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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 3/13/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Sleep discovery could lead to therapies that improve memory - Science Daily, 3/11/13 - "A total of 49 men and women between the ages of 18 and 39 who were normal sleepers were given varying doses of zolpidem (Ambien) or sodium oxybate (Xyrem), and a placebo, allowing several days between doses to allow the pharmaceuticals to leave their bodies. Researchers monitored their sleep, measured sleepiness and mood after napping, and used several tests to evaluate their memory ... The researchers found that zolpidem significantly increased the density of sleep spindles and improved verbal memory consolidation"

New Optimism on Resveratrol - NYTimes.com, 3/11/13 - "Critics have suggested there were errors in the original experiments and that resveratrol did not in fact activate sirtuins directly. If so, resveratrol would lose much of its scientific interest because its link to the sirtuin would be unclear. But a new study led by David Sinclair of the Harvard Medical School, who in 2003 was a discoverer resveratrol’s role in activating sirtuins, found that resveratrol did indeed influence sirtuin directly, though in a more complicated way than previously thought ... This would explain why mice treated with resveratrol ran twice as far on a treadmill before collapsing from exhaustion as untreated mice" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Coffee and tea during pregnancy affect fetal growth - Science Daily, 3/11/13 - "study on 59,000 women in collaboration with the Norwegian Institute of Public Health ... The correlation between intake of caffeine and fetal growth was established even among women who followed the official recommendation that they limit caffeine consumption to 200 milligrams a day (two cups of coffee)"

New research shows that while niacin added to statin therapy increases HDL cholesterol levels it does not improve HDL functionality - Science Daily, 3/10/13 - "While two large clinical trials recently showed that adding niacin to statin therapy failed to improve clinical outcomes despite a significant increase in HDL-C levels, little is known about exactly why the increased HDL-C levels did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular events ... We performed a small trial to examine how niacin modulated a classic function of HDL, namely its ability to promote cholesterol removal from cells ... As expected, they saw a 29 percent increase in HDL cholesterol with the addition of niacin to statin therapy, compared to a two percent increase in those treated with statin only. However, on the measures of cholesterol efflux capacity and the HDL inflammatory index, they saw no significant changes in HDL function"

Length of DNA strands can predict life expectancy - Science Daily, 3/9/13 - "Our research shows that if we statistically adjust for age, patients with longer telomeres live longer, suggesting that telomere length is more than just a measure of age, but may also indicate the probability for survival. Longer telomere length directly correlate with the likelihood for a longer life -- even for patients with heart disease" - Note:  Wasn't that already obvious?

Anti-aging drug breakthrough - Science Daily, 3/8/13 - "Drugs that combat aging may be available within five years ... The target enzyme, SIRT1, is switched on naturally by calorie restriction and exercise, but it can also be enhanced through activators. The most common naturally-occurring activator is resveratrol, which is found in small quantities in red wine, but synthetic activators with much stronger activity are already being developed ... While any drug would be strictly prescribed for certain conditions, Professor Sinclair suggests that one day, they could be taken orally as a preventative ... overweight mice given synthetic resveratrol were able to run twice as far as slim mice and they lived 15 per cent longer" - Note:  They've been saying that five year thing ever since I've been reading health articles.  In the mean time, see resveratrol products at Amazon.com.

Processed meat 'early death' link - BBC News, 3/6/13 - "The study followed people from 10 European countries for nearly 13 years on average ... One in every 17 people followed in the study died. However, those eating more than 160g of processed meat a day - roughly two sausages and a slice of bacon - were 44% more likely to die over a typical follow-up time of 12.7 years than those eating about 20g"

Folate and vitamin B12 reduce disabling schizophrenia symptoms in some patients - Science Daily, 3/6/13 - "The symptoms of schizophrenia are complex, and antipsychotic medications provide no relief for some of the most disabling parts of the illness. These include negative symptoms, which can be particularly devastating ... Among all 140 participants in the study protocol, those receiving folate and vitamin B12 showed improvement in negative symptoms, but the degree of improvement was not statistically significant compared with the placebo group. But when the analysis accounted for the variants in the genes of interest, intake of the two nutrients did provide significant improvement in negative symptoms, chiefly reflecting the effects of specific variants in MTHFR and in a gene called FOLH1 ... Those with the low-functioning FOLH1 variant started the trial with substantially lower folate levels, suggesting a problem with folate absorption. Although supplementation enabled their blood folate levels to eventually catch up with those of participants with the high-functioning variant, it was probably too late to produce symptom improvement during the 16-week trial period ... For participants who did show a benefit, it took the full 16 weeks of treatment for that benefit to appear"

Citicoline May Improve Memory, Decrease Cognitive Decline - Medscape, 3/5/13 - "The study examined 349 patients older than 64 years from 6 regions in Italy who had memory complaints and evidence of vascular lesions — but who did not have probable Alzheimer's disease ... the participants who received citicoline had significantly better memory scores, as shown on the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), up to 9 months after treatment compared with their counterparts who did not receive the treatment ... Of the 349 study participants, 265 received 500 mg of oral citicoline twice daily" - See citicholine at Amazon.com.

Green tea extract interferes with the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 3/5/13 - "The aggregation of these proteins, called metal-associated amyloids, is associated with Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions ... Lim and an interdisciplinary team of researchers used green tea extract to control the generation of metal-associated amyloid-β aggregates associated with Alzheimer's disease in the lab ... The specific molecule in green tea, ( -- )-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also known as EGCG, prevented aggregate formation and broke down existing aggregate structures in the proteins that contained metals -- specifically copper, iron and zinc" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

Pomegranate Polyphenols and Extract Inhibit Nuclear Factor of Activated T-Cell Activity and Microglial Activation In Vitro and in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease - J Nutr. 2013 Mar 6 - "Alzheimer disease (AD) brain is characterized by extracellular plaques of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide with reactive microglia ... Three months of pomegranate feeding decreased the path length to escape of mice compared with their initial 12-mo values (P < 0.05) and their control-fed counterparts (P < 0.05). Brains of the 3-mo study pomegranate-fed mice had lower tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) concentrations (P < 0.05) and lower nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) transcriptional activity (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Brains of the 3-mo pomegranate or control mice were also compared with an additional control group of 12-mo-old mice for histologic analysis. Immunocytochemistry showed that pomegranate- but not control-fed mice had attenuated microgliosis (P < 0.05) and Aβ plaque deposition (P < 0.05) compared with 12-mo-old mice ... These data indicate that dietary pomegranate produces brain antiinflammatory effects that may attenuate AD progression" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.

Both total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin are independent risk factors of metabolic syndrome: results from Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination Survey in China - Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2013 Mar 6 - "Men with MetS had a lower level of TT, BT, FT or SHBG than those without MetS (all p < 0.001). Both TT and SHBG were inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (all age-adjusted p < 0.001). Men within the lowest quartile of TT (OR = 4.86, 95%CI = 2.72-8.68), BT (OR = 3.04, 95%CI = 1.81-5.10), FT (OR = 3.08, 95%CI = 1.81-5.27) or SHBG (OR = 4.28, 95%CI = 2.52-7.27) had a risk of MetS after adjusting for age, smoking, HOMA-IR and BMI. TT remained inversely associated with MetS after further adjusting for SHBG (OR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.92-0.99), while SHBG remained inversely associated with MetS after further adjusting for TT (OR = 0.99, 95%CI = 0.97-1.00)"

Low dose chromium-polynicotinate or policosanol is effective in hypercholesterolemic children only in combination with glucomannan - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Feb 13 - "Glucomannan (GM) is a natural fiber that has been demonstrated to lower total and LDL-cholesterol. The use of high-dose chromium-polynicotinate (CP) and policosanol (PC) has also shown cholesterol-lowering benefits ... GM combination of low-dose CP or PC reduced CholT and LDL without changing HDL, TG and FBG. The highest post-treatment changes were seen after GM combination with CP (CholT 85 +/- 3% and LDL 85 +/- 5%, of pretreatment) which was significantly (p < 0.01) less than with low-dose CP or PC and starch" - See glucomannan products at iHerb, chromium supplements at Amazon.com and policosanol products at iHerb.

High Intake of Dietary Long-Chain ω-3 Fatty Acids Is Associated With Lower Blood Pressure in Children Born With Low Birth Weight: NHANES 2003-2008 - Hypertension. 2013 Mar 4 - "Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure ... In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4])" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Selenium is inversely associated with interleukin-6 in the elderly - J Nutr Health Aging. 2013;17(3):280-4 - "A total of 336 subjects aged 65 years and older (range of age: 65 - 101 years) were recruited from eight long-term care facilities in 2002-2003 ... Selenium deficiency was defined as serum selenium concentration < 80 μg/L ... The prevalence of selenium deficiency was 35.6% in men and 43.2% in women, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders using multiple logistic regression analysis, interleukin-6 quartiles were significantly associated with selenium deficiency. Compared to the interleukin-6 quartile I, the adjusted odds ratios of having selenium deficiency for interleukin-6 quartile II, III, IV were 1.00(0.50~2.01), 1.24 (0.62~2.50), and 2.35(1.15~4.83), respectively" - See se-methylselenocysteine at Amazon.com.

Health Focus (Colon Cancer):

Alternative News:

  • Dietary total antioxidant capacity and colorectal cancer: A large case-control study in Italy - Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 27 - "A reproducible and valid food frequency questionnaire was used to assess subjects' usual diet. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using Italian food composition tables in terms of FRAP (Ferric Reducing-Antioxidant Power), TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity), and TRAP (Total Radical-trapping Antioxidant Parameter) ... TAC was inversely related with colorectal cancer risk: the OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82) for FRAP, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TEAC, and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TRAP. Corresponding values, excluding TAC deriving by coffee, were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for FRAP, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for TEAC, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for TRAP" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Grape seed extract triggers apoptosis in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells through reactive oxygen species and calcium increase: extracellular signal-regulated kinase involvement - Br J Nutr. 2013 Feb 25:1-13 - "These data suggested that GSE triggers a previously unrecognised ERK-based mechanism, involving both ROS production and intracellular Ca2+ increase, eventually leading to apoptosis in cancer cells" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Carotenoid intake and risk of colorectal adenomas in a cohort of male health professionals - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Feb 1 - "Among 29,363 men who reported having a lower bowel endoscopy between 1986 and 2006, 3,997 cases of colorectal adenoma were identified in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Participants completed food frequency questionnaires every 4 years ... Total β-carotene and dietary β-carotene, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin intakes and the total carotenoid score were inversely associated with colorectal adenoma risk. The odds ratios (95 % confidence intervals) comparing the highest versus lowest quintile of intake were 0.78 (0.69-0.88) for total β-carotene, 0.72 (0.64-0.81) for dietary β-carotene, 0.83 (0.74-0.93) for lycopene, 0.86 (0.76-0.96) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 0.87 (0.77-0.97) for the total carotenoid score. Associations for α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin intakes were null" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • As colorectal cancer gets more aggressive, treatment with grape seed extract is even more effective, study shows - Science Daily, 1/16/13 - "the more GSE inhibits their growth and survival. On the other end of the disease spectrum, GSE leaves healthy cells alone entirely ... We've known for quite a while that the bioactive compounds in grape seed extract selectively target many types of cancer cells. This study shows that many of the same mutations that allow colorectal cancer cells to metastasize and survive traditional therapies make them especially sensitive to treatment with GSE ... 60 percent of patients diagnosed have already reached the advanced stage of the disease" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • B vitamin intakes and incidence of colorectal cancer: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec 19 - "Women's Health Initiative Observational Study ... Vitamin B-6 and riboflavin intakes from diet and supplements were associated with a decreased risk of CRC in postmenopausal women. Associations of B vitamin intake were particularly strong for regional disease and among women drinkers who consumed alcohol infrequently. Our study provides new evidence that the increased folate intake during the early postfortification period may have been associated with a transient increase in CRC risk"
  • Selenium and colorectal adenomas risk: a meta-analysis - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Nov;64(8):1153-9 - "Selenium, as an important component of some antioxidants, has been suggested to have protective effects against colorectal adenomas. This meta-analysis examined the association between selenium level in blood and risk of colorectal adenomas. Data from 7 studies (3 cross-sectional studies, 3 case-control studies, 1 nested case-control study) published before December 2011 was included in this meta-analysis ... There was a significant inverse correlation between selenium level and colorectal adenomas risk according to fixed-effects model. The overall OR of highest selenium level to lowest for colorectal adenomas is 0.67 (95% CI: 0.55-0.81)" - See se-methylselenocysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Studies on the chemopreventive effect of carnitine on tumorigenesis in vivo, using two experimental murine models of colon cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Nov;64(8):1279-87 - "Carnitine supplementation resulted in significantly increased tissue carnitine and acylcarnitine levels. Carnitine inhibited the development of precancerous lesions and macroscopic colonic tumors in AOM-treated mice" - See carnitine products at iHerb.
  • Starchy, high carbohydrate diet associated with recurrence of colon cancer - Science Daily, 11/7/12 - "Recent studies have shown that colorectal cancer survivors whose diet and activity patterns lead to excess amounts of insulin in the blood have a higher risk of cancer recurrence and death from the disease. High insulin levels can be produced by eating too many starchy and sugar-laden foods ... They found that participants with the highest dietary levels of glycemic load and carbohydrate intake had an 80 percent increased risk of colon cancer recurrence or death compared with those who had the lowest levels ... we theorize that factors including a high glycemic load may stimulate the body's production of insulin"
  • Green tea found to reduce rate of some GI cancers - Science Daily, 10/31/12 - "the investigators surveyed women enrolled in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based study of approximately 75,000 middle-aged and older Chinese women ... regular tea consumption, defined as tea consumption at least three times a week for more than six months, was associated with a 17 percent reduced risk of all digestive cancers combined. A further reduction in risk was found to be associated with an increased level of tea drinking. Specifically, those who consumed about two to three cups per day (at least 150 grams of tea per month) had a 21 percent reduced risk of digestive system cancers ... For all digestive system cancers combined, the risk was reduced by 27 percent among women who had been drinking tea regularly for at least 20 years ... For colorectal cancer, risk was reduced by 29 percent among the long-term tea drinkers. These results suggest long-term cumulative exposure may be particularly important ... Tea contains polyphenols or natural chemicals that include catechins like EGCG and ECG. Catechins have antioxidant properties and may inhibit cancer by reducing DNA damage and blocking tumor cell growth and invasion" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Prospective cohort study of tea consumption and risk of digestive system cancers: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 10 - "We used the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese women who were recruited in 1996-2000 ... In comparison with women who never drank tea, regular tea intake (mostly green tea) was associated with reduced risk of all digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98), and the reduction in risk increased as the amount and years of tea consumption increased (P-trend = 0.01 and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). For example, women who consumed ≥150 g tea/mo (~2-3 cups/d) had a 21% reduced risk of digestive system cancers combined (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.99). The inverse association was found primarily for colorectal and stomach/esophageal cancers" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary and Supplemental Folate and the Risk of Left- and Right-Sided Colorectal Cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Oct 4 - "Epidemiological evidence suggests that folate may lower the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) although studies have been inconsistent and some have indicated differences in the effects of naturally occurring dietary folate and the synthetic form of this vitamin, folic acid. Most studies to date have considered CRC as a single disease; however, cancers that develop on the left and right sides of the colorectum display important phenotypic differences, suggesting they may also have different risk factors. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Western Australia to examine the relationship between intake of both natural dietary folate and supplements containing folic acid and the risk of left- and right-sided CRC ... There was no association between natural dietary folate intake and risk of either left-or right-sided CRC. Supplement use similarly had no significant effect on right-sided CRC. However, long-term supplement users (4+ yr) were at lower risk of left-sided CRC than those who had not taken supplements (OR = 0.65, 95% CI, 0.50-0.86) and there was a significant trend in risk reduction as duration of use increased" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct 3 - "We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of magnesium intake in relation to CRC risk ... On the basis of the findings of this meta-analysis, a higher magnesium intake seems to be associated with a modest reduction in the risk of CRC, in particular, colon cancer" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • New study sheds light on cancer-protective properties of milk - Science Daily, 10/3/12 - "lactoferricin4-14 (Lfcin4-14), a milk protein with known health effects, significantly reduces the growth rate of colon cancer cells over time by prolonging the period of the cell cycle before chromosomes are replicated. In a new study, investigators report that treatment with Lfcin4-14 reduced DNA damage in colon cancer cells exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light ... Our data suggest that the effects of Lfcin4-14 in prolonging the cell cycle may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of milk"
  • Magnesium intake and colorectal tumor risk: a case-control study and meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug 1 - "Dietary magnesium might be related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation ... A case-control study on colorectal adenomas (768 cases; 709 polyp-free control subjects) and a meta-analysis of colorectal adenomas (3 case-control studies) and carcinomas (6 prospective cohort studies) were conducted. Dietary magnesium was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires in the case-control study and most studies in the meta-analyses ... The case-control study showed a nonsignificant inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of colorectal adenomas (OR for every 100-mg/d increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.06). However, inverse associations were observed only in subjects with BMI (in kg/m(2)) ≥25, in subjects aged ≥55 y, and for advanced adenomas. Associations did not vary by the calcium-to-magnesium intake ratio. In the meta-analysis, every 100-mg/d increase in magnesium intake was associated with 13% lower risk of colorectal adenomas (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) and 12% lower risk of colorectal cancer (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97)" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Diabetes, metformin use, and colon cancer: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan - Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Jul 9 - "Even though diabetes patients had a significantly higher probability of receiving examinations that could lead to the detection of colon cancer, they had a significantly higher risk (24%) of this cancer after adjustment. Metformin users had a significantly lower risk (27%) of colon cancer. While comparing patients with diabetes for <1, 1-3, and ≥3 years to non-diabetes individuals, the adjusted relative risk (95% confidence interval) was 1.308 (1.020-1.679), 1.087 (0.900-1.313), and 1.185 (1.055-1.330), respectively. The higher risk among those with diabetes for <1 year suggested a possible reverse causality or a link with prediabetes. However, diabetes still might play some role in colon cancer development among those with diabetes for ≥3 years. The duration of metformin use showed an inverse trend, with a significant relative risk of 0.643 (0.490-0.845) in users for ≥3 years, when compared to non-users. In addition, metformin may reduce colon cancer risk associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (a surrogate for smoking)" - See metformin at IAS.
  • The Synergistic Apoptotic Interaction of Panaxadiol and Epigallocatechin Gallate in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells - Phytother Res. 2012 May 8 - "Panaxadiol (PD) is a purified sapogenin of ginseng saponins, which exhibits anticancer activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major catechin in green tea, is a strong botanical antioxidant ... Cell growth was suppressed after treatment with PD (10 and 20 µm) for 48 h. When PD (10 and 20 µm) was combined with EGCG (10, 20, and 30 µm), significantly enhanced antiproliferative effects were observed in both cell lines. Combining 20 µm of PD with 20 and 30 µm of EGCG significantly decreased S-phase fractions of cells. In the apoptotic assay, the combination of PD and EGCG significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells compared with PD alone (p < 0.01). The synergistic apoptotic effects were also supported by docking analysis, which demonstrated that PD and EGCG bound in two different sites of the annexin V protein. Data from this study suggested that apoptosis might play an important role in the EGCG-enhanced antiproliferative effects of PD on human colorectal cancer cells" - See ginseng at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • The Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inhibits Mouse MC-26 Colorectal Cancer Cell Liver Metastasis Via Inhibition Of Prostaglandin E(2) -Dependent Cell Motility - Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Feb 2 - "Treatment with 5% (w/w) EPA-FFA was associated with a reduced MC-26 mouse CRC cell liver tumour burden compared with control animals (median liver weight 1.62g versus 1.03g; P < 0.034). Administration of 5% EPA-FFA was also linked to a significant increase in tumour EPA incorporation and lower intra-tumoral PGE(2) levels (with concomitant increased production of PGE(3) ). Liver tumours from 5% EPA-FFA treated mice demonstrated decreased bromodeoxyuridine-positive CRC cell proliferation and reduced phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 expression at the invasive edge of tumours. A concentration-dependent reduction in MC-26 CRC cell Transwell® migration following EPA-FFA treatment (50-200µM) in vitro was rescued by exogenous PGE(2) (10µM) and PGE(1) -alcohol (1µM). Conclusions:  EPA-FFA inhibits MC-26 CRC cell liver metastasis. EPA incorporation is associated with a 'PGE(2) to PGE(3) switch' in liver tumours. Inhibition of PGE(2) -EP4 receptor-dependent CRC cell motility likely contributes to the anti-neoplastic activity of EPA" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Regular use of vitamin and mineral supplements could reduce the risk of colon cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 2/3/12 - "Rats fed a high-fat plus low-fibre diet and exposed to carcinogens developed pre-cancerous lesions; whereas, rats undergoing similar treatment, but provided with daily multivitamin and mineral supplements, showed a significant (84%) reduction in the formation of pre-cancerous lesions and did not develop tumours ... The authors conclude that "multivitamin and mineral supplements synergistically contribute to the cancer chemopreventative potential"
  • Fish Oil Supplement Alters Markers of Inflammatory and Nutritional Status in Colorectal Cancer Patients - Nutr Cancer. 2012 Feb 1 - "The supplemented group (SG) consumed 2 g of fish oil containing 600 milligrams of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for 9 wk ... Patients supplemented with fish oil (SG) showed a clinically relevant decrease in the C-reactive protein/albumin relation (P = 0.005). Low doses of fish oil supplement can positively modulate the nutritional status and the C-reative protein/albumin ratio" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary intake of PUFAs and colorectal polyp risk - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 25 - "n-6 PUFAs were not associated with adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps in either men or women. Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs were associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenomas in women only, with an adjusted OR of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.97) for the highest quintile of intake compared with the lowest quintile of intake (P-trend = 0.01). Dietary intake of α-linolenic acid was associated with an increased risk of hyperplastic polyps in men (P-trend = 0.03), which was not seen in women" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Preoperative Probiotics Decrease Postoperative Infectious Complications of Colorectal Cancer - Am J Med Sci. 2011 Dec 23 - "The preoperative oral bifid triple viable probiotics minimize the postoperative occurrence of infectious complications, with possible mechanisms attributed to the maintenance of the intestinal flora and restriction of bacterial translocation from the intestine. It was representative of the enhancement of systemic/localized immunity and concurrent attenuation of systemic stress response" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Repeated measurements of serum carotenoid, retinol and tocopherol levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec 14 - "Previous cohort studies examining the association of serum antioxidant levels and risk of colorectal cancer have used a single (baseline) measurement only. In the present study, we assessed the association of serum levels of eight antioxidant nutrients in relation to risk of colorectal cancer, using repeated measurements ... Serum antioxidants measured at baseline generally showed no association with risk of colorectal cancer, although serum β-carotene at baseline showed a non-significant inverse association with colon cancer alone. Furthermore, using the repeated measurements of β-carotene, the average of all measurements was inversely associated with risk of both colorectal and colon cancer: HRs for highest vs lowest tertile 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.96, and 0.47, 95% CI 0.25-0.88, respectively. No associations were seen with other antioxidant nutrients in the repeated measure analyses" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • High-Fiber Diet Linked to Lower Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 11/11/11 - "Total fiber intake, as well as fiber from whole grains and from cereals, was most strongly linked with a reduction in colorectal cancer risk ... The evidence was weaker for fiber from fruits, vegetables, and legumes"
