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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 9/11/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Amino Acid With Promising Anti-Diabetic Effects - Science Daily, 9/9/13 - "the amino acid is just as effective as several well-established drugs for type 2 diabetics ... researchers subjected lean and obese animal models to a so-called glucose tolerance test, which measures the body's ability to remove glucose from the blood over time ... both lean and fat laboratory mice benefit considerably from arginine supplements. In fact, we improved glucose metabolism by as much as 40% in both groups. We can also see that arginine increases the body's production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an intestinal hormone which plays an important role in regulating appetite and glucose metabolism, and which is therefore used in numerous drugs for treating type 2 diabetes" - See L-arginine products at Amazon.com.

Periodontal Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis - Medscape, 9/9/13 - "The research reviewed highlights recent studies describing the relationships between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease, and the potential biological mechanisms to explain these associations ... Closer attention to oral health in all patients will improve quality of life and address what is now recognized as an important rheumatoid arthritis comorbidity" - See my dental health page for all the diseases that are associated with periodontal disease plus my Periogard/Proxabrush suggestion.

Fish oil could help protect alcohol abusers from dementia - Science Daily, 9/8/13 - "pooled the results of 143 studies, found that moderate social drinking may reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment. (Moderate drinking is defined as a maximum of two drinks per day for men and 1 drink per day for women.) ... exposed cultures of adult rat brain cells to amounts of alcohol equivalent to more than four times the legal limit for driving. These cell cultures were compared with cultures of brain cells exposed to the same high levels of alcohol, plus a compound found in fish oil called omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Researchers found there was about 90 percent less neuroinflammation and neuronal death in the brain cells exposed to DHA and alcohol than in the cells exposed to alcohol alone" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Yin-Yang Effect of Sodium and Chloride Presents Salt Conundrum - Science Daily, 9/8/13 - "low levels of chloride was associated with a higher risk of death and cardiovascular disease ... The group with the lowest level of chloride in their blood had a 20% higher mortality rate compared to the other subjects ... Sodium is cast as the villain for the central role it plays in increasing the risk of high blood pressure, with chloride little more than a silent extra in the background ... The results we see from this study are confounding against the knowledge that excess salt is a bad thing, yet higher levels of chloride in the blood seems to be an independent factor that is associated with lower mortality and cardiovascular risk"

Broccoli to fight skin cancer? - Science Daily, 9/4/13 - "Dr. Dickinson's research currently focuses on how sulforaphane -- a naturally occurring compound in broccoli with established chemopreventive properties -- could possibly be used to help patients reduce their risk for skin cancer ... Sulforaphane may be an excellent candidate for use in the prevention of skin cancer caused by exposure to ultraviolet rays ... sulforaphane is a highly adaptable, highly effective agent when it comes to inhibiting cancer-causing pathways (such as the AP-1 protein), while activating chemoprotective genes (such as the Nrf2 gene) ... Her pilot study in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University will test a topical broccoli sprout solution on the skin a group of patients to see if the compound is effective in the context of solar simulated light ... Sulforaphane is the kind of compound that has so many incredible theoretical applications if the dosage is measured properly ... We already know that it is very effective in blocking sunburns, and we have seen cases where it can induce protective enzymes in the skin" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com and my macaroni and cheese recipe which contains broccoli.

Gut Bacteria From Thin Humans Can Slim Mice Down - NYTimes.com, 9/5/13 - "Researchers found pairs of human twins in which one was obese and the other lean. They transferred gut bacteria from these twins into mice and watched what happened. The mice with bacteria from fat twins grew fat; those that got bacteria from lean twins stayed lean ... The investigators discovered that given a chance, and in the presence of a low-fat diet, bacteria from a lean twin will take over the gut of a mouse that already had bacteria from a fat twin. The fat mouse then loses weight. But the opposite does not happen. No matter what the diet, bacteria from a fat mouse do not take over in a mouse that is thin ... The fat mice that got food high in fat and low in fruits and vegetables kept the gut bacteria from the fat twins and remained fat. The thin twins’ gut bacteria only took over when the mice got pellets that were rich in fruits and vegetables and low in fat" - [WebMD / ABC News] - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense at Amazon.com.

REGARDS: Pushing for Lower BPs in the Elderly - Medscape, 9/4/13 - "For all-cause mortality, death rates were significantly increased among those aged 55 to 74 years with systolic blood pressures greater than 140 mm Hg. Regarding the very elderly, those older than 75 years of age, all-cause mortality was not significantly affected by blood-pressure levels"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Oral Contraceptive Use and Risk of Breast, Cervical, Colorectal, and Endometrial Cancers: A Systematic Review - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Sep 6 - "Breast cancer incidence was slightly but significantly increased in users (OR=1.08, CI 1.00-1.17); results show a higher risk associated with more recent use of OCs. Risk of cervical cancer was increased with duration of OC use in women with human papillomavirus infection; heterogeneity prevented meta-analysis. Colorectal cancer (OR=0.86, CI 0.79-0.95) and endometrial cancer incidences (OR=0.57, CI 0.43-0.77) were significantly reduced by OC use. Compared with never use, ever use of OCs is significantly associated with decreases in colorectal and endometrial cancers and increases in breast cancers. Although elevated breast cancer risk was small, relatively high incidence of breast cancers means that OCs may contribute to a substantial number of cases"

Effects of tocotrienol and lovastatin combination on osteoblast and osteoclast activity in estrogen-deficient osteoporosis - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:960742 - "48 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly divided into 6 groups ... Delta-tocotrienol plus lovastatin treatment significantly increased bone formation and reduced bone resorption compared to the other groups. Therefore, the combined treatment may have synergistic or additive effects and have the potential to be used as an antiosteoporotic agent in patients who are at risk of both osteoporosis and hypercholesterolemia, especially in postmenopausal women" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.

Increased Risk of Cognitive Impairment in Patients With Diabetes Is Associated With Metformin - Diabetes Care. 2013 Sep 5 - "Metformin use was associated with impaired cognitive performance. Vitamin B12 and calcium supplements may alleviate metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency and were associated with better cognitive outcomes" - See vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.

  • Metformin (Glucophage) and bipolar - psycheducation.org - "In some cases this medication can decrease abdominal obesity ... Between 10 and 30% of people taking metformin have a decrease in their B12 levels ... this can show up as "anemia""

Blood Pressure Responses to Dietary Sodium and Potassium Interventions and the Cold Pressor Test: The GenSalt Replication Study in Rural North China - Am J Hypertens. 2013 Sep 4 - "The dietary intervention included a 7-day low sodium (51.3 mmol/day), a 7-day high sodium (307.8 mmol/day), and a 7-day high sodium with potassium supplementation (307.8 mmol sodium and 60 mmol potassium/day) ... Systolic and diastolic BP responses (mean +/- SD (range), mm Hg) were 8.1+/-8.4 (-39.1 to 18.2) and -3.5+/-5.1 (-25.1 to 11.1) to low sodium, 9.1+/-8.4 (-13.3 to 33.1) and 4.0+/-5.4 (-16.0 to 20.7) to high sodium, and -4.6+/-5.8 (-31.8 to 11.6) and -1.9+/-4.3 (-16.9 to 14.2) to potassium supplementation, respectively" - Note:  Put in simpler terms:  Low sodium, systolic increased 8.1, diastolic decreased 3.5.  High sodium, systolic increased 9.1, diastolic increased 4.0.  Sodium with potassium, systolic decreased 4.6, diastolic decreased 1.9.  So the sodium with potassium was better than the low sodium.  High sodium being the worst of the three shouldn't be a surprise. - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.

Intake and time dependence of blueberry flavonoid-induced improvements in vascular function: a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study with mechanistic insights into biological activity - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "Blueberry intake acutely improves vascular function in healthy men in a time- and intake-dependent manner. These benefits may be mechanistically linked to the actions of circulating phenolic metabolites on neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com or blueberry extract at Amazon.com.

Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intakes Are Inversely Related to Elevated Depressive Symptoms among United States Women - J Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "assessed whether self-reported depressive symptoms were inversely associated with n-3 fatty acid intakes by using a cross-sectional study in 1746 adults (aged 30-65 y) in Baltimore City, MD (2004-2009). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) was used, with a CES-D score ≥16 suggestive of elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) ... In sum, among United States women, higher intakes of n-3 fatty acids [absolute (n-3) and relative to n-6 fatty acids (n-3:n-6)] were associated with lower risk of elevated depressive symptoms, specifically in domains of somatic complaints (mainly n-3 PUFAs) and positive affect (mainly n-3 HUFAs)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system in hippocampus are involved in the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced learning and memory impairment - Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Sep 2 - "Trimethyltin-induced spatial learning impairment showed a dose-dependent mode. Synaptophysin but not growth-associated protein 43 was decreased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. The concentration of dopamine decreased, while homovanillic acid increased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. Mice pretreated with 20 mg/kg of rutin for 7 consecutive days exhibited improved water maze performance. Moreover, rutin pretreatment reversed the decrease of synaptophysin expression and dopamine alteration" - See rutin products at iHerb.

  • Rutin - Wikipedia -"Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat,[4] the leaves and petioles of Rheum species, and asparagus ... Rutin is also found in the fruit of the fava d'anta tree (from Brazil), fruits and flowers of the pagoda tree, fruits and fruit rinds (especially the citrus fruits orange, grapefruit, lemon, and lime) and apple; berries such as mulberry, ash tree fruits and cranberries ... Rutin (quercetin rutinoside), like quercitrin, is a glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. As such, the chemical structures of both are very similar, with the difference existing in the hydroxyl functional group. Both quercetin and rutin are used in many countries as medications for blood vessel protection"

Statins and Cognitive Decline in Older Adults with Normal Cognition or Mild Cognitive Impairment - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Sep 3 - "Research volunteers with normal cognition at baseline evaluated an average 4.1 times over 3.4 years (1,244 statin users, 2,363 nonusers) and with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline evaluated an average 3.9 times over 2.8 years (763 users, 917 nonusers) ... Cognitive performance was assessed according to 10 neuropsychological indices and the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) ... Of participants with normal cognition at baseline, statin users performed significantly better across all visits in attention (Trails A) and had significantly slower annual worsening in CDR-SOB scores (P = .006) and slower worsening in Mini-Mental State Examination scores than nonusers (which was not significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons, P = .05). For participants with MCI, statin users performed significantly better across all visits on attention measures (Trail-Making Test Part A), verbal skills (Category Fluency), and executive functioning (Trail-Making Test Part B, Digit Symbol, and Digits Backward), but there were no differences in cognitive decline between users and nonusers"

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Older Adults: Results from the Réseau sur la Maladie d'Alzheimer Français Cohort - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Sep 3 - "Memory clinics from 16 university hospitals in France ... Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ... Continuous ACE-Is users had a 4-year decline in MMSE of 6.4 +/- 1.6 points (P < .001), intermittent ACE-Is users of 7.9 +/- 1.1 points (P < .001), continuous or intermittent users of other antihypertensive drugs of 8.8 +/- 0.7 points (P < .001), and never-users of 10.2 +/- 0.6 points (P < .001). MMSE decline between the four groups was significantly different (adjusted P = .02) ... The use of ACE-Is in older adults with AD is associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline independent of hypertension"

Association between low-dose folic acid supplementation and blood lipids concentrations in male and female subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors - Med Sci Monit. 2013 Sep 4;19:733-9 - "Folic acid (FA) is one of the B complex vitamins. It is thought that FA deficiency promotes atherosclerosis formation in arterial endothelium. FA, acting through reducing homocysteine (Hcy) levels, may contribute to decreased cholesterol (Ch) synthesis ... enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, ages 20-39; and 64 F, ages 19-39) with atherosclerosis risk factors ... participants were asked to take FA at a low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for 12 weeks ... FA levels increased in females (6.3 vs. 12.5 ng/dL; p=0.001) and males (6.4 vs. 11.4 ng/dL; p=0.001) and Hcy levels decreased (10.6 vs. 8.3 µmol/L; p=0.001 and 11.5 vs. 9.3; p=0.001, respectively). A significant reduction in mean concentration of total cholesterol in females (203.4 vs. 193.1 mg/dL; p=0.001) and in males (209.5 vs. 201.9; p=0.002) was observed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased in females and in males (107.4 vs. 99.9 mg/dL; p=0.001 and 121.5 vs. 115.1; p=0.002, respectively). The apoAI concentrations increased in smoking women and in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (p=0.032 and p=0.024, respectively)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.

Bioavailability of Vitamin D2 and D3 in Healthy Volunteers, a randomised placebo-controlled trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep 3 - "Earlier studies have suggested that vitamin D2 is less biologically active than vitamin D3 ... we tested the effects of supplementation with 50 μ g/day doses of vitamin D2 or D3 or a placebo over a period of 8 weeks on 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, their sum 25(OH)D (primary outcome variables), and parathyroid hormone in healthy volunteers applying a double blind, randomized study design ... conducted during winter 2012 in Halle (Saale), at latitude of 51°47N, when UVB irradiation is virtually absent ... In the group receiving vitamin D2 (n=46), the 25(OH)D2 concentrations increased significantly, while the 25(OH)D3 concentration fell from 36.4+/-13.3 nmol/L at baseline to 16.6+/- 6.3nmol/L after 8 weeks (p<0.01). The total 25(OH)D was not different between the groups at baseline, but differed significantly between the groups after 4 and 8 weeks ... Vitamin D3 increases the total 25(OH)D concentration more than vitamin D2. Vitamin D2 supplementation was associated with a decrease in 25(OH)D3, which can explain the different effect on total 25(OH)D" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Maternal and infant vitamin D status during the first 9 months of infant life-a cohort study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "A total of 107 women aged 24-41 years gave birth to 108 infants. They were followed up three times during 9 months ... At birth, 23% of mothers and 61% of infants had 25OHD <50 nmol/l. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD <25 nmol/l) was present in 66% of the children born by mothers with 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l (P<0.01), whereas only one child was born with deficiency among mothers with 25OHD >50 nmol/l. During follow-up, most of the children (>85%) had 25OHD levels >50 nmol/l, which most likely was attributable to the use of supplements, as more than 95% of the children were given daily vitamin D supplements of 10 μg of vitamin D ... CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in newborn. Maternal 25OHD levels above 50 nmol/l are needed to prevent vitamin D deficiency among newborn" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Maternal milk consumption, birth size and adult height of offspring: a prospective cohort study with 20 years of follow-up - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Sep 4 - "809 Danish pregnant women was recruited in 1988-1989, with offspring follow-up at ~ 20 years of age (n=685). Milk consumption was assessed at gestational week 30 using a food frequency questionnaire ... Our findings add to recent observations that maternal milk consumption may have a growth-promoting effect with respect to weight and length at birth. Furthermore, the results provide some suggestion that this effect may even track into early adult age, although further studies with more statistical power are needed for that purpose"

Oral Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose concentrations and promotes cardiac function in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus - Br J Nutr. 2013 Sep 4:1-8 - "diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC) ... In conclusion, the administration of L. reuteri GMN-32 probiotics can regulate blood glucose levels, protect cardiomyocytes and prevent DC in DM rats" - See Garden of Life, Primal Defense at Amazon.com.

Testosterone Deficiency is Associated with Increased Risk of Mortality and Testosterone Replacement Improves Survival in Men with Type 2 Diabetes - Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Sep 2 - "Low testosterone levels predict an increase in all-cause mortality during long-term follow up. Testosterone replacement may improve survival in hypogonadal men with type 2 diabetes"

Preventative Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb761) on High Glucose-Cultured Opacity of Rat Lens - Phytother Res. 2013 Sep - "Diabetic cataract is one of the earliest secondary complications of diabetes ... we examined the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on rat lenses cultured in high-glucose conditions ... The cultured rat lenses were divided into six groups: normal group, high-glucose group, high glucose plus low, medium, and high concentrations of EGb761 groups, and a high glucose plus bendazac lysine group ... Compared with the levels in the high glucose group, EGb761 decreased the intensity of oxidative stress, decreased aldose reductase activation and the level of advanced glycosylation end products, and suppress the transforming growth factor-β2 or Smad pathway activation, further increase the expression of E-cadherin and decrease α-smooth muscle actin, and therefore, prevents the pathological changes of high glucose-induced lens epithelial cells and ameliorated lens opacity. These results suggest that EGb761 has protective effects on several pharmacological targets in the progress of diabetic cataract and is a potential drug for the prevention of diabetic cataract" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

Health Focus (Vitamin D - Cut to studies from the last three years):

Where to purchase:

News & Research:

