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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 7/10/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Two Blood Pressure Drugs Linked to Lower Risk of Heart Disease in Diabetics - Science Daily, 7/8/13 - "there is some evidence from small trials that telmisartan has slightly different properties than other angiotensin-receptor blockers and may improve cardiovascular health ... telmisartan and valsartan were associated with a significantly lower risk of hospitalization for heart attack, stroke or heart failure compared with other angiotensin-receptor blockers ... at clinically attainable serum concentrations, telmisartan is unique among these drugs in its ability to structurally interact with and activate the PPARg receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity" - See my Telmisartan as a First Line Treatment page.

India Suspends Diabetes Drug Pioglitazone - Medscape, 7/8/13 - "The ruling came seemingly out of the blue ... The government could have put some restrictions [on it] but still allowed marketing of the drug because there is no clear-cut indication that it does cause bladder cancer ... there are new data coming, which are probably in favor of pioglitazone, expected in 2014" - Note:  Now I'm mad.  That was one of the medications from India I was taking in low doses for anti-aging.  See my Insulin and Aging page.  Sounds like a payoff.  All governments seem to have that problem.

Legal Performance Enhancer Discovered in the Nutrient Betaine - Science Daily, 7/5/13 - "betaine -- a nutrient found in shellfish and beets -- boosts athletic performance by nearly six percent when added to a sports drink ... Betaine may contribute to creatine synthesis, which improves, strength, power and short-term performance ... researchers suggest: Dissolve 2.5 grams of betaine (either powder or tablet form) in a 20-ounce sports drink, and drink half in the morning and half in the afternoon" - See trimethylglycine at Amazon.com.

How Much Protein Is Too Much? - cbslocal.com, 7/4/13 - "The CDC recommends women need about 46 grams of protein per day. You’ll get that much by eating a three ounce hamburger, one hard-boiled egg, eight ounces of milk and one six ounce container of Greek yogurt ... So, how much is too much? ... A good general kind of rule of thumb is try not to exceed more than one gram of protein per pound of body weight ... In the most severe cases, too much protein can actually cause kidney damage, and possibly dehydration"

Red, Processed Meats Tied to Increased Risk for CRC Death - Medscape, 7/3/13 - "survivors with consistently high intakes (median of about 4 servings/week or higher) before and after diagnosis had a 79% higher risk for CRC-specific mortality (relative risk, 1.79) than those with intakes consistently below the median ... Men and women who consistently ate the most red and processed meat before and after diagnosis had a statistically significant higher risk of death as a result of CRC, compared with those who consistently ate the least red and processed meat"

Intranasal Oxytocin Looks Promising for Migraine - Medscape, 7/3/13 - "included 40 patients with chronic migraine who received a dose of the agent and were asked to rate their pain, nausea, photophobia, and phonophobia on a 4-point scale (indicating severe, moderate, mild, or none) prior to and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours ... At from 2 to 4 hours, 64% of the patients who received the agent reported a reduction in pain by 2 categories (either from "severe to mild or none," or from "moderate to none") compared with only 27% of patients who received a placebo" - See Oxy Pro (Oxytocin) Nasal Spray at International Anti-aging Systems.

Curcumin may protect premature infants' lungs - Science Daily, 7/2/13 - "Premature infants often need the assistance of ventilators and forced oxygen therapy because they're frequently born with inadequate lung function. These therapies can cause the infants to suffer lasting lung damage and even death ... curcumin provided long-term protection against this damage ... curcumin provided protection against bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BDP), a condition characterized by scarring and inflammation, and against hyperoxia, in which too much oxygen enters the body through the lungs, for up to 21 days after birth. A previous LA BioMed study found curcumin provided protection for up to seven days after birth" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.

Long Term Night Shifts Linked to Doubling of Breast Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 7/1/13 - "Working night shifts for 30 or more years doubles the risk of developing breast cancer, and is not confined to nurses as previous research has indicated ... The suggested link between breast cancer and shift work has been put down to melatonin, but sleep disturbances, upset body rhythms, vitamin D or lifestyle differences may also play their part"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial - Phytother Res. 2013 Jul 6 - "60 patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio for six weeks observer-masked treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg) and curcumin (1000 mg) individually or their combination ... curcumin was well tolerated by all the patients. The proportion of responders as measured by the HAM-D17 scale was higher in the combination group (77.8%) than in the fluoxetine (64.7%) and the curcumin (62.5%) groups; however, these data were not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Interestingly, the mean change in HAM-D17 score at the end of six weeks was comparable in all three groups (P = 0.77). This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.

