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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 8/28/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Stimulation of Wound Healing by n-3 Fatty Acids - Medscape, 8/27/13 - "Four-week-old male Wistar rats were subjected to full-thickness skin wounds and assigned to 3 experimental diet groups (an n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet, a diet with a 1:3 ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids, and an n-6 fatty acid-fortified diet) ... The number of days to wound healing in the n-3/n-6 fatty acid group (18.4 +/- 1.8 days) was significantly shorter than in the n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet (21.6 +/- 1.6 days) and n-6 fatty acid-fortified diet groups (21.9 +/- 1.8 days). This suggests that the n-3/n-6 fatty acid diet stimulates wound healing (P < 0.05). Changes in wound area, however, were not significantly different. The n-3 fatty acid-fortified diet was found to have potent immunopotentiating and anti-inflammatory effects in the group receiving this diet, as evidenced by total blood lymphocyte count and plasma levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and sialic acid on day 1 after wounding. The plasma hydroxyproline concentrations noted in the groups with a diet containing n-3 fatty acids indicate that this fatty acid type stimulates wound healing" - Note:  It claims the 1:3 ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids but the average ratio for American's is something like 1:16 See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Perception of marijuana as a 'safe drug' is scientifically inaccurate, finds review of teen brain studies - Science Daily, 8/27/13 - "The researchers reviewed over 120 studies that looked at different aspects of the relationship between cannabis and the adolescent brain, including the biology of the brain, chemical reaction that occurs in the brain when the drug is used, the influence of genetics and environmental factors, in addition to studies into the "gateway drug" phenomenon ... Data from epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown an association between cannabis use and subsequent addiction to heavy drugs and psychosis (i.e. schizophrenia) ... When the first exposure occurs in younger versus older adolescents, the impact of cannabis seems to be worse in regard to many outcomes such as mental health, education attainment, delinquency and ability to conform to adult role ... Individuals who will develop cannabis dependence generally report a temperament characterized by negative affect, aggressivity and impulsivity, from an early age. Some of these traits are often exacerbated with years of cannabis use, which suggests that users become trapped in a vicious cycle of self-medication, which in turn becomes a dependence"

Four or more cups of coffee a day may keep prostate cancer recurrence and progression away - Science Daily, 8/26/13 - "men who drank four or more cups of coffee per day experienced a 59 percent reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence and/or progression as compared to those who drank only one or fewer cups per week ... the researchers did not find an associated reduction of prostate cancer recurrence and/or progression. The study also did not draw any conclusions regarding the impact of tea drinking on prostate-specific death ... The population-based study involved 1,001 prostate cancer survivors, aged 35-74 years old at the time of diagnosis between 2002-2005, who were residents of King County, Wash ... biological activities associated with consumption of phytochemical compounds found in coffee include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and modulation of glucose metabolism"

Higher intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of bladder cancer in women - Science Daily, 8/23/13 - "analyzed data collected from 185,885 older adults over a period of 12.5 years, of which 581 invasive bladder cancer cases were diagnosed (152 women and 429 men) ... women who consumed the most fruits and vegetables had the lowest bladder cancer risk. For instance, women consuming the most yellow-orange vegetables were 52% less likely to have bladder cancer than women consuming the least yellow-orange vegetables. The data also suggested that women with the highest intake of vitamins A, C, and E had the lowest risk of bladder cancer. No associations between fruit and vegetable intake and invasive bladder cancer were found in men"

Omega-3 reduces ADHD symptoms in rats - Science Daily, 8/23/13 - "The results show a clear improvement in ADHD-related behaviour from supplements of omega-3 fatty acids, as well as a faster turnover of the signal substances dopamine, serotonin and glutamate in the nervous system ... The new findings indicate that ADHD has a biological component and that the intake of omega-3 may influence ADHD symptoms ... we have without a doubt found molecular changes in the brain after rats with ADHD were given omega-3 ... We saw that the turnover of dopamine and serotonin took place much faster among the male rats that had been given omega-3 than among those that had not. For serotonin the turnover ratio was three times higher, and for dopamine it was just over two and a half times higher" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Night Work May Shift PSA Level Higher - Medscape, 8/22/13 - "Much of the previous work on the link between cancer and nightshifts has focused on breast cancer ... Recently, a study demonstrated a possible link between nightshift work and ovarian cancer ... The study authors accessed 3 years of data (ranging from 2005 - 2010 surveys) and found a total of 2017 men (aged 40 - 65 years) having a current PSA test result and no history of cancer ... The age-adjusted odds ratio for having a total PSA result of 4.0 ng/mL or greater among shift workers compared with non–shift workers was 2.48 ... When they analyzed the data in a multivariable model (adjusted for age, body mass index, race/ethnicity, health insurance, average hours of sleep per night, and months on the current job), the odds ratio increased slightly to 2.62"

Study Ties Poor Oral Health to Cancer-Causing Virus - New York Times, 8/21/13 - "the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston reviewed data on both high-risk and low-risk oral HPV infection and oral health in 3,439 adults, ages 30 to 69 ... being male, smoking cigarettes, and having multiple oral sex partners increased the likelihood of oral HPV infection, findings similar to those in an earlier analysis of NHANES data ... after controlling for smoking and the number of oral sex partners, the new study found that self-rated poor oral health was an independent risk for oral HPV infection. The odds of having an oral HPV infection were 55 percent higher among those reporting poor to fair oral health" - Note:  See my head and neck cancer page.  Here's a cut and paste from my dental page on how to combat periodontal disease:

The dreaded niacin “flush” | Track Your Plaque Blog - trackyourplaque.com, 5/18/07 - "a very simple maneuver can relieve the hot flush in over 90% of instances: Drink water. Let me explain ..." - See niacin at Amazon.com.

