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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 8/21/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

One Iron Pill a Day Keeps Fatigue Away? - Medscape, 8/20/13 - "evidence is growing that fatigue in non-anaemic, menstruating women with low ferritin can be influenced positively by iron supplementation ... the authors randomised 198 menstruating women with considerable fatigue (>6 on a 1–10 Likert scale), ferritin levels less than 50 μg/l and haemoglobin ≥12 g/dl to have 80 mg oral ferrous sulphate or placebo for 12 weeks ...A total of 47.7% of the patients in the iron group compared with 28.8% in the placebo group reported decreased fatigue. Quality of life, depression and anxiety were not affected ... As in all oral iron trials, darkening of stool leads to possible differentiation of verum from placebo, therefore, blinding was not totally assured; a substantial limitation considering the huge placebo effect on fatigue reported in studies using parenteral iron"

Plastics Chemicals May Boost Kids' Risk for Obesity, Diabetes - WebMD, 8/19/13 - "One study links phthalates to increased insulin resistance in children, while another associates bisphenol A (BPA) with high body-mass index (BMI) and expanding waistlines ... The study reviewed data on about 3,300 kids aged 6 to 18, and found that children with high BPA levels tend to have excessive amounts of body fat and unusually expanded waistlines ... Trasande recommends that parents avoid using plastic containers with the recycling numbers 3, 6 or 7, in which phthalates or BPA are used ... I also advise families not to microwave plastics, hand wash plastic containers, and throw away plastic containers where there is etching or other damage to them"

Coffee and tea may contribute to a healthy liver - Science Daily, 8/16/13 - "increased caffeine intake may reduce fatty liver in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ... caffeine stimulates the metabolization of lipids stored in liver cells and decreased the fatty liver of mice that were fed a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that consuming the equivalent caffeine intake of four cups of coffee or tea a day may be beneficial in preventing and protecting against the progression of NAFLD in humans"

Celery, artichokes contain flavonoids that kill human pancreatic cancer cells - Science Daily, 8/15/13 - "Apigenin alone induced cell death in two aggressive human pancreatic cancer cell lines. But we received the best results when we pre-treated cancer cells with apigenin for 24 hours, then applied the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine for 36 hours ... our study indicated that taking antioxidant supplements on the same day as chemotherapeutic drugs may negate the effect of those drugs ... One of the ways that chemotherapeutic drugs kill cells is based on their pro-oxidant activity, meaning that flavonoids and chemotherapeutic drugs may compete with each other when they're introduced at the same time ... In one of the cancer cell lines, the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis went from 8.4 percent in cells that had not been treated with the flavonoid to 43.8 percent in cells that had been treated with a 50-micromolar dose. In this case, no chemotherapy drug had been added" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

Healthy Eating Might Ward Off Pancreatic Cancer - WebMD, 8/15/13 - "it is important to focus on eating an overall healthful diet and not on a single nutrient, supplement or specific food in hopes of preventing cancer or any other disease ... The effect of eating a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains, and limiting sugar, unhealthy fats and alcohol, is greater than the sum of its parts when it comes to lowering the risk of chronic disease ... Arem's group assessed the eating habits of more than 500,000 people, aged 50 to 71, who took part in the U.S. National Institutes of Health/AARP Diet and Health Study ... those who followed the diet lowered their chances of pancreatic cancer by 15 percent, compared with those who didn't"

More than 28 cups of coffee a week may endanger health in under 55s - Science Daily, 8/15/13 - "A study of more than 40,000 individuals found a statistically significant 21% increased mortality in those drinking more than 28 cups of coffee a week and death from all causes, with a greater than 50% increased mortality risk in both men and women younger than 55 years of age ... No adverse effects were found in heavy coffee drinkers aged over 55 ... Between 1979 and 1998, nearly 45,000 individuals aged between 20 and 87 years old participated and returned a medical history questionnaire assessing lifestyle habits (including coffee consumption) and personal and family medical history ... Those who consumed higher amounts of coffee (both men and women) were more likely to smoke and had lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness" - Note:  It doesn't say whether the results were adjusted for the smoking so maybe that was the real cause.

18-Year Study Finds Drug Cut Prostate Cancer Risk - WebMD, 8/14/13 - "an 18-year follow-up on the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, which took place in the late 1990s. Back then, the trial found that finasteride could reduce overall risk of prostate cancer by 25 percent -- but that it increased by 27 percent the risk of high-grade prostate cancer in those men who did wind up with the disease ... the drug actually worked better than earlier reported in reducing prostate cancer risk ... You take Proscar for six months to a year and it halves the size of your prostate, but the cancer inside your prostate does not shrink .... If I'm performing a biopsy on a smaller prostate, I'm more likely to hit that cancer than if I am sticking into a larger prostate. This drug wasn't causing more prostate cancer. It's causing more prostate cancer to be diagnosed" - [Abstract]

How bacteria found in mouth may cause colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 8/14/13 - "gut microbes known as fusobacteria, which are found in the mouth, stimulate bad immune responses and turn on cancer growth genes to generate colorectal tumors ... fusobacteria are prevalent in human adenomas -- benign tumors that can become malignant over time -- suggesting that these microbes contribute to early stages of tumor formation. In a mouse model of colorectal cancer, these bacteria accelerated the formation of tumors by attracting immune cells called myeloid cells, which invade tumors and stimulate inflammatory responses that can cause cancer" - [WebMD] - Note:  Here's a cut and paste from my dental page on how to combat periodontal disease:

DHA-Enriched Formula in Infancy Linked to Positive Cognitive Outcomes in Childhood - Science Daily, 8/13/13 - "infants who were fed formula enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from birth to 12 months scored significantly better than a control group on several measures of intelligence conducted between the ages of three to six years ... the children showed accelerated development on detailed tasks involving pattern discrimination, rule-learning and inhibition between the ages of three to five years of age as well as better performance on two widely-used standardized tests of intelligence: the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at age five and the Weschler Primary Preschool Scales of Intelligence at age six" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

A meta-analysis of randomized trials of telmisartan versus losartan for reduction of ambulatory blood pressure - Hypertens Res. 2013 Aug 15 - "MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through July 2012 ... telmisartan therapy appears to reduce ambulatory BP more than losartan therapy in patients with hypertension" - See my telmisartan as a first line treatment page.

Dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 14 - "searched the PubMed database for prospective cohort and nested case-control studies of dairy product intake and risk of type 2 diabetes up to 5 June 2013 ... the summary RRs (95% CIs) were 0.93 (0.87, 0.99; I2 = 33%) per 400 g total dairy products/d (n = 12), 0.98 (0.94, 1.03; I2 = 8%) per 200 g high-fat dairy products/d (n = 9), 0.91 (0.86, 0.96; I2 = 40%) per 200 g low-fat dairy products/d (n = 9), 0.87 (0.72, 1.04; I2 = 94%) per 200 g milk/d (n = 7), 0.92 (0.86, 0.99; I2 = 0%) per 50 g cheese/d (n = 8), and 0.78 (0.60, 1.02; I2 = 70%) per 200 g yogurt/d (n = 7) ... This meta-analysis suggests that there is a significant inverse association between intakes of dairy products, low-fat dairy products, and cheese and risk of type 2 diabetes" - Note:  Yogurt was the most protective at .78 per 200 grams.  200 grams is 7 ounces.  See my yogurt recipe on my yogurt page.

Shiftwork and Prostate-Specific Antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Aug 13 - "Shiftwork has been implicated as a risk factor for prostate cancer. Results from prior studies have been mixed but generally support an association between circadian disruption and prostate cancer ... We combined three NHANES surveys (2005-2010) to obtain current work schedule among employed men aged 40 to 65 years with no prior history of cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer) ... We found a statistically significant, age-adjusted association between current shiftwork and elevated PSA at the 4.0ng/mL or greater level (odds ratio = 2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08 to 5.70; P = .03)" - Note:  Many believe that the increased risk of breast cancer in shift workers is attributed to melatonin.  Maybe it's the same for prostate cancer.