Long-term Ginsenoside Rg1 Supplementation Improves Age-Related Cognitive Decline by Promoting Synaptic Plasticity Associated Protein Expression in C57BL/6J Mice - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jul 5 - "In aging individuals, age-related cognitive decline is the most common cause of memory impairment. Among the remedies, ginsenoside Rg1, a major active component of ginseng, is often recommended for its antiaging effects ... This study employed a scheme of Rg1 supplementation for female C57BL/6J mice, which started at the age of 12 months and ended at 24 months, to investigate the effects of Rg1 supplementation on the cognitive performance. We found that Rg1 supplementation improved the performance of aged mice in behavior test and significantly upregulated the expression of synaptic plasticity-associated proteins in hippocampus, including synaptophysin, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, postsynaptic density-95, and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha, via promoting mammalian target of rapamycin pathway activation. These data provide further support for Rg1 treatment of cognitive degeneration during aging" - See ginseng at Amazon.com.

Association of ED with chronic periodontal disease - Int J Impot Res. 2013 Jul 4 - "To examine the relationship between chronic periodontal disease (CPD) and ED, the interview sheet including the CPD self-checklist (CPD score) and the five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) was distributed to 300 adult men who received a comprehensive dental examination ... There was a statistically significant correlation between the CPD score and the presence of ED (P=0.0415). The results in the present study suggest that ED is related to the damage caused by endothelial dysfunction and the systematic inflammatory changes associated with CPD. The present study also suggests that dental health is important as a preventive medicine for ED" - Note:  Sounds like a double whammy in that the moose breath also scares away your partner.

Omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio and higher-order cognitive functions in 7- to 9-y-olds: a cross-sectional study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul 3 - "Seventy 7- to 9-y-old children completed three 24-h diet recalls and a subset of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Assessment Battery. Parents provided information on their demographics and children's diet histories ... There was a significant interaction between the ratio and fatty acid intake; when children had high ratios, a higher intake of n-3 fatty acids predicted a better performance on the planning task than when children had lower n-3 intakes" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Systematic review evaluating cardiovascular events of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor - Dutasteride - J Clin Pharm Ther. 2013 Jul 1 - "We did not find consistent evidence of a significant association between dutasteride therapy and the risk of cardiovascular adverse events"

Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in elderly men: a meta-analysis study of placebo controlled trials - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed ... DHEA supplementation in elderly men can induce a small but significant positive effect on body composition which is strictly dependent on DHEA conversion into its bioactive metabolites such as androgens or estrogens" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.

Genistein in the Metabolic Syndrome: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 3 - "Patients included 120 postmenopausal women with MetS ... postmenopausal women with MetS were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 60) or 54 mg genistein daily (n = 60) for 1 year ... At 1 year in genistein recipients, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR (mean from 4.5 to 2.7; P < .001) decreased and were unchanged in placebo recipients. Genistein statistically increased HDL-C (mean from 46.4 to 56.8 mg/dL) and adiponectin and decreased total cholesterol, LDL-C (mean from 108.8 to 78.7 mg/dL), triglycerides, visfatin, and homocysteine (mean from 14.3 to 11.7) blood levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was also reduced in genistein recipients. Genistein recipients neither experienced more side adverse effects than placebo nor discontinued the study" - See genistein at Amazon.com.

Effect of probiotic fermented milk on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jul 3:1-7 - "PubMed, Cochrane library and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched up to March 2012 to identify eligible studies ... probiotic fermented milk, compared with placebo, produced a significant reduction of 3.10 mmHg (95 % CI - 4.64, - 1.56) in systolic BP and 1.09 mmHg (95 % CI - 2.11, - 0.06) in diastolic BP. Subgroup analyses suggested a slightly greater effect on systolic BP in hypertensive participants than in normotensive ones ( - 3.98 v. - 2.09 mmHg). Analysis of trials conducted in Japan showed a greater reduction than those conducted in European countries for both systolic BP ( - 6.12 v. - 2.08 mmHg) and diastolic BP ( - 3.45 v. - 0.52 mmHg)"

The Mediterranean diet in relation to mortality and CVD: a Danish cohort study - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jul 3:1-9 - "Analyses were performed on 1849 men and women sampled during the 1982-83 Danish MONICA (MONItoring trends and determinants of Cardiovascular disease) population study, whose diet was assessed by means of a validated 7 d food record ... the MDS was inversely associated with total mortality and with cardiovascular and MI incidence and mortality, but not with stroke incidence or mortality"

Regular consumption of a cocoa product improves the cardiometabolic profile in healthy and moderately hypercholesterolaemic adults - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jul 4:1-13 - "Cocoa products present great health potential due to their high content of polyphenols, mainly of flavanols ... A randomised, controlled, cross-over, free-living study was carried out in healthy (n 24) and moderately hypercholesterolaemic (>2000 mg/l, n 20) subjects to assess the influence of regularly consuming (4 weeks) two servings (15 g each) of a cocoa product rich in fibre (containing 33.9 % of total dietary fibre (TDF) and 13.9 mg/g of soluble polyphenols) in milk v. consuming only milk (control) ... Serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were increased (P< 0.001), whereas glucose (P= 0.029), IL-1β (P= 0.001) and IL-10 (P= 0.001) levels were decreased. The rest of the studied cardiovascular parameters, as well as the anthropometric ones, remained similar ... regularly consuming a cocoa product with milk improves cardiovascular health by increasing HDL-C levels and inducing hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory effects in healthy and hypercholesterolaemic individuals without causing weight gain"