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Note:  These abstracts seem to come into my RSS feed in clusters.  Some weeks I'd get nearly no abstracts at all and some weeks I'll get about 700 per day to sift through.

Low Levels of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Stable Ischemic Heart Disease Patients: A Post Hoc Analysis from the COURAGE Trial - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Aug 8 - "While low HDL-C level is a powerful and independent predictor of cardiovascular risk, recent data suggest that this may not apply when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is reduced to optimal levels using intensive statin therapy ... performed a post hoc analysis in 2,193 men and women with stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) from the COURAGE trial ... In the overall population, the rate of death/MI was 33% lower in the highest HDL-C quartile as compared with the lowest quartile, with quartile of HDL-C being a significant, independent predictor of death/MI (P = 0.05), but with no interaction for LDL-C category (P=0.40). Among subjects with LDL-C levels < 70 mg/dL, those in the highest quintile of HDL-C had a 65% relative risk reduction in death or MI as compared to the lowest quintile, with HDL-C quintile demonstrating a significant, inverse predictive effect" - See niacin at Amazon.com and my niacin page.

Examining the Association between Oral Health and Oral HPV Infection - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Aug 21 - "Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers ... 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ... higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices"

Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Aug 22;10(1):39 - "Twenty-three subjects were matched for training experience (4.8 +/- 2.3 years) and body fat percentage (BF%: 16.9 +/- 8.0%), randomly assigned to either a placebo (PL; n = 12) or betaine group (BET; n = 11; 2.5 g/day), and completed a 6 week periodized training program consisting of 3 two-week micro-cycles ... Six-weeks of betaine supplementation improved body composition, arm size, bench press work capacity, attenuated the rise in urinary HCTL, and tended to improve power (p = .07) but not strength" - See trimethylglycine at Amazon.com.

Vitamin D intake and lung cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 21 - "Prospective cohort data from 128,779 postmenopausal women, including 1771 incident lung cancers in the Women's Health Initiative (Clinical Trials and Observational Study) 1993-2010, were analyzed ... No significant association was observed overall. Among never smokers, a total vitamin D intake ≥400 IU/d was significantly associated with lower risks of lung cancer (HR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.77 for ≥800 compared with <100 IU/d; P-trend = 0.01). No significant effect modification of total vitamin A intake on the association between total vitamin D intake and lung cancer was found. However, the Calcium/Vitamin D Trial active intervention was significantly associated with a lower lung cancer risk only among women with a vitamin A intake <1000 μg/d retinol activity equivalents (HR: 0.69" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in infertile men with low-grade varicocele: an open, uncontrolled pilot study - Andrologia. 2013 Aug 22 - "38 patients were recruited from a pilot clinical trial. A standard semen analysis was also performed at baseline and 3 months after an oral supplementation with exogenous coenzyme Q10 100 mg per die ... Coenzyme Q10 therapy improved semen parameters and antioxidant status. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of male infertility, namely in varicocele, and strengthens the possibility of the usefulness of the antioxidant therapy" - See

  • ubiquinol products at Amazon.com
  • .

    Zinc supplementation in children and adolescents with acute leukemia - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 21 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral zinc supplementation on weight gain and infectious episodes in children and adolescents with acute leukemia ... study included 38 patients ... it has become evident that supplementary zinc exerts a positive effect on nutritional status as positive weight gain. Moreover, the number of infection episodes was significantly reduced, possibly because of the immune stimuli ... zinc supplementation can prevent some of the chemotherapy adverse effects in children with leukemia, improving their quality of life" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.

    Vitamin E δ-tocotrienol prolongs survival in the LSL-KrasG12D/+;LSL-Trp53R172H/+;Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer - Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2013 Aug 20 - "Previous work has shown that vitamin E δ-tocotrienol (VEDT) prolongs survival and delays progression of pancreatic cancer in the LSL-KrasG12D/+;Pdx-1-Cre mouse model of pancreatic cancer ... KPC mice were randomized into 4 groups: 1) vehicle (olive oil, 1.0 mL/kg PO twice/day and PBS 1.0 mL/kg IP twice/week), 2) gemcitabine (100 mg/kg IP twice/week), 3) VEDT (200 mg/kg PO twice/day), and 4) gemcitabine + VEDT ... At 16 weeks, survival was 10% in the vehicle group, 30% in the gemcitabine group, 70% in the VEDT group (P<0.01), and 90% in the VEDT combined with gemcitabine group (P<0.05). VEDT alone and combined with gemcitabine resulted in reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in tumors --- These results strongly support further investigation of VEDT alone and in combination with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer prevention and treatment" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.