  • Health risk from eating well-done meat may be underestimated - Science Daily, 11/1/11 - "the incidence of intestinal tumours increased from 31 per cent to 80 per cent in "human-like" mice who consumed substances from meat crust (i.e. the surface formed during heat-treatment) ... Heat-processing of food can lead to the formation of carcinogenic substances. The formation of carcinogenic substances -- so-called food mutagens -- usually occurs at high temperatures when frying or grilling"
  • Dietary patterns may be linked to increased colorectal cancer risk in women - Science Daily, 10/24/11 - "High red meat intake, fish intake, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, but low coffee, whole grains and high-fat dairy intake, when taken as a whole, seemed to be associated with higher levels of C-peptide in the blood ... C-peptide is a marker of insulin secretion that can be measured in a person's blood. High levels of insulin may promote cell growth and multiplication. One of the major characteristics of cancer is aberrant cell growth. Higher levels of C-peptide, and therefore insulin, may promote cancer cell growth ... Colon cancer seems to be one of the cancers that are sensitive to insulin ... women who most often consumed high amounts of red meat, fish and sugar-sweetened beverages and low amounts of high-fat dairy, coffee and whole grains had a 35 percent increased risk for colorectal cancer"
  • Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue - Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep 30:1-12 - "Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50.3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465.5 (sem 1290.4) v. 4950.9 (sem 1689.3) mm3, P < 0.001)" - See probiotics at Amazon.com.
  • Low-Dose Dietary Resveratrol Has Differential Effects on Colorectal Tumorigenesis in Adiponectin Knockout and Wild-Type Mice - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Sep 29 - "Obesity is associated with a decrease in the antiinflammatory hormone, adiponectin, and increases in the circulating concentrations of multiple proinflammatory cytokines. These changes contribute to colon tumorigenesis. Resveratrol increases adiponectin production in adipocytes and attenuates the development of colon cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that adiponectin is an integral component of the mechanism by which resveratrol antagonizes colorectal tumorigenesis. To investigate this, we induced tumorigenesis in adiponectin knockout (KO) and wild-type (Wt) C57BL/6 mice through combined azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate treatment during which mice were fed a high-fat, lard-based diet, or the same diet containing 20 mg/kg resveratrol. After 14 wk on diet, Wt mice gained more weight and, on a percentage basis, had higher fat mass and lower lean mass than KO mice. Resveratrol tended to attenuate this response in male Wt mice. Resveratrol also tended to reduce aberrant crypt foci development and decrease circulating interleukin 6 and insulin concentrations in male but not female Wt mice. Taken together, resveratrol improved overall health of obese Wt but not KO mice as hypothesized with a differential sex response" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibitory effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene on human colon cancer cells: a side by side comparison - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Sep 20 - "Cell viability tests indicated that IC50s of pterostilbene were 2~5-fold lower than those of resveratrol in all three cancer cells. Pterostilbene was also more potent in inhibiting colony formation of all three cancer cells. Annexin V/Propidium Iodide (PI) co-staining assay and western blotting analysis showed pterostilbene had stronger apoptosis-inducing effects, which was evidenced by the higher percentage of annexin V positive cells and higher levels of cleaved caspae-3 and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins in cancer cells treated with pterostilbene than resveratrol. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis demonstrated that intracellular levels of pterostilbene were 2~4-fold higher than those of resveratrol after treatments with individual compounds at the same concentration. Overall, our results demonstrated that pterostilbene had more potent inhibitory effects on colon cancer cells than resveratrol, which may be associated with the superior bioavailability of pterostilbene to resveratrol" - See pterostilbene at Amazon.com.
  • The effects of metformin on the survival of colorectal cancer patients with diabetes mellitus - Int J Cancer. 2011 Sep 12 - "Metformin use has been associated with decreased cancer risk and mortality ... We identified 595 patients who were diagnosed both CRC and diabetes mellitus. Patients were compared by two groups; 258 diabetic patients taking metformin and 337 diabetic patients not taking metformin ... After a median follow-up of 41 months, there were 71 total deaths (27.5%) and 55 CRC-specific deaths (21.3%) among 258 patients who used metformin, compared with 136 total deaths (40.4%) and 104 CRC-specific deaths (30.9%) among 337 patients who did not use metformin. Metformin use was associated with decreased overall mortality (P=0.018) and CRC-specific mortality (P=0.042) by univariate analysis. After adjustment for clinically relevant factors, metformin use showed lower risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.084-1.934; P=0.016) and CRC-specific mortality (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.026-2.061; P=0.035) in CRC patients with diabetes. Metformin use in CRC patients with diabetes is associated with lower risk of CRC-specific and overall mortality" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Association Between Vitamin D and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review of Prospective Studies - J Clin Oncol. 2011 Aug 29 - "Relevant studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases before October 2010 with no restrictions ... The pooled RRs of colorectal cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.96) and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80), respectively. There was no heterogeneity among studies of vitamin D intake (P = .19) or among studies of blood 25(OH)D levels (P = .96). A 10 ng/mL increment in blood 25(OH)D level conferred an RR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.89) ... Vitamin D intake and blood 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in this meta-analysis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Confirmation that vitamin D acts as a protective agent against the advance of colon cancer - Science Daily, 8/16/11 - "A study conducted by VHIO researchers confirms that a lack of vitamin D increases the aggressiveness of colon cancer ... In light of these findings, chronic vitamin D deficiency represents a risk factor in the development of more aggressive colon tumours. Patients in the initial stages of colon cancer, the time when the VDR still has a substantial presence in the cells, could benefit from being treated with vitamin D3. However, this would not be useful in the advanced stages of the disease when the presence of the VDR is very much reduced" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Cooked Green Vegetables, Dried Fruit, Legumes, and Brown Rice Associated With Fewer Colon Polyps - Science Daily, 8/2/11 - "Eating legumes at least three times a week and brown rice at least once a week was linked to a reduced risk of colon polyps by 33 percent and 40 percent respectively ... Results also show that consuming cooked green vegetables once a day or more, as compared to less than five times a week, was associated with a 24 percent reduction in the risk of rectal/colon polyps. Consuming dried fruit three times a week or more, versus less than once a week, was associated with a 26 percent reduced risk"
  • S-allylmercaptocysteine effectively inhibits the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells under in vitro and in vivo conditions - Cancer Lett. 2011 Jun 30 - "S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), one of the water-soluble organosulfur garlic derivatives, has been demonstrated as a suppressive agent against some tumors. The effects of SAMC on the proliferation and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) under in vitro and in vivo conditions were evaluated here. The viabilities and migrations of CRC cells SW480, SW620, Caco-2 treated with SAMC were measured by MTT, scratch-wound, and transwell assays. The in vivo anticancer effect of SAMC against luciferase-expressing SW620 xenografts in mice was determined by bioluminescence imaging and histopathology observation. The apoptosis of SAMC-treated CRC cells was examined by Western blotting. The results demonstrate that SAMC could effectively suppress the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. The anticancer effect of SAMC was related to the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis as well as necrosis of cancer cells. Oral administration of SAMC in the quantity/concentration used had no apparent toxic side effect on the vital organs of the experimental mice. Taken together, the proliferation and metastasis of CRC cells can be significantly suppressed by SAMC treatment under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. SAMC may thus be a promising candidate for CRC chemotherapy" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Colon cleansing has no benefit but many side effects including vomiting and death, doctors say - Science Daily, 8/1/11 - "while these reports show little evidence of benefit, there is an abundance of studies noting side effects following the use of cleansing products including cramping, bloating, nausea, vomiting, electrolyte imbalance and renal failure ... Some herbal preparations have also been associated with aplastic anemia and liver toxicity ... organizations such as the National Board for Colon Hydrotherapy and others who promote colon cleansing require hygienists to have little more than a high school diploma"
  • High folate intake may reduce risk of colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 7/5/11 - "We found that all forms and sources of folate were associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer ... A research team investigated the association between folate intake and colorectal cancer among 99,523 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort; a total of 1,023 participants were diagnosed with colorectal cancer between 1999 and 2007 ... The study also addressed concerns that the intake of high levels of folate frequently consumed in the U.S. -- as a result of the recent increase in the use of folate-containing supplements and mandatory folate fortification of food -- may actually increase risk of cancer. No increased risk of colorectal cancer was found for the highest intake levels, suggesting that the high levels of this vitamin Consumed by significant numbers of Americans should not lead to increased incidence rates of this cancer in the population" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Boswellic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human colorectal cancer in orthotopic mouse model by downregulating inflammatory, proliferative, invasive, and angiogenic biomarkers - Int J Cancer. 2011 Jun 23 - "We found that the oral administration of AKBA (50-200 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited the growth of CRC tumors in mice, resulting in decrease in tumor volumes than those seen in vehicle-treated mice without significant decreases in body weight. In addition, we observed that AKBA was highly effective in suppressing ascites and distant metastasis to the liver, lungs, and spleen in orthotopically-implanted tumors in nude mice. When examined for the mechanism, we found that markers of tumor proliferation index Ki-67 and the microvessel density CD31; were significantly downregulated by AKBA treatment. We also found that AKBA significantly suppressed NF-κB activation in the tumor tissue and expression of pro-inflammatory (COX2), tumor survival (bcl-2, bcl-xL, IAP-1, survivin), proliferative (cyclin D1), invasive (ICAM-1, MMP-9) and angiogenic (CXCR4 and VEGF) biomarkers. When examined for serum and tissue levels of AKBA, a dose-dependent increase in the levels of the drug was detected, indicating its bioavailability. Thus, our findings suggest that this boswellic acid analogue can inhibit the growth and metastasis of human CRC in vivo through downregulation of cancer-associated biomarkers" - See boswellia at Amazon.com.
  • Strong Evidence Links Meat to Higher Risk for Colon Cancer - Medscape, 5/30/11 - "For red and processed meat, the findings from 10 new studies were added to the 14 studies that were evaluated in the 2007 report. From these 24 studies, the panel confirmed that there is convincing evidence that both red and processed meat can increase the risk for colorectal cancer ... The WCRF/AICR recommend that the consumption of red meat be limited to 500 g/week, which is roughly the equivalent of 5 or 6 medium portions of beef, lamb, or pork. They also recommend that processed meat be avoided ... According to their data, if 3.5 ounces of red meat are consumed every day (24.5 ounces per week), the risk for colorectal cancer will be 17% higher than if no red meat is consumed. If the amount of red meat consumed is doubled (7.0 ounces every day; 49 ounces per week), the risk is 34% higher. However, the evidence found that there was very little increase in risk for individuals who ate less than 18 ounces of red meat per week ... The cancer risk associated with processed meat, which includes ham, bacon, pastrami, hot dogs, and sausages, was much higher. Consuming 3.5 ounces every day (24.5 ounces per week) was associated with a risk that is 36% higher than the risk of consuming no processed meat. As with red meat, the higher the rate of consumption, the higher the risk for colorectal cancer"
  • Yogurt consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in the italian EPIC cohort - Int J Cancer. 2011 May 23 - "Yogurt intake was inversely associated with CRC risk. For the energy-adjusted model, HR for CRC in the highest vs. lowest tertile of yogurt intake was 0.62 (95%CI, 0.46-0.83). In the full model adjusted for energy, simple sugar, calcium, fiber, animal fat, alcohol, and red meat intake, as well as body mass index, smoking, education and physical activity, HR was 0.65 (95%CI, 0.48-0.89) in the highest vs. lowest tertile. The protective effect of yogurt was evident in the entire cohort, but was stronger in men, although there was no interaction of sex with the yogurt-CRC association (P-interaction 0.20, fully-adjusted model). In this prospective study, high yogurt intake was significantly associated with decreased CRC risk, suggesting that yogurt should be part of a diet to prevent the disease" - Note:  I started a web page on just yoghurt instead of putting the yoghurt articles on my Pro-biotics page.  I also put my yoghurt recipe there.  I nearly live on that stuff because I have trouble swallowing after my neck cancer surgery six and a half years ago.
  • Folic acid supplementation not associated with colon cancer: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 5/9/11 - "New research analysing data from the three largest trials of folic acid and the risk of colon cancer has suggested that supplementation has no effect on the risk of developing the disease ... Interestingly, we observed a potential beneficial effect of folic acid supplements on overall mortality" - [Abstract]
  • Foods and Food Groups Associated With the Incidence of Colorectal Polyps: The Adventist Health Study - Nutr Cancer. 2011 May 4:1 - "Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The majority of CRC arise in adenomatous polyps and 25-35% of colon adenoma risk could be avoidable by modifying diet and lifestyle habits ... Multivariate analysis adjusted by age, sex, body mass index, and education showed a protective association with higher frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables (OR 1 time/d vs. <5/wk = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97) and dried fruit (OR 3+ times/wk vs. <1 time/wk = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.58-0.99). Consumption of legumes at least 3 times/wk reduced the risk by 33% after adjusting for meat intake. Consumption of brown rice at least 1 time/wk reduced the risk by 40%. These associations showed a dose-response effect. High frequency of consumption of cooked green vegetables, dried fruit, legumes, and brown rice was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal polyps"
  • Canola oil protects against colon cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 4/19/11 - "canola oil inhibited the average number of tumors per rat by 58 percent compared to one of the other two control diets in the experiment, and inhibited the size of the tumors that occurred by 90 percent ... canola oil inhibited the average number of tumors per rat by 58 percent compared to one of the other two control diets in the experiment, and inhibited the size of the tumors that occurred by 90 percent ... studies have indicated that if consumers use canola as household cooking oil, it could push their ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 fatty acids to about 3 to 1. That's very desirable. Humans need Omega-6 fatty acids, too, but they typically consume way too much of them in countries such as the United States ... It should be less than 4 to 1. But in a typical American diet, when we use other oil and butter, our ratio is 10 to 1 or higher. We consume a lot more Omega-6 than Omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Vitamin D Status in Patients With Stage IV Colorectal Cancer: Findings From Intergroup Trial N9741 - J Clin Oncol. 2011 Mar 21 - "Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among patients with stage IV colorectal cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy, particularly in black and female patients"