  • Vitamin D Insufficiency Prevalent in Psychiatric Patients - Medscape, 7/22/13 - "Among the patients, 75% had vitamin D levels lower than 30 ng/mL, generally considered by groups, including the American College of Physicians, to represent insufficiency ... Vitamin D insufficiency may be a causative factor in the pathogenesis of mental illness through interactions that affect cellular mechanisms, which eventually diverge into different clinically observed phenotypes ... as many as 63% of patients with insufficient vitamin D levels were not treated with supplementation ... Physicians who work in those units should make sure vitamin D screening and evaluation is part of routine evaluation of patients, not necessarily because it may be causative of psychiatric symptoms but because there are a lot of conditions that are associated with vitamin D deficiency — osteoporosis, diabetes, and some other medical problems that are also relatively common in patients with psychiatric illnesses" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Too Little Vitamin D May Hasten Disability as You Age - WebMD, 7/17/13 - "It's estimated that as many as 90 percent of older people are vitamin D-deficient ... Among participants aged 65 to 88, those with the lowest vitamin D levels were 1.7 times as likely to have at least one physical limitation as those with the highest vitamin D levels. Among participants aged 55 to 65, those with the lowest vitamin D levels were twice as likely to have at least one physical limitation as those with the highest vitamin D levels" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Linked to Accelerated Aging of Bones - Science Daily, 7/10/13 - "collected samples of iliac crest bone cores from 30 participants, half of whom were deficient in vitamin D and showed early signs of osteomalacia ... while vitamin D-deficient subjects had less overall mineralization due to a reduction of mineralized bone, underneath the new non-mineralized surfaces, the existing bone was actually more heavily mineralized, and displayed the structural characteristics -- mature collagen molecules and mineral crystals -- of older and more brittle bone ... vitamin D deficiency increases both the initiation and propagation of cracks by 22- to 31-percent"
  • Vitamin D improves mood and blood pressure in women with diabetes - Science Daily, 6/25/13 - "The pilot study included 46 women who were an average age of 55 years, had diabetes an average of 8 years and insufficient blood levels of vitamin D (18 ng/ml). They took a weekly dose (50,000 International Units) of vitamin D ... After six months, their vitamin D blood levels reached sufficient levels (average 38 ng/ml) and their moods improved significantly. For example, in a 20-question depression symptom survey, scores decreased from 26.8 at the beginning of the study (indicating moderate depression) to 12.2 at six months (indicating no depression. (The depression scale ranges from 0 to 60, with higher numbers indicating more symptoms of depression.) ... Blood pressure also improved, with the upper number decreasing from 140.4 mm Hg to 132.5 mm Hg. And their weight dropped from an average of 226.1 pounds to 223.6 pounds"
  • Findings emphasize importance of vitamin D in pregnancy - Science Daily, 6/22/13 - "While current studies suggest that around a fifth (19 per cent) of a newborn baby's supply or deficiency of vitamin D comes directly from its mother, experts from Kingston's School of Life Sciences have discovered that the figure is, in fact, almost three times as high at 56 per cent ... focused on 120 samples taken from 60 Greek mothers and their babies ... Although the Mediterranean nation enjoys more hours of sunshine than the United Kingdom, the research revealed that many of the mothers had low levels of vitamin D ... the type of vitamin D commonly measured in blood tests was not as reliable an indicator of vitamin D activity as other strands. They went on to discover that two epimer forms, previously thought to be unimportant, influenced levels in babies"
  • Vitamin D supplementation may delay precocious puberty in girls - Science Daily, 6/17/13 - "Among girls, puberty generally begins between the ages of 10 and 14 ... Precocious puberty is diagnosed in girls when sexual development begins before the age of 8 ... girls with precocious puberty were significantly more likely than those with age-appropriate development to have a severe vitamin D deficiency. Among the precocious puberty group, 44 percent had a severe deficiency in vitamin D, compared to 21 percent of the group with age-appropriate physical development"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Associated With GI and Ear Infections - Medscape, 6/12/13 - "measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in a random sample of 475 children (mean +/- standard deviation age: 8.9 +/- 1.6 years) and followed them for an academic year ... VDD was associated with increased rates of diarrhea with vomiting (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.53) and earache/discharge with fever (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 4.44). VDD was not significantly related to cough with fever" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Genetic Research Clarifies Link Between Hypertension and Vitamin D Deficiency - Science Daily, 6/10/13 - "Low levels of vitamin D can trigger hypertension ... those with high concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) had reduced blood pressure and therefore a reduced risk of hypertension ... for every 10% increase in 25(OH)D concentrations, there was a 8.1% decrease in the risk of developing hypertension"
  • Hepatitis B Viral Levels May Soar When Vitamin D Drops - Medscape, 6/10/13 - "They analyzed serum samples from treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis who visited the outpatient liver clinic of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital in Frankfurt, Germany from January 2009 to December 2012 ... 25(OH)D3 and HBV DNA serum levels showed a significant, inverse correlation ... HBV DNA was the strongest determinant of low 25(OH)D3 serum concentration in our cohort"
  • Extra Vitamin D May Ease Crohn's Symptoms, Study Finds - WebMD, 5/20/13 - "Extra vitamin D "was associated with significantly less physical, emotional and general fatigue, greater quality of life and the ability to perform activities of daily living," ... evaluated 27 patients who had Crohn's in remission. (Even in remission, fatigue and quality of life can be problematic.) The patients were assigned to take either 2,000 IUs (international units) of vitamin D a day or a dummy vitamin for three months"
  • Preterm infants may need 800 IU of vitamin D3 per day - Science Daily, 5/5/13 - "Recommendations from medical organizations on how much vitamin D should be given to preemies range from 400 IU to 1000 IU per day. This lack of consensus prompted researchers from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, to conduct the largest study to date on vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants ... The infants then were randomly assigned to receive either 800 IU or 400 IU of oral vitamin D3 ... vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) ... After supplementation, the prevalence of VDI at 40 weeks was 43 percent lower in the 800 IU group than the 400 IU group (38 percent vs. 67 percent). In addition, VDI was significantly lower in the 800 IU group when the infants were 3 months old (12 percent vs. 35 percent)"
  • Sunshine hormone, vitamin D, may offer hope for treating liver fibrosis - Science Daily, 4/25/13 - "The Evans lab discovered a genetic switch through which vitamin D-related ligands such as calcitriol, a hormonally active form of the vitamin, can put the brakes on fibrosis. "Preclinical results suggest the 'vitamin D brake' is highly efficacious and led us to believe that the time is right to consider a trial in the context of chronic liver disease,""
  • Vitamin D may reduce risk of uterine fibroids - Science Daily, 4/15/13 - "Women who had sufficient amounts of vitamin D were 32 percent less likely to develop fibroids than women with insufficient vitamin D ... Those with more than 20 nanograms per milliliter of 25-hydroxy D were categorized as sufficient, though some experts think even higher levels may be required for good health"
  • Vitamin D insufficiency linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes - Science Daily, 3/27/13 - "researchers from the University of Calgary in Canada carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of all existing evidence on the effect of vitamin D concentration on pregnancy and birth outcomes ... pregnant women with low levels of 5-OH vitamin D were more likely to develop gestational diabetes (odds ratio of 0.79), had an increased chance of developing preeclampsia (odds ratio of 0.65) and an increased chance of giving birth to a baby small for gestational age (odds ratio of 0.57)"
  • Potential immune benefits of strong vitamin D status in healthy individuals - Science Daily, 3/20/13 - "improvement in the vitamin D status of healthy adults significantly impacts genes involved with a number of biologic pathways associated with cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases. While previous studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk for the aforementioned diseases, these results go a step further and provide direct evidence that improvement in vitamin D status plays a large role in improving immunity and lowering the risk for many diseases"
  • Vitamin D replacement improves muscle efficiency - Science Daily, 3/18/13 - "Researchers from Newcastle University ... investigated phosphocreatine recovery times in patients with vitamin D deficiency. They employed a non-invasive magnetic resonance scan to measure phosphocreatine dynamics in response to exercise in the calf muscles of 12 patients with severe vitamin D deficiency before and after treatment with vitamin D ... phosphocreatine recovery significantly improved after the patients took a fixed dose of oral vitamin D for 10-12 weeks (average phosphocreatine recovery half time decreased from 34.4sec to 27.8sec, p<0.001). All patients reported an improvement in symptoms of fatigue following supplementation. In a parallel study, the group demonstrated that low Vitamin D levels were associated with reduced mitochondrial function"
  • Vitamin D Supplements Tied to Lower Blood Pressure in Blacks - WebMD, 3/15/13 -"vitamin D may lower blood pressure by causing blood vessels to relax, allowing for more and easier blood flow ... Forman's team randomly assigned 250 black participants to one of three doses of vitamin D supplements or an inactive placebo ... those taking 1,000 international units (IU) of vitamin D a day saw their systolic blood pressure drop by 0.7 mm Hg. For those taking 2,000 IU, the drop was 3.4 mm Hg, and for those taking 4,000 IU, systolic pressure dropped by 4 mm Hg ... those receiving the placebo saw their systolic blood pressure rise by 1.7 mm Hg, the researchers noted ... Endocrine Society committee guidelines recommend that adults take 1,500 to 2,000 units of vitamin D daily" - [Abstract]
  • Effects of Vitamin D on Immune Disorders - Medscape, 2/18/13 - "For a long time, VD was regarded as an essential factor only in generation (in infancy) and maintenance (primarily in postmenopausal women) of bone mineralization but hardly anything more. However, during the last 10–15 years, so many new studies have been published on the extraskeletal effects of VD. They encompass three fields: a basically inhibitory effect on deleterious immune reactions, which facilitate the production of certain endogenous antimicrobial agents such as cathelicidin and defensins, which allegedly provide protection against a wide range of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy and common influenza, and inhibit of carcinogenesis, primarily in the colon, breast, prostate gland and so on. In view of the large amount of new data only the first topic has been reviewed in this paper. As discussed above, VD has been shown to be involved in the prevention of certain pathological immune reactions leading to various autoimmune disorders (Type 1 diabetes, colitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and graft rejection) and asthma (and other atopic diseases), and even in COPD, which is not regarded as an autoimmune disease"
  • Vitamin D, omega-3 may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 2/5/13 - "Our new study sheds further light on a possible role for nutritional substances such as vitamin D3 and omega-3 in boosting immunity to help fight Alzheimer's ... The team incubated the immune cells overnight with amyloid-beta. They added either an active form of vitamin D3 called 1alpha,25–dihydroxyvitamin D3 or an active form of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA called resolvin D1 to some of the cells to gauge the effect they had on inflammation and amyloid-beta absorption ... Both 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and resolvin D1 improved the ability of the Alzheimer's disease patients' macrophages to gobble-up amyloid-beta, and they inhibited the cell death that is induced by amyloid-beta. Researchers observed that each nutrition molecule utilized different receptors and common signaling pathways to do this"
  • Low vitamin D levels may increase risk of Type 1 diabetes - Science Daily, 2/4/13 - "researchers conducted a prospective case-control study of U.S. military personnel on active duty, using blood samples from the Department of Defense Serum Repository, which contains more than 40 million samples collected from 8 million military personnel since the mid-1980s ... The researchers found that white, non-Hispanic, healthy young adults with higher serum levels (>75 nmol/L) of vitamin D had about half the risk of developing type 1 diabetes than those with the lowest levels of vitamin D (<75 nmol/L) ... The risk of type 1 diabetes appears to be increased even at vitamin D levels that are commonly regarded as normal, suggesting that a substantial proportion of the population could benefit from increased vitamin D intake ... Whereas it is premature to recommend universal use of vitamin D supplements for prevention of type 1 diabetes, the possibility that many cases could be prevented by supplementation with 1,000-4,000 IU/day, which is largely considered safe, is enticing"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to high risk of premenopausal breast cancer - Science Daily, 1/14/13 - "women whose serum vitamin D level was low during the three-month period just before diagnosis had approximately three times the risk of breast cancer as women in the highest vitamin D group ... this new study points to the possibility of a relevant window of time for cancer prevention in the last three months preceding tumor diagnosis -a time physiologically critical to the growth of the tumor ... this is likely to be the point at which the tumor may be most actively recruiting blood vessels required for tumor growth ... Based on these data, further investigation of the role of vitamin D in reducing incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, particularly during the late phases of its development, is warranted ... A 2011 meta-analysis by Garland and colleagues estimated that a serum level of 50 ng/ml is associated with 50 percent lower risk of breast cancer. While there are some variations in absorption, those who consume 4000 IU per day of vitamin D from food or a supplement normally would reach a serum level of 50 ng/ml"
  • Vitamin D Holds Promise in Battling a Deadly Breast Cancer - Science Daily, 1/22/13 - "triple-negative breast cancer ... Importantly, vitamin D plays a role in turning off this pathway, providing a safe and cost-effective strategy to fight these types of tumors ... In previous research, Gonzalo's team showed that vitamin D inhibits CTSL-mediated degradation of 53BP1 in non-tumor cells, as efficiently as specific CTSL inhibitors. This time, they found that treatment of BRCA1-deficient tumor cells with vitamin D restores high levels of 53BP1, which results in increased genomic instability and reduced proliferation. Importantly, their evidence suggests that vitamin D treatment might restore the sensitivity to PARP inhibitors in patients who become resistant ... In the future, women with triple-negative breast cancer may benefit from a treatment that includes vitamin D"
  • Vitamin D and Rheumatoid Arthritis - Medscape, 1/21/13 - "It appears that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patients with RA, and that vitamin D deficiency may be linked to disease severity in RA. As vitamin D deficiency has been linked to diffuse musculoskeletal pain, these results have therapeutic implications. Vitamin D supplementation may be needed both for the prevention of osteoporosis as well as for pain relief in patients with RA"
  • Which nutritional factors help preserve muscle mass, strength and performance in seniors? - Science Daily, 1/18/13 - "The authors propose an intake of 1.0-1.2 g/kg of body weight per day as optimal for skeletal muscle and bone health in elderly people without severely impaired renal function ... adequate vitamin D should be ensured through exposure to sunlight and/or supplementation if required. Vitamin D supplementation in seniors, and especially in institutionalized elderly, is recommended for optimal musculoskeletal health ... Excess intake of acid-producing nutrients (meat and cereal grains) in combination with low intake of alkalizing fruits and vegetables may have negative effects on musculoskeletal health. Modifying the diet to include more fruits and vegetables is likely to benefit both bones and muscles ... Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin B12 and/or folic acid play a role in improving muscle function and strength" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com, folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Headache - Medscape, 1/8/13 - "the incidence of nonmigrainous headache was 20% higher in participants who had the lowest levels of serum 25(OH)D than in those with the highest levels ... The Tromsø Study began in 1974"
  • Significant link found between daytime sleepiness and vitamin D - Science Daily, 12/14/12 - "progressively higher levels of daytime sleepiness were correlated inversely with progressively lower levels of vitamin D"
  • Vitamin D can help infection-prone patients avoid respiratory tract infection - Science Daily, 12/13/12 - "researchers examined whether treatment with vitamin D can prevent and relieve respiratory tract infections in particularly infection-prone patients. All the 140 participants from the Immunodeficiency Unit had symptoms of disease in their respiratory tracts for at least 42 days prior to the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, one of which received vitamin D in relatively high doses, the other a placebo. They were also asked to keep a diary recording their state of health every day during the year-long study period ... The results show that symptoms of respiratory tract infection declined by almost a quarter and the use of antibiotics by almost half. Vitamin D treatment was also tolerated well by all patients and gave no serious side-effects"
  • Mother’s vitamin D level linked to birth weight - Science Daily, 12/10/12 - "We found that a mother's vitamin D level, in the first or second trimester of pregnancy, was related to the normal growth of babies who delivered at term ... If a mother was vitamin D deficient, the birth weight of her baby was 46 g lower after accounting for other characteristics of the mom. Also if moms were vitamin D deficient in the first trimester, they had twice the risk of delivering a baby that suffered from growth restriction during the pregnancy"
  • Vitamin D Supplements May Reduce Risk for Dental Caries - Medscape, 12/4/12 - "There have been 3 studies conducted recently ... They were very favorable, but they increased vitamin D levels by low amounts through full-spectrum lighting, making it unclear if the caries reduction was due to vitamin D or due to the pineal gland activation"
  • Vitamin D tied to women's cognitive performance - Science Daily, 11/30/12 - "Higher vitamin D dietary intake is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease ... low vitamin D levels among older women are associated with higher odds of global cognitive impairment and a higher risk of global cognitive decline ... Slinin's group based its analysis on 6,257 community-dwelling older women who had vitamin D levels measured during the Study of Osteopathic Fractures" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D linked to lower rates of tooth decay - Science Daily, 11/27/12 - "The review, published in the December issue of Nutrition Reviews, encompassed 24 controlled clinical trials, spanning the 1920s to the 1980s, on approximately 3,000 children in several countries. These trials showed that vitamin D was associated with an approximately 50 percent reduction in the incidence of tooth decay"
  • High Vitamin D levels in pregnancy may protect mother more than baby against multiple sclerosis - Science Daily, 11/19/12 - "scientists reviewed information about 291,500 blood samples from 164,000 people collected since 1975 in the northern half of Sweden ... women who had high levels of vitamin D in their blood had a 61 percent lower risk of developing MS, compared to those who had low levels of vitamin D in their blood ... No association was found between the mother's vitamin D level and whether her child would later develop MS ... our study suggests the protective effect may start in later pregnancy and beyond"
  • Month of birth effect: Give pregnant women vitamin D supplements to ward off multiple sclerosis, say researchers - Science Daily, 11/14/12 - "The risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS) is highest in the month of April, and lowest in October ... there is now a strong case for vitamin D supplementation of pregnant women in countries where ultraviolet light levels are low between October and March ... The analysis indicated a significant excess risk of 5% among those born in April compared with what would be expected. Similarly, the risk of MS was 5 to 7% lower among those born between October and November, the data indicated"
  • Vitamin D deficiency linked to type 1 diabetes - Science Daily, 11/15/12 - "The six-year study of blood levels of nearly 2,000 individuals suggests a preventive role for vitamin D3 in this disease ... This study used samples from millions of blood serum specimens frozen by the Department of Defense Serum Registry for disease surveillance ... Based mainly on results of this study, Garland estimates that the level of 25(OH)D needed to prevent half the cases of type 1 diabetes is 50 ng/ml ... While there are a few conditions that influence vitamin D metabolism, for most people, 4000 IU per day of vitamin D3 will be needed to achieve the effective levels"
  • Vitamin D may prevent clogged arteries in diabetics - Science Daily, 11/13/12 - "blood vessels are less like to clog in people with diabetes who get adequate vitamin D. But in patients with insufficient vitamin D, immune cells bind to blood vessels near the heart, then trap cholesterol to block those blood vessels ... in diabetes patients with low vitamin D -- less than 30 nanograms per milliliter of blood -- the macrophage cells were more likely to adhere to the walls of blood vessels, which triggers cells to get loaded with cholesterol, eventually causing the vessels to stiffen and block blood flow ... We looked at blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes control, body weight and race. But only vitamin D levels correlated to whether these cells stuck to the blood vessel wall"
  • Vitamin D could hold vital key to arresting development of Alzheimer’s disease - Science Daily, 11/8/12 - "Alzheimer's patients who were not using medication had very poor stores of vitamin D2 -- the type originating from food such as oily fish, rather than that obtained from exposure to the sun. "The vitamin was either non-existent or in such low quantities that it could barely be measured," he explained. "In comparison, people in the study who were either being treated with drugs to control their Alzheimer's or who didn't have the condition at all showed far higher levels.""
  • Vitamin D as an Adjunct Therapy for Patients With T2DM: Abstract and Introduction - Medscape, 11/8/12 - "In summary, the present interventional study performed in an Arab population suggests that daily 2000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation in a vitamin D deficient T2DM population is associated with measurable cardioprotective indices. Supplementation to achieve higher levels of vitamin D remains a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM patients" - See Figure 1 in that article.
  • Lack of vitamin D contributes to pain in black Americans with knee osteoarthritis - Science Daily, 11/7/12 - "vitamin D deficiency may be one of many factors that account for increased pain in older black Americans with knee osteoarthritis (OA) ... During the last decade medical evidence has uncovered the importance of vitamin D, not only as a vitamin that aids in calcium absorption, but as a powerful hormone with numerous functions throughout the body. In fact, studies have found that a decreased vitamin D level reduces immunity and may contribute to diseases such as cancer and diabetes ... not everyone is aware of what factors decrease vitamin D and how low levels could contribute to health issues, including chronic pain"
  • High levels of vitamin D in plasma protects against bladder cancer - Science Daily, 10/20/12 - "The authors of the study took blood samples from more than 2,000 individuals -- including patients with bladder cancer and control subjects free from the disease -- in 18 Spanish hospitals, making of this the largest study carried out to-date in this field. "We have seen that those subjects with the highest levels of 25(OH)D3, a stable form of vitamin D in the blood, are those who showed the lowest risk of suffering bladder cancer. These results indicate that high levels of this vitamin are associated with protection from the illness or, similarly, that low levels are associated with a higher risk of suffering from it," says Malats"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to more severe multiple sclerosis symptoms - Science Daily, 10/2/12 - "For the study, Mowry and her colleagues used data from a five-year study of 469 people with MS. Each year, beginning in 2004, researchers drew blood from, and performed MRIs on, the brains of study participants, looking for both new lesions and active spots of disease, which lit up when a contrast dye was used. The investigators found that each 10-nanograms-per-milliliter increase in vitamin D levels was associated with a 15 percent lower risk of new lesions and a 32 percent lower risk of spots of active disease, which require treatment with medication to reduce likelihood of permanent nerve damage. Higher vitamin D levels were also associated with lower subsequent disability"
  • Low levels of vitamin D are associated with mortality in older adults - Science Daily, 10/2/12 - "We observed vitamin D insufficiency (defined as blood levels <20 ng/ml), in one third of our study participants. This was associated with nearly a 50 percent increase in the mortality rate in older adults"
  • Largest Study to Date Links Low Vitamin D to CVD Risk - Medscape, 9/26/12 - "The scientists compared the 5% lowest levels of vitamin D (<5 nmol/L) with the 50% highest levels (>50 nmol/L). In Denmark--where foods are not fortified with vitamin D--it is currently recommended to have a vitamin-D status of at least 50 nmol/L, they note ... they found a stepwise increase in risk: those with the lowest levels of vitamin D had a 40% increased risk of ischemic heart disease, a 64% higher chance of an MI, a 57% increased risk of early death, and an 81% higher likelihood of fatal ischemic heart disease/MI"
  • Vitamin D in Pregnancy May Be Key for Baby's Brain - WebMD, 9/20/12 - "researchers measured the vitamin D levels of pregnant women mainly during their second trimester. At 14 months, their babies underwent an approximately hour-long battery of standardized tests that measured their mental development and their psychomotor skills, or their ability to control their physical movements ... babies whose mothers had an optimal level of vitamin D scored slightly higher than babies of mothers who were D deficient ... Even here in L.A., where it’s often sunny, people don’t get enough sun, because of smog, because they stay indoors, or because they use a lot of sunblock"
  • Cord Blood Vitamin D Linked to Air Pollution - Medscape, 9/19/12 - "Associations between estimated maternal air pollution exposure and newborn serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were significant in all trimesters, but especially so in the third ... It is not clear how in utero exposure to urban air pollutants might contribute to subsequent vitamin D deficiency in cord blood serum. High levels of air pollution, by reducing the amount of ultraviolet B solar radiation reaching the ground, could reduce cutaneous vitamin D synthesis"
  • High doses of vitamin D help tuberculosis patients recover more quickly - Science Daily, 9/3/12 - "high doses of the vitamin Can dampen down the body's inflammatory response to infection, enabling patients to recover faster, with less damage to their lungs ... their results suggest that vitamin D supplementation might help patients recover better from other diseases such as pneumonia ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes TB, was cleared from the patients' sputum (the phlegm coughed up from deep in the lungs) faster in those who were taking vitamin D, taking an average of 23 days to become undetectable under the microscope compared to 36 days in the patients who were taking the placebo"
  • Vitamin D and Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Medscape, 8/9/12 - "Current understanding points to beneficial effects of vitamin D supplementation in patients with IBD in terms of bone and muscle preservation, reduction in inflammation and potentially reduced risk of cancer in patients with IBD. However, these beneficial effects must be balanced with potential adverse effects in the clinical setting. The precise thresholds of serum 25(OH) vitamin D for beneficial and potentially adverse effects remain poorly defined in the literature. Until further evidence is available, we recommend to aim for a serum 25(OH) vitamin D level of 75 nmol/L. In a condition with a propensity to affect young people and a disproportionate effect on quality of life and productivity, the potential advent of inexpensive supplementary therapies presents an attractive option for ongoing research"
  • Vitamin D may protect lung function in smokers - Science Daily, 7/20/12 - "We found that vitamin D sufficiency (defined as serum vitamin D levels of >20 ng/ml) had a protective effect on lung function and the rate of lung function decline in smokers"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and lung function in asthmatic children - Science Daily, 7/13/12 - "In our study of 1,024 children with mild to moderate persistent asthma, those who were deficient in vitamin D levels showed less improvement in pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after one year of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids than children with sufficient levels of vitamin D ... These results indicate that vitamin D supplementation may enhance the anti-inflammatory properties of corticosteroids in patients with asthma"
  • Association Between Plasma 25-OH Vitamin D and Testosterone - Medscape, 7/13/12 - "In conclusion, the present study confirms previous findings of a positive association between vitamin D status as reflected by 25(OH) vitamin D levels and testosterone levels, although in our study, this finding was not supported by parallel seasonal variation patterns of 25(OH) vitamin D and testosterone. Whether these cross-sectional findings reflect a causal relationship deserves further scientific examination"
  • Low Vitamin D May Blunt Effectiveness of Asthma Treatment - Medscape, 7/13/12 - "In asthmatic children treated with inhaled corticosteroids, vitamin D deficiency is associated with poorer lung function than [in] children with vitamin D insufficiency or sufficiency ... the investigators analyzed data from the Childhood Asthma Management Program, a multicenter trial of 1041 children diagnosed with mild to moderate persistent asthma ... Among children being treated with corticosteroids, those who were vitamin D deficient were less likely than other children taking the same drug to show big improvements in prebronchodilator FEV1 scores after 12 months of treatment"