Coadministration of Erlotinib and Curcumin Augmentatively Reduces Cell Viability in Lung Cancer Cells - Phytother Res. 2013 Aug 13 - "Resistance to erlotinib in lung cancer cases includes T790M mutant epidermal growth factor receptor and c-Met gene amplification, but other unknown mechanisms account for about 30% of the resistance. Activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB)-related pathways in association with the reduction in ikappaB level may be one of such potential mechanisms. It is known that curcumin inhibits the inducible activation of NFkappaB at least in part by sustaining ikappaB expression level ... We found that erlotinib and curcumin augmentatively reduced cell viability ... Furthermore, coadministration of erlotinib and/or curcumin augmentatively attenuated the growth of PC9 tumors in mice" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.

Flavonoid apigenin modified gene expression associated with inflammation and cancer and induced apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells through inhibition of GSK-3β/NF-κB signaling cascade - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Aug 14 - "Flavonoids have a protective role in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

Low vitamin D status is associated with reduced muscle mass and impaired physical performance in frail elderly people - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug 14 - "Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status has been associated with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in healthy elderly people. Yet, in pre-frail and frail elderly people this association has not been studied ... study included 127 pre-frail and frail elderly people in The Netherlands ... appendicular lean mass (ALM) ... In this frail elderly population, 25(OH)D status is low and suggests a modest association with reduced ALM and impaired physical performance. In addition, vitamin D intake tended to be associated with impaired physical performance" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Induction of Human Breast Cell Carcinogenesis by Triclocarban and Intervention by Curcumin - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Aug 10 - "More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens and co-carcinogens. To identify co-carcinogens with abilities to induce cellular pre-malignancy, we studied the activity of triclocarban (TCC), an antimicrobial agent commonly used in household and personal care products. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that chronic exposure to TCC at physiologically-achievable nanomolar concentrations resulted in progressive carcinogenesis of human breast cells from non-cancerous to pre-malignant ... Using TCC-induced transient and constitutive endpoints as targets will likely help identify non-cytotoxic preventive agents, such as curcumin, effective in suppressing TCC-induced cellular pre-malignancy" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.

Taurine improves obesity-induced inflammatory responses and modulates the unbalanced phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages - Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 Aug 12 - "It is increasingly accepted that chronic inflammation is a feature of obesity. Obesity-induced inflammation triggers enhanced recruitment of macrophages into the adipose tissue. Depending on their phenotype, macrophages can be designated either as pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages or anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages ... Our findings indicate that taurine treatment attenuates the infiltration of adipose tissue by macrophages and modulates the phenotype of macrophages, which suggest that taurine is a valuable food constituent with a potential to attenuate chronic inflammation in adipose tissue and improve obesity-related insulin resistance" - See taurine at Amazon.com.

Garlic intake is an independent predictor of endothelial function in patients with ischemic stroke - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(7):600-4 - "ischemic stroke (ISS) ... 125 Chinese patients with prior ISS due to athero-thrombotic disease were recruited from the outpatient clinics during July 2005 to December 2006 ... validated food frequency questionnaire ... Daily garlic intake is an independent predictor of endothelial function in patients with ISS and may play a role in the secondary prevention of atherosclerotic events" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

  • AirCast for Android sends local or cloud videos to Chromecast, test it out now - engadget.com, 8/18/13 - Seems like it would allow you to view on your TV screen any form of media that's on you hard drive.
    • AirCast app closes the gap between Chromecast and AirPlay - The Verge, 8/19/13 - "It seems likely that Google would try to block apps like AirCast, which could upset its relationships with content providers by make it easier for users to play pirated movies on their TVs ... Still, the enthusiastic response to Dutta's post indicates that the market for apps like AirCast will be strong. Chromecast's inability to support local video streaming is currently the glaring difference between it and Apple's AirPlay standard. The existence of AirCast suggests that gap is about to be closed, whether Google is ready for it or not"
    • Google Chromecast HDMI Streaming Media Player - Amazon started taking orders again.  It's saves you $4 shipping over buying it from Google.

Health Focus (HDL Cholesterol):

Related Topics:

Popular Supplements:

Alternative News:

  • Genistein in the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120 postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1 year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to 56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from 108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3 to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See genistein at Amazon.com.
  • Extra-virgin olive oil consumption reduces the age-related decrease in HDL and paraoxonase 1 anti-inflammatory activities - Br J Nutr. 2013 Mar 19:1-13 - "EVOO consumption increased the anti-inflammatory effect of HDL and reduced the age-related decrease in anti-atherogenic activity" - See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Feb 22;11:29 - "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years ... Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 10(8) UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10(8) UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria ... The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the placebo group"
  • Beneficial effects of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on increasing HDL-cholesterol in subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012 Jun 29 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of artichoke leaf extract (ALE) supplementation (250 mg, 2 b.i.d.) on the lipid pattern. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 92 overweight subjects with primary mild hypercholesterolaemia for 8 weeks. Forty-six subjects were randomized to supplementation (age: 54.2 +/- 6.6 years, body mass index (BMI): 25.8 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2), male/female: 20/26) and 46 subjects to placebo (age: 53.8 +/- 9.0 years, BMI: 24.8 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2), male/female: 21/25). Verum supplementation was associated with a significant increase in mean high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.001) and in mean change in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) (p = 0.004). A significantly decreased difference was also found for the mean change in total cholesterol (p = 0.033), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p < 0.001), total cholesterol/HDL ratio (p < 0.001) and LDL/HDL ratio (p < 0.001), when verum and placebo treatment were compared. These results indicate that ALE could play a relevant role in the management of mild hypercholesterolaemia, favouring in particular the increase in HDL-C, besides decreasing total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol" - See artichoke products at iHerb.
  • Pomegranate Juice Lowers Cardiovascular Risk Factors - Medscape, 11/12/11 - "HDL rose significantly (P = .005) in the juice group" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of soy and milk protein supplementation on serum lipid levels: a randomized controlled trial - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep 28 - "Previous clinical trials have documented that soy protein reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol compared with milk protein ... Compared with carbohydrate, soy protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% confidence interval (CI)) in total cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratio of -3.97 mg/dl (-7.63 to -0.31, P=0.03) and -0.12 (-0.23 to -0.01, P=0.03), respectively. Compared with milk protein, soy protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL and total/HDL cholesterol ratio of 1.54 mg/dl (0.63 to 2.44, P=0.0009) and -0.14 (-0.22 to -0.05, P=0.001), respectively. Compared with carbohydrate, milk protein supplementation was significantly associated with a net change (95% CI) in HDL of -1.13 mg/dl (-2.05 to -0.22, P=0.02). Conclusions: This randomized controlled trial indicates that soy protein, but not milk protein, supplementation improves the lipid profile among healthy individuals"
  • Effects of Diet on High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011 Sep 8 - "Multiple dietary factors have been shown to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations, and HDL-C has been inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Replacement of dietary carbohydrate with polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fat has been associated with progressively greater increases in HDL-C (7-12%) in addition to other lipid changes. Added sugars, but not high glycemic carbohydrates, have been associated with decreased HDL-C. Alcohol consumption has been associated with increased HDL-C (9.2%) independent of changes in other measured lipids. Modest effects on HDL-C (~4-5%) among other lipid and non-lipid CHD risk factors have also been observed with weight loss by dieting, omega-3 fatty acids, and a Mediterranean diet pattern. The CHD benefit of increasing HDL-C is unclear given the inconsistent evidence from HDL-raising pharmacologic trials. Furthermore, pleiotropic effects of diet preclude attribution of CHD benefit specifically to HDL-C"
  • Vitamin E tocotrienols show cholesterol benefits for healthy adults: Study - Nutra USA, 6/29/11 - "Daily supplements of a palm oil-based tocotrienol-rich product increased the ratio of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol – reported to be the most specific lipid risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) – by 14 percent in people over 50, compared to a decrease of about 5 percent in the placebo group ... HDL cholesterol increases of the magnitude observed in this study have been associated with a 22.5 percent reduced risk of cardiovascular events" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the metabolic syndrome in older persons. A population-based study - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011 May 20 - "Among the participants, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 37.0%. The mean 25OHD level was 53.3 nmol/l. 47.8% had 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l. There was a significantly increased risk for the metabolic syndrome in the subjects with serum 25OHD levels below 50 nmol/l, compared to subjects with levels over 50 nmol/l [odds ratio (OR)=1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.94]. After adjustment for confounders, age, sex, season, years of education, alcohol use, total activity, smoking and PTH the OR was 1.29 (95% CI 1.00-1.68). The association between vitamin D deficiency and the metabolic syndrome was mainly determined by the components low HDL and (high) waist circumference" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Identification of a mechanism for increased cardiovascular risk among individuals with low vitamin D concentrations - Menopause. 2011 May 17 - "Plasma vitamin D3 concentration was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.003). Monkeys in the high vitamin D3 group had a significantly greater plasma HDL-C concentration (57.9 mg/dL) than did those in the low vitamin D3 group (47.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001). Although the difference was not significant (P = 0.120), the monkeys in the high vitamin D3 group had a decreased total plasma cholesterol-to-HDL-C ratio compared with those in the low vitamin D3 group (5.4 and 6.2, respectively), potentially putting them at lower risk of atherosclerosis development" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Niacin results in reduced monocyte adhesion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Dec 25 - "Patients with type 2 diabetes have increased expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). CAMs and monocyte adhesion mediate essential processes in atherogenesis ... Niacin 1500mg daily raised HDL-cholesterol from 0.8mmol/l (95% CI: 0.7-0.9) to 0.9mmol/l (95% CI: 0.8-1.1), p=0.10, and significantly reduced PECAM-1 by 24.9% (95% CI: 10.9-39.0; p<0.05), increased adiponectin by 30.5% (95% CI: 14.1-47.0; p<0.05), with monocyte adhesion reduced by 9.2% (95%CI: 0.7-17.7; p<0.05) in endothelial cells treated in basal conditions, and 7.8% (95% CI: 3.1-12.5; p<0.05) after TNF-α stimulation ... Monocytes isolated from patients on niacin had reduced adhesion to endothelial cells. Our findings suggest niacin has broad range of effects apart from lipid-modification, and these could be important in cardiovascular risk reduction" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Orange juice decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic subjects and improves lipid transfer to high-density lipoprotein in normal and hypercholesterolemic subjects - Nutr Res. 2010 Oct;30(10):689-94 - "normolipidemic (NC) and hypercholesterolemic (HCH) subjects ... consumed 750 mL/day OJ concentrate (1:6 OJ/water) for 60 days ... Orange juice consumption decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (160 +/- 17 to 141 +/- 26 mg/dL, P < .01) in the HCH group but not in the NC group. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides remained unchanged in both groups. Free-cholesterol transfer to HDL increased (HCH: 4.4 +/- 2 to 5.6 +/- 1%, NC: 3.2 +/- 2 to 6.2 +/- 1%, P< .05) whereas triglyceride (HCH 4.9 +/- 1 to 3.1 +/- 1%, NC 4.4 +/- 1 to 3.4 +/- 1%, P< .05) and phospholipid (HCH 21.6 +/- 2 to 18.6 +/- 3%, NC 20.2 +/- 2 to 18.4 +/- 2%, P < .05) transfers decreased in both groups. Cholesteryl-ester transfer decreased only in HCH (3.6 +/- 1 to 3.1 +/- 1%, P < .05), but not in NC" - Note:  750 ml is .79 quarts.  Seem like it might be a problem with weight gain.