  • Pterostilbene ‘more potent than resveratrol’ for colon health: Study - Nutra USA, 3/21/11 - "the chemopreventive effect of pterostilbene was more potent than resveratrol and was associated with a decreased inflammation as well as modulation of the antioxidant signaling pathways in the colons of mice" - [Abstract] - See pterostilbene at Amazon.com.
  • Pterostilbene ‘more potent than resveratrol’ for colon health: Study - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Mar 23;59(6):2725-33 - "Inflammatory bowel diseases have been a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inflammatory cells create oxidative stress and contribute to neoplastic transformation, proliferation, and even metastasis. Previously, resveratrol (RS) and pterostilbene (PS) had been reported to prevent chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis by anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties ... Administrations of PS can be more effective than RS in reducing AOM-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lymphoid nodules (LNs), and tumors. We also find that PS is functioning more effectively than RS to reduce nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-β2 (PKC-β2) and decreasing downstream target gene expression, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and aldose reductase (AR) in mouse colon stimulated by AOM. Moreover, administration of RS and PS for 6 weeks significantly enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione reductase (GR), via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. When the above findings are taken together, they suggest that both stilbenes block cellular inflammation and oxidative stress through induction of HO-1 and GR, thereby preventing AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis. In comparison, PS was a more potent chemopreventive agent than RS for the prevention of colon cancer. This is also the first study to demonstrate that PS is a Nrf2 inducer and AR inhibitor in the AOM-treated colon carcinogenesis model" - See pterostilbene at Amazon.com.
  • Quercetin's Effects on Intestinal Polyp Multiplicity and Macrophage Number in the Apc(Min/+) Mouse - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Mar 1:1 - "Numerous in vitro studies argue for quercetin's chemopreventive potential in colon cancer; however, experimental studies in rodents are limited. Macrophages play a role in tumorigenesis, but the effects of quercetin on macrophage infiltration in colon cancer is unknown. We examined the effects of quercetin on intestinal polyp multiplicity and macrophage number in Apc(Min/+) mice ... These data suggest that quercetin can reduce polyp number and size distribution in the Apc(Min/+) mouse and that these effects may be related to a reduction in macrophage infiltration" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise Reduces Risk for Colon Polyps, Resulting in Less Colon Cancer - Medscape, 3/9/11 - "reanalyzed data collected in 20 clinical trials that reported on physical activity levels (obtained mainly from questionnaires) in individuals who had undergone sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (both symptomatic and screening). Most studies did not specify the reason for undergoing the procedure ... Together, these trials involved more than 250,000 individuals ... Overall, there was a significant inverse association between physical activity and colon polyps (fixed-effect relative risk [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.91; random-effects RR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.92) ... "Our meta-analysis found the effect was stronger, though not significantly so, for large or advanced adenomas than for the overall effect," they add ... The risk reduction (RR, 0.83) was "largely unchanged" when the analysis was restricted to the 18 studies in which the results for adenomatous polyps were separated from all polyps (i.e., hyperplastic, malignant polyps), they report"
  • Meta-analyses of vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Mar 4 - "We observed inverse associations of colorectal cancer risk with dietary vitamin D (summary RR per 100 IU/day=0.95 95%CI: (0.93-0.98); 10 studies; range of intake (midpoints) = 39-719 IU/day) and serum/plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (RR per 100 IU/l=0.96 (0.94-0.97); 6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l), but not with total vitamin D (5 studies). Supplemental (2 studies; range=0-600 IU/day) and total (4 studies; range=79-732 IU/day) vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D status (6 studies; range=200-1800 IU/l) were inversely associated with colon cancer risk. We did not observe statistically significant associations between FokI, PolyA, TaqI, Cdx2 and ApaI VDR polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk. The BsmI polymorphism was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk (RR=0.57 (0.36-0.89) for BB vs. bb, 8 studies)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Pterostilbene Is More Potent than Resveratrol in Preventing Azoxymethane (AOM)-Induced Colon Tumorigenesis via Activation of the NF-E2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2)-Mediated Antioxidant Signaling Pathway - J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Feb 28 - "Inflammatory bowel diseases have been a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inflammatory cells create oxidative stress and contribute to neoplastic transformation, proliferation, and even metastasis. Previously, resveratrol (RS) and pterostilbene (PS) had been reported to prevent chemical-induced colon carcinogenesis by anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties ... Administrations of PS can be more effective than RS in reducing AOM-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), lymphoid nodules (LNs), and tumors. We also find that PS is functioning more effectively than RS to reduce nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of protein kinase C-β2 (PKC-β2) and decreasing downstream target gene expression, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and aldose reductase (AR) in mouse colon stimulated by AOM. Moreover, administration of RS and PS for 6 weeks significantly enhanced expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione reductase (GR), via activation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling. When the above findings are taken together, they suggest that both stilbenes block cellular inflammation and oxidative stress through induction of HO-1 and GR, thereby preventing AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis. In comparison, PS was a more potent chemopreventive agent than RS for the prevention of colon cancer. This is also the first study to demonstrate that PS is a Nrf2 inducer and AR inhibitor in the AOM-treated colon carcinogenesis model"
  • Vitamin D linked to colon cancer protection: Meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 2/7/11 - "for every 10 nanograms per milliliter increase in 25(OH)D levels the associated risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 15 percent, while the risk of breast cancer was associated with an 11 percent decrease. However, when the researchers restricted their analysis to prospective studies only, the breast cancer risk was decreased by only 3 percent, whereas data from case-control studies indicated a risk reduction of 17 percent" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Meta-analysis of observational studies of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal, breast and prostate cancer and colorectal adenoma - Int J Cancer. 2011 Mar 15;128(6):1414-24 - "The summary relative risk (SRR) and (95% confidence interval) for a 10 ng/ml increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 0.85 (0.79; 0.91) for colorectal cancer (2,630 cases in 9 studies); 0.89 (0.81;0.98) for breast cancer (6,175 cases in 10 studies); and 0.99 (0.95;1.03) for prostate cancer (3,956 cases in 11 studies). For breast cancer, case-control studies (3,030 cases) had major limitations and obtained SRR of 0.83 (0.79; 0.87) whereas SRR of prospective studies (3,145 cases) was 0.97 (0.92; 1.03). For colorectal and breast cancer, differences between cases and controls in the season of blood draw or in overweight/obesity or physical inactivity could not explain the results. In conclusion, a consistent inverse relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and colorectal cancer was found. No association was found for breast and prostate cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Folate intake and risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma: modification by time - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jan 26
  • Chemopreventive Effects of Dietary Canola Oil on Colon Cancer Development - Nutr Cancer. 2011 Jan 24:1 - "Dietary canola oil significantly (P < 0.05) decreased colonic tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to dietary corn oil in rats. Fatty acid analysis showed that corn oil group had higher levels of ω-6 fatty acid levels, whereas the canola oil groups exhibited higher levels of ω-3 fatty acids from the colon and serum samples of rats. For the mechanistic study, COX-2 expression in the colon samples from the canola oil group was significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared to the corn oil group. Taken together, dietary canola oil may be chemopreventive for colon tumor development in Fischer rats as compared to possibly by increasing ω-3 fatty acid levels and decreasing COX-2 levels"
  • Folic acid and prevention of colorectal adenomas: A combined analysis of randomized clinical trials - Int J Cancer. 2010 Dec 17 - "Observational data suggest that lower folate status is associated with an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia, implying that folate may be useful as a chemopreventive agent. We conducted a combined analysis of three large randomized trials of folic acid supplementation for the prevention of metachronous adenomas in patients with an adenoma history. Participants included 2,632 men and women with a history of adenomas randomized to either 0.5 or 1.0 mg/day of folic acid or placebo, and who had a follow-up endoscopy 6 to 42 months after randomization ... The RR comparing folic acid vs. placebo was 0.98 (95% CI=0.82-1.17) for all adenomas and 1.06 (95% CI=0.81-1.39) for advanced lesions. Folic acid was associated with a non-significant decreased risk of any adenoma among subjects in the lowest quartile of baseline plasma folate (≤11 nmol/L) and no effect among individuals in the highest quartile (>29 nmol/L, p for trend = 0.17). There was a non-significant trend of decreasing risk of any adenoma associated with folic acid supplements with increasing alcohol intake. During the early follow-up reported here, more deaths occurred in the placebo group than in the folic acid group (1.7% vs. 0.5%, p=.002)"
  • Designer probiotics could reduce obesity - Science Daily, 12/22/10 - "engineered a strain of Lactobacillus to produce a version of a molecule called conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). When this engineered bacterial strain was fed to mice, the researchers found that the composition of the mice's fat tissue was significantly altered ... One type, called t10, c12 CLA, has been shown to be associated with decreased body fat in humans and other animals. t10, c12 CLA also has the ability to inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells and induce their death. However, this type of CLA is only produced by certain types of bacteria including Propionibacterium acnes -- a skin bacterium that can cause acne ... In this study, an enzyme-encoding gene from P. acnes was transferred to the Lactobacillus strain allowing it to produce t10, c12 CLA ... CLA has already been shown to alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease that often accompanies obesity. Therefore, increasing levels of CLA in the liver by ingestion of a probiotic strain is of therapeutic relevance ... The same group of researchers previously found that microbially produced CLA was able to reduce the viability of colon cancer cells by 92%"
  • Dietary Supplementation of Lutein Reduces Colon Carcinogenesis in DMH-Treated Rats by Modulating K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin Proteins - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Dec 2:1 - "The results showed a significant increase in protein expression for K-ras and β-catenin in tumors of DMH-treated rats. Simultaneously, we detected changes in the phosphorylation state of ERK1/2 and PKB in DMH-treated animals. Lutein given in the diet (0.002%), before (prevention) and after (treatment) DMH administration, diminished the number of tumors by 55% and 32%, respectively. Moreover, lutein significantly decreased in tumors the expression of K-ras (25%) and β-catenin (28%) and the amount of pPKB (32%), during the prevention, and 39%, 26%, and 26% during the treatment stage, respectively. This study demonstrates the chemoprotective effect of lutein against colon cancer by modulating the proliferative activity of K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin proteins" - See lutein at Amazon.com.
  • Antitumor Activity of Capsaicin on Human Colon Cancer Cells in Vitro and Colo 205 Tumor Xenografts in Vivo - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Nov 17 - "capsaicin induced cytotoxic effects in a time- and dose-dependent manner and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) but decreased the level of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) in colo 205 cells. Data from Western blotting analysis indicated that the levels of Fas, cytochrome c, and caspases were increased, leading to cell apoptosis. Capsaicin decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and increased the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax. Capsaicin-induced apoptosis in colo 205 cells was also done through the activations of caspase-8, -9 and -3. In vivo studies in immunodeficient nu/nu mice bearing colo 205 tumor xenografts showed that capsaicin effectively inhibited tumor growth. The potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of capsaicin suggest that capsaicin might be developed for the treatment of human colon cancer" - See capsaicin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • NSAIDs cause stem cells to self-destruct, preventing colon cancer, study finds - Science Daily, 11/1/10
  • Soy food and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study - Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010 Oct 24 - "Energy-adjusted intakes of soy foods (dry weight) and isoflavones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men and postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest versus lowest quintile was 0.65 (95% CI 0.41-1.03, p for trend = 0.03) for soy foods and 0.68 (95% CI 0.42-1.10, p for trend = 0.051) for isoflavones in men. The corresponding values for postmenopausal women were 0.60 (95% CI 0.29-1.25, p for trend = 0.053) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.33-1.40, p for trend = 0.049)"
  • Racial disparity in death from colorectal cancer: does vitamin D deficiency contribute? - Cancer. 2010 Oct 13 - "vitamin D deficiency was associated significantly with CRC mortality (HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.11-4.00), and the effect of race was decreased (HR, 1.60" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Allicin purified from fresh garlic cloves induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via nrf2 - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):947-57 - "Treatment with allicin resulted in HCT-116 apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by enhanced hypodiploid DNA content, decreased levels of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), increased levels of bax and increased capability of releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. Allicin also induced translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) to the nuclei of HCT-116 cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay showed that allicin induces Nrf2-mediated luciferase transactivation activity. SiRNA knock down of Nrf2 significantly affected the capacity of allicin to inhibit HCT-116 proliferation. These results suggest that Nrf2 mediates the allicin-induced apoptotic death of colon cancer cells" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Clinical Pharmacology of Resveratrol and Its Metabolites in Colorectal Cancer Patients - Cancer Res. 2010 Sep 14 - "Consumption of resveratrol reduced tumor cell proliferation by 5% (P = 0.05). The results suggest that daily p.o. doses of resveratrol at 0.5 or 1.0 g produce levels in the human gastrointestinal tract of an order of magnitude sufficient to elicit anticarcinogenic effects. Resveratrol merits further clinical evaluation as a potential colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Even very low dose of regular aspirin wards off bowel cancer, study finds - Science Daily, 9/15/10 - "After a year, taking daily low dose aspirin was associated with a 22% reduced risk of developing bowel cancer, and the magnitude of the reduction in risk was cumulative, rising to 30% after five years ... taking NSAIDs of any kind did not influence the risk of death from any cause nor did it increase bowel cancer survival"
  • Plasma vitamins B2, B6, B12, and related genetic variants as predictors of colorectal cancer risk - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010 Sep 2 - "Relative risks (RRs) ... Adjusted RRs comparing the highest to lowest quintile (95% confidence interval, Ptrend) were: 0.71 (0.56-0.91, 0.02) for vitamin B2, 0.68 (0.53-0.87, <0.001) for vitamin B6, and 1.02 (0.80-1.29, 0.19) for vitamin B12. The associations for vitamin B6 were stronger in males who consumed >/=30g alcohol/day. The polymorphisms were not associated with CRC ... CONCLUSIONS: Results from this large European cohort study show that higher plasma concentrations of vitamins B2 and B6 are associated with a lower CRC risk"
  • Metformin Might Prevent Colorectal, Lung Cancers - Medscape, 9/3/10 - "The chance observation that diabetes patients taking metformin have a 40% reduced risk for cancer triggered intense research interest in this old off-patent drug ... After about 10% of the mouse lifespan — about 12 weeks — with the highest dose in the drinking water, we found a 33% reduction in tumor multiplicity and a 34% reduction in tumor size in the mice. In mice that did not get metformin, 100% got tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumors ... metformin might prevent tumors by reducing levels of insulin and IGF-1" - See my Insulin and Aging page.  There are a lot of studies pointing toward insulin being a major cause of aging and caner.  See metformin at IAS.