  • High-dose vitamin D prevents fractures in elderly - MSNBC, 7/5/12 - "A new analysis of nearly a dozen studies testing vitamin D in older individuals has concluded that it takes a daily dose of at least 800 international units (IU) to consistently prevent broken bones ... the clearest impact was seen in nursing home patients, who were given the highest doses of vitamin D and regularly took their pills because the nurses were giving them ... Just as important is the discovery that too much calcium - more than 1,000 mg per day - may dilute vitamin D's benefits to bones, she said. Because many supplements contain 1,000 mg, the calcium people get in their diets may send people over the limit ... "In the medical world, vitamin D seems like a very low priority. It may be the lack of lobbying for it, the fact that it costs almost nothing" and some people think it's too good to be true, she said. "But the data are impressive.""
  • Vitamin D deficiency common among adolescents evaluated for weight-loss surgery - Science Daily, 6/26/12 - "In one of the first studies of its kind, Censani and her co-investigators found that more than half of adolescents undergoing evaluation for weight-loss surgery were vitamin D deficient, and 8 percent had severe deficiencies. Slightly less than one-fifth had adequate vitamin D levels. Patients with the highest BMIs were the most likely to be vitamin deficient ... African Americans were the most likely to be vitamin D deficient, while Caucasians were the least likely to have a deficiency"
  • Treating vitamin D deficiency may improve depression - Science Daily, 6/25/12 - "Women with moderate to severe depression had substantial improvement in their symptoms of depression after they received treatment for their vitamin D deficiency ... Vitamin D may have an as-yet-unproven effect on mood, and its deficiency may exacerbate depression ... Pathak presented the research findings in three women, who ranged in age from 42 to 66. All had previously diagnosed major depressive disorder, also called clinical depression, and were receiving antidepressant therapy ... After treatment, all three women reported significant improvement in their depression, as found using the Beck Depression Inventory"
  • Vitamin D May Help Breast Cancer Survivors Stay on Track - Medscape, 6/25/12 - "women taking 30,000 IU of oral vitamin D3 weekly on starting letrozole therapy achieved significant benefits in terms of fatigue, joint pain, and disability from joint pain ... Aromatase inhibitors are one of the most important endocrine treatments for breast cancer, but the problem is that about half of the women have severe musculoskeletal pain from these agents, and 18% to 30% report fatigue, [resulting in] a discontinuation rate of about 10% each year ... pain relievers are the only available treatment option ... Using the Simple Descriptive Pain Intensity scale for analysis, only 37% of women receiving vitamin D3 supplementation reported a musculoskeletal event (joint pain, disability from joint pain, or resulting discontinuation of letrozole) at 6 months compared with 51% of those in the placebo group ... In addition, significantly fewer patients receiving vitamin D3 supplementation reported adverse quality of life events, including worsening of pain, disability, or fatigue (42% vs 72%; P < .001)"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Weight Gain in Older Women - WebMD, 6/25/12 - "Of more than 4,600 women aged 65 and older, those with insufficient levels of vitamin D in their blood gained about two pounds more than those who had adequate levels of the vitamin during a five-year study ... Besides weight gain, vitamin D deficiency has been linked to a host of diseases and conditions, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and some autoimmune disorders ... The Institute of Medicine recently raised the recommended daily intake to 600 IU for people aged 1-70 and to 800 IU for adults older than 70. Other groups set the bar even higher"
  • Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis May Benefit From Vitamin D - Medscape, 6/22/12 - "Significant protective factors were hemoglobin levels above 12 g/dL and the treatment with oral active vitamin D ... patients receiving oral active vitamin D had significantly better outcomes in terms of avoiding peritonitis over time compared with patients who were not taking it ... oral active vitamin D reduced the risk of developing peritonitis by 57% ... oral active vitamin D was associated with a 54% decreased risk for all-cause death ... The biggest problem in studying the effects of vitamin D, he said, is that it is "too cheap...so there is no company interested in this kind of study. But this should be stimulated by authorities, I think. It's a cheap drug, and probably it is a very valuable one.""
  • Low Vitamin D in Diet Linked to Increased Stroke - Medscape, 6/20/12 - "Study participants included 7385 Japanese-American men who enrolled in the Honolulu Heart Program, a long-running, prospective, population-based observational study, between 1965 and 1968. They were 45 and 68 years old at the baseline examination and were followed through 1999 for stroke ... Age-adjusted rates of stroke were significantly higher in the lowest dietary vitamin D quartile (0 - 1.12 µg/day) compared with the highest quartile (4.13 - 211.60 µg/day)"
  • Vitamin D with calcium shown to reduce mortality in elderly - Science Daily, 6/15/12 - "The findings from the study found that the reduced mortality was not due to a lower number of fractures, but represents a beneficial effect beyond the reduced fracture risk ... This is the largest study ever performed on effects of calcium and vitamin D on mortality ... Our results showed reduced mortality in elderly patients using vitamin D supplements in combination with calcium, but these results were not found in patients on vitamin D alone ... pooled data from eight randomized controlled trials with more than 1,000 participants each. The patient data set was composed of nearly 90 percent women, with a median age of 70 years. During the three-year study, death was reduced by 9 percent in those treated with vitamin D with calcium ... Some studies have suggested calcium (with or without vitamin D) supplements can have adverse effects on cardiovascular health ... Although our study does not rule out such effects, we found that calcium with vitamin D supplementation to elderly participants is overall not harmful to survival, and may have beneficial effects on general health"
  • Health benefits of vitamin D dependent on type taken - Science Daily, 5/31/12 - "some foods are fortified with vitamin D. Fortification is usually with vitamin D2, as this is not derived from animals. However this new research, carried out by scientists from the University of Surrey, suggests that vitamin D3 is the more beneficial of the two types of vitamin D in raising the vitamin D levels in our blood when given as a supplement ... vitamin D3, the type of vitamin D found in foods including eggs and oily fish, is more effectively converted by the body into the hormone responsible for health benefits in humans ... The researchers analysed the results of 10 separate studies, involving over 1,000 people in total, comparing the health benefits of vitamin D2 and D3, and found "a clear favouring" of vitamin D3 supplements raising vitamin D serum levels in humans"
  • Older adults may need more vitamin D to prevent mobility difficulties, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/29/12 - "We observed about a 30 percent increased risk of mobility limitations for those older adults who had low levels of vitamin D, and almost a two-fold higher risk of mobility disability"
  • Children's body fat linked to Vitamin D insufficiency in mothers - Science Daily, 5/23/12 - "the children who were born to mothers who had low vitamin D status in pregnancy had more body fat when they were six years old. These differences could not be explained by other factors such as mother's weight gain in pregnancy, or how physically active the children were ... An interpretation of our data is that there could be programmed effects on the fetus arising from a lack of maternal vitamin D that remain with the baby and predispose him or her to gain excess body fat in later childhood"
  • Vitamin D blood level for reducing major medical risks in older adults identified, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/1/12 - "the researchers concluded that the risk of these disease events rose when the concentration of 25(OH)D fell below 20 ng/milliliter or 50 nmol/liter"
  • Vitamin D may protect against viral infections during the winter - Science Daily, 4/30/12 - "insufficient levels of vitamin D are related to a deficiency in our innate immune defenses that protect us from infections, neoplasias or autoimmune diseases. Since vitamin D levels decrease during autumn and winter when days are shorter and sunlight is relatively weak, this may explain why people are more prone to viral infection during these times. It also suggests that increased vitamin D intake, especially in older populations, could strengthen people's innate immunity against viral infections ... the researchers compared the changes in the blood levels of vitamin D among three groups of healthy subjects: young (age range: 20-30), middle (age range: 31-59), and elderly (age range: 60-86). They found decreased levels of vitamin D with aging, prompting researchers to compare whether such changes kept any relationship with toll-like receptor (TLR) expression measured on lymphocytes and monocytes and function after in vitro stimulation with specific ligands for each of the nine human TLRs and measurement of effector molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Specifically, they found that the TRL most affected by a vitamin D insufficiency is TLR7, which regulates the immune response against viruses"
  • Oral vitamin D supplements reduced levels of Ki67 in prostate cancer cells - Science Daily, 3/31/12 - "The results not only point to the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects the rate of prostate cancer growth, but also indicate that vitamin D may slow the growth of prostate cancer cells"
  • Asthma: Low Vitamin D Linked to High IgE, Need for Steroids - Medscape, 3/22/12 - "We suggest that supplementation with vitamin D should be done in patients with asthma, both adults and children, to lower steroid requirement and improve steroid response"
  • Sun Exposure Not Enough to Correct Vitamin D Deficiency - Medscape, 3/17/12 - "although "sunlight is a very reliable source of vitamin D, nutritional sources are clearly required and are, of course, much safer
  • Low Vitamin D Raises Mortality Risk in Nursing Home Patients - Medscape, 3/12/12 - "The first prospective cohort study to examine vitamin D deficiency and mortality among elderly female nursing home patients found that nearly all have 25(OH)D levels below the limits of normal, and that those with the lowest vitamin D levels were most likely to die within the next 27 months"
  • Scientists pinpoint how vitamin D may help clear amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer's - Science Daily, 3/6/12 - "vitamin D3 may activate key genes and cellular signaling networks to help stimulate the immune system to clear the amyloid-beta protein ... in both Type I and Type II macrophages, the added 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 played a key role in opening a specific chloride channel called "chloride channel 3 (CLC3)," which is important in supporting the uptake of amyloid beta through the process known as phagocytosis. Curcuminoids activated this chloride channel only in Type I macrophages ... The scientists also found that 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 strongly helped trigger the genetic transcription of the chloride channel and the receptor for 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Type II macrophages"
  • Vitamin D May Decrease Risk for Crohn's Disease - Medscape, 3/1/12 - "An analysis of the data based on predefined plasma 25(OH)D levels showed that vitamin D–sufficient women (levels ≥ 30 ng/mL) were 62% less likely to be diagnosed with CD during the 22-year interval than those with deficient vitamin D levels (<20 ng/mL; hazard ratio [HR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 - 0.97; Ptrend = .048)"
  • Vitamin D shrinks fibroid tumors in rats - Science Daily, 3/1/12 - "Fibroids increased in size in the untreated rats, but, in the rats receiving vitamin D, the tumors had shrunk dramatically. On average, uterine fibroids in the group receiving vitamin D were 75 percent smaller than those in the untreated group ... he amount of vitamin D the rats received each day was equivalent to a human dose of roughly 1,400 international units"
  • Can Vitamin D Treat Pain? - Medscape, 2/27/12 - "Dysmenorrhea affects almost one half of menstruating women. The pelvic pain is believed to be triggered by excessive uterine production of prostaglandins, synthesized from omega-6 fatty acids before menses, that control vasoconstriction and uterine contractions ... vitamin D may act as an anti-inflammatory and may regulate the expression of key genes involved in the prostaglandin pathway, causing decreased biological activity of prostaglandins ... The women were randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of 300,000 IUs of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) or placebo 5 days before the time they expected to begin their next menstrual period ... After 2 months, baseline pain scores decreased 41% among women in the vitamin D group; there was no difference in scores among women taking placebo ... The 300,000 IU dose of vitamin D used in the study is probably harmless if taken every month or 2, and even perhaps every week, but it could cause hypercalcemia if taken daily"
  • Vitamin D3 may cut fat mass, boost heart health markers - Nutra USA, 2/24/12 - "daily dose of 1,000 International Units ... The present study has shown that although the daily intake of a 25 micrograms vitamin D3 supplement increases total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, it has a beneficial effect on HDL-cholesterol, apoA-I concentrations, apoA-I:apo B-100 and LDL-cholesterol:apoB-100 ratios in overweight and obese women" - [Abstract]
  • How vitamin D inhibits inflammation - Science Daily, 2/23/12 - "Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, arthritis and prostate cancer, who are vitamin D deficient, may benefit from vitamin D supplementation to get their serum vitamin D levels above 30 nanograms/milliliter ... Cells incubated with no vitamin D and in solution containing 15 ng/ml of vitamin D produced high levels of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha, major actors in the inflammatory response. Cells incubated in 30 ng/ml vitamin D and above showed significantly reduced response to the LPS. The highest levels of inflammatory inhibition occurred at 50 ng/ml"
  • Memo to pediatricians: Screen all kids for vitamin D deficiency, test those at high risk - Science Daily, 2/23/12 - "Prolonged and untreated vitamin D deficiency can affect multiple organs and functions, including bone growth and density, metabolism, heart and immunity, but it rarely causes overt symptoms and often goes unnoticed ... Vitamin D deficiency in childhood can cause skeletal deformities, brittle bones, frequent fractures and lead to premature osteoporosis in later life. However emerging evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in far more than bone health. Recent studies have found a link between low vitamin D levels and some cancers, heart disease, suppressed immunity and even premature death" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • More Evidence Links Low Vitamin D to Depression - Medscape, 2/13/12 - "One thing that complicates trials is that if you give someone vitamin D, it takes a long time for it to have much effect, as vitamin D levels go up and down very slowly; it probably wouldn't be a fast antidepressant"
  • Low Vitamin D in Pregnancy Linked to Language Problems in Children - WebMD, 2/13/12 - "A new study from Australia suggests that white women who had the lowest stores of vitamin D during their second trimester were nearly twice as likely to have a child with language difficulties than women with the highest blood concentrations"
  • Lower levels of sunlight exposure link to allergy and eczema in children, study suggests - Science Daily, 2/3/12 - "The report builds upon existing evidence that suggests exposure to the sun may play a role in rising levels of food allergy and eczema. Sunlight is important because it provides our body with the fuel to create vitamin D in the skin"
  • 70 percent of Europeans suffer from low vitamin D levels, experts say - Science Daily, 1/13/12 - "Europeans have suffered an alarming decrease in their levels of this vitamin. In their opinion, the ideal would be to maintain blood levels above 30 ng/ml. Vitamin D is essential to the immune system and processes such as calcium absorption"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to depression, psychiatrists report - Science Daily, 1/5/12 - "UT Southwestern researchers examined the results of almost 12,600 participants from late 2006 to late 2010. Dr. Brown and colleagues from The Cooper Institute found that higher vitamin D levels were associated with a significantly decreased risk of current depression, particularly among people with a prior history of depression. Low vitamin D levels were associated with depressive symptoms, particularly those with a history of depression, so primary care patients with a history of depression may be an important target for assessing vitamin D levels. The study did not address whether increasing vitamin D levels reduced depressive symptoms"
  • Calcium plus vitamin D may cut body fat levels: RCT data - Nutra USA, 12/16/11 - "Orange juice providing a daily 1050 mg dose of calcium and 300 IU vitamin D was associated with a significant reduction in visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults, compared with adults drinking a non-fortified juice ... For the new study, Dr Kaplan and his co-workers recruited 171 overweight and obese people with an average age of 40 to participate in their two 16-week parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. One trial involved the regular beverage and the second trial involved the reduced-energy (lite) version ... The test groups consumed three 240 mL glasses of the regular or lite orange juice per day. The total daily dose of calcium was 1050 mg and 100 IU vitamin D per serving. The control groups were given the same juices but without the addition of the vitamin and mineral ... the visceral adipose tissue in people consuming the regular fortified orange juice decreased by an average of 12.7 cm2, compared with only 1.3 cm2 in the control regular juice ... the lite fortified juice group displayed visceral adipose tissue reductions of 13.1 cm2 [2.03 square inches], compared with 6.4 cm2 [0.992 square inches] in the lite control group ... On the other hand, no differences between any of the groups were recorded in terms of average weight loss" - [Abstract] - Note: Don't confuse square inches with just inches.  Inches2 doesn't mean inches1.  Picture a two inch cube of water put into some kid of plastic belt that spreads around your waist area.
  • Vitamin D may slash pancreatic cancer risk: Harvard study - Nutra USA, 12/14/11 - "Data from over 1,500 people collected over 14 years indicated that people with vitamin D insufficiency were at a 30% increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer, compared with people with adequate levels of the sunshine vitamin ... Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading causing of cancer death (about 37,500 per year) in the US" - [Abstract]
  • Low Vitamin D May Raise Diabetes Risk in Kids - WebMD, 12/5/11 - "The study included more than 400 obese kids and teens between the ages of 6 and 16, and 87 normal-weight children and teens ... Obese children were more than three times more likely than non-obese children to be vitamin D deficient, and both obesity and low vitamin D levels were associated with higher degrees of insulin resistance ... Obese children were also more likely than non-obese children to skip breakfast and drink more soda and juice, suggesting that these lifestyle factors may contribute to lower vitamin D levels ... current evidence suggests that vitamin D may help increase insulin production to help compensate for insulin resistance"
  • Low vitamin D levels may be associated with recurrent inflammatory spinal cord disease - Science Daily, 11/14/11 - "The study found that vitamin D levels were significantly lower in patients who developed recurrent spinal cord disease. "Our findings suggest that there may be an association between lower total 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in patients with recurrent TM/NMO/NMO spectrum disorders as compared with their counterparts with monophasic disease," ... This is consistent with other recurrent autoimmune conditions and points to a common link between low vitamin D levels and immunologic dysregulation"
  • Spine Surgery Patients Need Adequate Vitamin D Levels - Medscape, 11/11/11 - "The mean vitamin D level in the study population was 28.6 +/- 13.0 ng/mL, and 27% of the patients were vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL) ... lthough a previous study showed inadequate vitamin D levels in 43% of patients undergoing orthopedic procedures, this is the first study to look solely at patients undergoing spine surgery ... To maintain bone health and normal calcium metabolism, the Institute of Medicine established a recommended daily allowance for vitamin D of 600 IU"
  • Vitamin D crucial in human immune response to tuberculosis, scientists find - Science Daily, 10/12/11 - "The team found that T cells, which are white blood cells that play a central role in immunity, release a protein called interferon-g that triggers communication between cells and directs infected immune cells to attack the invading tuberculosis bacteria. However, this activation requires sufficient levels of vitamin D to be effective ... Researchers next tested serum taken from blood samples in healthy humans, both with and without sufficient levels of vitamin D. They found that the immune response was not triggered in the serum with lower vitamin D levels, as is found in many African Americans. But, when adequate vitamin D was added to this deficient serum, the immune response was effectively activated ... vitamin D may help both innate and adaptive immunity, two systems that work synergistically together to fight infections"
  • Vitamin D deficiency common in cancer patients - Science Daily, 10/3/11 - "More than three-quarters of cancer patients have insufficient levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxy-vitamin D) and the lowest levels are associated with more advanced cancer ... Researchers are just starting to examine how vitamin D may impact specific features of cancer, such as the stage or extent of tumor spread, prognosis, recurrence or relapse of disease, and even sub-types of cancer"
  • Vitamin D could lower risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/4/11 - "New tests performed on participants of the KORA study have shown that people with a good supply of vitamin D have a lower risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus, while individuals with lower concentrations of vitamin D in their blood have a higher risk. This effect could be attributable, amongst other things, to the anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D"
  • Oral steroids linked to severe vitamin D deficiency in nationwide US study - Science Daily, 9/29/11 - "People taking oral steroids are twice as likely as the general population to have severe vitamin D deficiency ... When doctors write that prescription for steroids and they're sending the patients for lab tests, they should also get the vitamin D level measured"
  • Vitamin D deficiency linked with airway changes in children with severe asthma - Science Daily, 9/22/11 - "Children with severe therapy-resistant asthma (STRA) may have poorer lung function and worse symptoms compared to children with moderate asthma, due to lower levels of vitamin D in their blood ... This study clearly demonstrates that low levels of vitamin D are associated with poorer lung function, increased use of medication, worse symptoms and an increase in the mass of airway smooth muscle in children with STRA"
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of Vitamin D Dosing Strategies After Acute Hip Fracture - Medscape, 9/12/11 - "Our findings reveal that a simple daily 1,000 IU vitamin D3 dosing regimen may be as effective as a regimen that adds a loading dose of vitamin D2 to daily vitamin D3 for increasing 25-OHD levels as early as 4-weeks. However, more than 25% of all study patients taking 1,000 IU vitamin D3 (with or without the loading dose) still did not achieve the target 25-OHD level of at least 75 nmol/L. Future studies should examine higher daily doses of vitamin D3 (i.e. 2,000 IU) as well as the benefits of an additional loading dose in patients who are severely deficient"
  • ‘Most’ American children not getting enough vitamin D - Nutra USA, 8/30/11 - "The majority of American children are not getting sufficient vitamin D from sun exposure, even in summer months ... The researchers calculated average vitamin D production from sun exposure according to gender, age, skin type, clothing and the season for children living in the northern (45°N) and southern (35°N) US ... The results challenge conclusions by the American Academy of Dermatology, which states that people will still make “ample” vitamin D3 (at least 1,000 IU/day) because they get plenty of “casual” (everyday) exposure to UV out side" - [Abstract]
  • Confirmation that vitamin D acts as a protective agent against the advance of colon cancer - Science Daily, 8/16/11 - "A study conducted by VHIO researchers confirms that a lack of vitamin D increases the aggressiveness of colon cancer ... In light of these findings, chronic vitamin D deficiency represents a risk factor in the development of more aggressive colon tumours. Patients in the initial stages of colon cancer, the time when the VDR still has a substantial presence in the cells, could benefit from being treated with vitamin D3. However, this would not be useful in the advanced stages of the disease when the presence of the VDR is very much reduced"
  • Low vitamin D linked to earlier first menstruation - Science Daily, 8/10/11 - "Researchers from the University of Michigan School of Public Health measured the blood vitamin D levels in 242 girls ages 5-12 from Bogota, Colombia, and followed them for 30 months. Girls low on vitamin D were twice as likely to start menstruation during the study than those with sufficient vitamin D ... Early menstruation is a risk factor for behavioral and psychosocial problems in teens. Also, girls who have an earlier menarche appear to have increased risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases and cancer -- particularly breast cancer, as adults"
  • Tufts-Harvard study builds vitamin D's anti-diabetes potential - Nutra USA, 8/9/11 - "The study included 92 people with an average age of 57 and an average BMI of 32 kg/m2. Participants were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D (2000 IU per day) or calcium carbonate (800 mg per day). Participants received either the vitamin D with or without calcium or calcium alone for 16 weeks ... At the end of the study, a measure of the function of beta-cells was improved in the people receiving vitamin D, with the so-called disposition index (a measure of beta cell function in the pancreas that includes measures of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity) improved by about 26 percent, compared with a decline of about 14 percent in the no-vitamin D group" - [Abstract]
  • Which Is Better: Vitamin D2 or D3? - Medscape, 7/29/11 - "In conclusion, ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) are not bioequivalent and should not be considered interchangeable. Although few head-to-head trials exist, based on pharmacokinetic studies and limited clinical evidence, cholecalciferol is preferred over ergocalciferol. Because of its shorter half-life and decreased potency, this is especially relevant in the setting of severe deficiency, where high-dose ergocalciferol is often only given once weekly. Health professionals should encourage use of cholecalciferol over ergocalciferol in all patients without severe renal failure, either as a general supplement or as a treatment for vitamin D deficiency"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Atherosclerosis, Study Finds - Medscape, 7/28/11 - "They found that 25-hydroxyvitamin D was inversely associated with both intima-media thickness (beta, -0.01 per 10-ng/mL increase; P = .05) and maximal carotid plaque thickness (beta, -0.10 per 10-ng/mL increase; P = .03) ... In a model containing traditional cardiac risk factors and indices of mineral metabolism, 25-hydroxyvitamin D accounted for 13% of the variance in both intima-media thickness and maximal carotid plaque thickness"
  • Vitamin D relieves joint, muscle pain for breast cancer patients - Science Daily, 7/26/11 - "Rastelli's group recruited 60 patients who reported pain and discomfort associated with anastrozole, one of three FDA-approved aromatase inhibitors. The patients they studied also had low vitamin D levels. Half the group was randomly assigned to receive the recommended daily dose of vitamin D (400 international units) plus a 50,000-unit vitamin D capsule once a week. The other half received the daily dose of 400 units of vitamin D plus a weekly placebo. All subjects received 1,000 milligrams of calcium daily throughout the study ... patients receiving high-dose vitamin D every week reported significantly less musculoskeletal pain and also were less likely to experience pain that interfered with daily living"
  • Vitamin D can help elderly women survive, review suggests - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "The eight-strong international team of researchers identified 50 randomised trials that together had 94,148 participants. They had a mean age of 74 years, and 79% were women. "Our analyses suggest that vitamin D3 reduces mortality by about 6%. This means that you need to give about 200 people vitamin D3 for around two years to save one additional life," ... There were no significant benefits of taking other forms of vitamin D such as vitamin D2, and the active forms of the vitamin, alfacalcidol or calcitriol. However, the researchers point out that they could only find much less data relating to these types of vitamin D and so these conclusions should be taken with caution ... alfacalcidol and calcitriol significantly increased the risk of hypercalcaemia, and vitamin D3 combined with calcium significantly increased the risk of kidney stones"
  • Vitamin D, calcium combo may halve melanoma risk some women - USATODAY.com, 6/29/11 - "The supplements were 1,000 milligrams of calcium and 400 IU of vitamin D daily ... Over about seven years of follow-up, the women taking the supplements who had had previous non-melanoma skin cancer reduced their risk of developing melanoma by 57 percent, compared with similar women not taking the supplements"
  • Vitamin D supplements found to be safe for healthy pregnant women - Science Daily, 6/24/11 - "Dr Hollis' team monitored the pregnancies of 350 women, from a variety of ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds, who were all between 12 and 16 weeks into gestation. The women were randomly assigned to one of three groups. One group received 400 IU of vitamin D per day, the second group received 2,000 IU per day and the third received 4,000 IU daily ... women who received the highest level of supplementation (4,000 IU per day) were more likely to achieve and sustain the desired level of circulating levels of vitamin D throughout their pregnancy. Moreover, the researchers found that pregnant women who received lower levels of vitamin D supplementation did not attain the threshold circulating level of the vitamin"
  • Higher Vitamin D Levels Linked to Lower Diabetes Risk - Medscape, 6/25/11 - "The mean follow-up of the 2039-person cohort was 3.2 years ... Participants with vitamin D levels in the highest tertile (median concentration, 30.1 ng/mL) had a hazard ratio of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.93) for developing diabetes, compared with those with vitamin D levels in the lowest tertile (median concentration, 12.8 ng/mL)"
  • More evidence vitamin D boosts immune response - Science Daily, 6/17/11 - "Laboratory-grown gingival cells treated with vitamin D boosted their production of an endogenous antibiotic, and killed more bacteria than untreated cells, according to a paper in the June 2011 issue of the journal Infection and Immunity. The research suggests that vitamin D can help protect the gums from bacterial infections that lead to gingivitis and periodontitis"
