 2.84 (1.62) mg/L vs 0.99 (0.24) mg/L in the control
Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for erectile dysfunction in men with
adult-onset diabetes mellitus - Urology. 2008 May;71(5):897-900 -
"Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) ... those with HHcy had 5.2
times the odds of vasculogenic ED compared with men without HHcy"
Homocysteine and diabetic retinopathy - Diabetes Care. 2007 Sep 26 -
"Plasma total homocysteine concentration may be a useful
biomarker and/or a novel risk factor for increased risk of diabetic retinopathy
in people with type 2 diabetes"
Hyperhomocysteinemia: a novel risk factor for erectile dysfunction -
Metabolism. 2006 Dec;55(12):1564-1568 -
"Hyperhomocysteinemia, known to be an important risk factor in endothelial
dysfunction, seems to be an important determinant in ED. These data suggest that
slightly elevated Hcys levels are significantly related with arterial and
probably endothelial dysfunction in patients with ED"
Biomarker For Age-related Macular Degeneration Found - Science Daily, 1/8/06
- "elevated homocysteine in the blood may be another
biomarker for increased risk of AMD"
Erectile Trouble May Signal Heart Disease - HealthDay, 5/24/05 -
"Levels of homocysteine may be a sign of how severe
erectile dysfunction is ... Nutrition can influence homocysteine levels
positively, and substitution with folic acid, in combination with vitamin B6
and B12, can reduce homocysteine levels significantly"
Homocysteine and cognitive function - Medscape, 3/25/05 -
"Higher homocysteine levels were associated with
worse function across a broad range of cognitive domains, and the magnitude
of the associations was large. The data suggest that homocysteine may be a
potentially important modifiable cause of cognitive dysfunction"
- New Research: What is
Your Optimal TSH Level? - About.com, 9/30/04 -
"normalizing the TSH with a target TSH level of less
than 2 mIU/mL is advisable to lower CRP levels and homocysteine levels, and
possibly the cholesterol levels"
Metformin Treatment Leads to Increased Homocysteine, Decreased Vitamin B12
and Folate in Type 2 Diabetes Patients - Doctor's Guide, 10/20/03 -
"Homocysteine requires folate and vitamin B12 to be
properly metabolised, and serum vitamin B12 levels are known to decrease
during metformin treatment ... compared with placebo, metformin was
associated with an increase in serum homocysteine levels (4% [0.2 to 8 µmol
L-1]; P=0.039), and decreases in vitamin B12 (-14% [-4.2 to -24 pmol L-1];
P<0.0001) and folate (-7%"
Elevated Homocysteine May Be Linked to Glaucoma - Doctor's Guide,
"Hyperhomocysteinemia could be a significant risk
factor for a particular type of
Long-Time Hormone Therapy Lowers Postmenopausal Homocysteine - Doctor's
Guide, 8/14/02 -
HRT results in lower total homocysteine
concentrations in all methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes with no
demonstrable difference in effect between unopposed and opposed hormone
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