    Benefits of potassium intake on metabolic syndrome: The fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV) - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Sep;230(1):80-5 - "7542 adults (≥20 years of age) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009), which is a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of the Korean population. Data were obtained from standardized questionnaires as well as physical and laboratory examination reports ... subjects in the highest quartile of potassium intake had 39% lower odds for metabolic syndrome compared to those in the lowest quartile (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.89; p for trend: 0.013). This association was consistent for both sexes. Among the components of metabolic syndrome, potassium intake was inversely related to abdominal obesity and fasting hyperglycemia in multivariate analysis" - See potassium chelate products at iHerb.  Not to be confused with a similar study a few weeks ago:

    • Serum potassium level is associated with metabolic syndrome: A population-based study - Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 17 - "Evidence has suggested that low serum potassium concentration or low dietary potassium intake can result in many metabolic disorders ... cross-sectional study in 10,341 participants aged 40 years or older ... The prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was 51.7% in participants with hypokalemia and 37.7% in those with normokalemia. With the reduction of serum potassium quartiles, participants were tended to have higher level of triglycerides and uric acid, lower level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), larger waist circumference and more severe insulin resistance. Serum potassium level significantly decreased with the increasing number of metabolic syndrome components. Compared with subjects in the highest quartile of serum potassium level, multivariate adjusted odds ratios for prevalent metabolic syndrome in the lowest quartile was 1.48" - See potassium chelate products at iHerb.

    Suboptimal effect of different vitamin D3 supplementations and doses adapted to baseline serum 25(OH)D on achieved 25(OH)D levels in patients with a recent fracture: a prospective observational study - Eur J Endocrinol. 2013 Aug 19 - "Out of 1481 consecutive women and men with a recent clinical fracture, 707 had a baseline 25(OH)D level <50 nmol/L and were supplemented with increasing doses of vitamin D3 (400, 800, 1700, ≥3500IU/day) according to the lower baseline 25(OH)D ... The increase in serum 25(OH)D was significantly larger with higher vitamin D3 supplementation doses. However, this dose-effect response was mainly explained by the baseline 25(OH)D, not the supplementation dose, with a greater magnitude of response at lower baseline 25(OH)D concentrations. In 21-27% of patients serum 25(OH)D3 levels did not reach 50 nmol/L after 11 months, at any dose" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

    Consumption of a Diet Low in Advanced Glycation Endproducts for 4 weeks Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Women - Diabetes Care. 2013 Aug 19 - "High heat cooking of food induces formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which are thought to impair glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients. High intake of fructose might additionally affect endogenous formation of AGEs ... Diets with high AGE content may increase development of insulin resistance. AGEs can be reduced by modulation of cooking methods but is unaffected by moderate fructose intake"

    Blueberries prevent the effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia in rat epididymis - Andrologia. 2013 Aug 19 - "Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) induced a decrease in sperm count and oxidative damage in epididymis. We have previously demonstrated that a blueberry-enriched polyphenol extract (BB-4) reduced the adverse effects of oxidative stress in rat testis under hypobaric hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether BB-4 could reverse oxidative stress in epididymis ... Our results showed a reduction in LPO and a decrease in GR activity in rat epididymis exposed to IHH. These results suggest that BB-4 can prevent the effects of IHH in rat epididymis" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

    Plasma cortisol in Alzheimer's disease with or without depressive symptoms - Med Sci Monit. 2013 Aug 19;19:681-9 - "Cortisol is presumed to be a risk factor for stress- and age-related disorders, such as depressive disorder and Alzheimer's disease (AD) ... Plasma cortisol concentration was measured in 80 AD patients (35 of them with depressive symptoms), 27 elderly depressive patients without AD, and 37 elderly controls ... Compared to controls, a significant increase of mean plasma cortisol was found in AD patients but not in depressive patients. Plasma cortisol was positively correlated with cognitive impairment in AD patients. We confirmed a U-shaped association between plasma cortisol and major depression and a linear association between plasma cortisol and AD without depressive symptoms. Significantly increased relative risk of disease in people with high plasma cortisol was found for AD with depressive symptoms and for AD with mild dementia"

    • Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora(R)) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects - J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Aug 7;10(1):37 - "Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety ... assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora(R), Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks ... After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (-18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (-11%), Tension (-13%), Depression (-20%), Anger (-42%), Fatigue (-31%), and Confusion (-27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%)" - Note: The biggest affect was on anger (-42%).  See Relora at Amazon.com.

    Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, skeletal muscle and polycystic ovary syndrome: Effects of pioglitazone and metformin treatment - Metabolism. 2013 Aug 16 - "PCOS may represent a state of elevated sensitivity of inflammatory cells in skeletal muscle to cytokines and chemokines, a property that could be reversed by pioglitazone treatment together with improved insulin action"

    n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio is involved in regulating lipid metabolism and inflammation in pigs - Br J Nutr. 2013 Aug 15:1-7 - "A total of ninety-six cross-bred (Large White × Landrace) growing-finishing pigs (73.8 (sem 1.6) kg) were chosen and fed one of the four isoenergetic diets with n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1, 2.5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The growth performance of pigs fed the diet with an n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 was the best, but the group fed the diet with an n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the highest muscle mass and the lowest adipose tissue mass" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

    Flavonoid intake and risk of CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - Br J Nutr. 2013 Aug 16:1-11 - "The summary RR for CVD for every 10 mg/d increment in flavonol intake was 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91, 0.99). The present systematic review suggests that the dietary intakes of six classes of flavonoids, namely flavonols, anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, flavones, flavanones and flavan-3-ols, significantly decrease the risk of CVD" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

    Modulation of human postprandial lipemia by changing ratios of polyunsaturated to saturated (P/S) fatty acid content of blended dietary fats: a cross-over design with repeated measures - Nutr J. 2013 Aug 16;12(1):122 - "This human postprandial study evaluated 3 edible fat blends with differing polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (P/S) ratios (POL = 0.27, AHA = 1.00, PCAN = 1.32) ... Varying P/S ratios of test meals significantly altered prandial high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations (P < 0.001) which increased with decreasing P/S ratio (POL > AHA > PCAN)"

    Moderate Compared to Low Dietary Intake of trans-Fatty Acids Impairs Strength of Old and Aerobic Capacity of Young SAMP8 Mice in Both Sexes - Lipids. 2013 Aug 18 - "We studied the effects of trans-fatty acids (2 % of total energy, TFA diet) on the loss of strength and aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) with age. SAMP8 mice were studied at two ages (young, 25 weeks; old, 60 weeks) and on two diets (control vs TFA) ... There was a significant age-related decline in total grip strength as well as that normalized to fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.05) with a further decrease at old age in these metrics of strength on the TFA diet vs control diet"

    Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

    Health Focus (Advance Glycation End Products):

    Specific Recommendations:

    General Information:

    News & Research:

    • Vitamin D reduces deposition of advanced glycation end-products in the aortic wall and systemic oxidative stress in diabetic rats - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Mar 20 - "Vitamin D may have an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) such as Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), have been implicated in diabetic vascular complications via oxidative stress-mediated pathways ... Untreated diabetes was associated with significantly elevated CML levels in the aortic wall (19.5+/-3.3 vs 10.2+/-4.7ng/mL), increased liver OSI (6.8+/-1.9 vs 3.1+/-0.7), and reduced serum TAC (0.4+/-0.1 vs 0.8+/-0.3mmol Trolox/L), in comparison with the control group. Cholecalciferol significantly blocked the accumulation of CML in the aortic wall (10.4+/-8.4 vs 19.5+/-3.3ng/mL), decreased liver OSI (4.2+/-1.4 vs 6.8+/-1.9), and improved serum TAC (1.0+/-0.2 vs 0.4+/-0.1mmol Trolox/L), compared with the untreated diabetic group" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
    • Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflections in Relation to Plasma Advanced Glycation End Products in a Chinese Population - Am J Hypertens. 2013 Feb 28 - "AGEs accumulate with aging and high cholesterol and are associated with arterial wave reflections and, in an age-dependent manner, with arterial stiffness"
    • Eating deep-fried food linked to increased risk of prostate cancer - Science Daily, 1/28/13 - "men who reported eating French fries, fried chicken, fried fish and/or doughnuts at least once a week were at an increased risk of prostate cancer as compared to men who said they ate such foods less than once a month ... In particular, men who ate one or more of these foods at least weekly had an increased risk of prostate cancer that ranged from 30 to 37 percent. Weekly consumption of these foods was associated also with a slightly greater risk of more aggressive prostate cancer ... Deep frying may trigger formation of carcinogens in food ... Foods cooked with high heat also contain high levels of advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs, which have been associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Deep-fried foods are among the highest in AGE content. A chicken breast deep fried for 20 minutes contains more than nine times the amount of AGEs as a chicken breast boiled for an hour, for example"
    • Crusty foods may worsen heart problems associated with diabetes - Science Daily, 10/22/12 - "We see evidence that cooking methods that create a crust -- think the edge of a brownie or the crispy borders of meats prepared at very high temperatures -- produce advanced glycation end products (AGEs). And AGEs are associated with plaque formation, the kind we see in cardiovascular disease ... people with higher rates of cardiovascular complications ate more of these glycated products. For each unit increase in AGEs intake, a study participant was 3.7 times more likely to have moderate to high risk for cardiovascular disease ... Boiling or stewing meat would reduce your AGEs intake further. And scrambling an egg with cooking spray instead of frying it leads to a significant reduction in AGEs"
    • Effects of metformin on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant reserve in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial - Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug 21 - "Baseline values of the oxidative stress markers did not differ significantly between the two groups. In cases, after three months treatment, there was a significant reduction in AOPP [Advanced Oxidation Protein Products] (137.52 +/- 25.59, 118.45 +/- 38.42, p < 0.001), and AGE [advanced glycation end-products] (69.28 +/- 4.58, 64.31 +/- 8.64, p = 0.002) ... Use of metformin is more effective in reducing oxidative stress compared with lifestyle modification alone" - See metformin at IAS.
    • Stop grilling dinner: Specific toxic byproduct of heat-processed food leads to increased body weight and diabetes, mouse study finds - Science Daily, 8/20/12 - "mice with sustained exposure to the compound, methyl-glyoxal (MG), developed significant abdominal weight gain, early insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. MG is a type of advanced glycation endproduct (AGEs), which is produced when food is cooked with dry heat. AGEs have been found to lower the body's protective mechanisms that control inflammation ... In the study, one group of mice was fed a diet high in MG over four generations, while the control group was fed a diet without MG ... Over four generations, the mice that ate the MG started to develop early insulin resistance and increased body fat, whereas the control group did not have either of these conditions. The researchers found that MG caused a marked deficiency in protective mechanisms, such as the survival factor SIRT1 that is present in fat and controls inflammation, while enhancing the metabolism of glucose and insulin. The ingestion of MG also adversely affected the activity of an important anti-AGE receptor called AGER1, which protects SIRT1 and fights insulin resistance ... clinical guidelines be revised to eliminate foods cooked using dry heat and replace them with methods that use lower heat or lots of moisture (water) as in stewing, poaching or steaming. Examples from the AGE-less diet include stewed beef, chicken and fish instead of grilled meats"
    • Therapeutic effect of combination of alagebrium (ALT-711) and sildenafil on erectile function in diabetic rats - Int J Impot Res. 2011 Dec 29
    • Fish intake, cooking practices, and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multi-ethnic case-control study - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Dec 30 - "We observed that high white fish intake was associated with increased risk of advanced PCA among men who cooked with high-temperature methods (pan-frying, oven-broiling and grilling) until fish was well done (p (trend) = 0.001). No associations were found among men who cooked fish at low temperature and/or just until done"
    • AMD-like lesions delayed in mice fed lower glycemic index diet - Science Daily, 11/14/11 - "The dietary glycemic index (DGI) measures the rate at which glucose is delivered to the bloodstream after consuming carbohydrates. Higher GI foods including white bread and white potatoes trigger a rapid delivery of glucose that pushes the body to work overtime to absorb, whereas lower GI foods, like whole grain bread and fruits and vegetables, initiate a slower release of glucose that is more easily processed by cells ... Compared to the mice on the lower GI diet, mice on the higher GI diet demonstrated elevated accumulations of debris known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the whole retina, particularly in the cells of the RPE. The RPE plays a crucial role in maintaining vision and its dysfunction results in the gradual central vision loss that is the hallmark of AMD. AGE accumulation has also been linked to tissue damage in other age-related diseases such as Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease"
    • Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation on eye lens protein by rutin - Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug 25:1-9 - "Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) plays a key role in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimer's disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and cataract. This raises the possibility of inhibition of AGE formation as one of the approaches to prevent or arrest the progression of diabetic complications. Previously, we have reported that some common dietary sources such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices have the potential to inhibit AGE formation. Flavonoids are abundantly found in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and rutin is one of the commonly found dietary flavonols. In the present study, we have demonstrated the antiglycating potential and mechanism of action of rutin using goat eye lens proteins as model proteins. Under in vitro conditions, rutin inhibited glycation as assessed by SDS-PAGE, AGE-fluorescence, boronate affinity chromatography and immunodetection of specific AGE. Further, we provided insight into the mechanism of inhibition of protein glycation that rutin not only scavenges free-radicals directly but also chelates the metal ions by forming complexes with them and thereby partly inhibiting post-Amadori formation. These findings indicate the potential of rutin to prevent and/or inhibit protein glycation and the prospects for controlling AGE-mediated diabetic pathological conditions in vivo" - See rutin at Amazon.com.
    • Restriction of Advanced Glycation End Products Improves Insulin Resistance in Human Type 2 Diabetes: Potential role of AGER1 and SIRT1 - Diabetes Care. 2011 Jul;34(7):1610-6 - "AGE restriction may preserve native defenses and insulin sensitivity by maintaining lower basal OS"
    • It's not an apple a day after all -- it's strawberries: Flavonoids could represent two-fisted assault on diabetes and nervous system disorders - Science Daily, 6/27/11 - "fisetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid found most abundantly in strawberries and to a lesser extent in other fruits and vegetables, lessens complications of diabetes. Previously, the lab showed that fisetin promoted survival of neurons grown in culture and enhanced memory in healthy mice ... Mice fed a fisetin-enriched diet remained diabetic, but acute kidney enlargement-or hypertrophy-seen in untreated mice was reversed, and high urine protein levels, a sure sign of kidney disease, fell. Moreover, fisetin ingestion ameliorated anxiety-related behaviors seen in diabetic mice ... blood and brain levels of sugars affixed to proteins known as advanced glycation end-products-or AGEs-were reduced in fisetin-treated compared to untreated Akita mice. These decreases were accompanied by increased activity of the enzyme glyoxalase 1, which promotes removal of toxic AGE precursors ... substantial evidence implicates high blood AGE levels with many if not most diabetic complications ... excessively high AGE levels also correlate with inflammatory activity thought to promote some cancers. In fact, studies published by others confirm that fisetin decreases tumorigenicity of prostate cancer cells both in culture and in animal models ... humans would have to eat 37 strawberries a day ... Rather than through diet, Maher envisions that fisetin-like drugs could be taken as a supplement"
    • AGE Content of Foods - InHuman Experiment, 9/1/09
    • Serum advanced glycation end products is associated with insulin resistance - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2011 Feb 17 - "On multiple regression analysis, serum AGEs remained an independent determinant of HOAM-IR even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, waist, smoking, adiponectin and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation ... CONCLUSIONS: Formation and accumulation of AGEs progress during normal aging. We have demonstrated that circulating level of AGEs is associated with insulin resistance even in non-obese, non-diabetic subjects independent of adiponectin"
    • Inhibition of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) protects pancreatic β-cells - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Nov 24 - "Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) have been linked to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, such as retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. AGEs may induce β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis, another complication of diabetes ... Inhibition of RAGE prevented AGE-induced pancreatic β-cell apoptosis, but could not restore the function of glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in rat islets. In summary, the results of the present study demonstrate that AGEs are integrally involved in RAGE-mediated apoptosis and impaired GSIS dysfunction in pancreatic β-cells. Inhibition of RAGE can effectively protect β-cells against AGE-induced apoptosis, but can not reverse islet dysfunction in GSIS"
    • Sugar and Your Skin - ABC News, 11/30/10 - It's a video.
    • Nutrition and aging skin: sugar and glycation - Clin Dermatol. 2010 Jul-Aug;28(4):409-11 - "The effect of sugars on aging skin is governed by the simple act of covalently cross-linking two collagen fibers, which renders both of them incapable of easy repair. Glucose and fructose link the amino acids present in the collagen and elastin that support the dermis, producing advanced glycation end products or "AGEs." This process is accelerated in all body tissues when sugar is elevated and is further stimulated by ultraviolet light in the skin. The effect on vascular, renal, retinal, coronary, and cutaneous tissues is being defined, as are methods of reducing the glycation load through careful diet and use of supplements"
    • Advanced Glycation End Products in Foods and a Practical Guide to Their Reduction in the Diet - J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Jun;110(6):911-916.e12 - "Modern diets are largely heat-processed and as a result contain high levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Dietary advanced glycation end products (dAGEs) are known to contribute to increased oxidant stress and inflammation, which are linked to the recent epidemics of diabetes and cardiovascular disease ... Based on the findings, dry heat promotes new dAGE formation by >10- to 100-fold above the uncooked state across food categories. Animal-derived foods that are high in fat and protein are generally AGE-rich and prone to new AGE formation during cooking. In contrast, carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and milk contain relatively few AGEs, even after cooking. The formation of new dAGEs during cooking was prevented by the AGE inhibitory compound aminoguanidine and significantly reduced by cooking with moist heat, using shorter cooking times, cooking at lower temperatures, and by use of acidic ingredients such as lemon juice or vinegar"