  • Endocrine Society Issues Practice Guideline on Vitamin D - Medscape, 6/7/11 - "Based on all the evidence, at a minimum, we recommend vitamin D levels of 30 ng/mL, and because of the vagaries of some of the assays, to guarantee sufficiency, we recommend between 40 and 60 ng/mL for both children and adults ... Adults 70 years and older require at least 800 IU/day of vitamin D for bone health and fall prevention; at least 1500 to 2000 IU/day of supplemental vitamin D may be needed to keep 25(OH)D levels above 30 ng/mL ... Pregnant and lactating women need a minimum of 600 IU/day of vitamin D; 1500 IU/day may be needed to maintain blood levels of 25(OH)D higher than 30 ng/mL ... Tolerable upper limits of vitamin D, which "should not be exceeded without medical supervision," include the following: 1000 IU/day for infants aged up to 6 months ... 1500 IU/day for infants aged 6 months to 1 year old ... 2500 IU/day for children aged 1 to 3 years ... 3000 IU/day for children aged 4 to 8 years ... 4000 IU/day for everyone older than 8 years"
  • High levels of vitamin D needed for bone density drugs to work, study shows - Science Daily, 6/6/11 - "To fully optimize a drug therapy for osteoporosis and low bone mineral density (BMD), patients should maintain vitamin D levels above the limits recently recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) ... maintaining a circulating vitamin D level above 33 ng/ml is associated with a seven-fold greater likelihood of having a more favorable outcome with bisphosphonate therapy"
  • Protean Manifestations of Vitamin D Deficiency, Part 3 - Medscape, 6/6/11 - "Nutritionally, vitamin D can be derived from dairy foods and fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and tuna. However, 20 minutes of sunshine or five to seven minutes in a tanning bed generate five times more vitamin D3 than that obtained from eating 3 ½ ounces of salmon.[50] Exposure to sunlight also increases the risk of skin malignancies, so that various recommendations for the prudent use of sunscreen such as leaving the arms and legs free of sunscreen or delaying use of sunscreen for 20 minutes after exposure have been advocated. However, oral supplementation with either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 is probably a safer but less physiological way to normalize vitamin D levels. Proponents of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) claim that D3 is 3- to 10-fold more effective in raising 25-OH vitamin D levels, has a higher affinity for the vitamin D binding protein, results in more 25-OH vitamin D generation, and has a greater affinity for the vitamin D receptor. Proponents of D3 also claim that vitamin D3 but not vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol, a synthetic vitamin D product) has been shown to prevent bone fractures. However, most clinicians believe that there is little if any difference between supplementation with D3 and D2 and because D2 is more readily available, it is the most prescribed vitamin D replacement therapy ... When vitamin D deficiency is diagnosed, doses of 50,000 to 100,000 U weekly dependent upon the 25-OH vitamin D level are recommended. After three months if the 25-OH vitamin D level is in the sufficiency range, the weekly dose that resulted in the correction of the 25-OH vitamin D level should be administered on a monthly basis or more frequently depending on monitoring of 25-OH vitamin D levels.[1,51] In severe cases of vitamin D deficiency such as those that occur after gastric bypass surgery, higher and more frequently administered doses may be necessary"
  • Low Vitamin D: A Contributor to Mental Disorders in Children? - Medscape, 6/2/11 - "Children with severe mental health disorders, including psychosis, have twice the rate of vitamin D insufficiency as mentally healthy children ... 21% of children with severe psychiatric symptoms requiring residential care had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels lower than 20 ng/mL (the American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP] minimum recommended level) compared with 14% of children who were participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III), a population-based study designed to assess the health and nutritional status of children and adults in the United States"
  • Protean Manifestations of Vitamin D Deficiency, Part 2 (printer-friendly) - Medscape, 5/30/11 - "An association of vitamin D deficiency with autoimmune disease (particularly multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes) is well established, and vitamin D supplementation has the potential to avoid the development of type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency has also been associated with infection and allergy and correction of vitamin D deficiency may improve the manifestations of asthma. Because 1-25-OH-vitamin D is anti-proliferative and promotes differention as well as inhibiting apoptosis and angiogenesis, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing multiple cancers including colon, breast and prostate cancers and is associated with a worsened prognosis from these cancers. Through an effect on insulin resistance and insulin release vitamin D deficiency is associated with type 2 diabetes and may also be associated with diabetic complications"
  • Vitamin D increases speed of sperm cells, researchers discover - Science Daily, 5/25/11 - "A new study conducted in 300 normal men showed a positive correlation between the percentage of motile sperm and serum vitamin D levels. The study was recently published in the scientific journal Human Reproduction, and showed additionally that stimulation of human spermatooza in the laboratory with activated vitamin D can increase their forward movement"
  • Protean Manifestations of Vitamin D Deficiency, Part 1: Physiology of Vitamin D - Medscape, 5/24/11 - "In conclusion, an epidemic of vitamin D deficiency has developed in the last 20 years due mainly to a lack of exposure to the sun and the increase in obesity. Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy can have devastating effects. Although historically, vitamin D deficiency is associated only with rickets and osteomalacia, its effects are much more protean"
  • Vitamin D improves exercise outcomes in patients with COPD - Science Daily, 5/15/11 - "patients treated with vitamin D had a significant improvement in exercise capacity and respiratory muscle strength compared to those in the placebo group"
  • Low Vitamin D at Birth Linked to Lung Infections - WebMD, 5/10/11 - "At birth, more than a quarter of the infants had low vitamin D -- serum levels of less than 20 ng/mL. During their first year of life, these kids had a sixfold higher risk of RSV lung infection than did the 46% of kids whose vitamin D levels at birth were at least 30 ng/mL ... It's not just the Netherlands. Other Western nations, including the U.S., have similar rates of low vitamin D ... U.S. researchers reported in 2010 that at a single Boston hospital, 58% of infants and 36% of mothers had low vitamin D levels (under 20 ng/mL). Severe vitamin D deficiency (defined as lower than 15 ng/mL) was seen in 38% of the infants and in 23% of the mothers"
  • Vitamin D deficiency in pneumonia patients associated with increased mortality - Science Daily, 5/10/11 - "vitamin D deficiency was associated with higher mortality within the first 30 days after hospital admission for pneumonia. The association between vitamin D deficiency was not explained by patient age, sex, comorbidities, the severity of the systemic inflammatory response, or other known prognostic factors"
  • Before you start bone-building meds, try dietary calcium and supplements, experts urge - Science Daily, 5/2/11 - "For many people, prescription bone-building medicines should be a last resort ... adults who increase their intake of calcium and vitamin D usually increase bone mineral density and reduce the risk for hip fracture significantly ... I suspect that many doctors reach for their prescription pads because they believe it's unlikely that people will change their diets ... prescription bone-building medications are expensive, and many have side effects, including ironically an increase in hip fractures and jaw necrosis. They should be used only if diet and supplements don't do the trick ... For bone health, the researchers also encourage consuming adequate protein, less sodium, and more magnesium and potassium"
  • Low vitamin D in kids may play a role in anemia - Science Daily, 5/1/11 - "vitamin D deficiency may play an important role in anemia ... looked at data from the blood samples of more than 9,400 children, 2 to 18 years of age. The lower the vitamin D levels, the lower the hemoglobin and the higher the risk for anemia, the researchers found. Children with levels below 20 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml) of blood had a 50 percent higher risk for anemia than children with levels 20 ng/ml and above. For each 1 ng/ml increase in vitamin D, anemia risk dropped by 3 percent"
  • Low Vitamin D Linked to Aggressive Breast Cancer - WebMD, 4/29/11 - "Women in the study with triple-negative tumors, which do not respond to hormone treatments, were almost three times more likely to have suboptimal vitamin D levels as women with other breast cancers"
  • Obese adolescents lacking vitamin D, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/28/11 - "For this retrospective study, Harel and his co-authors explored the prevalence of low vitamin D status among 68 obese adolescents, and examined the impact of treatment of low vitamin D status in these patient ... low vitamin D status was present in all of the girls (72 percent deficient and 28 percent insufficient) and in 91 percent of the boys (69 percent deficient and 22 percent insufficient). Of those with vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, 43 patients had a repeat measurement of vitamin D level after treatment. While there was a significant increase in vitamin D levels following treatment, serum vitamin D levels normalized in only 28percent of these patients. Repeat multiple courses of vitamin D treatment in the patients who did not normalize their vitamin D levels after initial course, failed to normalize their low vitamin D status ... The researchers question whether a higher daily vitamin D intake than the one recently recommended by the Institute of Medicine (600 international units of vitamin D/day) may be required as part of treatment in obese adolescents, in an attempt to increase their vitamin D status"
  • Vitamin D Protects Against Age-Related Vision Loss in Women - ABC News, 4/12/11 - "women who consume high levels of vitamin D through certain fish, dairy, eggs, and leafy greens could lower the risk of macular degeneration, the leading cause of vision loss in later life, by 59 percent" - [Nutra USA]
  • Vitamin D levels linked with health of blood vessels - Science Daily, 4/3/11 - "A lack of vitamin D, even in generally healthy people, is linked with stiffer arteries and an inability of blood vessels to relax ... people with vitamin D deficiency had vascular dysfunction comparable to those with diabetes or hypertension ... It could be strengthening endothelial cells and the muscles surrounding the blood vessels. It could also be reducing the level of angiotensin, a hormone that drives increased blood pressure, or regulating inflammation ... Forty-two study participants with vitamin D insufficiency whose levels later went back to normal had an average drop in blood pressure of 4.6 millimeters mercury"
  • Vitamin D deficiency in cirrhosis - Science Daily, 3/15/11 - "The study showed that vitamin D deficiency is more frequent and severe in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis than in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Furthermore, it indicated that the degree of liver dysfunction, rather than the aetiology of cirrhosis, dictates the risk of vitamin D deficiency ... This study emphasizes the importance of monitoring vitamin D levels in all patients with cirrhosis"
  • Vitamin D insufficiency high among patients with early Parkinson disease - Science Daily, 3/14/11 - "Vitamin D insufficiency has been associated with a variety of clinical disorders and chronic diseases, including impaired balance, decreased muscle strength, mood and cognitive dysfunction, autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and diabetes (types 1 and 2), and certain forms of cancer ... Vitamin D insufficiency has been reported to be more common in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) than in healthy control subjects, but it is not clear whether having a chronic disease causing reduced mobility contributes to this relatively high prevalence ... At the baseline visit, most study participants (69.4 percent) had vitamin D insufficiency and more than a quarter (26.1 percent) had vitamin D deficiency"
  • Vitamin D linked to lung cancer survival, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/1/11 - "Recent research suggests vitamin D may be able to stop or prevent cancer. Now, a new study finds an enzyme that plays a role in metabolizing vitamin D can predict lung cancer survival ... Levels of the enzyme, called CYP24A1, were elevated as much as 50 times in lung adenocarcinoma compared with normal lung tissue. The higher the level of CYP24A1, the more likely tumors were to be aggressive. About a third of lung cancer patients had high levels of the enzyme. After five years, those patients had nearly half the survival rate as patients with low levels of the enzyme ... Researchers then linked this to how CYP24A1 interacts with calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D"
  • Low vitamin D levels linked to allergies in kids - Science Daily, 2/24/11 - "When the resulting data was analyzed by Einstein researchers, no association between vitamin D levels and allergies was observed in adults. But for children and adolescents, low vitamin D levels correlated with sensitivity to 11 of the 17 allergens tested, including both environmental allergens (e.g., ragweed, oak, dog, cockroach) and food allergens (e.g., peanuts). For example, children who had vitamin D deficiency (defined as less than 15 nanograms of vitamin D per milliliter of blood), were 2.4 times as likely to have a peanut allergy than were children with sufficient levels of vitamin D (more than 30 nanograms of vitamin D per milliliter of blood)"
  • Markedly higher vitamin D intake needed to reduce cancer risk, researchers say - Science Daily, 2/22/11 - "We found that daily intakes of vitamin D by adults in the range of 4000-8000 IU are needed to maintain blood levels of vitamin D metabolites in the range needed to reduce by about half the risk of several diseases -- breast cancer, colon cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes ... Most scientists who are actively working with vitamin D now believe that 40 to 60 ng/ml is the appropriate target concentration of 25-vitamin D in the blood for preventing the major vitamin D-deficiency related diseases ... only 10 percent of the US population has levels in this range, mainly people who work outdoors"
  • Vitamin D linked to colon cancer protection: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 2/7/11 - "for every 10 nanograms per milliliter increase in 25(OH)D levels the associated risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 15 percent, while the risk of breast cancer was associated with an 11 percent decrease. However, when the researchers restricted their analysis to prospective studies only, the breast cancer risk was decreased by only 3 percent, whereas data from case-control studies indicated a risk reduction of 17 percent" -[Abstract]
  • Vitamin D deficiency alters lung growth and decreases lung function - Science Daily, 1/28/11 - "The results of this study clearly demonstrate that vitamin D deficiency alters lung growth, resulting in lower lung volume and decrements in lung function"
  • Vitamin D3 ’87 percent more potent’ than D2: Study - Nutra USA, 1/11/11 - "By the various measures employed, D3 was from 56 to 87 percent more potent than D2 in raising serum 25(OH)D, and more than three times as potent in increasing fat calciferol content"
  • Vitamin D accelerates recovery from tuberculosis - Science Daily, 1/5/11 - "The average time to clearance of TB from the lungs among all study participants was 6 weeks for patients taking standard therapy alone and 5 weeks for those taking additional vitamin D, although this difference was not large enough to sustain statistical significance. However, patients who had a particular genetic type of vitamin D receptor were much more vitamin D responsive than others and cleared TB bacteria much more quickly if they received vitamin D in addition to standard antibiotic treatment"
  • Vitamin D deficiencies may impact onset of autoimmune lung disease - Science Daily, 1/4/11- "A new study shows that vitamin D deficiency could be linked to the development and severity of certain autoimmune lung diseases ... vitamin D deficiencies have been found to affect the development of other autoimmune diseases, like lupus and type 1 diabetes ... those with connective tissue disease-related ILD were more likely to have vitamin D deficiency -- 52 percent versus 20 percent -- and insufficiency -- 79 percent versus 31 percent -- than other forms of ILD"
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Vitamin D on Muscle Strength and Mobility in Older Women with Vitamin D Insufficiency - Medscape, 1/4/11 - "In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation in older individuals receiving calcium improved hip muscle strength and mobility in participants with low baseline values. Given the importance of maintaining physical performance in older people to maintain a healthy and independent life in the community, vitamin D should be added to those with insufficiency or deficiency to improve muscle function"
  • Newborns with low vitamin D levels at increased risk for respiratory infections - Science Daily, 12/27/10
  • Three-quarters of hip fracture patients are vitamin D deficient, Indian study reveals - Science Daily, 12/12/10 - "Of the patients who had suffered hip fractures, 76.7% were shown to be vitamin D deficient as measured by serum 25(OH)D levels of less than 20 ng/ml"
  • Vitamin D Levels Low Even In Breast Cancer Patients Taking Supplements - Medscape, 12/10/10 - "A majority of the women (73%) were taking vitamin D supplements, but even among this group, vitamin D deficiency was found in 25%"
  • Low vitamin D status associated with cognitive decline: Study - Nutra USA, 12/2/10 - "A total of 5,596 women, not taking vitamin D supplements were divided into 2 groups according to their baseline weekly staus: either inadequate (less than 35 micrograms per week) or recommended (more than 35 micrograms per week) ... Compared to women with recommended weekly vitamin D dietary intakes, women with inadequate intakes were reported to have lower scores on the SPMSQ mental state questionnaire" - [Abstract]
  • Report sets new dietary intake levels for calcium and vitamin D to maintain health and avoid risks associated with excess - Science Daily, 12/1/10 - "The science on calcium's role in bone health shows that 700 milligrams per day meets the needs of almost all children ages 1 through 3, and 1,000 milligrams daily is appropriate for almost all children ages 4 through 8. Adolescents ages 9 through 18 require no more than 1,300 milligrams per day. For practically all adults ages 19 through 50 and for men until age 71, 1,000 milligrams covers daily calcium needs. Women starting at age 51 and both men and women age 71 and older need no more than 1,200 milligrams per day ... As for vitamin D, 600 IUs daily meets the needs of almost everyone in the United States and Canada, although people 71 and older may require as much as 800 IUs per day because of potential physical and behavioral changes related to aging"
  • Low vitamin-D levels found in northern California residents with metabolic syndrome - Science Daily, 11/30/10 - "compared with healthy controls, blood levels of vitamin D are significantly reduced in patients in the Sacramento area with metabolic syndrome ... In spite of our great sun exposure in Northern California, 30 percent of patients with metabolic syndrome have vitamin-D deficiency, and even many subjects in the control group had inadequate levels ... These factors indicate disturbances in the body's metabolism, conferring at least a five-fold increased risk of developing diabetes and doubling the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke ... it is possible that people with metabolic syndrome have higher than average needs for vitamin D"
  • Low blood levels of vitamin D linked to chubbier kids, faster weight gain - Science Daily, 11/8/10 - "the kids with the lowest vitamin D levels at the beginning tended to gain weight faster than the kids with higher levels ... children with the lowest vitamin D levels had more drastic increases in central body fat measures ... Vitamin D deficiency was also linked to slower growth in height among girls but not boys"
  • Insufficient vitamin D levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients linked to cancer progression and death - Science Daily, 11/3/10 - "patients with insufficient levels of vitamin D when their leukemia was diagnosed progressed much faster and were about twice as likely to die as were patients with adequate levels of vitamin D ... They also found solid trends: increasing vitamin D levels across patients matched longer survival times and decreasing levels matched shortening intervals between diagnosis and cancer progression ... Other studies have suggested that low vitamin D levels at diagnosis may be associated with poorer outcomes in colorectal, breast, melanoma and lung cancers, as well as lymphoma ... Vitamin D insufficiency, in general, is widespread"
  • Relationship Observed Between Cord Blood Vitamin D, Child's Adiponectin Levels - Medscape, 10/31/10 - "Higher cord blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] show an association with higher adiponectin levels in children at age 3 years ... Each 25 nmol/L increment in cord blood 25(OH)D also was associated with a decrement of 0.15 in the child's body mass index (BMI) z-score at age 3 years"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Associated With Diabetic Retinopathy - Medscape, 10/22/10 - "People with diabetes had significantly lower mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than people without diabetes (22.9 vs 30.3 ng/mL; P < .001), according to the poster. People with no eye disease had the highest serum vitamin D levels (mean, 31.9 ng/mL), and those with proliferative retinopathy had the lowest levels (mean, 21.1 ng/mL) ... People who took a daily multivitamin that included vitamin D (n = 102) had a mean serum vitamin D level of 31.1 ng/mL; those who did not take a multivitamin (n = 119) had vitamin D levels averaging only 22.0 ng/mL (P < .001), according to the poster. Dr. Payne noted that even those who took daily multivitamins had a 44% incidence of vitamin D insufficiency"
  • Skin Cancer Patients More Likely to Be Deficient in Vitamin D - Time Magazine, 10/19/10 - "The results point out that while dermatologists are understandably focused on their patients' skin cancer risk, they should also be checking their vitamin D levels and advising those who are low to supplement their levels with a pill ... We should be more proactive at checking these levels"
  • Genetic predisposition to certain skin cancers may be associated with vitamin D deficiency - Science Daily, 10/18/10 - "Patients with basal cell nevus syndrome, which predisposes them to develop non-melanoma skin cancers, appear to be at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency if they take steps to protect themselves from sunlight ... When compared with the general population, patients with basal cell nevus syndrome had lower average vitamin D levels and were three times more likely to be deficient"
  • Vitamin d deficiency puts inflammatory bowel disease patients at greater risk of osteoporosis, study finds - Science Daily, 10/18/10 - "IBD patients with an abnormal bone density exam had a significantly higher rate of Vitamin D deficiency than those who had normal DEXA scans .... This finding is not surprising since Crohn's disease usually affects the small intestine, which is the part of the gut that absorbs the most nutrients"
  • Vitamin D deficiency rampant in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, damaging patient recovery - Science Daily, 10/6/10 - "Almost 50 percent of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery have vitamin D deficiency that should be corrected before surgery to improve patient outcomes"
  • Vitamin D Treatment for the Prevention of Falls in Older Adults (printer-friendly) - Medscape, 9/30/10 - "In summary, vitamin D supplementation is an effective strategy for reducing falls in older adults and should probably be incorporated into the clinical practice of providers caring for older adults, especially those at risk for falling. Although the effect appears to be modest, possibly because of inadequate dosing, vitamin D is inexpensive and well tolerated; a slight reduction in falls with vitamin D supplementation might lead to a significant decrease in the costs associated with fall morbidity and mortality"
  • Vitamin D protects against obesity-induced endometrial cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 9/21/10 - "25 percent of obese mice fed a vitamin D supplemented diet developed endometrial cancer, while 67 percent of obese mice not treated with the vitamin developed cancer ... vitamin D offered no protective effects for normal weight mice ... Vitamin D has been shown to be helpful in a number of cancers, but for endometrial cancer, our study suggests it protects only against cancer that develops due to obesity ... Still, if these results are confirmed in women, use of vitamin D may be a wonderfully simple way to reduce endometrial cancer risk"
  • Vitamin D is a prognostic marker in heart failure, study finds - Science Daily, 8/31/10 - "Survival rates in heart failure patients with reduced levels of vitamin D are lower than in patients with normal levels ... Results also suggest that low levels of vitamin D are associated with activation of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS -- a pivotal regulatory system in heart failure) and an altered cytokine profile"
  • Female Incontinence Risk Linked to Vitamin D Levels - Doctor's Guide, 8/26/10 - "Mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower for women reporting urinary and/or faecal incontinence regardless ... the risk of urinary incontinence was significantly decreased in women aged 50 years and older with vitamin D levels >30 ng/mL (P =.022), translating into a 45% decreased risk of urinary incontinence with vitamin D levels in the normal range ... treating pre- and postmenopausal women for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency may strengthen pelvic muscles and potentially decrease the prevalence of urinary incontinence"
  • Vitamin D found to influence over 200 genes, highlighting links to disease - Science  Daily, 8/23/10 - "The extent to which vitamin D deficiency may increase susceptibility to a wide range of diseases is dramatically highlighted in newly published research ... The researchers found 2,776 binding sites for the vitamin D receptor along the length of the genome. These were unusually concentrated near a number of genes associated with susceptibility to autoimmune conditions such as MS, Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (or 'lupus') and rheumatoid arthritis, and to cancers such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and colorectal cancer ... vitamin D had a significant effect on the activity of 229 genes including IRF8, previously associated with MS, and PTPN2, associated with Crohn's disease and type 1 diabetes"
  • Vitamin D may treat or prevent allergy to common mold - Science Daily, 8/16/10 - "The environmental mold, Aspergillus fumigatus, is one of the most prevalent fungal organisms inhaled by people. In the vast majority, it is not associated with disease. However, in asthmatics and in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), it can cause significant allergic symptoms. Up to 15% of CF patients develop a severe allergic response called Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis (ABPA) ... adding vitamin D not only substantially reduced the production of the protein driving an allergic response, but it also increased production of the proteins that promote tolerance"
  • More support for vitamin D’s colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 8/12/10 - "In people using NSAIDs, the potential risk reduction of higher vitamin D levels was increased to 66 per cent" - [Abstract]
  • Can vitamin D compete with bone drugs? (ATOM) - betterbones.com, 8/4/10 - "At the end of the day, vitamin D was shown to reduce more fractures than the popular bisphosphonate drugs"
  • Nutrient blend improves function of aging brain: rat study - Nutra USA, 7/21/10 - "NT-020 is a combination of blueberry, green tea extract, carnosine and vitamin D3 ... The NT-020 group demonstrated increased adult neural stem cell proliferation in the two main stem cell niches in the brains and improvement in learning and memory"
  • Low vitamin D levels associated with cognitive decline - Science Daily, 7/12/10 - "An estimated 40 percent to 100 percent of older adults in the United States and Europe are deficient in vitamin D ... Participants who were severely deficient in vitamin D (having blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of less than 25 nanomoles per liter) were 60 percent more likely to have substantial cognitive decline in general over the six-year period and 31 percent more likely to experience declines on the test measuring executive function than those with sufficient vitamin D levels"
  • Vitamin D levels associated with Parkinson's disease risk - Science Daily, 7/12/10 - "Over a 29-year follow-up, through 2007, 50 of the participants developed Parkinson's disease. After adjusting for potentially related factors, including physical activity and body mass index, individuals in the highest quartile (one-fourth of the study population) of serum vitamin D levels had a 67 percent lower risk of developing Parkinson's disease than those in the lowest quartile of vitamin D levels"
  • Vitamin D Low in Patients With Headache and Migraine - Medscape, 7/6/10 - "Patients with headache and migraine may need to have their vitamin D levels assessed ... Vitamin D may play some yet unknown role in multiple painful and possibly headache and migraine disorders ... vitamin D is safe when used in physiologic doses of at least 5000 IU/day from all sources, including sunlight, diet, and supplements"
  • Low vitamin D linked to the metabolic syndrome in elderly people - Science Daily, 7/1/10 - "vitamin D inadequacy may be a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, a condition that affects one in four adults ... Because the metabolic syndrome increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, an adequate vitamin D level in the body might be important in the prevention of these diseases ... The researchers found a 48 percent prevalence of vitamin D deficiency"
  • Vitamin D and mental agility in elders - Science Daily, 6/25/10 - "The participants, ages 65 to 99 years, were grouped by their vitamin D status, which was categorized as deficient, insufficient, or sufficient. Only 35 percent had sufficient vitamin D blood levels. They had better cognitive performance on the tests than those in the deficient and insufficient categories, particularly on measures of "executive performance," such as cognitive flexibility, perceptual complexity, and reasoning. The associations persisted after taking into consideration other variables that could also affect cognitive performance"
  • Poor control of diabetes may be linked to low vitamin D - Science Daily, 6/21/10 - "Despite receiving regular primary care visits before referral to the endocrine clinic, 91 percent of patients had either vitamin D deficiency (defined as a level below 15 nanograms per deciliter, or ng/dL) or insufficiency (15 to 31 ng/dL) ... Additionally, the investigators found an inverse relationship between the patients' blood levels of vitamin D and their hemoglobin A1c value, a measure of blood sugar control over the past several months. Lower vitamin D levels were discovered in patients with higher average blood sugars as measured by HbA1c"
  • erent properties. Sure enough, this compound, which they call Ro 26-9114, reduced the growth of colon tumors in mice to a similar degree as regular vitamin D but without the problematic side effects"