A Decreased Micronucleus Frequency in Human Lymphocytes after Folate and Vitamin B12 Intervention: a Preliminary Study in a Yunnan Population - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2012 Dec 1;82(6):374-382 - "Micronucleus (MN) is a validated biomarker for DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and is a reflection of the changes of human nutritional status. Folate (FA) and vitamin B12 are one-carbon metabolism-related micronutrients, which play important roles in maintaining genomic stability ... Dietary supplement intake of FA and B12 based on MTHFR genotypes could protect the genome from damage and benefit genome health" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com and vitamin B12 at Amazon.com.

Dietary Supplementation of Antioxidants Improves Semen Quality of IVF Patients in Terms of Motility, Sperm Count, and Nuclear Vacuolization - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2012 Dec 1;82(6):391-398 - "Patients were divided into oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) and non-OAT men. Between first and second semen analysis, patients were supplemented orally with an antioxidative preparation ... The results demonstrated a considerable improvement in semen quality, notably in OAT patients. Considering the putative relationship between semen quality on the one hand and reactive oxygen species on the other, the observed changes in the sperm parameters indicate that a decline in semen quality, and even subtle morphological changes, might be associated with oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that an antioxidative and micronutrient supplementation has a remarkable benefit for IVF patients having restricted sperm parameters, in particular" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.

Very High Fructose Intake Increases Serum LDL-Cholesterol and Total Cholesterol: a Meta-Analysis of Controlled Feeding Trials - J Nutr. 2013 Jul 3 - "Twenty-four trials (with a total of 474 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. In an overall pooled estimate, it was shown that fructose exerted no effect on HDL-C. Meta-regression analysis indicated that fructose dose was positively correlated with the effect sizes of TC and LDL-C. Subgroup analyses showed that isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrates increased TC by 13.0 mg/dL [(95% CI: 4.7, 21.3); P = 0.002] and LDL-C by 11.6 mg/dL [(95% CI: 4.4, 18.9); P = 0.002] at >100 g fructose/d. However, no effect was shown on TC or LDL-C when the fructose intake was ≤100 g/d"

Phytosterols, red yeast rice, and lifestyle changes instead of statins: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial - Am Heart J. 2013 Jul;166(1):187-196.e2 - "lifestyle change (LC) ... red yeast rice (RYR) ... A total of 187 participants (mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], 154 mg/dL) took RYR 1800 mg twice daily and were randomized to phytosterol tablets 900 mg twice daily or placebo. Participants were also randomized to a 12-week LC program or usual care (UC) ... All participants took RYR and had significant decreases in LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol for 1 year when compared with baseline ... The addition of phytosterol tablets to RYR did not result in further lowering of LDL-C levels" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.

Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, dietary fatty acids and prostate cancer risk - Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 11 - "Animal and experimental studies have demonstrated that long-chain n-3 fatty acids inhibit the development of prostate cancer, whereas n-6 fatty acids might promote it ... Collaborative Cohort Study using a random sample of 1,717 men and 464 prostate cancer cases to investigate associations between fatty acids assessed in plasma phospholipids (PPLs) or diet (estimated using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire) and prostate cancer risk ... Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL saturated fatty acids (SFAs); HR [95% CI] = 1.51 [1.06, 2.16] (Q5 vs. Q1, fifth vs. first quintile); p-trend = 0.003. HRs (Q5 to Q2 vs. Q1) were significantly elevated for %PPL palmitic acid. %PPL oleic acid was inversely associated with risk, HR = 0.62 [0.43, 0.91] (Q5 vs. Q1); p-trend = 0.04. No statistically significant linear trends were observed for dietary intakes. The HRs were elevated for moderate intakes of linoleic acid (Q2 and Q3 vs. Q1, 1.58 [1.10, 2.28] and 1.70 [1.18, 2.46], respectively), but the increase was not significant for higher intakes (Q4 and Q5). No association varied significantly by tumour aggressiveness (all p-homogeneity > 0.1). Prostate cancer risk was positively associated with %PPL SFA, largely attributable to palmitic acid and inversely associated with %PPL monounsaturated fatty acids, largely attributable to oleic acid. Higher risks were also observed for dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fats, primarily linoleic acid" - Note:  Olive oil is mostly oleic acid.