  • High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves HDL cholesterol in Type 2 diabetes patients - Diabet Med. 2010 Nov;27(11):1318-21 - "Subjects were randomized to 45 g chocolate with or without a high polyphenol content for 8 weeks and then crossed over after a 4-week washout period ... HDL cholesterol increased significantly with high polyphenol chocolate (1.16 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.26 +/- 0.08 mmol/l, P = 0.05) with a decrease in the total cholesterol: HDL ratio (4.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.1 +/- 0.4 mmol/l, P = 0.04). No changes were seen with the low polyphenol chocolate in any parameters. Over the course of 16 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor glycaemic control altered from baseline" - The Lindt - Excellence 90% Cocoa Bar are 3.5 ounces or 99 grams or about 90 grams of chocolate.  So 45 grams would be half a bar per day.
  • Effects of myo-inositol supplementation in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome: a perspective, randomized, placebo-controlled study - Menopause. 2010 Aug 31 - "Myo-inositol plus diet improved systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HOMA index, cholesterol, and triglyceride serum levels with highly significant differences, compared with the groups treated only with diet and placebo. In the group treated with myo-inositol, a decrease in diastolic blood pressure (-11%), HOMA index (-75%), and serum triglycerides (-20%) and an improvement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (22%) were shown ... CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with myo-inositol may be considered a reliable option in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women" - Note:  See raysahelian.com/inositol.html  and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inositol which claim myo-inositol and inositol are the same.  See inositol products at iHerb.
  • Astaxanthin’s heart benefits get human data support - Nutra USA, 8/9/10 - "Daily supplements of the carotenoid astaxanthin may improve HDL ‘good’ cholesterol levels in people with mildly abnormal blood lipid levels ... participants receiving the two highest doses experienced significant reductions in their triglyceride levels, of 25 and 24 percent, respectively, compared to baseline. Furthermore, people receiving 6 or 12 mg per day experienced significant increases in their HDL-cholesterol levels of 10 and 15 percent, respectively ... Additionally, adiponectin levels increased in the two highest dose groups, with increases over 20 percent in the 12 mg per day group, and between 15 and 20 percent in the 18 percent group" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.comor astaxanthin products at iHerb.
  • Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Apr;209(2):520-3 - "Multiple comparison tests showed that 12 and 18 mg/day doses significantly reduced triglyceride, and 6 and 12 mg doses significantly increased HDL-cholesterol. Serum adiponectin was increased by astaxanthin (12 and 18 mg/day), and changes of adiponectin correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol changes independent of age and BMI" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL, Mixed Carotenoid Complex at Amazon.comor astaxanthin products at iHerb.
  • HDL Cholesterol and Cancer - Medscape, 6/15/10 - "even after adjustment for multiple variables, there was a 36% lower risk of cancer for every 10-mg/dL increase in HDL cholesterol" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Endothelial-Vasoprotective Effects of High-Density Lipoprotein Are Impaired in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus but Are Improved After Extended-Release Niacin Therapy - Circulation. 2009 Dec 21 - "Patients with diabetes were randomized to a 3-month therapy with ER niacin (1500 mg/d) or placebo ... HDL from healthy subjects stimulated endothelial nitric oxide production, reduced endothelial oxidant stress, and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation and early endothelial progenitor cell-mediated endothelial repair. In contrast, these beneficial endothelial effects of HDL were not observed in HDL from diabetic patients, which suggests markedly impaired endothelial-protective properties of HDL. ER niacin therapy improved the capacity of HDL to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide, to reduce superoxide production, and to promote endothelial progenitor cell-mediated endothelial repair. Further measurements suggested increased lipid oxidation of HDL in diabetic patients, and a reduction after ER niacin therapy ... HDL from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome has substantially impaired endothelial-protective effects compared with HDL from healthy subjects. ER niacin therapy not only increases HDL plasma levels but markedly improves endothelial-protective functions of HDL in these patients, which is potentially more important" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Niacin Tops Zetia in Cutting Artery Plaque - WebMD, 11/16/09 - "The question is whether ezetimibe works at all ... Niacin has been around for 50 years. It's a well-understood drug, and in this trial it was clearly superior ... Ultrasound images of neck arteries showed that Niaspan reduced artery plaque by about 2%. Zetia did not slow plaque buildup, although it did lower cholesterol" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • ARBITER 6-HALTS: HDL Raising With Niacin Superior to Ezetimibe - Medscape, 11/16/09 - "Adding extended-release niacin (Niaspan, Abbott) to statin therapy results in a significant regression of atherosclerosis as measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), whereas the addition of ezetimibe (Zetia, Merck/Schering-Plough) to statin therapy did not, according to an eagerly anticipated study" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Raising 'Good' Cholesterol Levels May Benefit Clogged Arteries - Science Daily, 11/6/09 - "Using MRI scans, we have shown a reduction in the size of artery walls in patients after a year of treatment with nicotinic acid ... Nicotinic acid, sometimes known as niacin, is one of the oldest drugs used for atherosclerosis and only fell out of favour as statins came to prominence. It is known to raise levels of good cholesterol in the blood" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Low HDL Levels as the Most Common Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factor in Heart Failure - Int Heart J. 2009 Sep;50(5):571-80 - "The most prevalent parameters were low HDL-C (69%) and hypertension (69%) in all participants" -  Note:  The best way to raise HDL is with niacin.  The no flush form doesn't work and the slow release may cause liver damage.  People complain about the flush but I've been taking it for years and the longer you take it the less flush.  After a while, there is no flush at all but be sure to take it with food.  http://www.lipidsonline.org/slides/slide01.cfm?tk=25&dpg=34 shows that with extended release niacin, HDL peaks out at 2,500 mg.  http://www.lipidsonline.org/slides/slide01.cfm?q=effect+of+niacin&dpg=4 shows immediate release crystalline niacin compared to Niaspan.  The numbers are basically the same.  I don't see any point in the prescription other than that it might have less flushing when you first start taking it.  See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Anthocyanin supplementation improves serum LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations associated with the inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in dyslipidemic subjects - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul 29 - "Anthocyanin consumption increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations (13.7% and 2.8% in the anthocyanin and placebo groups, respectively; P < 0.001) and decreased LDL-cholesterol concentrations (13.6% and -0.6% in the anthocyanin and placebo groups, respectively; P < 0.001). The cellular cholesterol efflux to serum increased more in the anthocyanin group than in the placebo group (20.0% and 0.2%, respectively; P < 0.001). Anthocyanin supplementation decreased the mass and activity of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) (10.4% and 6.3% in the anthocyanin group and -3.5% and 1.1% in the placebo group, respectively; P < 0.001)" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • Biology Of Flushing Could Renew Niacin As Cholesterol Drug - Science Daily, 4/6/09 - "Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, has long been regarded as one of the most effective weapons in managing cholesterol. It can lower levels of triglycerides, fatty acids and to a lesser extent, the "bad" kind of cholesterol (LDL) while at the same time powerfully increasing the "good" kind (HDL). But there's a catch – a big one. Patients don't like to take niacin because in most of them, it causes embarrassing, uncontrollable intense flushing, a rush of blood to the face and other skin surfaces accompanied by a prickling sensation ... One particular protein in that group, beta-arrestin1, was found to trigger the chemical reaction that led to flushing ... beta-arrestin1 plays no role whatsoever in niacin's ability to lower cholesterol and fatty acids ... the discovery opens the door to the possibility of developing a "biased ligand," a drug that would trigger GP109A, but not the beta-arrestins"