  • Vitamin D intake and lung cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 21 - "Prospective cohort data from 128,779 postmenopausal women, including 1771 incident lung cancers in the Women's Health Initiative (Clinical Trials and Observational Study) 1993-2010, were analyzed ... No significant association was observed overall. Among never smokers, a total vitamin D intake ≥400 IU/d was significantly associated with lower risks of lung cancer (HR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.77 for ≥800 compared with <100 IU/d; P-trend = 0.01). No significant effect modification of total vitamin A intake on the association between total vitamin D intake and lung cancer was found. However, the Calcium/Vitamin D Trial active intervention was significantly associated with a lower lung cancer risk only among women with a vitamin A intake <1000 μg/d retinol activity equivalents (HR: 0.69" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Suboptimal effect of different vitamin D3 supplementations and doses adapted to baseline serum 25(OH)D on achieved 25(OH)D levels in patients with a recent fracture: a prospective observational study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Aug 19 - "Out of 1481 consecutive women and men with a recent clinical fracture, 707 had a baseline 25(OH)D level <50 nmol/L and were supplemented with increasing doses of vitamin D3 (400, 800, 1700, ≥3500IU/day) according to the lower baseline 25(OH)D ... The increase in serum 25(OH)D was significantly larger with higher vitamin D3 supplementation doses. However, this dose-effect response was mainly explained by the baseline 25(OH)D, not the supplementation dose, with a greater magnitude of response at lower baseline 25(OH)D concentrations. In 21-27% of patients serum 25(OH)D3 levels did not reach 50 nmol/L after 11 months, at any dose"
  • Low vitamin D status is associated with reduced muscle mass and impaired physical performance in frail elderly people - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 14 - "Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status has been associated with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in healthy elderly people. Yet, in pre-frail and frail elderly people this association has not been studied ... study included 127 pre-frail and frail elderly people in The Netherlands ... appendicular lean mass (ALM) ... In this frail elderly population, 25(OH)D status is low and suggests a modest association with reduced ALM and impaired physical performance. In addition, vitamin D intake tended to be associated with impaired physical performance"
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Affects Serum High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, Insulin Resistance, and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Women - J Nutr. 2013 Jul 24 - "Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 400 IU/d cholecalciferol supplements (n = 24) or placebo (n = 24) for 9 wk ... Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant decrease in serum hs-CRP (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -1.41 vs. +1.50 μg/mL; P-interaction = 0.01) and insulin concentrations (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -1.0 vs. +2.6 μIU/mL; P-interaction = 0.04) and a significant increase in the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index score (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: +0.02 vs. -0.02; P-interaction = 0.006), plasma total antioxidant capacity (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: +152 vs. -20 mmol/L; P-interaction = 0.002), and total glutathione concentrations (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: +205 vs. -32 μmol/L; P-interaction = 0.02) compared with placebo. Intake of vitamin D supplements led to a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -0.65 vs. -0.12 mmol/L; P-interaction = 0.01), systolic blood pressure (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -0.2 vs. +5.5 mm Hg; P-interaction = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (vitamin D vs. placebo groups: -0.4 vs. +3.1 mm Hg; P-interaction = 0.01) compared with placebo" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low vitamin D status is an independent predictor of increased frailty and all-cause mortality in older men: the Health In Men Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jun 20 - "4203 older men aged 70-88 years in Perth, Western Australia ... After a mean period of 5.3 years, the adjusted odds ratio of being frail at follow-up for men with low vitamin D and having zero deficit at baseline (FRAIL scale = 0) was 1.56 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.27). Low vitamin D also predicted all-cause mortality over a period of up to 9.2 years (hazards ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42), independent of baseline frailty and other covariates"
  • Hypovitaminosis D and incidence of obesity: a prospective study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun;67(6):680-2 - "In subjects who were non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m(2)) at the second evaluation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D values 17 ng/ml (42.5 nmol/l) were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing obesity in the next 4 years (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.03-5.4, P=0.040 after diverse adjustments). We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of developing obesity"
  • Vitamin D3 supplementation modulates inflammatory responses from the muscle damage induced by high-intensity exercise in SD rats - Cytokine. 2013 May 10 - "we concluded that vitamin D may play a pivotal role in exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation through the modulation of MAPK and NF-κB involved with VDR"
  • Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults - Nutr J. 2013 May 16;12(1):61 - "Intakes of calcium dairy-servings within-recommendations were inversely associated with plaque, among those with higher, but not lower, vitamin D intakes. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the study, it is not possible to infer that this association is causal"
  • Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D predict hip fracture in the elderly. A NOREPOS study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May 15 - "risk of hip fracture in Norway, a high-latitude country that has among the highest hip fracture rates worldwide ... We observed an inverse association between s-25(OH)D and hip fracture; those with s-25(OH)D in the lowest quartile (<42.2 nmol/l) had a 38% (95% CI 9-74%) increased risk of hip fracture compared with the highest quartile ... In this prospective case-cohort study of hip fractures, the largest ever reported, we found an increased risk of hip fracture in subjects in the lowest compared to the highest quartile of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D"
  • Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D associated with pulmonary function in Canadian adults with excess adiposity - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 May 8 - "cross-sectional study included 3359 adults aged ≥18 who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey, and a 2-stage multiple linear regression analysis was conducted ... Hypovitaminosis D may be a risk factor for lung dysfunction, especially for overweight and obese men"
  • Associations Between Frailty and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in Older Australian Men: The Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 May 8 - "Cross-sectional analysis of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, a large epidemiological study conducted in Sydney, Australia, between January 2005 and May 2007 ... 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were independently associated with frailty in older men. This suggests that there might be a number of different biological mechanisms for how low vitamin D status might contribute to the frailty syndrome. In addition, the possibility that improving vitamin D status may specifically influence the incidence and progression of frailty needs to be explored"
  • Associations Between Vitamin D and Self-Reported Respiratory Disease in Older People from a Nationally Representative Population Survey - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 May 6 - "Health Survey for England 2005 ... Low serum 25(OH)D concentrations are associated with respiratory disease. Ensuring adequate 25(OH)D levels is of public health importance for older populations living in northern latitudes and may be an effective way to prevent concurrent respiratory infections and related complications in older people"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and the risk of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(5):447-55 - "Relevant studies were identified by systematically searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases ... Our results indicate an inverse association between serum 25(OH)D levels and the risk of depression"
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency and the 5-Year Incidence of CKD - Am J Kidney Dis. 2013 Apr 23 - "Our prospective cohort study shows that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher annual incidence of albuminuria and reduced eGFR and independently predicts the 5-year incidence of albuminuria"
  • Blood 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: A meta-analysis of prospective studies - Diabetes Care. 2013 May;36(5):1422-8 - "A linear trend analysis showed that each 10 nmol/L increment in 25(OH)D levels was associated with a 4% lower risk of type 2 diabetes"
  • Hypertension, Pulse, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Vitamin D Status in Finnish Men - Am J Hypertens. 2013 Apr 18 - "This study investigated baseline (n=2,271) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and baseline and 4 year (n=1,957) CVD risk in a cohort of Finnish middle-aged male smokers ... Change in pulse rate over time continued to be significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D baseline levels"
  • Hip bone loss is attenuated with 1000 IU but not 400 IU daily vitamin D3: a 1 year double-blind RCT in postmenopausal women - J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Apr 13 - "Caucasian women aged 60-70 y (n = 305) were randomized to one of two doses of vitamin D or placebo ... Mean BMD loss at the hip was significantly less for the 1000 IU vitamin D group (0.05 +/- 1.46%), compared to the 400 IU vitamin D or placebo groups (0.57 +/- 1.33% and 0.60 +/- 1.67%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Mean(+/- SD) baseline 25(OH)D was 33.8 +/- 14.6 nmol/L; comparative 25(OH)D change for the placebo, 400 IU and 1000 IU vitamin D groups was: -4.1 +/- 11.5 nmol/L, +31. 6 +/- 19.8 nmol/L and +42.6 +/- 18.9 nmol/L respectively"
  • Predicted Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Renal Cell Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Apr 8 - "prospectively evaluated the association between predicted plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and RCC risk among 72 051 women and 46 380 men in the period from 1986 to 2008 ... The multivariable hazard ratios between extreme quintiles of predicted 25(OH)D score were 0.50 (95% CI = 0.32 to 0.80) in women, 0.59 (95% CI = 0.37 to 0.94) in men, and 0.54 (95% CI = 0.39 to 0.75; P trend < .001) in the pooled cohorts. An increment of 10ng/mL in predicted 25(OH)D score was associated with a 44% lower incidence of RCC (pooled HR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.74) ... Higher predicted plasma 25(OH)D levels were associated with a statistically significantly lower risk of RCC in men and women"
  • Effect of high doses of vitamin D on arterial properties, adiponectin, leptin and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients - Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 27 - "The present study was designed to evaluate long term impact of high doses of vitamin D on arterial properties, glucose homeostasis, adiponectin and leptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ... Group 1 received oral daily supplementation with vitamin D at a dose of 1000 U/day for 12 months. Group 2 received matching placebo capsules ... Central aortic augmentation index (AI) was evaluated using SphygmoCor ... After 12 months, AI decreased significantly during the treatment period in patients received vitamin D (p < 0.0001) and did not change in placebo group. Glucose homeostasis parameters, leptin as well as leptin adiponectin ratio did not change in both groups. 25 OH Vit D level significantly increased (p = 0.022) and circulating adiponectin marginally increased (p = 0.065) during 12 month treatment period in active treatment and did not change in placebo group"
  • Non-linear association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the incidence of Type 2 diabetes: a community-based nested case-control study - Diabet Med. 2013 Mar 18 - "Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured for 761 participants (aged 20-83 years) in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study ... Odds ratios for Type 2 diabetes were obtained from conditional logistic regression models for tertiles of serum 25(OH)D concentrations [tertile-1: 2.82-11.02 (reference), tertile-2: 11.03-21.80, and tertile-3: ≥ 21.82 ng/ml] ... Unadjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of diabetes were 0.73 (0.74-1.13), 0.54 (0.34-0.85) for the second and third tertiles, respectively. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios were 0.47 (0.25-0.90) and 0.43 (0.23-0.82), respectively. Below the cutoff of ~ 10 ng/ml the risk of newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes increased dramatically"
  • Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of Vitamin D Supplementation in Pregnancy in a Population with Endemic Vitamin D Deficiency - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Apr 4 - "Vitamin D (vD) deficiency in pregnancy is a global health problem and the amount of vD supplementation to prevent vD deficiency is controversial.  Objective: Determine effectiveness and safety of prenatal 2000 IU and 4000 IU/day compared with 400 IU/day vD3 supplementation in a RCT in population where vD deficiency is endemic ... Arab women were randomized at 12-16 weeks of gestation to 400, 2000 and 4000 IU/day vD3 which were continued to delivery ... Vitamin D supplementation of 2000 and 4000 IU/day appeared safe in pregnancy and 4000 IU/day was most effective in optimizing serum 25(OH)D concentrations in mothers and their infants"
  • Vitamin D reduces deposition of advanced glycation end-products in the aortic wall and systemic oxidative stress in diabetic rats - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Mar 20 - "Vitamin D may have an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) such as Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), have been implicated in diabetic vascular complications via oxidative stress-mediated pathways ... Untreated diabetes was associated with significantly elevated CML levels in the aortic wall (19.5+/-3.3 vs 10.2+/-4.7ng/mL), increased liver OSI (6.8+/-1.9 vs 3.1+/-0.7), and reduced serum TAC (0.4+/-0.1 vs 0.8+/-0.3mmol Trolox/L), in comparison with the control group. Cholecalciferol significantly blocked the accumulation of CML in the aortic wall (10.4+/-8.4 vs 19.5+/-3.3ng/mL), decreased liver OSI (4.2+/-1.4 vs 6.8+/-1.9), and improved serum TAC (1.0+/-0.2 vs 0.4+/-0.1mmol Trolox/L), compared with the untreated diabetic group"
  • Strong associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 27 - "ESTHER study, which is a German population-based cohort aged 50-74 y at baseline. Deaths were recorded during 9.5 y of follow-up (median) ... The overall mortality [HR (95% CI)] of subjects with vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L] or vitamin D insufficiency [25(OH)D concentrations from 30 to 50 nmol/L) was significantly increased [1.71 (1.43, 2.03) and 1.17 (1.02, 1.35), respectively] compared with that of subjects with sufficient 25(OH)D concentrations (>50 nmol/L)]. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with increased cardiovascular mortality [1.39 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.89)], cancer mortality [1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.88)] and respiratory disease mortality [2.50 (95% CI: 1.12, 5.56)]. The association of 25(OH)D concentrations with all-cause mortality proved to be a nonlinear inverse association with risk that started to increase at 25(OH)D concentrations <75 nmol/L"
  • Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis - Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;202:100-7 - "One case-control study, ten cross-sectional studies and three cohort studies with a total of 31 424 participants were analysed. Lower vitamin D levels were found in people with depression compared with controls (SMD = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23-0.97) and there was an increased odds ratio of depression for the lowest v. highest vitamin D categories in the cross-sectional studies (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.0-1.71). The cohort studies showed a significantly increased hazard ratio of depression for the lowest v. highest vitamin D categories (HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.40-3.49)"
  • Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is independently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Feb 13 - "Compared with matched controls, patients with NAFLD have significantly decreased serum 25(OH)D levels, suggesting that low 25(OH)D status might play a role in the development and progression of NAFLD"
  • High serum vitamin D levels reduce the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in healthy men independent of metabolic syndrome - Endocr J. 2013 Feb 13 - "performed a cross-sectional study of 6,567 Korean men who participated in a health screening program, evaluating the association of serum 25(OH)D(3) levels with the risk of NAFLD assessed by abdominal ultrasonogram ... The mean 25(OH)D(3) level was significantly lower in participants with NAFLD than in those without (38.7 +/- 9.0 vs. 39.7 +/- 9.7 nmol/L, p < 0.001). When participants were divided into tertiles based on mean 25(OH)D(3) level, the proportion with NAFLD significantly increased as mean 25(OH)D(3) level decreased (40.0, 45.0 and 45.9%, p for linear trend < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses with NAFLD as the dependent variable showed that the tertiles with lower 25(OH)D(3) levels had a significantly increased risk for NAFLD compared with the highest tertile, even after adjusting for body mass index and metabolic syndrome (OR 1.247 and 1.408 vs. the highest tertile, p < 0.001). Thus, participants with higher serum 25(OH)D(3) showed a significantly reduced risk for NAFLD compared with the low 25(OH)D(3) groups, independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome"
  • Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 13 - "The objective was to determine in obese adolescents the efficacy and safety of 4000 IU vitamin D(3)/d and whether subsequent increased circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with improved markers of insulin sensitivity and resistance and reduced inflammation ... fasting insulin (-6.5 compared with +1.2 μU/mL for placebo; P = 0.026), HOMA-IR (-1.363 compared with +0.27 for placebo; P = 0.033)" - Note:  The fasting insulin was 7.7 lower (difference between -6.5 and +1.2).
  • Decreased Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Are Associated With Increased Risk of Progression to Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2013 Feb 7 - "In a historical prospective cohort study of subjects from the Clalit Health Services database, which includes information on nearly 4 million people, diabetes-free subjects aged 40-70 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) measurements available were followed up for 2 years to assess the development of IFG and diabetes in five 25-OHD subgroups: ≥25, 25.1-37.5, 37.6-50, 50.1-75, and >75 nmol/L ... The odds of transitioning from normoglycemia to IFG, from normoglycemia to diabetes, and from IFG to diabetes in subjects with a 25-OHD level ≤25 nmol/L were greater than those of subjects with a 25-OHD level >75 nmol/L [odds ratio 1.13 (95% CI 1.03-1.24), 1.77 (1.11-2.83), and 1.43 (1.16-1.76), respectively] ... Vitamin D deficiency appears to be an independent risk factor for the development of IFG and diabetes"
  • Association of vitamin D deficiency with incidence of type 2 diabetes in high-risk Asian subjects - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan 30 - "tested the hypothesis that baseline 25(OH)D is associated with the incidence of T2D in high-risk subjects for up to 5 y of follow-up, independently of obesity, baseline IR, and β cell function ... Of the participants, 10.5% had a serum 25(OH)D deficiency (<10 ng/mL), 51.6% had an insufficiency (10.0-19.9 ng/mL), and 38.0% had a sufficiency (≥20 ng/mL), and the incidence of T2D at 32.3 +/- 15.6 mo (+/-SD) declined accordingly: 15.9%, 10.2%, and 5.4%, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjustment for age, sex, blood pressure, lifestyles, family history, season, parathyroid hormone, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, the participants with 25(OH)D deficiency had an increased risk of T2D independently of BMI, HOMA2-IR, and IGI; the HRs were 2.06 for 25(OH)D 10-19.9 ng/mL compared with ≥20 ng/mL (95% CI: 1.22, 3.49) and 3.23 for 25(OH)D <10 ng/mL compared with ≥20 ng/mL (95% CI: 1.66, 6.30)"
  • Vitamin D supplementation in elderly or postmenopausal women: A 2013 update of the 2008 recommendations from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) - Curr Med Res Opin. 2013 Jan 15 - "Vitamin D insufficiency has deleterious consequences on health outcomes. In elderly or postmenopausal women, it may exacerbate osteoporosis ... Patients with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-(OH)D) levels <50 nmol/L have increased bone turnover, bone loss, and possibly mineralization defects compared with patients with levels >50 nmol/L. Similar relationships have been reported for frailty, nonvertebral and hip fracture, and all-cause mortality, with poorer outcomes at <50 nmol/L. Conclusion The ESCEO recommends that 50 nmol/L (i.e. 20 ng/mL) should be the minimal serum 25-(OH)D concentration at the population level and in patients with osteoporosis to ensure optimal bone health. Below this threshold, supplementation is recommended at 800 to 1000 IU/day. Vitamin D supplementation is safe up to 10 000 IU day (upper limit of safety) (resulting in an upper limit of adequacy of 125 nmol/L 25-(OH)D). Daily consumption of calcium- and vitamin D-fortified food products (e.g. yoghurt or milk) can help improve vitamin D intake. Above the threshold of 50 nmol/L, there is no clear evidence for additional benefits of supplementation. On the other hand, in fragile elderly subjects who are at elevated risk for falls and fracture, the ESCEO recommends a minimal serum 25-(OH)D level of 75 nmol/L (i.e. 30 ng/mL), for the greatest impact on fracture"
  • Vitamin D status and the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in cardiac surgery - Eur Heart J. 2013 Jan 12 - "We aimed to investigate the association of pre-operative 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels with major cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in cardiac surgical patients ... Of the study cohort, 38.0% had deficient 25(OH)D values (<30 nmol/L) and additional 32.3% had insufficient values (30-49.9 nmol/L), whereas only 3.1% had values >100 nmol/L. The incidence of MACCE was 11.5%. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, the odds ratio of MACCE at deficient, inadequate, and high 25(OH)D levels was 2.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-3.79], 1.73 (95% CI: 1.01-2.96) and 2.34 (95% CI: 1.12-4.89), respectively, compared with 25(OH)D levels of 75-100 nmol/L. A U-shaped association with circulating 25(OH)D was also present for duration of mechanical ventilatory support and intensive care unit stay. Multivariable-adjusted 6- and 12-month mortality were higher in patients with deficient 25(OH)D levels compared with patients with 25(OH)D levels of 75-100 nmol/L"
  • Calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation facilitated Fat loss in overweight and obese college students with very-low calcium consumption: a randomized controlled trial - Nutr J. 2013 Jan 8;12(1):8 - "to receive either an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal/d) supplemented with 600 mg elemental calcium and 125 IU vitamin D3 or energy restriction alone for 12 weeks. Repeated measurements of variance were performed to evaluate the differences between groups for changes in body weight, BMI, body composition ... A significantly greater decrease in fat mass loss was observed in the calcium + D group (-2.8+/-1.3 vs.-1.8+/-1.3 kg; P=0.02) than in the control group, although there was no significant difference in body weight change (P>0.05) between groups. The calcium + D group also exhibited greater decrease in visceral fat mass and visceral fat area"