Omega-6
polyunsaturated
Omega-3
polyunsaturated
Omega-9
monounsaturated
LA - Linoleic Acid ALA or LNA - Alpha linolenic acid 18:3 (n-3) Oleic acid
GLA - Gamma linolenic acid EPA - Eicosapentaenoic acid
DGLA - Dihomo gamma-linolenic Acid DHA - Docosahexaenoic acid  
AA - Arachidonic Acid DPA (omega 3) - Docosapentaenoic acid
DTA - Docosatetraenoic acid    
DPA -  (omega 6) Docosapentaenoic

A combined natural supplement lowers LDL cholesterol in subjects with moderate untreated hypercholesterolemia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial - Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Jul 2 -"To investigate the effect of a natural cholesterol-lowering supplement (NCLS) containing red yeast rice, policosanols and artichoke leaf extracts on blood lipid concentrations as well as on safety parameters when given over 16 weeks in 100 volunteers with untreated moderate hypercholesterolemia ... The NCLS was effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia, without modifying safety parameters" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com, policosanol products at iHerb and artichoke products at iHerb.

Salt loading and potassium supplementation: effects on ambulatory arterial stiffness index and endothelin-1 levels in normotensive and mild hypertensive patients - J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2013 Jul;15(7):485-96 - "The authors investigated effects of excessive salt intake and potassium supplementation on ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in salt-sensitive and non-salt-sensitive individuals. AASI and symmetric AASI (s-AASI) were used as indicators of arterial stiffness. Plasma ET-1 levels were used as an index of endothelial function ... After 3 days of baseline investigation, participants were maintained sequentially for 7 days each on diets of low salt (51.3 mmol/d), high salt (307.7 mmol/d), and high salt+potassium (60 mmol/d) ... High-salt intervention significantly increased BP, AASI, s-AASI (all P<.001); potassium supplementation reversed increased plasma ET-1 levels. High-salt-induced changes in BP, s-AASI, and plasma ET-1 were greater in salt-sensitive individuals. Potassium supplementation decreased systolic BP and ET-1 to a significantly greater extent in salt-sensitive vs non-salt-sensitive individuals ... dietary salt and increasing daily potassium improves arterial compliance and ameliorates endothelial dysfunction" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.

Beyond fasting plasma glucose: The association between coronary heart disease risk and postprandial glucose, postprandial insulin and insulin resistance in healthy, nondiabetic adults - Metabolism. 2013 Jun 26 - "steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) ... the results demonstrated that the greater the 1) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration, 2) incremental plasma insulin response to meals, and 3) SSPG concentration, the more adverse the CHD risk profile ... In nondiabetic individuals, higher FPG concentrations, accentuated daylong incremental insulin responses to meals, and greater degrees of insulin resistance are each associated with worse CHD risk profile (higher blood pressures, higher triglycerides, and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations)"

The role of resistance and aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity measures in STZ-induced Type 1 diabetic rodents - Metabolism. 2013 Jun 27 - "Treadmill trained rats had the lowest insulin dose requirement of the T1DM rats and the greatest reduction in insulin dosage was evident in high intensity treadmill exercise"

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

Health Focus (Aromatization/Gynecomastia):

Related Topics:

Prescription aromatase inhibitors:

The Really Important Stuff:

  • Anastrozole (Arimidex) - anabolic-androgenic-steroids.com - "Anastrozole (Arimidex) is the aromatase inhibitor of choice ...With moderate doses of testosterone 0.5 mg/day is usually sufficient and in some cases may be too much" - Femara (letrozole) may not have been available at the time this article was written.
  • Chrysin: Is It An Effective Aromatase Inhibitor? - vrp.com - "Unfortunately, there does not appear to be any effective natural inhibitor of aromatase"
  • Aromatase Inhibition Offers Little Benefit, Possible Harm to Men With Lo... - Medscape, 12/22/09 - "The inescapable conclusion from these data is that the 50% increase in testosterone levels was trumped by the much more modest 20% reduction in estradiol levels, leading to negative skeletal effects of anastrozole therapy in aging men" - Note:  I'm not sure that thought this though thoroughly.  Mortally in men is best when estrogen is around 25pg/mL.  I suspect that most have higher estrogen than that.  See:

    • High, Low Estradiol Levels and Mortality in Men With Systolic HF - Medscape, 5/19/09 - "Both low and high serum levels of estradiol, compared with mid-range levels, are significantly and independently associated with increased all-cause mortality in men with chronic systolic heart failure"
      Serum Estradiol Concentration Quintiles as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in Men (With Quintile 3 as the Reference Group)
      Parameter Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
      Estradiol concentration (pg/mL) <12.903 12.90–21.79 21.80–30.11 30.12–37.39 >37.40
      3-y survival* (%) 44.6 65.8 82.4 79.0 63.6
      Quintile as mortality predictor,* HR (95% CI) vs quintile 3 4.17 (2.33–7.45) 2.15 (1.16–3.99) -- 1.22 (0.64–2.31) 2.33 (1.30–4.18)
      HR= hazard ratio
  • Letrozole once a week normalizes serum testosterone in obesity-related male hypogonadism - Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 May;158(5):741-7 - "Isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is frequently observed in severely obese men, probably as a result of increased estradiol (E(2)) production and E(2)-mediated negative feedback on pituitary LH secretion. Aromatase inhibitors can reverse this process ... treated with 2.5 mg letrozole once a week for 6 months ... Six weeks of treatment reduced total E(2) from 123+/-11 to 58+/-7 pmol/l (P<0.001, mean+/-s.e.m.), and increased serum LH from 4.4+/-0.6 to 11.1+/-1.5 U/l (P<0.001). Total testosterone rose from 5.9+/-0.5 to 19.6+/-1.4 nmol/l (P<0.001), and free testosterone from 163+/-13 to 604+/-50 pmol/l (P<0.001). Total testosterone rose to within the normal range in all subjects, whereas free testosterone rose to supraphysiological levels in 7 out of 12 men ... Letrozole 2.5 mg once a week produced a sustained normalization of serum total testosterone in obese men with IHH. However, free testosterone frequently rose to supraphysiological levels. Therefore, a starting dose <2.5 mg once a week is recommended" - See Femara (letrozole) at OffshoreRX.  I've been taking a quarter table a day but it sounds like that's way to much an a quarter tablet every other day might be best which comes to 2.5 mg every 8 days.  People complain about the hassle to get doctors to prescribe testosterone.  It sounds like letrozole will give you the same or better numbers without the hassle.  Plus testosterone replacement increases estrogen but letrozole has the advantage of decreasing it.  See my aromatization page.
  • Long-term Consequences of the Aromatase Inhibitors - Medscape, 11/16/05 - "The "short-term toxicities," such as vasomotor symptoms, venothromboemboli, and gynecologic complications, favor the use of AIs. However, long-term bone loss, altered lipid profiles, and possible compromise in sexual functioning appear to be adversely affected by the AIs"
  • Letrozole normalizes serum testosterone in severely obese men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism - Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 May;7(3):211-5 - "Six weeks of treatment decreased serum estradiol from 120 +/- 20 to 70 +/- 9 pmol/l (p = 0.006). None of the subjects developed an estradiol level of less than 40 pmol/l. LH increased from 4.5 +/- 0.8 to 14.8 +/- 2.3 U/l (p < 0.001). Total testosterone rose from 7.5 +/- 1.0 to 23.8 +/- 3.0 nmol/l (p < 0.001) without a concomitant change in sex hormone-binding globulin level. Those treated with Letrozole 17.5 mg per week had an excessive LH response" - Note:  A half tablet per day would be 8.75 mg/week.  I believe 40 pmol/l of estradiol is 11.54 pg/mL and the normal value for men is 10 to 52 pg/mL (Quest says 10 to 50).  The way I read that, testosterone tripled.  I take a half tablet a day of Femara (letrozole).  See Femara at International Anti-aging Systems or Letrozole at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Can Broccoli Prevent Lupus? - WebMD, 11/6/03 - "I3C is believed to act as an anti-estrogen ... I3C-fed mice had far fewer kidney problems than the mice whose diets were not supplemented, and researchers say this is the reason that they lived much longer. Kidney disease is one of the main, life-threatening complications of lupus" - See iHerb I3C products.
  • Why Testosterone Levels Decline  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "Clinical studies using testosterone injections, creams, or patches have often failed to provide a long-lasting, libido-enhancing effect in aging men (98). We now know why. The testosterone can be converted to estrogen. The estrogen is then taken up by testosterone receptor sites in cells throughout the body. When an estrogen molecule occupies a testosterone receptor site on a cell membrane, it blocks the ability of serum testosterone to induce a healthy hormonal signal. It does not matter how much serum free testosterone is available if excess estrogen is competing for the same cellular receptor sites"