  • An oily fish diet increases insulin sensitivity compared to a red meat diet in young iron-deficient women - Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb 12:1-8 - "Insulin levels significantly decreased and insulin sensitivity significantly increased with the oily fish diet. HDL-cholesterol significantly increased with the oily fish diet" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with Type 2 diabetes - Diabet Med. 2008 Dec;25(12):1473-7 - "Changes in lipid profiles, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), glycaemic control, components of the metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein (CRP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were assessed after cranberry or placebo treatment for 12 weeks ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased significantly in the cranberry group (from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.005) and the decrease was significantly greater than that in the placebo group (-0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P < 0.001). Total cholesterol and total : high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio also decreased significantly (P = 0.020 and 0.044, respectively) in the cranberry group and the reductions were significantly different from those in the placebo group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.032, respectively) ... Cranberry supplements are effective in reducing atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles, including LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels, as well as total : HDL cholesterol ratio, and have a neutral effect on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetic subjects taking oral glucose-lowering agents" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term effects of resveratrol supplementation on suppression of atherogenic lesion formation and cholesterol synthesis in apo E-deficient mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jul 5 - "The concentration of total-cholesterol (total-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in plasma was significantly lower in the resveratrol-supplemented groups compare to the control group over the entire experimental period. The plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly elevated, and the ratio of HDL-C/total-C was significantly higher in the CF and RV groups than in the control group. Plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity was significantly higher in the 0.06% resveratrol group. The hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity was significantly lower in the clofibrate and resveratrol groups than in the control group. Resveratrol supplements attenuated the presence of atherosclerotic lesions and periarterial fat deposition in the apo E(-/-) mice. The presence of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in atherosclerotic vessels was diminished in the resveratrol-supplemented apo E(-/-) mice. These results provide new insight into the anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic properties of resveratrol in apo E(-/-) mice that were fed a normal diet" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Niacin's Role In Maintaining Good Cholesterol - Science Daily, 6/5/08
  • HDL Cholesterol Linked to Lower Extremity Performance in Elderly - Medscape, 5/2/08 - "HDL-C levels were significantly associated with all indices of function ... participants with the highest HDL-C levels having the best physical performance"
  • Combination Niacin-Laropiprant Plus Simvastatin Reduces Cholesterol by Almost 50% - Doctor's Guide, 11/6/07 - "When patients with dyslipidemia added simvastatin to their experimental combination of extended-release niacin and laropiprant -- a novel anti-flushing agent -- they reported reductions in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of as much as 48% from baseline ... high density liopoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was increased by 28% and triglycerides decreased by 33%"
  • The effects of extended-release niacin on carotid intimal media thickness, endothelial function and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome - Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;61(11):1942-8 - "After 52 weeks of treatment, there was a change of carotid IMT of +0.009 +/- 0.003 mm in the placebo group and -0.005 +/- 0.002 mm in the niacin group (p = 0.021 between groups). Endothelial function improved by 22% in the group treated with niacin (p < 0.001), whereas no significant changes were seen in the placebo group. High sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased by 20% in the group treated with niacin for 52 weeks (p = 0.013). Niacin increased HDL-C (p < 0.001) and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (p < 0.001) significantly, and there were no adverse effects on fasting glucose levels after 52 weeks of treatment" - See niacin at Amazon.com or niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol at baseline but not with increased risk of diabetes in the Whitehall II study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):988-994 - "At baseline, dietary GI and GL were associated inversely with HDL cholesterol, and GI was associated directly with triacylglycerols. Dietary GI and GL were related inversely to fasting glucose and directly to 2-h postload glucose ... The proposed protective effect of low-dietary GI and GL diets on diabetes risk could not be confirmed in this study"
  • Vitamin E dietary supplementation significantly affects multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease in baboons - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep;86(3):597-603 - "vitamin E caused 2 paradoxical effects on HDL metabolism: higher apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) concentrations and lower HDL sizes ... They also show 2 apparently paradoxical effects on HDL metabolism: lower HDL(2), which is mediated by genes, and higher apo A-I, which is not. These effects have contrasting associations with CVD risk and may help account for the mixed results from clinical trials of dietary vitamin E"
  • Niacin (Nicotinic Acid) -- The Old Drug Is Making a Comeback With A New Act - Medscape, 6/11/07 - "Niacin (nicotinic acid) is well known as the most effective drug currently available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, raising it by 25% to 35% at the highest doses"
  • Exercise May Boost 'Good' Cholesterol - WebMD, 5/29/07 - "Participants who got at least two hours per week of aerobic exercise had a modest rise in their HDL cholesterol level ... the gains in HDL cholesterol levels translate to a 5% drop in men's heart disease risk and more than a 7% drop in women's heart disease risk"
  • Continuous intake of polyphenolic compounds containing cocoa powder reduces LDL oxidative susceptibility and has beneficial effects on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in humans - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):709-17 - "A significantly greater increase in plasma HDL cholesterol (24%) was observed in the cocoa group than in the control group (5%)"
  • An Old Cholesterol Remedy Is New Again - New York Times, 1/23/07 - "In its therapeutic form, nicotinic acid, niacin can increase HDL as much as 35 percent when taken in high doses, usually about 2,000 milligrams per day. It also lowers LDL, though not as sharply as statins do, and it has been shown to reduce serum levels of artery-clogging triglycerides as much as 50 percent ... There’s a great unfilled need for something that raises HDL ... Right now, in the wake of the failure of torcetrapib, niacin is really it. Nothing else available is that effective" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • What is the dietary treatment for low HDL cholesterol? - J Fam Pract. 2006 Dec;55(12):1076-8 - "Low-carbohydrate diets raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels by approximately 10%; soy protein with isoflavones raises HDL by 3% ... Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet and multivitamin supplementation raise HDL 21% to 33%"
  • Research shows benefits of cranberries -MSNBC, 11/20/06 - "Drinking cranberry juice daily may increase levels of HDL, or good cholesterol and reduce levels of LDL, or bad cholesterol" - See cranberry supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Favourable impact of low-calorie cranberry juice consumption on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men - Br J Nutr. 2006 Aug;96(2):357-64 - "daily CJC consumption is associated with an increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in abdominally obese men. We hypothesise that polyphenolic compounds from cranberries may be responsible for this effect, supporting the notion that the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods can be cardioprotective"
  • Comparative Effects on Lipid Levels of Niaspan and Statins - Medscape, 7/28/06 - "Niacin is the best HDL-cholesterol raising drug right now"