  • Intake of wholegrain products and risk of colorectal cancers in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study - Br J Cancer. 2010 Aug 24;103(5):730-4 - "wholegrain (WG) products ... Higher WG product intake was associated with lower risk of colon cancer and rectal cancer in men. The adjusted IRR (95% CI) was 0.85 (0.77-0.94) for colon cancer and 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for rectal cancer per daily 50 g increment in intake. For colon cancer the association was confined to intake of WG bread in particular. No consistent associations between total or individual WG product consumption and colon or rectal cancer risk were observed in women"
  • More support for vitamin D’s colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 8/12/10 - "In people using NSAIDs, the potential risk reduction of higher vitamin D levels was increased to 66 per cent" - [Abstract] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations and Incident Sporadic Colorectal Adenoma Risk: A Pooled Case-Control Study - Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Jul 22 - "In the pooled analysis, higher circulating 25(OH)D(3) concentrations were statistically significantly associated with decreased colorectal adenoma risk (highest vs. lowest quartile odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.41, 0.84). The observed inverse association was stronger among participants who used nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs regularly (highest vs. lowest quartile odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.56). Inverse associations between 25(OH)D(3) and colorectal adenoma did not differ substantially by other risk factors or by adenoma characteristics. These findings support the hypothesis that greater vitamin D exposure may reduce the risk of colorectal adenoma and suggest that it may do so more strongly in combination with antiinflammatory agents" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy - Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Aug 1 - "Direct associations were observed between the Starch-rich pattern and both cancer of the colon (OR = 1.68) and of the rectum (OR = 1.74). Inverse relationships were found between the Vitamins and fiber pattern and rectal cancer (OR = 0.61), between the Unsaturated fats (animal source) and the Unsaturated fats (vegetable source) and cancer of the colon (OR = 0.80 and OR = 0.79, respectively) ... The Starch-rich pattern is potentially an unfavorable indicator of risk for both colon and rectal cancer, whereas the Vitamins and fiber pattern is associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer and the Unsaturated fats patterns with a reduced risk of colon cancer"
  • Gut bacteria could be key indicator of colon cancer risk - Science  Daily, 6/29/10 - "a shift in the balance between the "good" bacteria and the "bad" bacteria that populate our gut could be a harbinger of colon cancer ... We think something happens to tip the balance away from the beneficial bacteria and in favor of microbes that make toxic metabolites and are detrimental to our health ... By pinpointing these bacterial culprits, we can not only identify people at risk, but also suggest that they include the good bacteria in their diet .. And what a great way to address colon cancer -- you could know your risk and lower it by eating your yogurt every day" - Note:  Dannon claims that only their Activia brand reaches the gut.  see:
    • Activia by Dannon - "Specialists at Dannon® selected Bifidus Regularis™ for Activia® because it survives passage through the digestive tract, arriving in the colon as a living culture. Once there, it plays a beneficial role in your intestinal ecosystem"
  • Associations of red meat, fat, and protein intake with distal colorectal cancer risk - Nutr Cancer. 2010 Aug;62(6):701-9 - "There was no association between total, saturated, or monounsaturated fat and distal CRC risk. In African Americans, the OR of distal CRC for the highest category of polyunsaturated fat intake was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.08-0.96). The percent of energy from protein was associated with a 47% risk reduction in Whites (Q4 OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.37-0.77). Red meat consumption in Whites was associated with a marginally significant risk reduction (Q4 OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43-1.00). Our results do not support the hypotheses that fat, protein, and red meat increase the risk of distal CRC"
  • Prevention of colorectal cancer with vitamin D - Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010 Apr 5 - "On a molecular level, vitamin D suppresses CRC development and growth by affecting cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis ... Maintaining serum concentrations of calcidiol above 32 ng/ml (80 nmol/l) in individuals whose serum calcidiol level is low may help prevent CRC as well as osteoporosis, fractures, infections, and cardiovascular disease. Daily calcidiol intake of 1000 International Units can increase serum vitamin D to sufficient levels in most elderly persons and, based on available data, may substantially lower the incidence of CRC with minimal risks" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces rectal polyp number and size in familial adenomatous polyposis - Gut. 2010 Mar 26 - "Treatment with EPA-FFA for 6 months was associated with a mean 22.4% (95% CI 5.1% to 39.6%) reduction in polyp number (p=0.012) and a 29.8% (3.6% to 56.1%) decrease in the sum of polyp diameters (p=0.027). Global polyp burden worsened over 6 months in the placebo group (-0.34) unlike the EPA-FFA group (+0.09, difference 0.42 (0.10-0.75), p=0.011) ... EPA-FFA has chemopreventative efficacy in FAP, to a degree similar to that previously observed with selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors. EPA holds promise as a colorectal cancer chemoprevention agent with a favourable safety profile" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin B6 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies - JAMA. 2010 Mar 17;303(11):1077-83 - "Omitting 1 study that contributed substantially to the heterogeneity among studies of vitamin B(6) intake yielded a pooled RR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.92). The risk of colorectal cancer decreased by 49% for every 100-pmol/mL increase (approximately 2 SDs) in blood PLP levels (RR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.69)"
  • Omega 3 curbs precancerous growths in those prone to bowel cancer, study suggests - Science Daily, 3/17/10 - "randomly assigned to six months of treatment with 2 g daily of a new highly purified form of the omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) EPA. The other 27 were given the same amount of a dummy treatment (placebo) ...number of polyps increased by almost 10% among those treated with the placebo, but fell by more than 12% among those treated with the EPA capsules, representing a difference of almost 22.5% ... Similarly, polyp size increased by more than 17% among those in the placebo group but fell by more than 12.5% in those taking the EPA capsules, representing a difference of just under 30% ... the effects of EPA were similar to those produced by celecoxib, which is used to help curb the growth of new and existing polyps in patients with FAP ... celecoxib has been associated with harmful cardiovascular side effects in older patients" - See See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Magnesium may decrease colon cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 3/15/10 - "Intakes of the mineral of at least 327 milligrams per day were found to reduce the risk of colon cancer by 52 per cent, compared to intakes less than 238 milligrams per day, while no benefits were observed in women" - [Abstract] - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • High Dietary Intake of Magnesium May Decrease Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese Men - J Nutr. 2010 Feb 17 - "When adjusted for potential confounders, the hazard ratio and 95% CI in the highest quintile of magnesium intake compared with the lowest quintile in men were 0.65 (95% CI, 0.40-1.03) for CRC (P-trend = 0.04), 0.48 (95% CI, 0.26-0.89) for colon cancer (P-trend = 0.01), and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.47-2.02) for rectal cancer (P-trend = 0.93)" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Synergistic role of curcumin with current therapeutics in colorectal cancer: minireview - Nutr Cancer. 2009 Nov;61(6):842-6 - "Despite the use of surgical resection and aggressive chemotherapy, nearly 50% of patients with colorectal carcinoma develop recurrent disease, highlighting the need for improved therapies. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), the major active ingredient of turmeric (curcuma longa) with no discernable toxicity, has been shown to inhibit the growth of transformed cells and colon carcinogenesis at the initiation, promotion, and progression stages in carcinogen-induced rodent models. In a Phase I clinical trial, curcumin has been found to be extremely well tolerated and effective ... Existing data suggest that curcumin in combination with chemotherapy is a superior strategy for treatment of gastrointestinal cancer" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Conjugated Linoleic Acid Ameliorates Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Mice through Activation of PPAR{gamma} - J Nutr. 2010 Jan 20 - "Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exerts a protective effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease and shows promise as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer (CRC) in mice, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its beneficial effects against malignancies in the gut are not completely understood ... Dietary CLA ameliorated disease activity, decreased colitis, and prevented adenocarcinoma formation in the PPARgamma-expressing floxed mice but not in the tissue-specific PPARgamma-null mice. Dietary CLA supplementation significantly decreased the percentages of macrophages in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) regardless of the genotype and increased regulatory T cell numbers in MLN of PPARgamma-expressing, but not in the tissue-specific, PPARgamma-null mice. Colonic tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression was significantly suppressed in CLA-fed, PPARgamma-expressing mice. This study suggests CLA ameliorates colitis and prevents tumor formation in part through a PPARgamma-dependent mechanism" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D May Lower Colon Cancer Risk - WebMD, 1/22/10 - "They discovered that those with the highest blood levels of vitamin D had a nearly 40% decrease in colorectal cancer risk than those with the lowest levels" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Antioxidant compound reduced incidence of colorectal metachronous adenomas - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "The researchers randomized 411 participants to the placebo group or to receive an antioxidant compound -- specifically selenomethionnine 200 μg, zinc 30 mg, vitamin A 6,000 IU, vitamin C 180 mg and vitamin E 30 mg ... individuals who consumed antioxidants had a 40 percent reduction in the incidence of metachronous adenomas of the large bowel ... It is noteworthy that the benefit observed after the conclusion of the trial persisted through 13 years of follow up"
  • Omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk of colon cancer - Science Daily, 12/7/09 - "Patients who consumed more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids had a reduced risk of distal large bowel cancer. Compared to the lowest quartile, fat intake in the highest quartile was linked with a 39 percent reduced risk of cancer" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Soy component may be key to fighting colon cancer - Science Daily, 11/24/09
  • Citrus fruit and cancer risk in a network of case-control studies - Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Oct 24 - "The ORs for the highest versus lowest category of citrus fruit consumption were 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.36-0.61) for oral and pharyngeal, 0.42 (95% CI, 0.25-0.70) for esophageal, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.92) for stomach, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for colorectal, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37-0.83) for laryngeal cancer"
  • Curcumin synergizes with resveratrol to inhibit colon cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(4):544-53 - "the combination of curcumin and resveratrol was found to be more effective in inhibiting growth of p53-positive (wt) and p53-negative colon cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro and in vivo in SCID xenografts of colon cancer HCT-116 (wt) cells than either agent alone. Analysis by Calcusyn software showed synergism between curcumin and resveratrol. The inhibition of tumors in response to curcumin and/or resveratrol was associated with the reduction in proliferation and stimulation of apoptosis accompanied by attenuation of NF-kappaB activity. In vitro studies have further demonstrated that the combinatorial treatment caused a greater inhibition of constitutive activation of EGFR and its family members as well as IGF-1R. Our current data suggest that the combination of curcumin and resveratrol could be an effective preventive/therapeutic strategy for colon cancer"
  • Dietary flavonoid intake and colorectal cancer: a case-control study - Br J Nutr. 2009 Sep 7:1-8 - "We concluded that flavonols, specifically quercetin, obtained from non-tea components of the diet may be linked with reduced risk of developing colon cancer" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea slashes heart disease death - Nutra USA, 9/8/09 - "Compared to people who drank less than one cup a day, seven or more cups of green tea a day may reduce the risk of dying from heart disease by a whopping 75 per cent ... Additionally, a reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer mortality of 31 per cent was observed for people who drank more than seven cups of green a day, compared to people who frank less than three cups a day" - [Abstract] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Consumption and Mortality among Japanese Elderly People: The Prospective Shizuoka Elderly Cohort - Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;19(10):732-739 - "The multivariate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD mortality compared those who consumed seven or more cups per day with those who consumed less than one cup per day, were 0.24 (0.14-0.40), 0.30 (0.15-0.61), and 0.18 (0.08-0.40) for total participants, men, and women, respectively. Although green tea consumption was not inversely associated with cancer mortality, green tea consumption and colorectal cancer mortality were inversely associated with a moderate dose-response relationship" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Natural Compounds, Chemotherapeutic Drugs May Become Partners In Cancer Therapy - Science Daily, 9/7/09 - "New research shows that chlorophyllin -- a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll, the green pigment found in most plants -- may be 10 times more potent at killing colon cancer cells than hydroxyurea, a chemotherapeutic drug commonly used in cancer treatment" - See chlorophyllin at Amazon.com.
  • Prebiotics may stop early stage colon cancer: Study - Nutra USA, 9/4/09
  • More omega-3, less omega-6 for colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 8/12/09 - "the dietary total omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA ratio was strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk ... Compared to women with the lowest ratio, women with the highest ratio of omega-6 to -3 had a relative risk 95 per cent higher" - [Abstract]
  • A prospective study of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese women - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Aug;18(8):2283-91 - "The dietary total n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio was strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with women in the lowest quintile group, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for the second [RR, 1.52; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.00-2.32], third (RR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.41-3.45), fourth (RR, 1.65; 95% CI, 0.99-2.75), and fifth (RR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.07-3.54) quintile groups. Arachidonic acid was associated with colorectal cancer risk with elevated RRs of 1.20(Q2-Q1) (95% CI, 0.87-1.64), 1.44(Q3-Q1) (95% CI, 1.05-1.98), 1.61(Q4-Q1) (95% CI, 1.17-2.23), and 1.39(Q5-Q1) (95% CI, 0.97-1.99; P(trend) = 0.03) with increasing dietary quintile"
  • Aspirin May Help Treat Colon Cancer - WebMD, 8/10/09 - "Certain patients with colorectal cancer who begin regular aspirin use after the disease develops may greatly improve their odds of survival ... Patients with colorectal cancer who started regular aspirin use for the first time after diagnosis had a 47% lower risk of colorectal cancer death and 32% lower risk of overall death than nonusers of aspirin ... The survival advantage was seen only in those with Cox-2-positive tumors. Most colorectal tumors are Cox-2-positive"