  • Vitamin D and risk of death from vascular and non-vascular causes in the Whitehall study and meta-analyses of 12 000 deaths - Eur Heart J. 2012 Dec 20 - "examined associations of plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D and cause-specific mortality in a prospective study of older men living in the UK and included findings in meta-analyses of similar studies identified by a systematic search reporting on vascular and all-cause mortality ... 13-year follow-up ... After adjustment for age and seasonality, higher concentrations of 25(OH)D were inversely and approximately linearly (log-log scale) associated with vascular and non-vascular mortality throughout the range 40-90 nmol/L. After additional adjustment for prior disease and cardiovascular risk factors, a doubling in 25(OH)D concentration was associated with 20% [95% confidence interval (CI): 9-30%] lower vascular and 23% (95% CI: 14-31%) lower non-vascular mortality. In meta-analyses of prospective studies, individuals in the top vs. bottom quarter of 25(OH)D concentrations had 21% (95% CI: 13-28%) lower vascular and 28% (95% CI: 24-32%) lower all-cause mortality"
  • Vitamin D reduces left atrial volume in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic kidney disease - Am Heart J. 2012 Dec;164(6):902-909.e2 - "Left atrial enlargement, a sensitive integrator of left ventricular diastolic function, is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality ... left atrial volume index (LAVi) ... One hundred ninety-six patients with chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate 15-60 mL/min per 1.73m(2)), mild to moderate left ventricular hypertrophy, and preserved ejection fraction were randomly assigned to 2 μg of oral paricalcitol or matching placebo for 48 weeks ... Over the study period, there was a significant decrease in LAVi (-2.79 mL/m(2), 95% CI -4.00 to -1.59 mL/m(2)) in the paricalcitol group compared with the placebo group (-0.70 mL/m(2) [95% CI -1.93 to 0.53 mL/m(2)], P = .002). Paricalcitol also attenuated the rise in levels of brain natriuretic peptide (10.8% in paricalcitol vs 21.3% in placebo, P = .02) ... Forty-eight weeks of therapy with an active vitamin D analog reduces LAVi and attenuates the rise of BNP. In a population where only few therapies alter cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality, these post hoc results warrant further confirmation"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of major osteoporotic fractures in older U.S. adults - J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Nov 26 - "The study used a pooled cohort of 4749 men and women ages 65 years and older from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-94) and NHANES 2000-2004 ... Serum 25OHD was a significant linear predictor of major osteoporotic fracture and significant quadratic predictor of hip fracture in the total sample and among those with less than 10 years of follow-up, but it was not related to risk of either fracture type among those with > 10 years of follow-up. Major osteoporotic fracture risk was increased by 26-27% for each SD decrease in serum 25OHD among those with less than 10 years of follow-up. Serum 25OHD was significantly related to risk of major osteoporotic fractures as a group and to hip fracture alone in this cohort of older US adults from NHANES III and NHANES 2000-2004. However, the predictive utility of serum 25OHD diminished after ten years. In addition, the relationship appeared to be linear when major osteoporotic fracture risk was considered but quadratic when hip fracture risk was assessed"
  • Long-term vitamin D3 supplementation is more effective than vitamin D2 in maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status over the winter months - Br J Nutr. 2012 Jul 11:1-7 - "Participants aged 18-50 years were randomly assigned to 25 μg (1000 IU) vitamin D3 (n 32), 25 μg (1000 IU) vitamin D2 (n 31) or placebo (n 32) daily for 25 weeks beginning at the end of summer ... After 25 weeks, participants randomised to D2 and placebo had a significant reduction in serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations over the winter months compared with vitamin D3-supplemented participants (both P < 0.001). Supplementation with vitamin D2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 but produced a 9 (95 % CI 1, 17) nmol/l greater decline in the 25(OH)D3 metabolite compared with placebo (P < 0.036). Overall, total serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 21 (95 % CI 14, 30) nmol/l lower in participants receiving vitamin D2 compared with those receiving D3 (P < 0.001), among whom total serum 25(OH)D concentrations remained unchanged"
  • Vitamin D as a protective factor in multiple sclerosis - Neurology. 2012 Nov 20;79(21):2140-5 - "2 population-based biobanks with 291,500 samples from 164,000 persons collected since 1975 in the northern half of Sweden were used ... This study supports the presence of an association between high 25(OH)D levels during the years preceding disease onset and a decreased risk of MS. In the very limited material with samples drawn in early pregnancy, where month-of-birth effects were controlled for, we found no association between gestational 25(OH)D levels and MS risk in the offspring. Decreasing 25(OH)D levels in the population may contribute to explain the increasing MS incidence that is suggested from epidemiologic studies"
  • Vitamin D mitigates age-related cognitive decline through the modulation of pro-inflammatory state and decrease in amyloid burden - J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Oct 25;9(1):244 - "Our results show that: (1) aged rats demonstrated significant learning and memory impairment overall compared to younger animals. However, the age-related decline in learning and memory was ameliorated by the supplementation of vitamin D. No vitamin D effect on learning and memory was seen in the young animals; 2) the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta is significantly increased while the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is significantly decreased in the aged rats compared to the young animals; but this age-related change in inflammatory state was mitigated by vitamin D supplementation. No effects of vitamin D were seen on the IL-1beta and IL-10 expression in the young rats; (3) vitamin D increased Abeta clearance and decreased amyloid burden in the aged rats while no significant difference was seen between the young animal groups"
  • The association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vertebral fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes - Endocr J. 2012 Oct 13 - "After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, men with a serum 25(OH)D concentration of less than 20 ng/ml were associated with an increased risk of vertebral fractures (OR 7.87; 95% CI 1.69-36.71), but not women. In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D levels below 20 ng/ml were associated with an increased vertebral fracture risk in men with type 2 diabetes"
  • Vitamin D, cognition, and dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis - Neurology. 2012 Sep 25;79(13):1397-405 - "Thirty-seven studies were included; 8 contained data allowing mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores to be compared between participants with vitamin D <50 nmol/L to those with values ≥50 nmol/L. There was significant heterogeneity among the studies that compared the WMD for MMSE but an overall positive effect for the higher vitamin D group (1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5 to 1.9; I(2) = 0.65; p = 0.002). The small positive effect persisted despite several sensitivity analyses. Six studies presented data comparing Alzheimer disease (AD) to controls but 2 utilized a method withdrawn from commercial use. For the remaining 4 studies the AD group had a lower vitamin D concentration compared to the control group (WMD = -6.2 nmol/L, 95% CI -10.6 to -1.8) with no heterogeneity (I(2) < 0.01; p = 0.53) ... These results suggest that lower vitamin D concentrations are associated with poorer cognitive function and a higher risk of AD"
  • A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women - Nutr J. 2012 Sep 22;11(1):78 - "In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, seventy-seven participants (age 38+/-8.1 years, BMI 29.8+/-4.1 kg/m2) were randomly allocated into two groups: vitamin D (25 mug per day as cholecalciferol) and placebo (25 mug per day as lactose) for 12 weeks ... Among healthy overweight and obese women, increasing 25(OH) D concentrations by vitamin D3 supplementation led to body fat mass reduction"
  • Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal, healthy women predicts increased cardiovascular events--a 16-year follow-up study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Aug 8 - "At baseline, mean age was 50 years ... Compared with vitamin D replete women, women with low 25(oh)D-levels had significantly higher BMI and triglycerides; lower HDL and hip-waist ratio, and less education. More were smokers among the vitamin D deficient (47% vs. 38%). A primary end-point was experienced by 118 (15%) with vitamin D deficiency and by 125 (10%) of the vitamin D replete. Hazard ratio (HR) was 1.49 (95% ci: 1.16-1.92; p=0.002) in the vitamin D deficient. Adjusted HR: 1.32 (1.02-1.71; p=0.03). In total, 135 women died; of these, 65 (8%) of the vitamin d deficient and 70 (6%) in the vitamin D replete group; unadjusted HR: 1.44 (1.02-2.01; p=0.04) for vitamin D deficiency"
  • Arterial Stiffness and Vitamin D Levels: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul 5 - "The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) is an independent cross-sectional correlate of central arterial stiffness in a normative aging study population ... Vitamin D levels are inversely associated with increased arterial stiffness in a normative aging population, irrespective of traditional risk factor burden. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism of this association and to test the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation can reduce arterial stiffness"
  • Vitamin D3 supplementation (4000 IU/d for 1 y) eliminates differences in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D between African American and white men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jul 3 - "African Americans suffer disproportionately from diabetes and cardiovascular disease and are significantly more likely to have suboptimal concentrations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. The results of epidemiologic and observational studies suggest that there is a link between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders, which underscores the importance of maintaining healthy concentrations of 25(OH)D ... More than 90% of African Americans had serum concentrations of 25(OH)D <32 ng/mL, and approximately two-thirds had serum concentrations <20 ng/mL. Furthermore, there were significant disparities in serum concentrations of 25(OH)D between African American and white men. Supplementation with 4000 IU/d for 1 y eliminated any significant differences in circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D between African American and white men"
  • Lower serum vitamin D levels are associated with a higher relapse risk in multiple sclerosis - Neurology. 2012 Jun 13 - "There is increasing evidence that vitamin D can be protective against the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), but it may also be beneficial for the clinical course of the disease ... Exacerbation risk decreased significantly with higher serum vitamin D levels: respective relative exacerbation rates for the medium and high-level category as compared to the low-level category were 0.7 and 0.5 (p value for trend: p = 0.007). The association between 25-OH-D concentrations and exacerbation rate was log linear without a threshold. With each doubling of the serum 25-OH-D concentration the exacerbation rate decreased by 27% (95% confidence interval 8%-42%, p = 0.008)"
  • The effect of vitamin D and frailty on mortality among non-institutionalized US older adults - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun 13 - "Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were lowest in participants with frailty, intermediate in participants with pre-frailty and highest in participants without frailty. The odds of frailty in the lowest quartile of serum 25(OH)D was 1.94 times the odds in the highest quartile (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-3.44). Mortality was positively associated with frailty, with the risk among participants who were frail and had low serum 25(OH)D being significantly higher than those who were not frail and who had high concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (hazards ratio 2.98; 95% CI: 2.01-4.42)"
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Mortality From Heart Failure and Cardiovascular Disease, and Premature Mortality from All-Cause in United States Adults - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Jun 1 - "the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which included 13,131 participants (6,130 men, 7,001 women) ≥35 years old at baseline (1988 to 1994) and followed through December 2000 ... Multivariate-adjusted Cox model indicated that subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml had 2.06 times higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 4.25) of HF death than those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml (p <0.001). In addition, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for premature death from all causes were 1.40 (1.17 to 1.68) in subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml and 1.11 (0.93 to 1.33) in those with serum 25(OH)D levels of 20 to 29 ng/ml compared to those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml (p <0.001, test for trend). In conclusion, adults with inadequate serum 25(OH)D levels have significantly higher risk of death from HF and all CVDs and all-cause premature death"
  • Vitamin D intake is inversely related to risk of developing metabolic syndrome in African American and white men and women over 20 y: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 May 30 - "Data from 4727 black and white young men and women from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study ... The intake of vitamin D from dietary and supplemental sources was inversely related to the 20-y cumulative prevalence of abdominal obesity (P = 0.05) and high glucose (P = 0.02) and low HDL (P = 0.004) concentrations after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, center, and energy intake. In comparison with the lowest intake quintile (quintile 1), HRs (95% CIs) of developing incident metabolic syndrome for quintiles 2-5 of vitamin D intake were 0.82 (0.67, 1.00), 0.84 (0.68, 1.03), 0.70 (0.56, 0.88), and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.65, 1.02), respectively (P-trend = 0.03) after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors"
  • Low Dietary Vitamin D Predicts 34-Year Incident Stroke: The Honolulu Heart Program - Stroke. 2012 May 24 - "The Honolulu Heart Program is a prospective population-based cohort study of 8006 Japanese-American men in Hawaii who were 45 to 68 years old at the baseline examination in 1965 to 1968 ... 34 years of follow-up ... Age-adjusted rates of incident stroke were significantly higher in the lowest dietary vitamin D quartile compared with the highest (all stroke: 6.38 versus 5.14 per 1000 person-years follow-up, P=0.030; thromboembolic stroke: 4.36 versus 3.30, P=0.033). Using Cox regression, adjusting for age, total kilocalories, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, pack-years smoking, physical activity index, serum cholesterol, and alcohol intake, those in the lowest quartile had a significantly increased risk of incident stroke (all stroke hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47; P=0.038; thromboembolic stroke hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.01-1.59; P=0.044) with the highest as the reference. We found no significant associations between dietary vitamin D and hemorrhagic stroke"
  • Vitamin D with Calcium Reduces Mortality: Patient Level Pooled Analysis of 70,528 Patients from Eight Major Vitamin D Trials - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 May 17 - "Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium ... The IPD analysis yielded data on 70,528 randomized participants (86.8% females) with a median age of 70 (interquartile range, 62-77) yr. Vitamin D with or without calcium reduced mortality by 7% [hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-0.99]. However, vitamin D alone did not affect mortality, but risk of death was reduced if vitamin D was given with calcium (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98). The number needed to treat with vitamin D plus calcium for 3 yr to prevent one death was 151. Trial level meta-analysis (24 trials with 88,097 participants) showed similar results, i.e. mortality was reduced with vitamin D plus calcium (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99), but not with vitamin D alone (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06)"
  • Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Predicts the Onset of Mobility Limitation and Disability in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Health ABC Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 May 9 - "Participants with 25(OH)D <50 and 50 to <75 nmol/L were at greater risk of developing mobility limitation (HR (95% CI): 1.29 (1.04-1.61) and 1.27 (1.05-1.53), respectively) and mobility disability (HR (95% CI): 1.93 (1.32-2.81) and 1.30 (0.92-1.83), respectively) over 6 years of follow-up compared with participants with 25(OH)D ≥75 nmol/L"
  • Higher Vitamin D Dietary Intake Is Associated With Lower Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A 7-Year Follow-up - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Apr 13 - "Women who developed AD (n = 70) had lower baseline vitamin D intakes (mean, 50.3 +/- 19.3 μg/wk) than nondemented (n = 361; mean intake = 59.0 +/- 29.9 μg/wk, p = .027) or those who developed other dementias (n = 67; mean intake = 63.6 +/- 38.1 μg/wk, p = .010). There was no difference between other dementias and no dementia (p = .247). Baseline vitamin D dietary intakes were associated with the onset of AD (adjusted odds ratio = 0.99 [95% confidence interval = 0.98-0.99], p = .041) but not with other dementias (p = .071). Being in the highest quintile of vitamin D dietary intakes was associated with a lower risk of AD compared with the lower 4 quintiles combined (adjusted odds ratio = 0.23 [95% confidence interval = 0.08-0.67], p = .007) ... Higher vitamin D dietary intake was associated with a lower risk of developing AD among older women"
  • Vitamin D-Related Genetic Variation, Plasma Vitamin D, and Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Nested Case-Control Study - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Apr 12 - "The association of vitamin D status with prostate cancer is controversial; no association has been observed for overall incidence, but there is a potential link with lethal disease ... Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a 57% reduction in the risk of lethal prostate cancer (highest vs lowest quartile: odds ratio = 0.43, 95% confidence interval = 0.24 to 0.76)"
  • Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Increased Risk of the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome at Five Years: Results from a National, Population-Based Prospective Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar 22 - "metabolic syndrome (MetS) ... waist circumference (WC) ... Compared with those in the highest quintile of 25(OH)D (≥34 ng/ml), MetS risk was significantly higher in people with 25(OH)D in the first (<18 ng/ml) and second (18-23 ng/ml) quintiles; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.41 (1.02-1.95) and 1.74 (1.28-2.37), respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with 5-yr WC (P < 0.001), triglycerides (P < 0.01), fasting glucose (P < 0.01), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (P < 0.001) but not with 2-h plasma glucose (P = 0.29), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.70), or blood pressure (P = 0.46).Conclusions:In Australian adults, lower 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with increased MetS risk and higher WC, serum triglyceride, fasting glucose, and insulin resistance at 5 yr"
  • Vitamin D Levels Predict All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Subjects With the Metabolic Syndrome: The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) Study - Diabetes Care. 2012 Mar 7 - "Most subjects (92%) had suboptimal levels of 25(OH)D (<75 nmol/L), with 22.2% being severely deficient (<25 nmol/L) ... After full adjustment, including the metabolic syndrome components, those with optimal 25(OH)D levels showed a substantial reduction in all-cause (hazard ratio [HR] 0.25 [95% CI 0.13-0.46]) and cardiovascular disease mortality (0.33 [0.16-0.66]) compared with those with severe vitamin D deficiency"
  • Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Associated with Increased Mortality in Female Nursing Home Residents - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Feb 8 - "We examined 961 study participants (age 83.7 +/- 6.1 yr). Median 25(OH)D concentration was 17.5 (interquartile range 13.7-25.5) nmol/liter, and 93% of our cohort had 25(OH)D levels below 50 nmol/liter. During a mean follow-up time of 27 +/- 8 months, 284 patients died. Compared with the fourth quartile (25[OH]D >25.5 nmol/liter), the age-adjusted HR (with 95% confidence interval) was 1.49 (1.07-2.10) in the first 25(OH)D quartile (25[OH]D <14.0 nmol/liter), and this association remained significant after multivariate adjustments (HR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-2.40)"
  • Association Between Visceral Obesity and Sarcopenia and Vitamin D Deficiency in Older Koreans: The Ansan Geriatric Study - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012 Feb 8 - "Greater visceral fat and lower muscle mass were associated with lower 25(OH)D levels in elderly Korean men, suggesting that screening for vitamin D deficiency may be appropriate in older Koreans with visceral obesity or sarcopenia. Sarcopenic obesity as defined according to prespecified criteria did not have an additive association with 25(OH)D levels"
  • Vitamin D3 and the risk of CVD in overweight and obese women: a randomised controlled trial - Br J Nutr. 2012 Feb 9:1-8 - "We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in women. Healthy premenopausal overweight and obese women (n 77; mean age 38 (sd 8.1) years) were randomly allocated to the vitamin D (25 μg/d as cholecalciferol) or the placebo group in a double-blind manner for 12 weeks ... The findings showed that supplementation with vitamin D3 can significantly improve HDL-cholesterol, apoA-I concentrations and LDL-cholesterol:apoB-100 ratio, which remained significant in the multivariate model including anthropometric, dietary and physical activity measures"
  • Vitamin D Status and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Crohns Disease - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011 Jul;81(4):205-10 - "Results: IL-10 levels were significantly lower in patients with vitamin D insufficiency compared with the vitamin D replete group (mean and SE 2.48 +/- 0.51 v 6.77 +/- 2.49 pg/mL, p < 0.001). There were, however, no differences in serum TNF-alpha or CRP levels based on vitamin D status. The use of a vitamin D supplement at a low dose (200 IU) did not significantly influence IL-10 levels. Conclusion: Circulating levels of IL-10, but not TNF-alpha, were significantly lower in CD patients with inadequate serum 25(OH)D. This suggests that poor vitamin D status may be linked to reduced anti-inflammatory capacity in this group"
  • Association between plasma 25-OH vitamin D and testosterone levels in men - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Jan 2 - "A small randomized controlled trial suggested that vitamin D might increase the production of testosterone in men, which is supported by experimental studies in animals and a cross-sectional study showing positive associations between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and testosterone and concordant seasonal variation of both biomarkers ... 25(OH)D was positively associated with total and free testosterone levels ... The shapes of the dose-response curves indicate that the association between 25(OH)D and total and free testosterone is linear at lower levels of 25(OH)D (below approximately 75-85 nmol/l), reaching a plateau at higher levels"