  • About 5% of Long-term Niacin Users Evolve Into HDL Hyperresponders - Doctor's Guide, 3/14/06 - "about 5% of patients on long-term therapy become hyperresponders, increasing their HDL levels by 50% or more ... Overall, these patients lost 4% of body weight while on niacin treatment"
  • Fiber Supplements May Lower Cardiovascular Risk In Type 2 Diabetics - Science Daily, 4/30/05 - "Study participants received 10g to 15g of BiosLife 2, an over-the-counter fiber supplement ... total cholesterol had dropped from 215 mg/dL to 184 mg/dL, a 14.4 percent decrease. Triglycerides also improved, dropping from 299 mg/dL to 257 mg/dL, a 14 percent decrease ... LDL decreased from 129 mg/dL to 92 mg/dL -- a 28.7 percent improvement. HDL rose from 43 mg/dL to 55 mg/dL -- a 21.8 percent increase"
  • The Effects of Niacin on Lipoprotein Subclass Distribution - Medscape, 1/19/05 - "the combination of niacin and a statin may be among the best available treatment options for many patients with complex forms of dyslipidemia ... Niacin effectively modifies all major lipids and lipoproteins with respect to both their quantity and quality. It is the most effective agent currently available for raising low levels of HDL cholesterol"
  • Grape Juice Raises 'Good' Cholesterol Levels - WebMD, 11/19/04 - "Grape juice drinkers had HDL levels of 50 mg/dL, compared with almost 45 mg/dL in the placebo group"
  • Raising HDL in Clinical Practice - Medscape, 6/10/04 - "Niacin increases HDL-C to the greatest extent of all available monotherapies: by 15% to 35% at higher daily doses on the order of 3 grams ... Capsules containing omega-3 fatty acids (1.48 g of docosahexaenoic acid + 1.88 g of eicosapentaenoic acid) have been formulated and are commercially available in some parts of the world (as Omacor). In a recent small study in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia, treatment with this formulation for 8 weeks increased HDL-C by 8%"
  • Dietary supplementation with olive oil leads to improved lipoprotein spectrum and lower n-6 PUFAs in elderly subjects - Med Sci Monit. 2004 Mar 23;10(4):PI49-PI54 - "The supplement was taken for 6 weeks and involved daily consumption of 2 tablespoons ... There was also a significant decline in the total-to-HDL and LDL-to-HDL cholesterol ratios" - I alternate between Smart Balance Omega-Plus (made with omega-3 fish oil) and Fleischmann's Olive Oil spread.
  • HDL: The "Quit" Cholesterol - Physician's Weekly, 2/23/04 - "for every 1 mg/dL increase in HDL, risk for a CAD event is reduced by 2% in men and 3% in women ... It hasn't gotten the same attention as LDL partly because there haven't been good medicines for raising it ... Niacin is, according to Dr. Rader, “…the best HDL-raising agent currently available.”"
  • Scientists Eye Pills To Unclog Arteries - Intelihealth, 2/2/04 - "HDL scoops up cholesterol from the arteries and carries it back to the liver for disposal ... men's average HDL is about 45 and women's is 55. HDL under 40 is an especially bad sign, while anything over 60 is considered good. Those with HDL over 75 may even be blessed with what's called the "longevity syndrome." ... many specialists recommend more use of the HDL booster already on the market, the vitamin niacin"
  • 4 Popular Diets Heart Healthy - WebMD, 11/10/03 - "the heart disease risk score is based on the ratio between LDL cholesterol and HDL "good" cholesterol ... The Atkins and Zone diets increased HDL by 15%, while Weight Watchers posted an 18.5% gain. But the Ornish diet increased HDL by just 2.2%"
  • Vitamin C Inhibits Lipid Oxidation in Human HDL - J Nutr. 2003 Oct;133(10):3047-51 - "In the absence of vitamin C, lipid oxidation in HDL began immediately and proceeded rapidly ... Vitamin C (50-200 micro mol/L) retarded initiation of lipid oxidation for at least 4 h under the same conditions ... Our results demonstrate that vitamin C inhibits lipid oxidation in HDL and preserves the antioxidant activity associated with this lipoprotein fraction"
  • Vitamin B12 Improves Homocysteine Levels and Lipid Profiles in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease - Doctor's Guide, 10/6/03 - "During Phase 1, patients were prescribed oral doses of folic acid 5 mg/day and vitamin B12 0.6mg/day. Through out Phase 2, participants were given intravenous doses of vitamin B12 1mg every other day in addition to folic acid 5 mg/day ... By the completion of the study, patients exhibited significantly lower serum tHcy (29.4 verses 21.1 mg/dL), total cholesterol (222 verses 196 mg/dL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (139 versus 109 mg/dL). Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased significantly among the participants"
  • Does High Cholesterol Harm Your Kidneys? - Dr. Weil, 8/22/03 - "apparently healthy men with low HDL (high density lipoprotein), the “good” cholesterol, and high LDL (low density lipoprotein) or “bad” cholesterol and triglycerides have twice the normal risk of reduced kidney function ... You can raise HDL by increasing exercise, drinking alcohol moderately, and eating only healthy fats (monounsaturates such as olive oil and omega-3s from sources like salmon and sardines). Taking prescription statin drugs also will help, although I prefer natural alternatives such as red rice yeast"
  • Cholesterol: Finding Right Mix - CBS News, 7/11/03 - "High-density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known as the "good" cholesterol. It helps move the bad cholesterol through the body's system to get rid of excess amounts. With enough "good" cholesterol, the "bad" cholesterol doesn't get a chance to build up ... Your total cholesterol should be less than 200. Levels of "good" cholesterol should be below 40. Levels of "bad" cholesterol should be less than 130, or less than 100 if you already have heart disease ... Certain foods such as soy, whole grain oats or fish containing omega-3 fatty acids can lower cholesterol" - I believe that "Levels of "good" cholesterol should be below 40" should be "above" not "below". - Ben
  • Policosanol more Effective than Lovastatin for Intermittent Claudication - New Hope Natural Media, 5/29/03 - "Those taking policosanol had a 34% increase in pain-free walking distance, while no change was observed in those taking lovastatin. Quality of life was also reported as being significantly better in the policosanol group compared with the lovastatin group. Both treatment groups had significant reductions in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. However, participants taking policosanol had a significant 32% increase in HDL cholesterol and a 6% decrease in fibrinogen, while these parameters remained unchanged in those receiving lovastatin" - See iHerb policosanol products.  Claudication gets my attention because my father has it and if there is a hereditary factor, I want to prevent it. - Ben
  • Cranberry Juice Fights Heart Disease - WebMD, 3/24/03 - "Cranberry juice is higher in phenol antioxidants than other fruit juices with the exception of grape juice ... levels of high-density lipoprotein ("good" cholesterol) appeared to increase significantly -- by as much as 121% -- after two or three glasses of juice a day"
  • Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes - AJCN, 3/1/03 - "Olive oil induced lower triacylglycerol concentrations and higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations than did butter, without eliciting significant changes in glucose, insulin, or fatty acids" - Olive oil is 76% omega-9.
  • Policosanol Improves Lipid Profiles - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 1/03 - "In one eight-week study with 68 older patients who had both elevated LDL levels and various coronary heart disease risk factors, researchers found 10 mg of Cuban policosanol taken once daily reduced (from baseline) LDL levels by 19 percent and triglycerides by 14 percent, and increased HDL levels by 18 percent, all statistically significant changes.26 The statin group (10 mg per day of pravastatin, the lowest dose recommended) triggered a 16 percent reduction in LDL levels, no change in triglycerides, and a 6 percent increase in HDL levels" - See iHerb policosanol products.
  • Ispaghula Husk [psyllium] Nearly As Effective As Simvastatin For Hyperlipidemia - Doctor's Guide, 12/24/02 - "One group received 3.5 grams of ispaghula husk twice a day and the second group received 20 milligrams of simvastatin each day ... total cholesterol decreased by 15.8 percent and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 22.97 percent among patients taking ispaghula husk ... Triglycerides decreased by 20.89 percent and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased by 10.69 percent in these patients ... Among patients taking simvastatin, total cholesterol decreased by 24.15 percent, LDL cholesterol decreased by 36.08 percent, triglycerides decreased by 20.47 percent and HDL cholesterol increased by 11.4 percent" - I've got that. See psyllium husk at Amazon.com.  3.5 grams is about one wafer (3.4 grams psyllium/wafer).  Plus 24 wafers runs about $4.49icon versus about $116icon for 30 of the 20 mg simvastatin.