  • Curcumin sensitizes human colorectal cancer to capecitabine by modulation of cyclin D1, COX-2, MMP-9, VEGF and CXCR4 expression in an orthotopic mouse model - Int J Cancer. 2009 May 26 - "Because of the poor prognosis and the development of resistance against chemotherapeutic drugs, the current treatment for advanced metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) is ineffective. Whether curcumin (a component of turmeric) can potentiate the effect of capecitabine against growth and metastasis of CRC was investigated ... In nude mice, the combination of curcumin and capecitabine was found to be more effective than either agent alone in reducing tumor volume (p = 0.001 vs. control; p = 0.031 vs. capecitabine alone), Ki-67 proliferation index (p = 0.001 vs. control) and microvessel density marker CD31. The combination treatment was also highly effective in suppressing ascites and distant metastasis to the liver, intestines, lungs, rectum and spleen. This effect was accompanied by suppressed expression of activated NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB-regulated gene products (cyclin D1,c-myc, bcl-2, bcl-xL, cIAP-1, COX-2, ICAM-1, MMP-9, CXCR4 and VEGF). Overall, our results suggest that curcumin sensitizes CRC to the antitumor and antimetastatic effects of capecitabine by suppressing NF-kappaB cell signaling pathway" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Understanding The Anticancer Effects Of Vitamin D3 - Science Daily, 7/6/09 - "the active form of vitamin D3 directly activates the CST5 gene in human colon cancer cell lines, increasing levels of cystatin D protein. Functionally, cystatin D was shown to inhibit the growth of human colon cancer cells lines in vitro and when they were xenotransplanted into mice. As knocking down expression of cystatin D in human colon cancer cell lines rendered them unresponsive to the antiproliferative effects of the active form of vitamin D3, the authors conclude that CST5 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene and that it mediates a large proportion of the anticancer effects of the active form of vitamin D3" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Folate linked to lower colorectal cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 7/6/09 - "A possible explanation for the contradictory results of studies with the vitamin and colorectal cancer may be the difference between the synthetic and natural forms of the vitamin. “The fact that folic acid, which is not a naturally occurring form of the vitamin, is used by food and pharmaceutical industries for fortification and supplementation is potentially of importance,” wrote Tufts University’s Mason in Nutrition Reviews ... On passage through the intestinal wall, folic acid is converted to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the naturally circulating form of folate. However, some studies have suggested that oral doses of folic acid in high doses may overwhelm this conversion pathway, leading to measurable levels of folic acid in the blood ... There has been some concern that this oxidized, non-substituted form of folate might feasibly be detrimental because it is not a naturally occurring co-enzymatic form of the vitamin" - [Abstract]
  • Folate intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in a Korean population - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun 24 - "Cases were more frequently found to have a family history of CRC among first-degree relatives, to consume more alcohol, to be more likely current smokers and less likely to participate in vigorous physical activity than the controls. In the overall data for men and women combined, multivariate ORs (95% confidence interval (CI), P for trend) comparing the highest vs the lowest quartile of dietary folate intake were: 0.47 (0.32-0.69, < 0.001) for CRC, 0.42 (0.26-0.69, < 0.001) for colon cancer and 0.48 (0.28-0.81, 0.007) for rectal cancer. An inverse association was also found in women with dietary folate intake: 0.36 (0.20-0.64, < 0.001) for CRC, 0.34 (0.16-0.70, 0.001) for colon cancer and 0.30 (0.12-0.74, 0.026) for rectal cancer, but not in men. In addition, the total folate intake of women was strongly associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.88; P for trend=0.04). ... We found a statistically significant relationship between higher dietary folate intake and reduced risk of CRC, colon cancer and rectal cancer in women. A significant association is indicated between higher total folate intake and reduced risk of rectal cancer in women"
  • Fruit and veg may slash colorectal cancer risk: Study - Nutra USA, 5/11/09 - "Over 8.8 years of follow-up ... the highest average intakes of fruit and vegetables was associated with a 14 per cent reduction in colorectal cancer risk, and a 24 per cent reduction in the risk of colon cancer" - [Abstract]
  • Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1441-52 - "After an average follow-up of 8.8 y, 2,819 incident CRC cases were reported. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CRC in a comparison of the highest with the lowest EPIC-wide quintile of consumption (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P for trend = 0.04), particularly with colon cancer risk (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P for trend < 0.01). Only after exclusion of the first 2 y of follow-up were these findings corroborated by calibrated continuous analyses for a 100-g increase in consumption: HRs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00; P = 0.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; P = 0.02), respectively. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and CRC risk was inverse in never and former smokers, but positive in current smokers. This modifying effect was found for fruit and vegetables combined and for vegetables alone"
  • B6 may slash colorectal cancer risk: Harvard study - Nutra USA, 5/5/09 - "increased intakes of vitamin B6 from dietary and supplements may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by over 20 per cent (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev., Vol. 17, pp. 171-182)"
  • Prospective study of plasma vitamin B6 and risk of colorectal cancer in men - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Apr;18(4):1197-202 - "plasma PLP levels were significantly inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer; compared with men in the lowest quartile, those with PLP in quartiles 2 to 4 had relative risks (95% confidence interval) of 0.92 (0.55-1.56), 0.42 (0.23-0.75), and 0.49 (0.26-0.92; P(trend) = 0.01), respectively"
  • Olive Skins Provide Natural Defense Against Colon Cancer, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/8/09
  • Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr 1 - "After an average follow-up of 8.8 y, 2,819 incident CRC cases were reported. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CRC in a comparison of the highest with the lowest EPIC-wide quintile of consumption (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P for trend = 0.04), particularly with colon cancer risk (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P for trend < 0.01). Only after exclusion of the first 2 y of follow-up were these findings corroborated by calibrated continuous analyses for a 100-g increase in consumption: HRs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00; P = 0.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; P = 0.02), respectively. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and CRC risk was inverse in never and former smokers, but positive in current smokers"
  • Prospective Study of Plasma Vitamin B6 and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Men - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Mar 31 - "plasma PLP levels were significantly inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer; compared with men in the lowest quartile, those with PLP in quartiles 2 to 4 had relative risks (95% confidence interval) of 0.92 (0.55-1.56), 0.42 (0.23-0.75), and 0.49 (0.26-0.92; Ptrend = 0.01), respectively. In conclusion, vitamin B6 may protect against colorectal cancer independent of other one-carbon metabolites and inflammatory biomarkers"
  • Effects of resveratrol analogs on cell cycle progression, cell cycle associated proteins and 5fluoro-uracil sensitivity in human derived colon cancer cells - Int J Cancer. 2009 Jan 13 - "Thus, acetylated derivatives of resveratrol have retained the cytostatic and cytotoxic activities of the parental molecule and thus deserve to be tested as chemosensitizers in animal models" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of dietary flaxseed on intestinal tumorigenesis in apc(min) mouse - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):276-83 - "COX-1 and COX-2 expression in the colon samples from the flaxseed meal group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared to the corn meal group. Dietary flaxseed may be chemopreventive for intestinal tumor development in Apc(Min) mice possibly by increasing omega -3 fatty acid levels, lignans, and decreasing COX-1 and COX-2 levels"
  • Selenium, folate, and colon cancer - Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):165-78 - "High levels of serum selenium and reported folate jointly were associated with a substantially reduced risk of colon cancer"
  • Calcium May Cut Cancer Risk - WebMD, 2/23/09 - "older men and women who got the most calcium from food and supplements had a 16% lower risk of colorectal and other cancers of the digestive system than those who got the least calcium"
  • Effect of a Low Dose of Dietary Resveratrol on Colon Microbiota, Inflammation and Tissue Damage in a DSS-Induced Colitis Rat Model - J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Feb 19 - "Resveratrol increased lactobacilli and bifidobacteria as well as diminished the increase of enterobacteria upon DSS treatment. Resveratrol significantly protected the colonic mucosa architecture, reduced body weight loss, diminished the induced anemia and reduced systemic inflammation markers, colonic mucosa prostaglandin E(2), cycloxygenase-2, prostaglandin E synthase and nitric oxide levels. In addition, the expression of 2,655 genes in distal colon mucosa related to important pathways was varied. These results reinforce the concept of resveratrol as a dietary beneficial compound in intestinal inflammation at doses possibly attainable with resveratrol-enriched nutraceuticals" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Cranberry extracts may prevent colon cancer: Lab study - Nutra USA, 2/13/09 - "These findings are important because they demonstrate that the F-κB signalling pathway provides a potential mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer and that the anti-inflammatory properties of crude cranberry extract or quercetin can be used to modulate this pathway" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • People Who Exercise Lower Their Risk Of Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 2/12/09 - "people who exercised the most were 24 percent less likely to develop the disease than those who exercised the least"
  • Soy Consumption Linked to Colorectal Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women - Medscape, 1/29/09 - "For each 5-g/day increment in dietary intake of soy as measured by dry weight (equivalent to approximately 1 oz [28.35 g] tofu/day), there was an 8% reduction in risk ... Compared with women in the lowest tertile of soy intake, those in the highest tertile had a multivariate relative risk (RR) of 0.67 ... were similar for soy protein and isoflavone intakes"
  • Protective Effect of Fish Consumption on Colorectal Cancer Risk. Hospital-Based Case-Control Study in Eastern Europe - Ann Nutr Metab. 2009 Jan 26;53(3-4):295-302 - "The adjusted OR showed a significant reduction in CRC already at the moderate fish intake of one or two servings per week (OR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.51-0.94), but it was even lower at higher fish intake (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.39-0.86)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit and Vegetable Intakes Are Associated with Lower Risk of Colorectal Adenomas - J Nutr. 2008 Dec 17 - "The odds ratio for upper tertile intake compared with lower was 0.66 (95% CI = 0.51-0.86) for total fruits, 0.64 (95% CI = 0.47-0.87) for berries, 0.72 (95% CI = 0.56-0.92) for fruit juice, and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.58-0.96) for green vegetables. This study provides additional evidence that high total fruit intake and certain fruit and vegetable intakes may be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal adenomas"
  • Vitamin D Can Alter Color Cancer Cells In Many Ways, Through One Pathway - Science Daily, 11/17/08 - "Vitamin D can tame the rogue cell by adjusting everything from its gene expression to its cytoskeleton" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Calcium May Only Protect Against Colorectal Cancer In Presence Of Magnesium - Science Daily, 11/16/08 - "supplementation of calcium only reduced the risk of adenoma recurrence if the ratio of calcium to magnesium was low and remained low during treatment. "The risk of colorectal cancer adenoma recurrence was reduced by 32 percent among those with baseline calcium to magnesium ratio below the median in comparison to no reduction for those above the median"
  • Grape seed extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells - Nutr Cancer. 2008;60 Suppl 1:2-11 - "control colorectal cancer (CRC) ... Grape seed extract (GSE) ... Our results show that irrespective of source, GSE strongly inhibits LoVo, HT29, and SW480 cell growth, with a G1 arrest in LoVo and HT29 cells but an S and/or G2/M arrest in SW480 cell cycle progression. GSE also induced Cip/p21 levels in all 3 cell lines. Furthermore, an induction of apoptosis was observed in all 3 cell lines by GSE. Taken together, our findings suggest that GSE could be an effective CAM agent against CRC possibly due to its strong growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D and Prevention of Colorectal Adenoma: A Meta-analysis - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Nov;17(11):2958-69 - "Circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with risk of colorectal adenomas: the OR was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.56-0.87] for high versus low circulating 25(OH)D. The highest quintile of vitamin D intake was associated with an 11% marginally decreased risk of colorectal adenomas compared with low vitamin D intake (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.78-1.02). For recurrent adenomas, there was a decreased risk of 12% (95% CI, 0.72-1.07) among individuals with high versus low vitamin D intake. The inverse associations appeared stronger for advanced adenoma [OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.90 for serum 25(OH)D and OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95 for vitamin D intake], but the number of studies was small" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea extracts for the prevention of metachronous colorectal adenomas: a pilot study - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Nov;17(11):3020-5 - "The incidence of metachronous adenomas at the end-point colonoscopy was 31% (20 of 65) in the control group and 15% (9 of 60) in the GTE group (relative risk, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.99; P < 0.05). The size of relapsed adenomas was also smaller in the GTE group than in the control group (P < 0.001). No serious adverse events occurred in the GTE group. CONCLUSION: GTE is an effective supplement for the chemoprevention of metachronous colorectal adenomas" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Chemotherapy is linked to severe vitamin D deficiency in patients with colorectal cancer - Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008 Oct 2 - "Chemotherapy is associated with a significant increase in the risk of severe vitamin D deficiency. Patients with colorectal cancer, especially those receiving chemotherapy, should be considered for aggressive vitamin D replacement strategies" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Can Fruits, Vegetables Cut Colon Cancer Risk? - WebMD, 9/11/08 - "Based on those answers, the researchers concluded that men who ate the most fruits and vegetables were 26% less likely to develop colorectal cancer than men who ate the least ... No decrease in risk associated with fruit and vegetable consumption was seen for women"
  • New Evidence On Folic Acid In Diet And Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 9/1/08 - "folate depletion caused increased DNA damage and a cascade of other biological changes linked to an increased cancer risk" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Levels Tied to Colorectal Cancer Survival - Medscape, 7/14/08 - "Compared with patients with the lowest levels, those with the highest had an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.52 for overall mortality" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D May Up Colon Cancer Survival - WebMD, 6/18/08 - "patients with colon cancer who were among the top 25% in levels of vitamin D before being diagnosed were less likely to die during the study period than those who were among the 25% with the lowest levels of the vitamin" - [Science Daily] - See vitamin D at Amazon.com
  • Glycemic index, glycemic load, and cancer risk: a meta-analysis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1793-801 - "Overall, both GL and GI were significantly associated with a greater risk of colorectal (summary RR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.44 and RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.34, respectively) and endometrial (RR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.62 and RR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.49) cancer than of breast and pancreatic cancer"
  • Does Folic Acid Supplementation Prevent or Promote Colorectal Cancer? Results from Model-Based Predictions - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jun 6 - "Changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to folic acid supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and effect on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without folic acid supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20 years). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting folic acid supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental"
  • Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis through ROS-Dependent Mitochondria Pathway in HT-29 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells - J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jun 4 - "Results of the present study provide evidence demonstrating the antitumor effect of trans-resveratrol via a ROS-dependent apoptosis pathway in colorectal carcinoma" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of aqueous green tea extract on activities of DNA turn-over enzymes in cancerous and non-cancerous human gastric and colon tissues - Altern Ther Health Med. 2008 May-Jun;14(3):30-3 - "Our data suggest that green tea may support the medical treatment of stomach and colon cancer" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 linked to lower colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 5/16/08 - "In terms of fish intake, the highest average intake was associated with a 40 per cent reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer. In addition, this link was relevant for both colon and rectal cancers" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • A 22-year Prospective Study of Fish, n-3 Fatty Acid Intake, and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 May;17(5):1136-43 - "Fish intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk [multivariate relative risk (95% confidence interval) for highest versus lowest category, 0.60 (0.40-0.91); P(trend) = 0.01]. The inverse association was observed for both colon and rectal cancers. Our findings for n-3 fatty acids were similar to those for fish; the multivariate relative risk (95% confidence interval) of total colorectal cancer for the highest versus lowest quartile of n-3 fatty acids was 0.74 (0.57-0.95; P(trend) = 0.01) ... Our results from this long-term prospective study suggest that intakes of fish and long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish may decrease the risk for colorectal cancer" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of postoperative omega-3 fatty acid-supplemented parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes and immunomodulations in colorectal cancer patients - World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Apr 21;14(15):2434-2439 - "Patients in the FO group trended to need a shorter postoperative hospital stay (17.45 +/- 4.80 d vs 19.62 +/- 5.59 d, P = 0.19) ... Postoperative supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids may have a favorable effect on the outcomes in colorectal cancer patients undergoing radical resection by lowering the magnitude of inflammatory responses and modulating the immune response" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D And Calcium Influence Cell Death In The Colon, Researchers Find - Science Daily, 4/13/08 - "We were pleased that the effects of calcium and vitamin D were visible enough in this small study to be significant and reportable"
  • Folate and MTHFR: risk of adenoma recurrence in the Polyp Prevention Trial - Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Mar 6 - "Low dietary folate intake has been associated with colorectal cancer risk and adenoma recurrence. A C/T transition at position 677 in the gene encoding methlylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) has been reported to interact with folate intake to modulate colorectal adenoma recurrence or cancer risk ... In general, no statistically significant associations were found between quartile of folate intake (dietary or total) and adenoma recurrence ... No significant interaction was noted for total folate and MTHFR genotype, though an increased risk of recurrence noted for the MTHFR CT genotype was statistically significant only for those individuals with below median intake of total folate"
  • Aspirin Associated With Reduced Colorectal Cancer Risk in Men - Medscape, 2/12/08 - "men who reported regular aspirin use (at least 2 times per week) had a significantly lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with those who were not regular aspirin users (multivariate RR, 0.79) ... However, men reporting 6 to 14 standard aspirin tablets per week had a multivariate RR of 0.72, and those consuming more than 14 tablets per week experienced a multivariate RR of 0.30" - Note: A RR of 0.79 is a 21% reduction, a RR of 0.30 is a 70% reduction.
  • Vitamin D Appears to Cut Breast and Colorectal Cancer Risk - Medscape, 2/12/08 - "Compared with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level less than 12 ng/mL, a level of at least 33 ng/mL or more was associated with a 50% reduction in the risk for incident colorectal cancer ... vitamin D intake of 1000 to 2000 IU per day would confer an appropriate balance between protection against colorectal cancer and adverse events related to hypervitaminosis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Regular, Long-Term Aspirin Use Reduces Risk of Colorectal Cancer - Doctor's Guide, 1/23/08 - "the benefit of aspirin was not apparent until after more than five years of use. The greatest reduction in risk was observed at cumulative doses of more than 14 standard tablets (325 mg) per week, which is higher than normally recommended. The benefit of aspirin use appears to diminish less than four years after stopping use and is not evident after four to five years of discontinued use"
  • Recreational Physical Activity and Cancer Risk in Subsites of the Colon (the Nord-Trondelag Health Study) - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jan;17(1):183-8 - "Overall, we found an inverse association between recreational physical activity and colon cancer risk, but subsite analyses showed that the association was confined to cancer in the transverse and sigmoid colon. The adjusted HR, comparing people who reported high versus no physical activity, was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25-0.78) for cancer in the transverse colon and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.31-0.75) for cancer in the sigmoid colon. The corresponding HR for cancer mortality was 0.33 (95% CI, 0.14-0.76) for the transverse colon and 0.29 (95% CI, 0.15-0.56) for the sigmoid colon. For rectal cancer, there was no association with physical activity in these data"
  • Vitamin B6 may slash colorectal cancer risk - Nutra USA, 1/17/08 - "High vitamin B6 intakes were reported to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer by 19 per cent. The protective effect was found to be higher among 55-year-old individuals (1,001 cases compared to 1,010 controls)" - [Abstract]
  • Dietary vitamin b6 intake and the risk of colorectal cancer - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Jan;17(1):171-82 - "Moderately strong inverse and dose-dependent associations in the whole sample were found between CRC risk and the intake of dietary and total vitamin B6 in all three models [model III: odds ratio (OR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.61-0.98; P for trend = 0.03; OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.69-1.07; P for trend = 0.12]. In addition, meta-analyses of published studies showed inverse associations between vitamin B6 and CRC (combined relative risk, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.96; test for overall effect P = 0.01; combined odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.60-0.75; test for overall effect P < 0.00001)"
  • Childhood Dairy Intake Linked to Colon Cancer - oncologystat.com, 12/19/07 - "Those who reported high levels of dairy during childhood were about 3 times more likely to develop colon cancer than those with low intake. A high intake was considered 2 or more cups a day, with a low intake being half a cup or less"
  • Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort - Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Dec;86(6):1722-9 - "High childhood total dairy intake was associated with a near-tripling in the odds of colorectal cancer [multivariate odds ratio: 2.90 (95% CI: 1.26, 6.65); 2-sided P for trend = 0.005] compared with low intake, independent of meat, fruit, and vegetable intakes and socioeconomic indicators"
  • Elevated Insulin, Glucose Raise Risk of Polyp Recurrence - Medscape, 12/10/07 - "patients with elevated insulin or glucose at the time of adenoma removal are at increased risk for recurrent adenoma ... Levels of glucose that produced the increased risk in this study were actually not very high, 99 mg/dL, which is right at the border of what we would describe as impaired fasting glucose ... the odds ratio for a recurrent polyp with advanced histology or large size was 2.43 at a fasting glucose level above 99 mg/dL ... These results "fit with the theory that insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia promote the development of colorectal neoplasia,""
  • Chemoprevention, Naturally: Findings On Plant-derived Cancer Medicines - Science Daily, 12/6/07 - "rats fed a diet containing Polyphenon E, a standardized green tea polyphenol preparation, are less than half as likely to develop colon cancer ... After 34 weeks, rats that received Polyphenon E developed 55 percent fewer tumors compared to the control rats that did not receive Polyphenon E. Moreover, the tumors were 45 percent smaller in rats treated with green tea extract" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Aspirin and Folic Acid for the Prevention of Recurrent Colorectal Adenomas - Gastroenterology. 2007 Oct 10 - "In total, 99 (22.8%) of 434 patients receiving aspirin had a recurrent adenoma compared with 121 (28.9%) of 419 patients receiving placebo (relative risk, 0.79"
  • Grape Powder Blocks Genes Linked To Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 11/14/07 - "The Wnt pathway has been linked to more than 85 percent of sporadic colon cancers, which is the most common form of colon cancer ... Wnt signaling in the patients taking 80 grams of grape powder was significantly reduced ... Eighty grams of grape powder equal a half glass of wine or 1 pound of grapes, which is equivalent to three dietary servings of grapes, according to the USDA"
  • Riboflavin boosts folate's colorectal cancer protection - study - Nutra USA, 10/29/07
  • Mesalamine, Folic Acid Each Cut Colorectal Cancer in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease - oncologystat.com, 10/24/07 - "Patients who took at least 1 mg of folic acid daily also had about a 90% cut in their CRC incidence during follow-up, compared with the controls" - See folic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 to cut colon cancer: meta-analysis - Nutra USA, 10/25/07 - "the highest consumption of fish oil was associated with 12 per cent reduction in the incidence of colorectal cancer" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Proanthocyanidin from grape seeds inactivates the PI3-kinase/PKB pathway and induces apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line - Cancer Lett. 2007 Oct 6 - "grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) ... GSPE (10-100mug/ml) significantly inhibited cell viability and increased apoptosis in CaCo2 cells, but did not alter viability in the normal colon cell line (NCM460). The increased apoptosis observed in GSPE-treated CaCo2 cells correlated with an attenuation of PI3-kinase (p110 and p85 subunits) and decreased PKB Ser(473) phosphorylation. GSPE might thus exert its beneficial effects by means of increased apoptosis and suppression of the important PI3-kinase survival-related pathway" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Curcumin enhances the effects of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin in mediating growth inhibition of colon cancer cells by modulating EGFR and IGF-1R - Int J Cancer. 2007 Oct 4 - "inclusion of curcumin to the conventional chemotherapeutic agent(s)/regimen could be an effective therapeutic strategy for colorectal cancer" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Fruits, Veggies Don’t Cut Colon Cancer - WebMD, 9/25/07 - "Overall, a higher intake of fruits and vegetables does not strongly reduce your risk of colon cancer"
  • CLA isomers show promise against colon cancer - study - Nutra USA, 9/24/07 - "We have demonstrated that diets containing 0.1 per cent c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA were equally effective in inhibiting colon cancer cell metastasis in vivo" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Influence of conjugated linoleic acid isomers on the metastasis of colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo - J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Oct;18(10):650-7 - "diets containing 0.1% c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA were equally effective in inhibiting colon cancer cell metastasis in vivo. However, in vitro, only c9,t11 but not t10,c12 inhibited colon cancer cell migration and MMP-9 activity" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D for Cancer Prevention? - WebMD, 9/5/07 - "The 2,000-IU daily dose of vitamin D suggested by the reviewers is currently considered the "tolerable upper limit" for vitamin D ... a projected 50% reduction in colon cancer incidence would require a universal intake of 2,000 IU per day of vitamin D3 ... A similar reduction in breast cancer incidence would require 3,500 IU per day"
  • Study Shines More Light On Benefit Of Vitamin D In Fighting Cancer - Science Daily, 8/21/07 - "For the first time, we are saying that 600,000 cases of breast and colorectal cancer could be prevented each year worldwide, including nearly 150,000 in the United States alone ... The serum level recommended by the study would correspond to intake of 2000 International Units per day of vitamin D3 for a meaningful reduction in colorectal cancer" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Colon Cancer on curcumin and Vectibix - Johns Hopkins, 8/14/07 - "University of Texas researchers treated some human colorectal cancer cells with neurotensin, with and without curcumin. They confirmed that neurotensin started a chain reaction of chemicals that can increase the growth of cancer and also the migration of cancer cells and that curcumin blocked the process ... Curcumin appears to do this by blocking the biochemical signals sent by neurotensin that contribute to colon cancer cell growth and migration (the spread of cancer to other body sites)" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibition Of Tumorigenesis in Apc(Min/+) Mice by a Combination of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Fish Oil - J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Aug 16 - "The effect of a combination of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with fish oil on intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc (Min/+) mice fed a high-fat diet was investigated in the present study. The combined treatment of EGCG and fish oil for 9 weeks reduced the tumor number by 53% as compared to controls while neither agent alone had a significant effect. Apoptosis was significantly increased in all treatment groups" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Compounds That Color Fruits And Veggies May Protect Against Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 8/19/07 - "In animal studies, rats induced with colon cancer cells were fed a daily diet of anthocyanin extracts either from bilberries and chokeberries, which are most often used as flavorings or to make jams and juices. The dietary addition of the anthocyanin extracts reduced signs of colon tumors by 70 and 60 percent, respectively, when compared to control rats"
  • Green tea may stop colon cancer in its tracks - study - Nutra USA, 8/9/07 - "At the age of eight weeks, the mice were divided into two groups - one to receive water or a green tea solution (0.6 per cent) as the only beverage source for a further four to eight weeks ... consumption of the green tea solution significantly inhibited the formation of new tumours in the colon" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea selectively targets initial stages of intestinal carcinogenesis in the AOM-ApcMin mouse model - Carcinogenesis. 2007 Jul 17 - "green tea specifically targets initial stages of colon carcinogenesis; the time of administration of green tea is pivotal for effective chemoprevention. Beverage levels of GT are not likely to inhibit the progress of any large adenomas or adenocarcinomas existing prior to the tea administration"
  • A Nested Case-Control Study of Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Risk of Colorectal Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Jul 10 - "Our data provide additional support for the inverse association between vitamin D and colorectal and, in particular, colon cancer risk"
  • Mistletoe in Supportive Care for Colorectal and Pancreatic Cancers - Doctor's Guide, 7/12/07 - "Use of a fermented mistletoe extract (MEx; Iscador®) in long-term supportive care in hospitals and private practices demonstrated significant survival benefit and improvements in quality of life for patients with surgically treated primary, nonmetastatic colorectal carcinoma and for patients with all-stages pancreatic carcinoma, when combined with adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy or passive aftercare in two multicentre, controlled, retrospective, epidemiological, observational, cohort studies"
  • A Nested Case-Control Study of Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Risk of Colorectal Cancer - J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Jul 10 - "we observed a non-statistically significant inverse association between higher plasma 25(OH)D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer and a statistically significant inverse association for colon cancer (highest versus lowest quintile: odds ratio [OR] = 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.24 to 0.89; P(trend) = .005). After pooling the results from the HPFS and NHS, higher plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were statistically significantly associated with decreased risks of both colorectal cancer (highest versus lowest quintile, OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.42 to 1.05; P(trend) = .01) and colon cancer (highest versus lowest quintile, OR = 0.54" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Different omega-3 may offer different colorectal protection - Nutra USA, 7/11/07 - "Increased intake of EPA was associated with a 41 per cent reduction in risk, while DHA was associated with a 37 per cent reduction in risk, comparing highest against lowest average intakes" - [Abstract] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fatty acids and colorectal cancer: a case-control study - Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jul 15;166(2):181-95 - "Significant dose-dependent reductions in risk were associated with increased consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (highest vs. lowest quartile of intake: odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.80; p < 0.0005 for trend) and of eicosapentaenoic (odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.75; p < 0.0005 for trend) and docosahexaenoic (odds ratio = 0.63" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Fights Colon Cancer - WebMD, 7/10/07 - "The findings support a number of previous studies that link vitamin D to colon cancer protection, to protection against breast and ovarian cancer, to protection against pancreatic cancer, and to overall reduction of cancer risk" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Intake of Vitamin B-6 Is Associated with Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese Men - J Nutr. 2007 Jul;137(7):1808-1814 - "We observed a significant inverse association between vitamin B-6 intake and colorectal cancer in men. Compared with the lowest quartile, the multivariate hazard ratio (95% [CI]) in the highest quartile of intake was 0.69"
  • Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study - Cancer Causes Control. 2007 Jun 8 - "Dietary fiber was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, but its relation to replacement hormone use and other factors affected its inverse association in women"