  • Intermittent high-dose vitamin D corrects vitamin D deficiency in adolescents: a pilot study - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 21 - "There were no adverse events. Compliance was high. This suggests that 300 000 IU vitamin D3 orally 6-monthly may safely and effectively correct vitamin D deficiency in adolescents"
  • Effect of vitamin d supplementation on muscle strength, gait and balance in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Dec;59(12):2291-300 - "Supplemental vitamin D with daily doses of 800 to 1,000 IU consistently demonstrated beneficial effects on strength and balance. An effect on gait was not demonstrated, although further evaluation is recommended"
  • Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Nov 15 - "Mean plasma 25(OH)D was lower in cases versus controls (61.3 vs. 64.5 nmol/L, P=0.005). In logistic regression models, plasma 25(OH)D was inversely associated with odds of pancreatic cancer. Participants in quintiles two through five had multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (OR [95% confidence intervals]) of 0.79 (0.56-1.10), 0.75 (0.53-1.06), 0.68 (0.48-0.97), and 0.67 (0.46-0.97); P-trend=0.03), respectively, compared to the bottom quintile. Compared to those with insufficient levels (25[OH]D<50 nmol/L), ORs were 0.75 (0.58-0.98) for subjects with relative insufficiency (25[OH]D 50-<75 nmol/L) and 0.71 (0.52-0.97) for those with sufficient levels (25[OH]D≥75 nmol/L). No increased risk was noted in subjects with 25(OH)D ≥100 nmol/L, as suggested in a prior study. In subgroup analyses, ORs for the top versus bottom quartile of 25(OH)D were 0.72 (0.48-1.08) for women, 0.73 (0.40-1.31) for men, and 0.73 (0.51-1.03) for Whites ... Low circulating 25(OH)D may predispose individuals to the development of pancreatic cancer"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Supplementation and Relation to Cardiovascular Health - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Nov 7 - "Serum vitamin D measurements for 5 years and 8 months from a large academic institution were matched to patient demographic, physiologic, and disease variables. The vitamin D levels were analyzed as a continuous variable and as normal (≥30 ng/ml) or deficient (<30 ng/ml). Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard modeling were performed. Of 10,899 patients, the mean age was 58 +/- 15 years, 71% were women (n = 7,758), and the average body mass index was 30 +/- 8 kg/m(2). The mean serum vitamin D level was 24.1 +/- 13.6 ng/ml. Of the 10,899 patients, 3,294 (29.7%) were in the normal vitamin D range and 7,665 (70.3%) were deficient. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with several cardiovascular-related diseases, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes (all p <0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was a strong independent predictor of all-cause death (odds ratios 2.64, 95% confidence interval 1.901 to 3.662, p <0.0001) after adjusting for multiple clinical variables. Vitamin D supplementation conferred substantial survival benefit (odds ratio for death 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.277 to 0.534, p <0.0001)"
  • Association of hypogonadism with vitamin D status: the European Male Ageing Study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Nov 2 - "In univariate analyses free T levels were lower (P=0.02) and E2 and LH higher (P<0.05) in men with deficient vitamin D (25(OH)D<50nmol/L). 25(OH)D was positively associated with total and free T, and negatively with E2 and LH in age and centre adjusted linear regressions. After adjusting for health and lifestyle factors no significant associations were observed between 25(OH)D and individual hormones of the HPT axis. However, deficient vitamin D was significantly associated with compensated [relative risk ratio (RRR)=1.52, P=0.03] and secondary hypogonadism (RRR=1.16, P=0.05). Seasonal variation was only observed for 25(OH)D (P<0.001).Conclusions: Secondary and compensated hypogonadism were associated with vitamin D deficiency and the clinical significance of this relationship warrants further investigation"
  • The association between low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and increased aortic stiffness - J Hum Hypertens. 2011 Oct 20 - "Subjects in the bottom 25(OH)D quartile (<20 ng ml(-1)) showed the highest aortic PWV (9.04 m s(-1)), compared with 2nd-4th quartile (8.07 m s(-1), 7.93 m s(-1) and 7.70 m s(-1), respectively; P for trend <0.0001). The association between 25(OH)D and aortic PWV remained significant after adjustment for age, gender and other potential confounders; subjects in the first 25(OH)D quartile had adjusted odds ratio 2.04 (1.26-3.30) for having aortic PWV 9 m s(-1) (top quartile) in multiple regression. In conclusion, we found a clear significant and independent negative association between 25(OH)D and aortic PWV. Subjects with lowest vitamin D status showed the highest arterial stiffness"
  • Vitamin D and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Among US Men: Results From the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - Urology. 2011 Oct 17 - "vitamin D deficiency was associated with the presence of moderate-severe UI (POR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1, 3.0) and at least 1 LUTS (POR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 2.0)"Association Between Vitamin D and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies - J Clin Oncol. 2011 Aug 29 - "Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases before October 2010 with no restrictions ... The pooled RRs of colorectal cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.96) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80), respectively. There was no heterogeneity among studies of vitamin D intake (P = .19) or among studies of blood 25(OH)D levels (P = .96). A 10 ng/mL increment in blood 25(OH)D level conferred an RR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.89) ... Vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in this meta-analysis"
  • Vitamin D intake from foods and supplements and depressive symptoms in a diverse population of older women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 24 - "After age, physical activity, and other factors were controlled for, women who reported a total intake of ≥800 IU vitamin D/d had a prevalence OR for depressive symptoms of 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.89; P-trend < 0.001) compared with women who reported a total intake of <100 IU vitamin D/d. In analyses limited to women without evidence of depression at baseline, an intake of ≥400 compared with <100 IU vitamin D/d from food sources was associated with 20% lower risk of depressive symptoms at year 3 (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.95; P-trend = 0.001). The results for supplemental vitamin D were less consistent, as were the results from secondary analyses that included as cases women who were currently using antidepressant medications ... Overall, our findings support a potential inverse association of vitamin D, primarily from food sources, and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women"
  • Association of Kidney Function, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Circulating Markers of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD - Am J Kidney Dis. 2011 Jul 29 - "25(OH)D deficiency is related independently to impaired mGFR. Both mGFR decrease and 25(OH)D deficiency are associated with abnormal levels of circulating MBD biomarkers"
  • Low 25(OH)D3 levels are associated with total adiposity, metabolic syndrome, and hypertension in Caucasian children and adolescents - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jul 13 - "Higher 25(OH)D3 was significantly associated with a reduced presence of MetS. Obesity, central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol, IR, and MetS were all associated with an increased odds of having low 25(OH)D3 levels, after adjustment for age, sex, and Tanner stage. After additional adjustment for SD score (SDS)-BMI, elevated blood pressure and MetS remained significantly associated with low vitamin D status. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for those in the lowest (< 17 ng/mL) compared with the highest tertile (> 27 ng/mL) of 25(OH)D3 for hypertension was 1.72 (1.02-2.92), and for MetS it was 2.30 (1.20-4.40). A similar pattern of association among 25(OH)D3, high blood pressure and MetS was observed when models were adjusted for waist circumference. No correlation was found between 25(OH)D3 concentrations and either FMD or cIMT. Conclusions: Low 25(OH)D3 levels in Caucasian children are inversely related to total adiposity, MetS and hypertension"
  • Vitamin D status has a linear association with seasonal infections and lung function in British adults - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 6:1-8 - "Higher vitamin D concentrations have been proposed as a protective 'seasonal stimulus' against influenza, and there are suggestions for associations with other aspects of respiratory health ... the prevalence of respiratory infections had a strong seasonal pattern in the opposite direction to the pattern for 25(OH)D concentrations. Each 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was associated with a 7 % lower risk of infection (95 % CI 3, 11 %) after adjustment for adiposity, lifestyle and socio-economic factors. For FEV1 and FVC, each 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was associated with 8 (95 % CI 3, 13) ml and 13 (95 % CI 7, 20) ml higher volume, respectively, after controlling for covariates. Associations of 25(OH)D with FEV1 and FVC were only slightly attenuated after further adjustment for infection and other respiratory illness. In conclusion, vitamin D status had a linear relationship with respiratory infections and lung function"
  • Diabetes prevalence is associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in US middle-aged Caucasian men and women: a cross-sectional analysis within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 17:1-6 - "because studies examining the associations of all three chronic conditions with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) are limited, we examined these associations in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (n 2465). Caucasian PLCO participants selected as controls in previous nested case-control studies of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were included in this analysis. Diabetes, CHD and hypertension prevalence, risk factors for these conditions and intake of vitamin D and Ca were collected from a baseline questionnaire. Results indicated that serum levels of 25(OH)D were low ( < 50 nmol/l) in 29 % and very low ( < 37 nmol/l) in 11 % of subjects. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and CHD was 7, 30 and 10 %, respectively. After adjustment for confounding by sex, geographical location, educational level, smoking history, BMI, physical activity, total dietary energy and vitamin D and Ca intake, only diabetes was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels. Caucasians who had 25(OH)D ≥ 80 nmol/l were half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0.5 (95 % CI 0.3, 0.9)) compared with those who had 25(OH)D < 37 nmol/l. Those in the highest quartile of 1,25(OH)2D ( ≥ 103 pmol/l) were less than half as likely to have diabetes (OR 0.3 (95 % CI 0.1, 0.7)) than those in the lowest quartile ( < 72 pmol/l). In conclusion, the independent associations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with diabetes prevalence in a large population are new findings, and thus warrant confirmation in larger, prospective studies"
  • An estimate of the global reduction in mortality rates through doubling vitamin D levels - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul 6 - "Increasing serum 25(OH)D levels is the most cost-effective way to reduce global mortality rates, as the cost of vitamin D is very low and there are few adverse effects from oral intake and/or frequent moderate UVB irradiance with sufficient body surface area exposed"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis: The Northern Manhattan Study - Stroke. 2011 Jun 30 - "After adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and renal function, serum phosphorus and calcium-phosphorus product were associated with a greater burden of subclinical carotid atherosclerosis. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were associated with increased intima-media thickness and maximal carotid plaque thickness in those with plaque, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D contributed in a robust manner to the variance in both. These results confirm and extend data on the association of low vitamin D levels with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis"
  • High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with low incidence of stress fractures - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Jun 22 - "There was approximately half the risk of stress fracture in the top compared to bottom quintile of serum 25(OH)D concentration (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.76, p < 0.01). The range of serum 25(OH)D in the lowest quintile was 1.5-19.7 (Mean 13.9) ng/ml, while in the highest it was 39.9-112 (Mean 49.7) ng/ml"
  • Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Double blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Jun 27 - "Vitamin D supplementation of 4,000 IU/day for pregnant women was safe and most effective in achieving sufficiency in all women and their neonates regardless of race while the current estimated average requirement was comparatively ineffective at achieving adequate circulating 25(OH)D, especially in African Americans"
  • Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin (OH)D and clinical fracture risk in a multiethnic Cohort of women: The Women's health initiative (WHI) - J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Jun 27 - "In multivariable models, higher 25(OH)D levels as compared with levels <20ng/mL were associated with a lower risk of fracture in White women: (20- < 30 ng/mL), OR = 0.82; (0.59, 1.16) and (>30.0 ng/mL), OR = 0.55; (0.34, 0.89), p trend = 0.02. In contrast, higher 25(OH)D (>20 ng/mL) as compared with levels <20ng/mL were associated with a higher risk of fracture in Black women, OR = 1.45; (1.06, 1.98), p trend = 0.043. Higher 25(OH)D (>30.0 ng/mL) was associated with higher fracture risk in Asian women after adjusting for DBP, OR = 2.78; (0.99, 7.88), (p trend = 0.04). There was no association between 25(OH)D and fracture in Hispanic or American Indian women. Our results suggest divergent associations between 25(OH)D and fracture by race/ethnicity. The optimal level of 25(OH)D for skeletal health may differ in White and Black women"
  • Diet, Environmental Factors, and Lifestyle Underlie the High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Healthy Adults in Scotland and Supplementation Reduces the Proportion That Are Severely Deficient - J Nutr. 2011 Jun 22 - "In regions with low UVB exposure, dietary and supplement intake may be much more important than previously thought and consideration should be given to increasing the current recommended dietary allowance of 0-10 μg/d for adults in Scotland"
  • Low Serum Vitamin D Is Associated with High Risk of Diabetes in Korean Adults - J Nutr. 2011 Jun 22 - "Compared to individuals with a sufficient serum 25(OH)D concentration ≥75 nmol/L, the OR (95% CI) for diabetes mellitus were 1.73 (1.09-2.74), 1.30 (0.91-1.84), and 1.40 (0.99-1.98) for serum 25(OH)D concentrations <25, 25 to <50, and 50 to <75 nmol/L, respectively, after multiple adjustments (P-trend < 0.0001). Furthermore, the serum 25(OH)D level was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.061; P = 0.001) and positively associated with QUICKI (β = 0.059; P = 0.001) in overweight or obese participants. In conclusion, a low serum vitamin D concentration is associated with a high risk of diabetes mellitus in Korean adults and the concentration is inversely associated with insulin resistance in those who are overweight or obese"
  • Associations between vitamin D and cardiovascular outcomes; Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 23 - "The mean age of participants was 56.84+/-11.17 years and 244 (48.6%) were women. The median (IQ: 25-75) of serum 25-OH-D was 14.1ng/ml (9.6-29ng/ml) and 306 (61%) of participants had serum 25-OH-D<15g/ml. Median serum 25-OH-D was lower in cases (12.5 vs. 18.1, P<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio of serum 25-OH-D<10ng/ml for having CVD outcomes was 2.90 compared with 25-OH-D≥15 (95% confidence interval"
  • Vitamin D intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US men and women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "After multivariate adjustment for age and other CVD risk factors, a higher total vitamin D intake (from foods and supplements) was associated with a decreased risk of CVD in men but not in women; the relative risks (95% CIs) for a comparison of participants who met the Dietary Reference Intake of vitamin D (≥600 IU/d) with participants whose vitamin D intake was <100 IU/d were 0.84 (0.72, 0.97; P for trend = 0.009) for men and 1.02 (0.89, 1.17; P for trend = 0.12) for women"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome and various cardiometabolic risk factors in US children and adolescents based on assay-adjusted serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D data from NHANES 2001-2006 - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 25 - "The likelihood of having MetSyn was significantly higher in the first tertile of serum 25(OH)D than in the third tertile of 25(OH)D (odds ratio: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.65; P < 0.01). Waist circumference (P < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.01), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index (P = 0.001) were inversely related and HDL cholesterol (P < 0.0001) was directly related with serum 25(OH)D. No association was observed between 25(OH)D and C-reactive protein (P = 0.18) ... On the basis of assay-adjusted data, serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated with several cardiometabolic risk factors regardless of obesity. In children, given the negative outcomes associated with poor vitamin D status and MetSyn, consideration of vitamin D supplementation in reversing cardiometabolic risk factors appears to be warranted"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the metabolic syndrome in older persons. A population-based study - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 May 20 - "Among the participants, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 37.0%. The mean 25OHD level was 53.3 nmol/l. 47.8% had 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l. There was a significantly increased risk for the metabolic syndrome in the subjects with serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l, compared to subjects with levels over 50 nmol/l [odds ratio (OR)=1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.94]. After adjustment for confounders, age, sex, season, years of education, alcohol use, total activity, smoking and PTH the OR was 1.29 (95% CI 1.00-1.68). The association between vitamin D deficiency and the metabolic syndrome was mainly determined by the components low HDL and (high) waist circumference"
  • Identification of a mechanism for increased cardiovascular risk among individuals with low vitamin D concentrations - Menopause. 2011 May 17 - "Plasma vitamin D3 concentration was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.003). Monkeys in the high vitamin D3 group had a significantly greater plasma HDL-C concentration (57.9 mg/dL) than did those in the low vitamin D3 group (47.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001). Although the difference was not significant (P = 0.120), the monkeys in the high vitamin D3 group had a decreased total plasma cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratio compared with those in the low vitamin D3 group (5.4 and 6.2, respectively), potentially putting them at lower risk of atherosclerosis development"
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is inversely associated with body mass index in cancer - Nutr J. 2011 May 16;10(1):51 - "Obese cancer patients (BMI >=30 kg/m2) had significantly lower levels of serum 25(OH)D as compared to non-obese patients (BMI <30 kg/m2). BMI should be taken into account when assessing a patient's vitamin D status and more aggressive vitamin D supplementation should be considered in obese cancer patients"
  • Effect of Vitamin D Nutritional Status on Muscle Function and Strength in Healthy Women Aged over Sixty-Five Years - J Nutr Health Aging. 2011 - "25OHD levels ≥20ng/ml were found to be associated with better lower extremity muscle function and strength. Forty- six % of participants had 25OHD levels ≥20ng/ml. Women with 25OHD levels ≥20ng/ml scored higher on the muscle function tests (11.2+/-0.9 vs.10.0+/-2.1; p<0.003) and had stronger knee extensor (13.4+/-2.7 vs.11.6+/-2.5 Kg.; p<0.03) and hip abductor (8.3+/-2.7 vs. 7.3+/-3.1 Kg; p<0.04) muscles; strength of their hip flexors tended to be higher but did not reach significantly different values (17.0+/-3.3 vs. 15.4+/-2.8 Kg.; 0.1>p>0.05). Negative correlation was observed between iPTH and muscle function (r= -0.436; p<0.02). Conclusion: 25OHD levels ≥20ng/ml are needed for a better muscle function and strength. Assessing vitamin D nutritional status in adults aged ≥ 65 years would allow correcting hypovitaminosis D and improve muscle function and strength"
  • Biology of gait control: Vitamin D involvement - Neurology. 2011 Apr 6 - "Adverse neuromuscular events have been described in case of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations, suggesting that vitamin D may be involved in gait stability. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between stride-to-stride variability of stride time (STV) and serum 25OHD concentration in adults aged 65 years and older ... A total of 16.6% (n = 68) of subjects had severe 25OHD insufficiency, 70.3% (n = 289) moderate insufficiency, and 13.1% (n = 54) normal concentrations. In the full adjusted and the stepwise backward linear regression models, high STV (worse performance) was associated with severe 25OHD insufficiency (p = 0.028 and p = 0.044, respectively), high CoM motion (p = 0.031 and p = 0.014, respectively), and low lower limb proprioception score (p = 0.017 and p = 0.008, respectively). The stepwise backward regression model also showed that high STV was associated with female gender (p = 0.041) ... Low serum 25OHD concentrations were associated with high STV reflecting a disturbed gait control. This association could be explained by a possible action of vitamin D on different components involved in gait control"
  • Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Mar 23 - "Of the 239 enrolled patients, 179 (75%) were 25(OH)D deficient and 50 (21%) were insufficient, for a total of 96% of patients with abnormally low 25(OH)D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Calcium Intake, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes After 5 Years: Results from a national, population-based prospective study (The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study) - Diabetes Care. 2011 Mar 23 - "Those who developed diabetes had lower serum 25OHD (mean 58 vs. 65 nmol/L; P < 0.001) and calcium intake (mean 881 vs. 923 mg/day; P = 0.03) compared with those who remained free of diabetes. Each 25 nmol/L increment in serum 25OHD was associated with a 24% reduced risk of diabetes (odds ratio 0.76 [95% CI 0.63-0.92]) after adjusting for age, waist circumference, ethnicity, season, latitude, smoking, physical activity, family history of diabetes, dietary magnesium, hypertension, serum triglycerides, and FPG. Dietary calcium intake was not associated with reduced diabetes risk. Only serum 25OHD was positively and independently associated with HOMA-S at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS Higher serum 25OHD levels, but not higher dietary calcium, were associated with a significantly reduced risk of diabetes in Australian adult men and women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Interaction of BMI with vitamin D and insulin sensitivity - Eur J Clin Invest. 2011 Mar 24 - "The correlation of serum 25OHD with ISI was much stronger in the overweight group (r = 0.5271, P < 0.0001) than in the normal weight group (r = 0.2836, P = 0.002). The correlation remained significant in the overweight group (r = 0.3620, P = 0.002), but not in normal weight group after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, season of study, ethnicity and exercise. Nonlinear regression analysis revealed that when serum 25OHD concentration was > 40 ng mL(-1) , the association between serum 25D concentrations and insulin sensitivity plateaued. Conclusions  We observed stronger associations of serum 25OHD with insulin sensitivity in overweight than normal weight subjects, suggesting that overweight subjects with hypovitaminosis D may benefit more from vitamin D replacement than normal weight subjects. Furthermore, the optimal serum 25OHD concentration for insulin sensitivity is about 40 ng mL(-1) . As more than 60% of the US population is overweight and hypovitaminosis D is highly prevalent in overweight subjects, hypovitaminosis D has a large population attributable risk for type 2 diabetes" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Status in Patients With Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: Findings From Intergroup Trial N9741 - J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 21 - "Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among patients with stage IV colorectal cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy, particularly in black and female patients"