  • Correcting A Hormone Imbalance  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "If all of the above fail to increase free testosterone and lower excess estradiol, then ask your doctor to prescribe the potent aromatase inhibiting drug Arimidex (anastrozole) in the very low dose of one-half (0.5 mg) mg, twice a week"
  • Androgel prescribing information - androgel.com - "Serum estradiol (E2) concentrations increased significantly within 30 days of starting treatment with AndroGel® 5 or 10 G/day and remained elevated throughout the treatment period but remained within the normal range for eugonadal men" - Yeah, but what if you are taking DHEA and what about testosterone/estrogen ratios.   See:
    • Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Jun;84(6):2170-6 - "Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone remained unchanged after DHEA administration. In contrast, 17beta-estradiol and estrone significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner to concentrations still within the upper normal range for men [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; AUC 0-12 h for 17beta-estradiol, 510 +/- 198 vs. 635 +/- 156 vs. 700 +/- 209 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001); AUC 0-12 h for estrone, 1443 +/- 269 vs. 2537 +/- 434 vs. 3254 +/- 671 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001)]"
  • Estrogen: The Unrecognized Male Hormone - IAS
  • Testosterone Deficiency & Depression, Does DHEA Raise the Levels of Bioavailable Testosterone in Men? - Life Extension Magazine, 8/02 - "Some men on testosterone drug replacement therapy develop dangerously high estrogen levels. Estrogen can be suppressed by taking an aromatase-inhibiting drug like Arimidex (0.5 mg twice a week) or using a supplement like Super Mira Forte (six capsules daily)" - See Arimidex at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens - J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Jun;84(6):2170-6 - "Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone remained unchanged after DHEA administration. In contrast, 17beta-estradiol and estrone significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner to concentrations still within the upper normal range for men [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; AUC 0-12 h for 17beta-estradiol, 510 +/- 198 vs. 635 +/- 156 vs. 700 +/- 209 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001); AUC 0-12 h for estrone, 1443 +/- 269 vs. 2537 +/- 434 vs. 3254 +/- 671 pmol/L x h (P < 0.0001)]" - That's a 40% increase in the bad estrogen!  On top of that, if you are taking testosterone, that increases estrogen also.
  • Aromatase Inhibition Corrects Endocrinopathy In Infertile Men - Doctor's Guide, 4/9/01 - "investigators found that men with severe infertility had significantly lower testosterone (328 versus 543 ng/dl) and significantly higher oestradiol (58.4 versus 43.5 ng/l) than the fertile controls. As a result, the infertile men had much lower testosterone-to-oestradiol ratios ... These abnormalities were corrected in the 45 men who received testolactone and their testosterone-to-oestradiol ratios rose into the normal range"
  • Evidence of a Treatable Endocrinopathy in Infertile Men - J. of Urology, 3/01 - "We identified an endocrinopathy in men with severe male factor infertility that is characterized by a decreased serum testosterone-to-estradiol ratio. This ratio can be corrected by aromatase inhibition, resulting in a significant improvement in semen parameters in oligospermic patients"
  • Replenish Testosterone Naturally - Life Extension Magazine, 1/00 - "Through a variety of mechanisms, aging men suffer from the dual effects of having too little testosterone and excess estrogen. The result is a testosterone/ estrogen imbalance that can severely inhibit sexual desire and performance ... Too much estrogen plays havoc with a man's sex life by binding to testosterone receptor sites and may contribute to the over-production of SHBG. SHBG binds free testosterone in a way that makes it unavailable to receptor sites in the brain, nerves and genitals."
  • Estrogen suppression in males: metabolic effects - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr;86(4):1836-8 - "First, a dose-response study of 12 males (mean age, 16.1 +/- 0.3 yr) was conducted, and blood withdrawn at baseline and after 10 days of oral Arimidex given as two different doses (either 0.5 or 1 mg) in random order with a 14-day washout in between. A sensitive estradiol (E2) assay showed an approximately 50% decrease in E2 concentrations with either of the two doses ... There was a 58% increase in serum T"
  • Male Hormone Modulation Therapy  - Life Extension Magazine, 11/99 - "One cause of hormone imbalance in men is that their testosterone is increasingly converted to estrogen. One report showed that estrogen levels of the average 54-year-old man are higher than those of the average 59-year-old woman . . . . High levels of estrogen have been implicated as a cause of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH"
  • Arimidex - Rxlist.com - "ARIMIDEX 1 mg, reduced estradiol by approximately 70% within 24 hours and by approximately 80% after 14 days of daily dosing"