    • Metformin restores impaired HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux due to glycation - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Mar 19 - "In the presence of metformin or aminoguanidine (100mM), glycated HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was restored to 97.5+/-4.3% and 96.9+/-3.1%, respectively"
    • Advanced glycation end products and diabetic foot disease - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008 May-Jun;24 Suppl 1:S19-24 - "recent clinical studies have shown that the AGE-breakers may be able to decrease adverse vascular effects of glycation with few side effects"
    • Advanced glycation end products in senile diabetic and nondiabetic patients with cataract - J Diabetes Complications. 2008 May 26 - "The AGE distribution in the senile groups corroborates the hypothesis that the advanced glycation process might have a role in cataract formation, which in diabetic patients occurs vigorously as compared with nondiabetic cataract patients"
    • When It Comes To Living Longer, It's Better To Go Hungry Than Go Running, Mouse Study Suggests - Science Daily, 5/14/08 - "at least two studies which examined people who engage in high-volume exercise versus people who restricted their calorie intake, had a similar outcome: caloric restriction has physiological benefits that exercise alone does not ... One theory is that exercise places stress on the body, which can result in damage to the tissues and DNA. Another theory is that caloric restriction leads to physiological changes which benefit the body" - I still think it boils down to the ravages of higher insulin and blood sugar which increase advanced glycation end products a major cause of aging.
    • Telmisartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Inhibits Advanced Glycation End-product (AGE)-elicited Hepatic Insulin Resistance via Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma Activation - J Int Med Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;36(2):237-43 - "Candesartan, another ARB, did not affect AGEs-induced serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 at serine-307 residues in Hep3B cells. Our study suggests that telmisartan could improve AGE-elicited insulin resistance in Hep3B cells by inhibiting serine phosphorylation of IRS-1, at least in part, via activation of PPAR-gamma" - Note:  That might be another reason for considering telmisartan as a first line treatment for hypertension.  See telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
    • Effect of Rosiglitazone on Cardiac Fibroblast Proliferation, Nitric Oxide Production and Connective Tissue Growth Factor Expression Induced by Advanced Glycation End-products - J Int Med Res. 2008 Mar-Apr;36(2):329-35 - "AGEs significantly accelerated proliferation, increased CTGF expression and decreased nitric oxide production in cardiac fibroblasts. These effects of AGEs were inhibited by RGZ in a dose-dependent manner"
    • Increased serum Advanced Glycation End products is a distinct finding in lean women with PCOS - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008 Mar 20 - "PCOS women exhibited statistically higher AGEs levels"
    • How Diabetes Drives Atherosclerosis - WebMD, 3/13/08 - "Abe's team showed that molecules called advanced glycation end products (AGEs), produced in greater levels by patients with diabetes, interfere with ERK5 cardioprotection. Glycation reactions cause the release of oxidizing side products like hydrogen peroxide (H202) that drive free radical production, inflammation and cell damage in many diseases" - I was always under the impression that it was advanced glycation end products in the first place.  I guess I was right before they discovered it.
    • DHEA Restores Oxidative Balance in Type 2 Diabetes - Medscape, 12/11/07 - "DHEA significantly reduced oxidative stress parameters in both plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the report indicates, and its administration was followed by a 50% decrease in levels of pentosidine (a marker of AGE formation)" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
    • Face facts: Too much sugar causes wrinkles - MSNBC, 10/21/07 - "At blame is a natural process that's known as glycation, in which the sugar in your bloodstream attaches to proteins to form harmful new molecules called advanced glycation end products (or, appropriately, AGEs for short). The more sugar you eat, the more AGEs you develop. "As AGEs accumulate, they damage adjacent proteins in a domino-like fashion," ... Supplement your diet with at least 1 mg of vitamins B1 and B6 a day. These vitamins proved to be potent AGE inhibitors in a number of published studies"
    • Dehydroepiandrosterone administration counteracts oxidative imbalance and AGE formation in type 2 diabetic patients - Diabetes Care. 2007 Aug 17 - "Data indicate that DHEA treatment ameliorates the oxidative imbalance induced by hyperglycaemia, down-regulates the TNFalpha/TNFalpha receptors system and prevents AGE formation, suggesting a beneficial effect on the onset and/or progression of chronic complications in type 2 diabetic patients"
    • Telmisartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker, Inhibits Advanced Glycation End-product (AGE)-induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in Mesangial Cells Through Downregulation of Receptor for AGEs via Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-gamma Activation - J Int Med Res. 2007 Jul-Aug;35(4):482-9 - "Candesartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor blocker, did not suppress AGEs-induced superoxide generation. Telmisartan and the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, completely inhibited AGEs-induced MCP-1 overproduction by mesangial cells"
    • Protective Effect of (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate against Advanced Glycation Endproducts-Induced Injury in Neuronal Cells - Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Aug;30(8):1369-73 - "Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are believed to be secondary factors in the selective neuronal injury associated with several neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major monomer of green tea polyphenols, against AGEs-induced damage in neuron cells. The results showed that EGCG treatment protected against glyceraldehyde-derived AGE-induced neurotoxicity" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
    • Thiazolidinedione increases serum soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products in type 2 diabetes - Diabetologia. 2007 Jul 18 - "At 6 months, both rosiglitazone and sulfonylurea resulted in a significant reduction in HbA(1c), fasting glucose and AGE"
    • Cooking to Fight Inflammation? - Dr. Weil, 7/12/07 - "You can reduce your intake of AGEs by steaming or boiling foods or by making stews – the key is to cook at low heat and to maintain the water content of food"