  • Eating Yogurt Daily Increases “Good” Cholesterol in Women - New Hope Natural Media, 12/5/02 - "In this study, 29 women ate 300 grams (about 10.6 ounces) of a full-fat (3.5% fat by weight) yogurt product daily for 21 weeks ... A larger, and statistically significant, 38% increase was observed in HDL, or “good” cholesterol levels after eating the yogurt. No change was observed in LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol levels ... each woman also ate the probiotic- and prebiotic-containing product for a 7-week stretch during the 21-week trial. During the period when the women consumed the supplemented yogurt, there was a further increase in HDL cholesterol beyond that seen from simply eating plain yogurt" - See iHerb probiotics products.
  • Genes Determine Effect of Diet, Good Cholesterol - WebMD, 10/21/02 - "To increase HDLs, you shouldn't consume more saturated fats. Instead, you should have more monounsaturated fats, which are abundant in many vegetables, oils, and walnuts."
  • Alcohol Can Help Women's Hearts Too - WebMD, 9/16/02 - "10 men aged 45-64 and nine women aged 49-62 drank either regular beer or non-alcoholic beer for three weeks ... After 10 days of drinking alcohol, HDL cholesterol levels rose by an average of nearly 7% for both men and women ... Previous research suggests that a 1% increase in HDL cholesterol is linked to a 2% reduction in the risk of heart disease"
  • Niacin May Be Effective Therapy For Broad Range Of Diabetes-Associated Dyslipidaemias - Doctor's Guide, 7/25/02 - "After niacin treatment, the patients' LDL peak particle diameter increased from 252 +/- 7 Å to 263 +/- 7, the researchers reported. Their small, dense LDLc particle mass decreased from 27 +/- 11 mg/dL to 15 +/- 4 mg/dL. Total HDLc increased from 39 +/- 7 mg/dL to 51 +/- 11 mg/dL. Their HDL2, as the percentage of total HDLc mass, increased from 29 +/- 8 percent to 45 +/- 10 percent, and their Lp(a) decreased from 43 +/- 17 mg/dL to 25 +/- 10 mg/dL ... Twenty-one percent of the patients were unable to tolerate niacin because of reversible adverse effects. Another 14 percent were unable to adhere to the niacin dosing regimen of three times daily"
  • HDL Too High? - Dr. Weil, 6/6/02 - "each increase of 4 mg/dl in the HDL level results in a 10 percent decrease in risk of adverse coronary events"
  • Policosanol Helps Reduce High Cholesterol - New Hope Natural Media, 6/6/02 - "In a six-month study, 10 mg per day of policosanol reduced total cholesterol by 16% and LDL cholesterol by 24%, and increased HDL cholesterol by 29%. Several other studies have compared policosanol with some of the conventional medications used for lowering cholesterol and the results have shown policosanol in the amount of 5 to 20 mg per day to be more effective than lovastatin (Mevacor®), pravastatin (Pravachol®), and simvastatin (Zocor®), with fewer reported side effects. While some prescription drugs used to lower cholesterol may cause liver and muscle problems in rare instances, people taking policosanol have not suffered any serious side effects" - See iHerb policosanol products.
  • Health Benefits of Olive Oil - California Olive Oil Council - "Olive oil is 80% oleic acid, placing it at the top of the list of monounsaturated fats ... Research has proved that using olive oil significantly increases HDL levels"
  • Octacosanol Beats Statins - Dr. Janson, 4/02 - "Taking a non-flush form of niacin, inositol hexaniacinate, provides the same cholesterol effects without the liver changes, but it is more expensive. Effective niacin doses are 1500 to 3000 mg daily"
  • Men's Fitness: Boost your good cholesterol sky-high: want to live longer? Try raising this cholesterol with our 10 strategies - findarticles.com, 2/02 - "In a Canadian study, drinking a few glasses of orange juice every day for four weeks increased participants' HDL by 21 percent, possibly due to a flavonoid called hesperidin that appears extremely HDL-friendly"
  • Statins and Supplements - Natural Foods Merchandiser, 1/02
  • question regarding your new cholesterol-lowering supplement, Policosanol - Life Extension Magazine, 11/01 - "Studies show that niacin (B3) in doses of 1.5 grams to 3 grams lower triglycerides levels and raise HDL concentrations. Those who tolerated higher doses of niacin (nicotinic acid) showed even more improvement in lipid levels. Some people taking just 1000 mg of flush-free niacin see an elevation in beneficial HDL. Green tea also has been shown to elevate levels of HDL while lowering serum triglyceride levels. In the Journal of Molecular Cell Biochemistry, curcumin has been demonstrated, in vivo, to decrease triglycerides and increase HDL. In a study published in 1989 by the Journal of Associated Physicians-India, 125 patients receiving gugulipid showed a drop of 16.8% in triglycerides, and a 60% increase in HDL cholesterol within three to four weeks. Make sure you are taking at least six Mega EPA fish oil capsules daily, as low dose fish oil may not adequately suppress triglycerides. Finally, there are some lifestyle changes you may wish to consider. If you are overweight, weight loss would be recommended, as it would help to lower triglycerides and raise HDL. Also, try reducing carbohydrates, which can raise triglycerides"
  • Product Review: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (EPA and DHA) from Fish/Marine Oils - ConsumerLabs.com, 11/20/01 - "It's been discovered that EPA and DHA may help prevent heart disease and atherosclerosis by lowering triglyceride levels, raising HDL ("good") cholesterol and, possibly "thinning" the blood ... By decreasing inflammation, EPA and DHA can also reduce the pain of rheumatoid arthritis ... Fish oils may also be useful in treating a host of conditions including bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder, Raynaud's phenomenon (abnormal sensitivity of hands and feet to cold), lupus, IgA nephropathy, kidney stones, chronic fatigue syndrome, Crohn's disease, cystic fibrosis, and ulcerative colitis ... EPA specifically may be helpful for schizophrenia, while DHA may be more helpful in reducing high blood pressure ... DHA may be helpful in the treatment of disorders such as attention deficit disorders, dyslexia, and cognitive impairment and dementia ... experts now believe that the American diet contains too little omega-3 fatty acids and too much omega-6 fatty acids"
  • Cardiovascular Health - Nutrition Science News, 9/01 - "HDL cholesterol was significantly increased in the intervention [coenzyme Q10] group without affecting total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol"
  • An Antioxidant Cocktail May Prove to Be Heart Unhealthy - WebMD, 8/9/01 - "Taken alone the drug combination simvastatin and niacin increased HDL, the so-called good cholesterol by 25%, but when antioxidants were added HDL increased by only 18%"
  • A Fish Story - Nutrition Science News, 4/01 - "daily consumption of very low daily doses of EPA/DHA (120 mg/180 mg, about one standard fish oil capsule) in an enriched milk led to a 19 percent decrease in blood triglycerides and a 19 percent increase in HDL cholesterol after six weeks ... It is unclear whether EPA is superior to DHA, although EPA has proven more potent in relaxing cow coronary arteries and producing the vasodilator gas, nitric oxide, in vitro"
  • Niacin Reduces Triglycerides, Increases Good Cholesterol In Diabetics - Doctor's Guide, 3/20/01
  • Effects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary risk - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001 Mar;56(3):M186-92 - "while significantly (p é .01) increasing (p < .001) high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 14.6% and 29.1%, respectively ... No serious adverse experiences occurred in policosanol patients (p < .01), compared with seven adverse experiences (7.9%) reported by placebo patients"
  • Niaspan (Niacin Extended Release Tablets) Safe And Effective For Diabetics - Doctor's Guide, 11/14/00
  • Statin Plus Niacin Reduces Heart Attack Risk, Reverses Arterial Build-up - Doctor's Guide, 11/13/00
  • Spent Yeast Improves Cholesterol Count - Nutrition Science News, 5/00
  • Rimostil May Increase Bone Density While Raising Good Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 9/27/99 - "The second effect was on HDL cholesterol levels. Falling HDL levels after menopause is one of the main reasons that older women suffer heart disease and stroke. P-081 caused an average 28% rise in HDL levels, essentially restoring their HDL levels to pre-menopausal levels" - see Rimostil at iHerb.
  • Prolonged treatment with slow release nicotinic acid in patients with type II hyperlipidemia - Pol Arch Med Wewn. 1997 Nov;98(11):391-9
  • Experts Urge Physicians and Patients To Look Beyond LDL Cholesterol - Doctor's Guide, 9/10/97
  • Biological effects of hesperidin, a Citrus flavonoid. (note II): hypolipidemic activity on experimental hypercholesterolemia in rat - Farmaco. 1995 Sep;50(9):595-9 - "Hesperidin, the most important flavanone of Citrus sp., significantly increases HDL"
  • A comparison of the efficacy and toxic effects of sustained- vs immediate-release niacin in hypercholesterolemic patients - JAMA. 1994 Mar 2;271(9):672-7 - "None of the patients taking IR niacin developed hepatotoxic effects, while 12 (52%) of the 23 patients taking SR niacin did"