News & Research:

  • Obesity may influence heart function through sex hormones - Science Daily, 4/27/13 - "suggests effects on heart function in healthy men with artificially raised estrogen levels and artificially lowered testosterone levels to mimic an obese state ... Estradiol, an estrogen, is primarily known as a female hormone but it also circulates at very low levels in men. Testosterone is converted to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase, the activity of which might be increased in obesity leading to raised estradiol and reduced testosterone ... The men with obesity-related changes in sex hormones exhibited altered heart function ... We found that after increasing the estrogen levels and decreasing the testosterone levels in men for one week the deformation of the left heart chamber was significantly altered"
  • The Inhibitory Effects of the Standardized Extracts of Ginkgo biloba on Aromatase Activity in JEG-3 Human Choriocarcinoma Cells - Phytother Res. 2013 Jan 21 - "There are many endocrine adjuvant therapies for breast cancer patients that are categorized according to their mechanisms. Among them, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) that block the synthesis of estrogens have proven superiority compared with tamoxifen and have replaced it as a first-line hormonal therapy. However, AIs also have limitations due to their side effects - increased rate of bone loss and musculoskeletal complaints ... The extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb), which contain phytochemicals from the tree, had biphasic effects for estrogens and osteoporosis-inhibiting activities in our previous experiments. In this study, we explored the possibility of EGb as an AI and their mechanisms. Aromatase activities were inhibited by EGb both in JEG-3 cells and in recombinant CYP19 microsomes ... From these results, we concluded that EGb could act as an AI at both the enzyme and transcriptional levels" - See Ginkgo biloba at Amazon.com.
  • Age Trends in Estradiol and Estrone Levels Measured Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Community-Dwelling Men of the Framingham Heart Study - J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012 Oct 25 - "Estrone was positively associated with smoking, BMI, and testosterone, and total and free estradiol with diabetes, BMI, testosterone, and comorbid conditions; additionally, free estradiol was associated negatively with smoking ... Men in the highest quintile of estrone levels had significantly higher age and BMI, and a higher prevalence of smoking, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than others, whereas those in the highest quintile of estradiol had higher BMI than others ... Total estrone and estradiol levels in men, measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealed significant age-related increases that were only partially accounted for by cross-sectional differences in BMI, diabetes status, and other comorbidities and health behaviors"
  • Higher endogenous estrogen levels in 70-year-old women and men: an endogenous response to counteract developing atherosclerosis? - Menopause. 2012 Sep 17 - "Low androgen levels, high aromatase enzyme activity (estrone [E1]/androstenedione and estradiol [E2]/testosterone), high E2/E1 ratio, and high estrogen levels (E1, E2, estriol, and E2/sex hormone-binding globulin) were consistently associated (often significantly) with a more unhealthy artery wall (thick intima, thin media, and high IMT ratio) in both sexes. Consistently strong associations were found between the aromatase index E2/testosterone and intima, media, and the IMT ratio. For IMT ratio, in both men (rs = 0.52) and women (rs = 0.58), P was <0.001 for both and remained significant after adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors and the Framingham risk score (both P < 0.01)" - Note:  I'm not a doctor but it seems like taking a quarter tablet of letrozole every second or third day as I'm doing would control this.  See letrozole at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Reducing the side effects of treatment for prostate cancer - Science Daily, 8/24/12 - "tamoxifen reduced the risk of both gynecomastia and breast pain at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment compared to men who received no treatment. Overall, treatment with tamoxifen was more successful in reducing breast symptoms than treatment with an aromatase inhibitor (anastrazole) or radiotherapy" - Note:  They left out Femara (letrozole).
  • Drugs for hair loss and benign prostatic hyperplasia may result in loss of libido, erectile dysfunction in men - Science Daily, 1/11/11 - "5a-reductase inhibitors (5a-RIs), while improving urinary symptoms in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and possible hair loss prevention, produces significant adverse effects in some individuals including loss of libido, erectile dysfunction (ED), ejaculatory dysfunction and potential depression" - Note:  That goes back and forth.  One study claimed that finasteride improved sex after after six months of taking it.  Regarding gynaecomastia, if you're taking low dose letrozole to increase testosterone and to prevent aromatization it many also help prevent gynaecomastia.
  • Sex Hormones and the Risk of Incident Prostate Cancer - Urology. 2010 May 6 - "Serum testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were assayed at baseline ... the mean age was 73 years. Higher serum estrone was strongly related to an increased risk of prostate cancer: compared with men in the lower quartile, the risk of prostate cancer among those in the highest 3 quartiles (>24.9 pg/dL) was nearly 4-fold higher (adjusted heart rate = 3.93, CI: 1.61-9.57). Other sex hormones were not associated with the risk of prostate cancer" - The following results for estrone are for women.   I didn't find any results for men but see the "For Aromatization (in males):" section on my letrozole page.
  • Aromatase Explains Why Testosterone Increases Breast Cancer Rate - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 May 12 - "All of this is consistent with the increase in breast cancer observed in postmenopausal women who had higher serum testosterone levels being due to the resulting increase in the local level of estradiol in the breast tissue"