    • Advanced glycation endproducts: what is their relevance to diabetic complications? - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 May;9(3):233-45 - "AGEs may potentiate the development of diabetic complications by activation of cell responses by AGE-modified proteins interacting with specific cell surface receptors, activation of cell responses by AGE free adducts, impairment of protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions by AGE residue formation, and increasing resistance to proteolysis of extracellular matrix proteins. The formation of AGEs is suppressed by intensive glycaemic control, and may in future be suppressed by thiamine and pyridoxamine supplementation, and several other pharmacological agents"
    • Advanced glycation end-products and arterial stiffness in hypertension - Am J Hypertens. 2007 Mar;20(3):242-7 - "Concentration of plasma AGEs is significantly higher in hypertensive than in normotensive subjects and related to aortic stiffness independent of age and blood pressure"
    • Benfotiamine prevents macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress following a meal rich in advanced glycation end products in individuals with type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2006 Sep;29(9):2064-71 - "Our study confirms micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction accompanied by increased oxidative stress following a real-life, heat-processed, AGE-rich meal in individuals with type 2 diabetes and suggests benfotiamine as a potential treatment"
    • Effect of valsartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, on markers of oxidation and glycation in Japanese type 2 diabetic subjects: Blood pressure-independent effect of valsartan - Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2006 May 29 - "low-dose valsartan treatment decreased serum AGEs level, whereas blood pressure level was unchanged. The effect of valsartan on AGEs might be a blood pressure-independent effect in type 2 diabetic subjects"
    • Antiglycation properties of aged garlic extract: possible role in prevention of diabetic complications - J Nutr. 2006 Mar;136(3):796S-9S - "S-Allylcysteine, a key component of aged garlic, is a potent antioxidant and can inhibit AGEP formation"
    • Phase II Data Show Alagebrium Reduces Arterial Stiffness in Elderly With Isolated Systolic Hypertension - Medscape, 11/23/05
    • Drug Compound Restores Youth To Aging Arterial Cells In Elderly Hypertensives, Hopkins Study Shows - Science Daily, 11/23/05 - "alagebrium, formally known as ALT-711 or 4,5-dimethyl-3-(2-oxo-2-phenylethyl)-thiazolium chloride, reduced stiffening in the vessel wall in the main artery of the neck (carotid artery) by as much as 37 percent. The drug also improved endothelial function, the ability of the vessels' inner lining to relax and dilate in response to increased stress from blood flow, by 102 percent"
    • Simvastatin's Benefits May Extend to Atherosclerotic Plaque Stabilisation in Diabetics - Doctor's Guide, 10/25/04 - "Simvastatin-dependent plaque stabilisation in patients with type 2 diabetes arises from the drug's ability to decrease expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), and thence to reduce metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and promote plaque stabilisation"
    • New Class of Antihypertensive Agents Continues in Development - Medscape, 8/19/03 - "ALT-711 did not demonstrate statistical significance compared with placebo against the prespecified primary endpoint of reduction of SBP by office cuff pressure measurement at the highest of 4 dose levels (210 mg/day)"
    • Eating Food Cooked At High Temperature Accelerates Aging - Life Extension Magazine, 5/03 - "consuming foods high in glycotoxins might be responsible for the induction of a low-grade, but chronic state of inflammation. In addition, the glycotoxins in food cooked at high temperatures also promote the formation of glycotoxins in our living tissues. The implication of these findings is profound ... Inflammatory cytokine production can be suppressed with the proper supplementation of fish oil, DHEA, vitamin K and nettle leaf extract ... It is also important to avoid over consumption of foods high in arachidonic acid (beef, egg yolk, dairy, etc.) ... Consuming at least 1000 mg a day of carnosine, and/or 300 mg of the European drug aminoguanidine can inhibit pathological glycation reactions in the body" - See iHerb carnosine products.
    • Ramipril Reduces Advanced Glycation End Products In Non-Diabetic Nephropathy - Doctor's Guide, 4/21/03 - "Ramipril also mildly decreased levels of advanced glycation end products"
    • Vitamin C May Aid People with Diabetes - New Hope Natural Media, 2/13/03 - "Vitamin C inhibits all three of the biochemical reactions that are believed to contribute to the development of these complications: (1) the production of oxygen-derived free radicals, (2) the accumulation of sorbitol within cells, and (3) a tissue-damaging reaction called glycosylation" - [J. Hypertension/Medline]- See iHerb vitamin C products.
    • Preserving Clear Vision - Life Extension Magazine, 2/03 - "It is likely that glycation plays a role in aging in non-diabetics as well, especially those who eat diets high in sugars and refined carbohydrates or those who have blood sugars higher than normal but not high enough to merit a diabetes diagnosis ... Carnosine's best-known effect, however, is its ability to prevent the formation of advanced glycated end products (protein crosslinks). Carnosine competes with proteins for the binding sites they would occupy on sugar molecules, making it the best glycation preventative currently recognized in the world of nutrition research" - See iHerb carnosine products.
    • The Anti-Aging Effects of Carnosine - Life Extension Magazine, 1/03 - "Carnosine quenches the most destructive protein-oxidizing agent (the hydroxyl radical). One study showed carnosine was the only antioxidant to significantly protect cellular chromosomes from oxidative damage.2 Antioxidants cannot completely protect proteins. Nature's second line of defense is to repair or remove damaged proteins.3 This is where carnosine demonstrates its most profound anti-aging effect ... Studies show that carnosine is effective against cross-linking and the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE).6,7 Glycated proteins produce 50-fold more free radicals than nonglycated proteins and carnosine may be the most effective anti-glycating agent known" - See iHerb carnosine products.
    • High-Heat Foods Could Be Bad For You - CBS News, 11/28/02 - "browned, crispy foods, like that Thanksgiving turkey you just ate, are loaded with proteins called AGEs which interact with sugar in the body to cause hardening of the arteries ... AGEs are deposited everywhere over time — in the kidneys, in the vessels of the eyes and they have been implicated in all of these major complications from diabetes"

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