Other Information:

  • Role of HDL cholesterol and estimates of HDL particle composition in future development of type 2 diabetes in the general population: The PREVEND Study - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 May 20 - "High density lipoproteins (HDL) may directly stimulate β-cell function and glucose metabolism ... Higher HDL cholesterol, as well as higher HDL-cholesterol/apoA-I and HDL-cholesterol/apoA-II ratios are strongly and independently related to lower risk of future type 2 diabetes"
  • Low HDL-C predicts risk and PCI outcomes in the Han Chinese population - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Oct 3 - "Low HDL-C was the most powerful lipid parameter for predicting the risk and the clinical outcome of CHD in the Han Chinese population"
  • Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and progression to arterial stiffness in middle-aged and elderly Chinese - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Sep 22 - "participants in the highest quartile of HDL-c had an odds ratio of 0.442 (95% CI 0.268-0.729) for developing high arterial stiffness compared with participants in the lowest quartile" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Measuring HDL particles as opposed to HDL cholesterol is a a better indicator of coronary heart disease, study suggests - Science Daily, 7/11/12
  • Not all 'good cholesterol' is 'good': Raising HDL not a sure route to countering heart disease - Science Daily, 5/16/12
  • Raising HDL Levels May Not Lower Heart Attack Risk - WebMD, 5/16/12 - "Many clinicians still prescribe the vitamin niacin to help raise HDL levels, even though a government-funded trial proved disappointing ... The trial was halted early a year ago when it was determined that people with heart disease who had low HDL levels did not benefit from the treatment ... The drug company Pfizer abandoned its experimental HDL-boosting drug torcetrapib in 2006 when trials showed an increase in heart attack and stroke risk among users ... the new research casts even more doubt on the strategy of raising HDL to lower heart and stroke risk ... HDL levels are related to risk, but that doesn't mean that raising HDL is beneficial ... What we do know is that lowering LDL has a big impact on risk, so the take-home message remains, 'Get those LDL numbers down'"
  • Erectile Dysfunction / Impotence - Prostate Health Guide - U. of Maryland Medicine - "Direct risk factors for erectile dysfunction may include the following: ... low levels of HDL (high-density lipoprotein)"
  • LCAT, HDL Cholesterol and Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study of HDL Cholesterol in 54,500 Individuals - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Nov 16 - "Low plasma HDL cholesterol levels robustly associated with increased risk of MI but genetically decreased HDL cholesterol did not. This may suggest that low HDL cholesterol levels per se do not cause MI"
  • HDL-cholesterol and prediction of coronary heart disease: Modified by physical fitness?: A 28-year follow-up of apparently healthy men - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Oct 17 - "High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and physical fitness (PF) ... The highest HDL quartile was associated with lower risk of CHD (HR: 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.74), fatal CHD (HR: 0.56, CI: 0.36-0.86), fatal CVD (HR: 0.64, CI: 0.46-0.88) and all-cause death (HR: 0.80, CI: 0.65-0.99) compared to the lowest quartile. Adjustments for PF or changes in PF over 8.6 years did not change the results except for all-cause death, which was not significantly different between HDL quartiles. We found no interaction between HDL and PF"
  • Change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of subsequent hospitalization for coronary artery disease or stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Oct 15;108(8):1124-8 - "During a mean follow-up of 55.8 +/- 23.8 months, 3,023 patients (10.1%) experienced a CVD hospitalization. After multivariate adjustment, each 5 mg/dl of baseline HDL cholesterol was significantly associated with a 6% lower CVD hospitalization risk (hazard ratio 0.94 per 5 mg/dl, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 0.95, p <0.0001) and each 5-mg/dl increase in HDL cholesterol was associated with a 4% CVD risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 0.99, p <0.003). In the categorical analysis, a ≥6.5-mg/dl HDL cholesterol decrease was associated with an 11% increased CVD risk (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.24, p = 0.047) and a ≥6.5-mg/dl increase was associated with an 8% CVD risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.01, p = 0.077) relative to those with stable HDL cholesterol"
  • Influence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on arterial stiffening and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2011 Oct;13(10):710-5 - "In univariate regression analysis, HDL cholesterol was inversely associated with arterial stiffness parameter and E/Em (r=-0.23 and r=-0.27, respectively, P<.01). The association of HDL cholesterol with arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function was observed in both men and women. Triglycerides were weakly correlated with arterial stiffness parameter and E/Em, while low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol were not. In multiple regression analysis, only low HDL cholesterol was found as an independent predictor for both arterial stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction. Enhanced arterial stiffness is associated with LV diastolic dysfunction. Low HDL cholesterol may lead to the deterioration of both arterial stiffness and LV diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension"
  • Serum total and HDL cholesterol and risk of prostate cancer - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Sep 14 - "After excluding the first 10 years of follow-up, men with higher serum total cholesterol were at increased risk of overall (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03-1.44, p-trend = 0.01) and advanced (≥240 vs. <200 mg/dl: HR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.13-3.03, p-trend = 0.05) prostate cancer. Higher HDL cholesterol was suggestively associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade ... In this population of smokers, high serum total cholesterol was associated with higher risk of advanced prostate cancer, and high HDL cholesterol suggestively reduced the risk of prostate cancer overall. These results support previous studies and, indirectly, support the hypothesis that statins may reduce the risk of advanced prostate cancer by lowering cholesterol"
  • 'Good' cholesterol function as important as its levels - Science Daily, 6/23/11
  • Niacin doesn't stop heart attacks, major study finds - Health - Heart health - msnbc.com - MSNBC, 5/26/11 - "The newest study tested Abbott Laboratories' Niaspan, an extended-release form of niacin that is a far higher dose than is found in dietary supplements ... the Niaspan users saw their HDL levels rise, and their levels of risky triglycerides drop, more than people who took a statin alone. But the combination treatment didn't reduce heart attacks, strokes or the need for artery-clearing procedures such as angioplasty ... That finding "is unexpected and a striking contrast to the results of previous trials," ... Also, there was a small increase in strokes in the high-dose niacin users — 28 among those 1,718 people given Niaspan compared with 12 among the 1,696 placebo users. The NIH said it was not clear if that small difference was merely a coincidence, as previous studies have shown no stroke risk from niacin. In fact, some of the strokes occurred after the Niaspan users quit taking that drug" - See my niacin and HDL pages for many more studies.  For one thing, there are waaaay more arguments for raising HDL than just heart disease.  Things such as centurions having unusually high HDL, prostate cancer, bowel cancer, impotence, Alzheimer's, etc., not to mention that it conflicts with other studies.
  • Low levels of apolipoprotein A-I and HDL are associated with risk of prostate cancer in the Swedish AMORIS study - Cancer Causes Control. 2011 May 12 - "ApoA-I and HDL were inversely associated with PCa risk (e.g., HR for HDL: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.81-1.07), 0.88 (0.76-1.01), 0.81 (0.70-0.94), for second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first quartile; with p for trend: 0.004; HR for apoA-I: 1.00 (0.88-1.13), 0.93 (0.82-1.05), 0.88 (0.77-0.99),), for second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first quartile; with p for trend: 0.022). ApoB, LDL, and non-HDL were not associated with PCa risk"
  • Evolving Concepts of the Role of High-Density Lipoprotein in Protection from Atherosclerosis - Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2011 Mar - "HDL is able to interact with and remove cholesterol from the lipid-laden foam cells in the peripheral vasculature with subsequent transportation to the liver for excretion. However, HDL has multiple other physiologic effects that may play a significant role in protection from atherosclerosis. HDL has been demonstrated to exhibit multiple beneficial effects on the coagulation system. Platelet function is improved by both direct and indirect mechanisms. HDL has a complex interaction with the protein C and protein S system. Thrombolytic balance is also improved by HDL. HDL has been demonstrated to have a significant natural antioxidant effect that inhibits the oxidative step required for low-density lipoprotein uptake by the macrophage. Additionally, HDL has also been demonstrated to exert multiple beneficial effects on endothelial function, including decreased apoptosis and endothelial repair" - See niacin at Amazon.com (niacin increases HDL).
  • High levels of 'good' cholesterol may cut bowel cancer risk - Science Daily, 3/7/11 - "Each rise of 16.6 mg/dl in HDL and of 32 mg/dl in apoA reduced the risk of bowel cancer by 22% and 18%, respectively, after taking account of diet, lifestyle, and weight ... low HDL levels have been linked to higher levels of proteins involved in inflammation, while higher levels of proteins that dampen down the inflammatory response have also been linked to high HDL levels ... The pro inflammatory proteins boost cell growth and proliferation while curbing cell death, so HDL may alter the inflammatory process in some way"
  • Relation Between High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Survival to Age 85 Years in Men (from the VA Normative Aging Study) - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Feb 4 - "We categorized initial HDL cholesterol into <40 mg/dl (reference group), 40 to 49 mg/dl, or ≥50 mg/dl ... Treating HDL cholesterol as a continuous predictor, we also determined the HR for each 10-mg/dl increment in HDL cholesterol. Fully adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) for survival to 85 years of age for participants with an initial HDL cholesterol level ≥50 mg/dl compared to the reference was 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98). Each 10-mg/dl increment in HDL cholesterol was associated with a 14% (HR 0.86, 0.78 to 0.96) decrease in risk of mortality before 85 years of age. In conclusion, after adjusting for other factors associated with longevity, higher HDL cholesterol levels were significantly associated with survival to 85 years of age" - See niacin at Amazon.com (niacin increases HDL).
  • From dusty punch cards, new insights into link between cholesterol and heart disease - Science Daily, 1/5/11 - "He also found an old punch card machine to extract their data. Then, with the help of students and research assistants, he located and contacted 97 percent of the people in Gofman's study over the next nine years ... Their 29-year follow-up uncovered 363 cases of coronary heart disease. They found that both HDL2 and HDL3 lowered heart disease risk, and that a one-milligram per milliliter increase in HDL2 produced a significantly larger reduction in coronary heart disease risk than a one-milligram per milliliter increase in HDL3" - I doubt if many people besides me even remember what punch cards were.
  • Higher HDL-C Levels May Curb Alzheimer's Disease Risk - Medscape, 12/16/10 - "There was a definite threshold effect, the researchers say, with a clear reduction in AD risk for people in the highest HDL-C level quartile (>56 mg/dL) ... these analyses were limited by the small number of cases of vascular dementia (n = 16) ... the current study linking higher HDL-C to a lower risk for incident dementia contrast with a prior study by the same researchers. This earlier study involved 1168 participants recruited from the same community in 1992 – 1994 and showed no association between HDL-C and AD ... Compared with the 1992 – 1994 cohort, the 1999 – 2001 cohort had a higher proportion of subjects receiving lipid-lowering treatment (23.4% vs 14.5%), higher mean HDL-C levels (48.3 vs 47.2 mg/dL), and fewer individuals who smoked (9.4% vs 10.6%) and had heart disease (18.8% vs 34.1%)"
  • High levels of 'good' cholesterol may be associated with lower risk of Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 12/13/10 - "The researchers defined higher levels of HDL cholesterol as 55 milligrams per deciliter or more ... higher levels of HDL cholesterol were associated with a decreased risk of both probable and possible Alzheimer's disease"
  • Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio is the best surrogate marker for insulin resistance in non-obese Japanese adults - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Dec 7;9(1):138 - "In non-obese subjects, the best marker of insulin resistance was low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio of 0.74" - Note:  I'm not sure what I missed on that quote.  See http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=183 .  Ideally your LDL should be below 100.  In the average man, HDL cholesterol levels range from 40 to 50 mg/dL.  So assuming an LDL of 100, for LDL/HDL to be equal to .74 your HDL would have to be 135 which is nearly impossible.  The full article is at http://www.lipidworld.com/content/pdf/1476-511x-9-138.pdf and says "The optimal cut-off point to identifying insulin resistance for these markers yielded the following values: TG/HDL-C ratio of ≥1.50 and LDL-C/HDL-C ratio of ≥2.14 in non-obese subjects, and ≥2.20, ≥2.25 in overweight subjects. In non-obese subjects, the positive likelihood ratio was greatest for LDL-C/HDL-C ratio".

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