  • THE INFLUENCE OF BODY-MASS INDEX AND RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM ACTIVITY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D AND ADIPONECTIN IN CAUCASIAN MEN - Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Mar 14 - "Higher 25(OH)D concentrations were independently associated with higher adiponectin levels, particularly when BMI was high"
  • Meta-analyses of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Mar 4 - "We observed inverse associations of colorectal cancer risk with dietary vitamin D (summary RR per 100 IU/day=0.95 95%CI: (0.93-0.98); 10 studies; range of intake (midpoints) = 39-719 IU/day) and serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (RR per 100 IU/l=0.96 (0.94-0.97); 6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l), but not with total vitamin D (5 studies). Supplemental (2 studies; range=0-600 IU/day) and total (4 studies; range=79-732 IU/day) vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status (6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l) were inversely associated with colon cancer risk. We did not observe statistically significant associations between FokI, PolyA, TaqI, Cdx2 and ApaI VDR polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk. The BsmI polymorphism was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk (RR=0.57 (0.36-0.89) for BB vs. bb, 8 studies)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and hypertension rates - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011 Mar;13(3):170-7 - "Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to cardiovascular disease and risk factors including hypertension ... Patients were categorized into quartiles according to 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels: ideal (≥40 ng/mL), adequate (30-39 ng/mL), deficient (15-29 ng/mL), and severely deficient (<15 ng/mL). Prevalence rates of hypertension and odds ratios were calculated for each 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartile, adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency. A total of 2722 individuals met the inclusion criteria for the study. The overall prevalence of hypertension in the study population was 24%. Hypertension rates were 52%, 41%, 27%, and 20% in 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartiles <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, 30 to 39 ng/mL, and ≥40 ng/mL, respectively (P<.001). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for hypertension adjusting for age, sex, race, and renal insufficiency were 2.7 (1.4-5.2), 2.0 (1.5-2.6), and 1.3 (1.2-1.6) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <15 ng/mL, 15 to 29 ng/mL, and 30 to 39 ng/mL, respectively, compared with the ≥40 ng/mL group. This study demonstrates increased rates of hypertension in individuals who tested for lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D starting at levels <40 ng/mL. This retrospective analysis raises the question of whether supplementing to optimal vitamin D levels can prevent or improve hypertension"
  • Relation of Vitamin D Level to Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Adults - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 22 - "Low cardiorespiratory fitness and low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but whether low 25(OH)D is independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults is not known ... Serum 25(OH)D concentration was positively related to Vo(2max) (r = 0.29, p = 0.0001), even after adjusting for relevant predictors (e.g., age, gender, and body mass index). There was also a significant interaction between 25(OH)D level and self-reported hours of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; p <0.02). With each SD increase in 25(OH)D, Vo(2max) increased by 2.6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.0001) when MVPA was low (16 hours/week) and 1.6 ml/kg/min (p <0.0004) when MVPA was moderate (35 hours/week) but only 0.01 ml/kg/min (p = 0.9) when MVPA was high (64 hours/week). In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D levels predict Vo(2max) in adults; the effect is greatest in those with low levels of physical activity"
  • Vitamin D(3) Supplementation for 16 Weeks Improves Flow-Mediated Dilation in Overweight African-American Adults - Am J Hypertens. 2011 Feb 10 - "A growing body of evidence has linked vitamin D deficiency to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency is also more common in African Americans for whom an increased cardiovascular disease risk exists ... Following 16 weeks of placebo (n = 23; mean age 31 +/- 2 years) or 60,000 IU monthly oral vitamin D(3) (n = 22; mean age 29 +/- 2 years), serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) increased from 38.2 +/- 3.0 to 48.7 +/- 3.2 nmol/l and 34.3 +/- 2.2 to 100.9 +/- 6.6 nmol/l, respectively. No changes in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium, or urine calcium/creatinine were observed following either treatment. Following 16 weeks of treatment, significant improvements in FMD were only observed in the vitamin D group (1.8 +/- 1.3%), whereas the placebo group had no change (-1.3 +/- 0.6%). Similarly, the vitamin D group exhibited an increase in absolute change in diameter (0.005 +/- 0.004 cm) and FMD/shear (0.08 +/- 0.04 %/s(-1), area under the curve (AUC) × 10(3)) following treatment, whereas no change (-0.005 +/- 0.002 cm and -0.02 +/- 0.02 %/s(-1), AUC, respectively) was observed following placebo"
  • Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma - Int J Cancer. 2011 Mar 15;128(6):1414-24 - "The summary relative risk (SRR) and (95% confidence interval) for a 10 ng/ml increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 0.85 (0.79; 0.91) for colorectal cancer (2,630 cases in 9 studies); 0.89 (0.81;0.98) for breast cancer (6,175 cases in 10 studies); and 0.99 (0.95;1.03) for prostate cancer (3,956 cases in 11 studies). For breast cancer, case-control studies (3,030 cases) had major limitations and obtained SRR of 0.83 (0.79; 0.87) whereas SRR of prospective studies (3,145 cases) was 0.97 (0.92; 1.03). For colorectal and breast cancer, differences between cases and controls in the season of blood draw or in overweight/obesity or physical inactivity could not explain the results. In conclusion, a consistent inverse relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal cancer was found. No association was found for breast and prostate cancer"
  • Daily consumption of vitamin D- or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Feb 2 - "randomly allocated to 3 groups to consume plain yogurt drink (PY; containing no vitamin D and 150 mg Ca/250 mL), vitamin D-fortified yogurt drink (DY; containing 500 IU vitamin D(3) and 150 mg Ca/250 mL), or vitamin D + calcium-fortified yogurt drink (DCY; containing 500 IU vitamin D(3) and 250 mg Ca/250 mL) twice per day for 12 wk ... Fasting serum glucose (FSG) ... percentage fat mass (FM) ... In both the DY and DCY groups, mean serum 25(OH)D(3) improved (+32.8 +/- 28.4 and +28.8 +/- 16.1 nmol/L, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), but FSG [-12.9 +/- 33.7 mg/dL (P = 0.015) and -9.6 +/- 46.9 mg/dL (P = 0.035), respectively], Hb A(1c) [-0.4 +/- 1.2% (P < 0.001) and -0.4 +/- 1.9% (P < 0.001), respectively], HOMA-IR [-0.6 +/- 1.4 (P = 0.001) and -0.6 +/- 3.2 (P < 0.001), respectively], waist circumference (-3.6 +/- 2.7 and -2.9 +/- 3.3, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), and body mass index [in kg/m(2); -0.9 +/- 0.6 (P < 0.001) and -0.4 +/- 0.7 (P = 0.005), respectively] decreased significantly more than in the PY group. An inverse correlation was observed between changes in serum 25(OH)D(3) and FSG (r = -0.208, P = 0.049), FM (r = -0.219, P = 0.038), and HOMA-IR (r = -0.219, P = 0.005)"
  • Prediabetes and Prehypertension in Healthy Adults Are Associated With Low Vitamin D Levels - Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan 31 - "The odds ratio for comorbid PreDM and PreHTN in Caucasian men (n = 898) and women (n = 813) was 2.41 (P < 0.0001) with vitamin D levels ≤76.3 versus >76.3 nmol/L after adjusting for age, sex, and BMI. CONCLUSIONS This study strengthens the plausibility that low serum vitamin D levels elevate the risk for early-stage diabetes (PreDM) and hypertension (PreHTN)"
  • Associations Between Concentrations of Vitamin D and Concentrations of Insulin, Glucose, and HbA1c Among Adolescents in the United States - Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan 27 - "Adjusted concentrations of insulin were ~24% lower among male subjects with a concentration of vitamin D ≥75 nmol/L than among male subjects with a concentration of vitamin D <50 nmol/L (P = 0.003). Concentrations of vitamin D were inversely associated with concentrations of glucose only among Mexican American male subjects (P = 0.007)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Association between serum vitamin D deficiency and knee osteoarthritis - Int Orthop. 2010 Dec 30 - "These findings indicate a significant association between serum 25-OHD deficiency and knee OA in patients aged < 60 years and suggest serum 25-OHD measurement in any patient with symptoms suggestive of knee OA particularly at the initial stage of disease"
  • Blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and hypertension: a meta-analysis - J Hypertens. 2010 Dec 28 - "Of the 18 studies included in the meta-analysis, 4 were prospective studies and 14 were cross-sectional studies. The pooled odds ratio of hypertension was 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.84] for the highest versus the lowest category of blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. In a dose-response meta-analysis, the odds ratio for a 40 nmol/l (16 ng/ml) (approximately 2 SDs) increment in blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 0.84 (95% CI 0.78-0.90)"
  • Vitamin D3 Is More Potent Than Vitamin D2 in Humans - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec 22 - "D3 is approximately 87% more potent in raising and maintaining serum 25(OH)D concentrations and produces 2- to 3-fold greater storage of vitamin D than does equimolar D2 ... Given its greater potency and lower cost, D3 should be the preferred treatment option when correcting vitamin D deficiency"
  • Joint effects of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure on breast cancer risk: results from the French E3N cohort - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Dec 2 - "Dietary and supplemental vitamin D intakes were not associated with BC risk; however, in regions with the highest UVRd, postmenopausal women with high dietary or supplemental vitamin D intake had a significantly lower BC risk as compared to women with the lowest vitamin D intake (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54 - 0.85, and HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36 - 0.90 respectively)"
  • Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Frailty Status in Older Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Dec;95(12):5266-5273 - "At baseline, there was a U-shaped association between 25(OH)D level and odds of frailty with the lowest risk among women with levels 20.0-29.9 ng/ml (referent group). Compared with this group, the odds of frailty were higher among those with levels <15.0 ng/ml [multivariable odds ratio (MOR) 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.82], those with levels 15.0-19.9 ng/ml (MOR 1.24, 95% CI 0.99-1.54), and those with levels ≥30 ng/ml (MOR 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.63). Among 4551 nonfrail women at baseline, the odds of frailty/death (vs. robust/intermediate) at follow-up appeared higher among those with levels 15.0-19.9 ng/ml (MOR 1.21, 95% CI 0.99-1.49), but the CI overlapped 1.0. The odds of death (vs. robust/intermediate/frail at follow-up) was higher among those with levels <15.0 ng/ml (MOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.88) and those with levels 15.0-19.9 ng/ml (MOR 1.30, 95% CI 0.97-1.75), although the latter association did not quite reach significance. Conclusion: Lower (<20 ng/ml) and higher (≥30 ng/ml) levels of 25(OH)D among older women were moderately associated with a higher odds of frailty at baseline. Among nonfrail women at baseline, lower levels (<20 ng/ml) were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident frailty or death at follow-up"
  • Role of vitamin D in arterial hypertension - Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2010 Nov;8(11):1599-608 - "Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent and may contribute to arterial hypertension. The antihypertensive effects of vitamin D include suppression of renin and parathyroid hormone levels and renoprotective, anti-inflammatory and vasculoprotective properties. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, which are used to classify the vitamin D status, are an independent risk factor for incident arterial hypertension. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces systolic blood pressure by 2-6 mmHg ... vitamin D might be useful for the treatment of arterial hypertension as well as other chronic diseases. Therefore, we recommend that testing for and treating vitamin D deficiency in patients with arterial hypertension should be seriously considered"
  • Vitamin D, neurocognitive functioning and immunocompetence - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Nov 23 - "The skeletal muscle and brain have a vitamin D receptor and the central nervous system has a capacity to activate vitamin D. Low vitamin D status has been linked to poor performance in neurocognitive testing in elderly. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with muscle weakness, depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and a lower motor neuron-induced muscle atrophy ... Correcting vitamin D deficiency and preventing vitamin D deficiency in children and adults should be a high priority for healthcare professionals to reduce risk for a wide variety of neurological disorders. Children and adults should take at least 400 international unit IU and 2000 IU vitamin D/day, respectively, to prevent vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency"
  • Vitamin D and Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly U.S. Population - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Nov 2 - "The multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of cognitive impairment in participants who were 25(OH)D insufficient (≥50 < 75 nmol/L), deficient (≥25 < 50 nmol/L), and severely deficient (<25 nmol/L) in comparison with those sufficient (≥75 nmol/L) were 0.9 (0.6-1.3), 1.4 (1.0-2.1), and 3.9 (1.5-10.4), respectively (p for linear trend = .02). Log-transformed levels of 25(OH)D were also significantly associated with the odds of cognitive impairment (p = .02). Conclusions: These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment in the elderly U.S. population"
  • Dietary intake of vitamin D and cognition in older women: A large population-based study - Neurology. 2010 Nov 16;75(20):1810-6 - "Compared to women with recommended weekly vitamin D dietary intakes (n = 4,802; mean age 80.4 +/- 3.8 years), women with inadequate intakes (n = 794; mean age 81.0 +/- 3.8 years) had a lower mean SPMSQ score (p < 0.001) and more often had an SPMSQ score <8 (p = 0.002). We found an association between weekly vitamin D dietary intake and SPMSQ score (β = 0.002, p < 0.001). Inadequate weekly vitamin D dietary intakes were also associated with cognitive impairment (unadjusted odds ratio = 1.42 with p = 0.002; full adjusted odds ratio = 1.30 with p = 0.024)"
  • A randomized controlled trial of the effects of vitamin d on muscle strength and mobility in older women with vitamin d insufficiency - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Nov;58(11):2063-8 - "Vitamin D therapy was observed to increase muscle function in those who were the weakest and slowest at baseline. Vitamin D should be given to people with insufficiency or deficiency to improve muscle strength and mobility"
  • Serum Vitamin D and Risk of Bladder Cancer - Cancer Res. 2010 Oct 26 - "lower 25(OH)D was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (versus ≥50 nmol/L; <25 nmol/L: OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.03-2.91; 25 to <37.5 nmol/L: OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.05-3.14; 37.5 to <50 nmol/L: OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.02-3.02; P trend = 0.04). Similarly, increased risks for the lowest vitamin D category were observed when season-specific quartiles were used (Q1 versus Q4: OR, 1.63"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Coronary Artery Calcification in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2010 Oct 26 - "Vitamin D deficiency independently predicts prevalence and development of coronary calcification, a marker of coronary artery plaque burden, in individuals with type 1 diabetes"
  • Vitamin D deficiency prevalence and cardiovascular risk in Israel - Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Oct 18 - "The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (vitamin D levels <30 ng mL(-1) ) for the entire study population was surprisingly high for men and women (79.2% and 77.5%, respectively) ... Vitamin D deficiency is associated with CVD and other risk factors in this Israeli study population. The prevalence of the deficiency in Israel is similar to the prevalence found in less sunny regions"
  • Racial disparity in death from colorectal cancer: does vitamin D deficiency contribute? - Cancer. 2010 Oct 13 - "vitamin D deficiency was associated significantly with CRC mortality (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.11-4.00), and the effect of race was decreased (HR, 1.60"
  • Association of facial skin aging and vitamin D levels in middle-aged white women - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Sep 30 - "Adjusting for age and season of blood collection, women with lower photodamage scores were associated with a 5-fold increased odds of being vitamin D insufficient (OR 5.0, 95% CI: 1.1, 23). Low scores for specific photodamage parameters including erythema/telangiectasias, hyperpigmentation, and wrinkling were also significantly associated with vitamin D insufficiency. Our results suggest an association between skin aging and 25(OH)D levels"
  • Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study from the French E3N Cohort - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Sep;19(9):2341-50 - "We found a decreased risk of breast cancer with increasing 25(OH) vitamin D(3) serum concentrations (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.96; P trend = 0.02) among women in the highest tertile. We also observed a significant inverse association restricted to women under 53 years of age at blood sampling [odds ratio (T(3) versus T(1)), 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.98; P trend = 0.04]. In premenopausal women, the risk was also decreased, although not significantly"
  • Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin d concentration and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in women - Diabetes Care. 2010 Sep;33(9):2021-3 - "After adjusting for matching factors and diabetes risk factors, including BMI, higher levels of plasma 25-OHD were associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. The odds ratio for incident type 2 diabetes in the top (median 25-OHD, 33.4 ng/ml) versus the bottom (median 25-OHD, 14.4 ng/ml) quartile was 0.52 (95% CI 0.33-0.83). The associations were consistent across subgroups of baseline BMI, age, and calcium intake"
  • Oral vitamin D replacement is effective in chronic liver disease Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2010 Aug 27 - "25[OH]D was suboptimal in 101/158 (64%), including severe deficiency in 24 patients (15%). Vitamin D deficiency occurred in liver disease of all aetiologies, including patients with only mild liver disease. 25[OH]D increased by 60.0% (19.11+/-13.20nmol/l) in patients with deficiency after vitamin D replacement and decreased by 25.2% (-18.33+/-12.02nmol/l) in non-treated initially replete patients over a median of 4 months ... CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency improves with oral vitamin D supplementation and levels fall without supplementation. Chronic liver disease patients are at very high risk of vitamin D deficiency regardless of etiology or severity"
  • A Nested Case-Control Study of Midgestation Vitamin D Deficiency and Risk of Severe Preeclampsia - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Aug 18 - "Vitamin D may be important in the pathogenesis of severe preeclampsia ... Midgestation maternal 25(OH)D concentration was lower in women who subsequently developed severe preeclampsia compared with controls [median (interquartile range), 75 (47-107) nmol/liter vs. 98 (68-113) nmol/liter; P = 0.01]. Midgestation maternal 25(OH)D of less than 50 nmol/liter was associated with an almost 4-fold odds of severe preeclampsia (unadjusted odds ratio, 3.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.52-8.65) compared with midgestation levels of at least 75 nmol/liter. Adjustment for known confounders strengthened the observed association (adjusted odds ratio, 5.41; 95% confidence interval, 2.02-14.52). Conclusion: Maternal midgestation vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of severe preeclampsia. Vitamin D deficiency may be a modifiable risk factor for severe preeclampsia"
  • Plasma vitamin D and mortality in older men: a community-based prospective cohort study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 18 - "An approximately 50% higher total mortality rate was observed among men in the lowest 10% (<46 nmol/L) and the highest 5% (>98 nmol/L) of plasma 25(OH)D concentrations compared with intermediate concentrations. Cancer mortality was also higher at low plasma concentrations (multivariable-adjusted HR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.38) and at high concentrations (HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.46, 4.78). For cardiovascular death, only low (HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.96) but not high (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 0.69, 2.54) concentrations indicated higher risk ... Both high and low concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D are associated with elevated risks of overall and cancer mortality. Low concentrations are associated with cardiovascular mortality"
  • Vitamin D Insufficiency and Prognosis in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma - J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 16 - "event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) ... 25(OH)D insufficient patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) had inferior EFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% CI, 0.98 to 2.04) and OS (HR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.13); 25(OH)D insufficient patients with T-cell lymphoma also had inferior EFS (HR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.61) and OS (HR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.41). There were no associations with EFS for the other NHL subtypes. Among patients with DLBCL and T-cell lymphoma, higher 1,25(OH)(2)D levels were associated with better EFS and OS, suggesting that any putative tumor 1-alpha-hydroxylase activity did not explain the 25(OH)D associations. CONCLUSION 25(OH)D insufficiency was associated with inferior EFS and OS in DLBCL and T-cell lymphoma. Whether normalizing vitamin D levels in these patients improves outcomes will require testing in future trials"


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