  • Obesity Linked To Hormone Imbalance That Impacts Sexual Quality Of Life - Science Daily, 3/3/09 - "In our study population, we found that lower testosterone levels and diminished ratings for sexual quality of life were correlated with increased BMI ... Subjects who lost weight through bariatric surgery experienced a reduction in estradiol levels, an increase in testosterone levels and an increase in ratings of sexual quality of life" - Another way to increase testosterone and decrease estradiol is with letrozole.  I take a quarter tablet every other day.
  • Short-term aromatase inhibition: effects on glucose metabolism and serum leptin levels in young and elderly men - Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Dec 2 - "Ten elderly and nine young healthy men were randomized to receive letrozole 2.5 mg daily or placebo for 28 days in a crossover design. Results: Both in young and elderly men, active treatment significantly increased serum testosterone (+128 and +99%, resp.) and decreased estradiol levels (-41 and -62%, resp.). Fasting glucose and insulin levels decreased in young men after active intervention (-7 and -37%, resp.) compared to placebo. Leptin levels fell markedly in both age groups (-24 and -25%, resp.), while adiponectin levels were not affected by the intervention. Lipid profile was slightly impaired in both groups, with increasing LDL-cholesterol levels (+14%) in the younger age group and 10% lower levels of ApoA1 in the elderly. A decline in IGF-1 levels (-15%) was observed in the younger age group. No changes in weight or BMI were observed in either young or old men" - Note:  I take a quarter tablet of letrozole every other day to prevent aromatization.  See letrozole at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Sex Hormones Link To Heart Risk - Science Daily, 8/31/08 - "one of the sex hormones - estradiol - was associated positively with total cholesterol and negatively with HDL-cholesterol. Circulating concentrations of another sex hormone - estrone - showed strong positive associations with both total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol ... Thus, men with the highest concentrations of estrone and estradiol may have the highest level of cardiovascular risk as their levels of detrimental LDL-cholesterol are high whilst their cardio-protective HDL-cholesterol is low"
  • Letrozole suppresses plasma estradiol and estrone sulphate more completely than anastrozole in postmenopausal women with breast cancer - J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 1;26(10):1671-6 - "Letrozole reduces plasma E2 and E1S levels to a significantly greater extent than anastrozole" - See Femara (letrozole) at OffshoreRX.
  • Male Breast Enlargement May Be Common - WebMD, 9/19/07 - "Underlying the condition is an imbalance of estrogen and testosterone. When estrogen levels get too high, the breasts can begin to grow"
  • The red clover (Trifolium pratense) isoflavone biochanin A inhibits aromatase activity and expression - Br J Nutr. 2007 Aug 29;:1-8 - "Biochanin A is an isoflavone isolated from red clover (Trifolium pratense) ... Isoflavones resemble the structure of oestrogen, and display agonistic and antagonistic interactions with the oestrogen receptor. Overexposure of oestrogen is a major contributing factor in the development of breast cancer ... In the present study the effect of biochanin A on the gene regulation and enzyme activity of aromatase was investigated. By assaying MCF-7 cells stably transfected with CYP19, biochanin A inhibited aromatase activity and hampered cell growth attributing to the enzyme activity" - See red clover at Amazon.com.
  • Management of Gynaecomastia: An Update - Medscape, 8/7/07
  • Elevated Serum Estradiol Ups Stroke Risks - Physician's Weekly, 5/7/07 - "High levels of serum estradiol may increase the risk of stroke in elderly men"
  • High Estrogen Levels Associated With Dementia In Older Men; No Association Observed With Testosterone - Science Daily, 7/24/06 - "Levels of bioavailable testosterone were not associated with risk of cognitive decline and incident dementia," they report. "In contrast, higher levels of bioavailable estradiol were associated with an increased risk for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease." For each standard deviation increase in estradiol level, the risk for the disease went up by 25 percent" - I take a quarter tablet of Femara (OffshoreRx1.com) to keep estrogen low. - Ben
  • Drug Combination May Slow Male Breast Cancer Growth - Science Daily, 7/7/06
  • Five Years on Anastrozole Can Promote Progression to Osteoporosis - Medscape, 6/12/06 - "Women taking anastrozole also had about a 40% increased risk of fractures while on the study ... At 5 years, women taking anastrozole lost 6.1% of BMD at the hip and 7.2% at the spine ... women with a normal BMD at baseline did not develop osteoporosis" - It's something to think about for men taking anastrozole for aromatization.
  • Shrinking Male Breasts? - Dr. Weil, 4/12/06
  • Declining Estradiol Levels More Predictive of Fracture Risk Than Low Testosterone in Aging Men - Doctor's Guide, 10/8/04 - "While low levels of free testosterone are a predictor of hip-bone loss, declines in estradiol levels play a stronger role than testosterone"
  • New-Onset Depression Linked to Tamoxifen - Doctor's Guide, 5/25/03 - "Results show a rate of new-onset depression of 17.82% in the tamoxifen group and 14.34% in the no-tamoxifen group" - It seems like the same might be true for men taking tamoxifen to prevent aromatization.
  • Procedure Removes Excess Breast Fat In Men - TheSanDiegoChannel.com, 5/14/03
  • Several Options Available for Androgen Replacement Therapy - Doctor's Guide, 4/8/03 - "Side effects of exogenous androgen therapies are mood changes, polycythemia, gynecomastia, exacerbation of sleep apnea, and in some patients, acne"
  • I have read that Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) actually increases the activity of aromatase enzyme and that DIM does not - Life Extension Magazine, 3/01 - "In one study, men received I3C for one week; a profile of 13 estrogens was measured. The results were that I3C significantly increased the urinary excretion of C-2 estrogens. The urinary concentrations of nearly all other estrogen metabolites, including levels of estradiol, estrone, estriol and 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone, were lower after I3C treatment [J Natl Cancer Inst 1997 May 21;89(10):718-23]. On the other hand, studies have shown that DIM can actually induce aromatase activity with a two-fold increase [Toxicol Sci 2001 May;61(1):40-8]" - The following are the two references for that statement:
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