Other News:

  • Higher plasma homocysteine is associated with increased risk of developing colorectal polyps - Nutr Cancer. 2013 Feb;65(2):195-201 - "participants with higher plasma homocysteine [odds ratio (OR) = 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13, 3.08) level exhibited significantly increased risk of colorectal polyps after adjusting for potential confounders. Plasma homocysteine was a strong predictor of the risk of colorectal polyps in participants with adequate B-vitamins status"
  • Half of Colorectal Cancers Linked to Obesity and Inactivity - Medscape, 2/26/13 - "increased body weight and decreased levels of physical activity are only associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer that tests negative for the biomarker CTNNB1. This subtype accounted for 54% of the cases tested ... Higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with a significantly higher risk for CTNNB1-negative colorectal cancer (multivariate hazard ratio (HR) for increments of 5 kg/m², 1.34; P trend < .0001). Physical activity was associated with a significantly lower risk for CTNNB1-negative colorectal cancer (multivariate HR for increments of 10 MET-h/week, 0.93; P trend = .044) ... The mechanism may involve insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGF), which are the main suspects in the search for putative mediators of the causal link between obesity and colorectal cancer" - Note:  Seems like they could phrase it in English.  The way I read it, 54% of colon cancer patients were CTNNB1-negative.  Of that 54%, a higher BMI results in a 34% increase in odds of getting colon cancer and a higher fitness level results in a 7% decrease in getting colon cancer”
  • Statins and Colorectal Cancer - Medscape, 2/18/13 - "In a retrospective analysis conducted in more than 2500 veterans with a history of colonoscopic polypectomy for adenomas, Siddiqui et al[87] showed a 49% reduction in the incidence of recurrent adenomas, and a 29% reduction in the incidence of advanced adenomas, associated with continuous statin use over 3 to 5 years. In a subsequent analysis of 231 individuals from the same population,[88] significantly fewer adenomas, of smaller size, were observed at follow-up colonoscopy in individuals who had achieved 30% or more reduction in LDL cholesterol level, compared with those who had not. This suggests that lipid lowering, rather than statin use per se, may be partly responsible for the effect of statins on adenoma development and progression.[88] An independent case-control study of 197 patients, also from a veterans population, found no association between statin use and adenoma recurrence over a median of 3.4 years.[89] Furthermore, a secondary analysis of data from 3 large colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trials, with a combined total of 2915 subjects, failed to show any association between statin use and the recurrence of any adenomas, multiple adenomas, or advanced adenomas.[90] The prevalence of self-reported statin use was, however, low (8.1%) across the 3 chemoprevention trials, limiting power for the post hoc analysis.[90] Statin users comprised a much larger proportion (37%) of participants in the Adenoma Prevention With Celecoxib (APC) trial.[91] However, in a secondary analysis of APC trial data, Bertagnolli et al[91] found no evidence to support a chemopreventive effect of statin use over 5 years of follow-up. On the contrary, statin use of more than 3 years was associated with a 39% increased risk of adenoma recurrence. Although these data are derived from an RCT, statin use was self-selected, and the patient population comprised only high-risk patients with a history of multiple or large adenomas, limiting the generalizability of the results. Nonetheless, this analysis represents a large prospective study of statin use and incident adenomas. Furthermore, assessment of the association between statin use and study end points was a planned secondary analysis"
  • Statins and colorectal cancer risk: a longitudinal study - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Jan 30 - "After multivariable adjustment, initiators of statins had a lower incidence rate of CRC as compared to initiators of glaucoma drugs [hazard ratio (HR) 0.79; 95 % CI 0.69-0.90]. In sex-stratified analyses we observed a protective effect in men (HR 0.77; 95 % CI 0.67-0.88) but not in women (HR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.82-1.1)"
  • Virtual colonoscopy without laxative equals standard OC in identifying clinically significant polyps - Science Daily, 6/14/12 - "Computed tomographic colonography (CTC), also known as virtual colonoscopy, administered without laxatives is as accurate as conventional colonoscopy in detecting clinically significant, potentially cancerous polyps ... patients do not have to go through bowel cleansing before the exam, but instead begin a low fiber diet two days before the test. They also ingest a tagging agent the day before the exam, which mixes with residual material in the colon and can then be identified and removed digitally when radiologists interpret the scans ... laxative-free CTC exams detected clinically significant polyps 10 mm or larger with 91 percent accuracy compared to OC exams, which were 95 percent accurate. Statistically, there is no difference between these two number"
  • High blood sugar levels in older women linked to colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 11/29/11 - "The Einstein study involved women who were enrolled in the National Institutes of Health''''s landmark Women''''s Health Initiative study ... By the end of the 12-year period, 81 of the women had developed colorectal cancer. The researchers found that elevated baseline glucose levels were associated with increased colorectal cancer risk -- and that women in the highest third of baseline glucose levels were nearly twice as likely to have developed colorectal cancer as women in the lowest third of blood glucose levels ... obesity''''s impact on this cancer may be due to elevated glucose levels, or to some factor associated with elevated glucose levels"
  • Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer With Metformin Therapy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A meta-analysis - Diabetes Care. 2011 Oct;34(10):2323-8 - "Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that metformin inhibits cancer cell growth and reduces cancer risk ... The analysis included five studies comprising 108,161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Metformin treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of colorectal neoplasm (relative risk [RR] 0.63 [95% CI 0.50-0.79]; P < 0.001). After exclusion of one study that investigated colorectal adenoma, the remaining four studies comprised 107,961 diabetic patients and 589 incident colorectal cancer cases during follow-up. Metformin treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of colorectal cancer (0.63 [0.47-0.84]; P = 0.002)" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Alcohol Linked to Colorectal Cancer Risk - Medscape, 9/18/11 - "Overall, the dose-risk analysis found a statistically significant 7% increased risk for colorectal cancer for 10 g per day of alcohol intake, which includes light alcohol consumers. According to the researchers, 1 drink is equivalent to 12 g of ethanol" - Note:  My problem with alcohol is that it increases free radicals which has to increase signs of aging like wrinkling.  It does decrease heart disease but it also increases breast cancer, etc.
  • High levels of 'good' cholesterol may cut bowel cancer risk - Science Daily, 3/7/11 - "Each rise of 16.6 mg/dl in HDL and of 32 mg/dl in apoA reduced the risk of bowel cancer by 22% and 18%, respectively, after taking account of diet, lifestyle, and weight ... low HDL levels have been linked to higher levels of proteins involved in inflammation, while higher levels of proteins that dampen down the inflammatory response have also been linked to high HDL levels ... The pro inflammatory proteins boost cell growth and proliferation while curbing cell death, so HDL may alter the inflammatory process in some way"
  • Adiponectin and adiponectin receptor in relation to colorectal cancer progression - Int J Cancer. 2010 Dec 15;127(12):2758-67 - "Although obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Adiponectin is an adipokine that binds to 2 types of receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. The plasma concentrations of adiponectin are reduced in obese individuals and adiponectin has been reported to have anticarcinogenic properties. Furthermore, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 have been reported to be expressed in several malignancies ... AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 immunostaining was detected in 72 and 68% of human colorectal cancer tissue, respectively. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression levels were inversely related to T stage. The lowest AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 expression were detected in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. RT-PCR also showed the expression of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in HCT116 and SW620. MTT assay and TUNEL assay demonstrated the tendency of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in both cell lines after full-length adiponectin treatment although statistically insignificant. Microarray analysis revealed several gene responses to full-length adiponectin, including upregulation of ENDOGL1 and MT1G. In conclusion, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 may be intimately related to the progression of colorectal cancer"
  • Lack of sleep found to be a new risk factor for colon cancer - Science Daily, 2/8/11 - "individuals who averaged less than six hours of sleep at night had an almost 50 percent increase in the risk of colorectal adenomas compared with individuals sleeping at least seven hours per night. Adenomas are a precursor to cancer tumors, and left untreated, they can turn malignant"
  • Anti-gout drug may decrease risk for colorectal adenoma progression - Science Daily, 11/8/10
  • Telomere length affects colorectal cancer risk - Science Daily, 10/28/10 - "Patients with the longest telomeres -- those patients in the 95th percentile of telomere length -- were 30 percent more likely to develop colorectal cancer than those in the 50th percentile, the results showed. Overall, the individuals with the shortest and the longest telomere lengths were at an increased risk for colorectal cancer"
  • Radiation before surgery keeps colorectal cancer from returning, study finds - Science Daily, 10/25/10
  • Higher bone mineral density is associated with a decreased risk of colorectal adenomas - Int J Cancer. 2010 Oct 14 - "patients in the highest tertile of total body BMD (>1.294 g/cm(2)) and in the middle tertile (≥1.167 to ≤1.294 g/cm(2)) compared to those with a total body BMD in the lowest tertile (<1.167 g/cm(2)) had a lower risk of colorectal adenomas (highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=0.29 (0.10-0.84); middle vs. lowest tertile: OR=0.26 (0.08-0.80); p-trend=0.02)"
  • Statin use associated with statistically significant reduction in colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 10/18/10 - "The relative risk was 0.88 (95% CI 0.84-0.93; n=22) and represents a 12% reduction in the odds of colorectal cancer among statin users ... the most common category of statins, lipophilic (which includes atorvastatin or Lipitor®), showed the greatest effect ... long-term use of statins is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including breast, prostate, lung, pancreas and liver"
  • New recommendations issued for use of cetuximab in colon cancer therapy - Science Daily, 7/16/10
  • Bacteria as a predicter of colorectal cancer - Science Daily, 5/25/10 - "Several bacterial signatures were detected only in subjects with polyps, others only in subjects without polyps. Eubacterium ramulus was increased in the stools of subjects with polyps while Ruminococcus sp and a human intestine firmicute were increased in subjects without polyps. In tissue samples, Acidovorax sp. was found more frequently in subjects with polyps. Other bacterial signatures that differed between cases and controls were observed but did not match any know bacteria, suggesting unidentified and uncharacterized bacteria are also present"
  • Minimally Invasive Surgery Shown Safe And Effective Treatment For Rectal Cancer - Science Daily, 11/10/09
  • New Old Drug Fights Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 10/13/09
  • Estrogen May Improve Colon Cancer Survival - WebMD, 9/29/09
  • Visceral Obesity and Insulin Resistance as Risk Factors for Colorectal Adenoma: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study - Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep 15 - "insulin resistance was associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma"
  • Evaluating More Lymph Nodes May Not Improve Identification Of Late-stage Colorectal Cancer - Science Daily, 8/26/09
  • Alcohol And Smoking Are Key Causes For Bowel Cancer - Science Daily, 6/2/09 - "people who consume the largest quantities of alcohol (equivalent to > 7 drinks per week) have 60% greater risk of developing the cancer, compared with non-drinkers ... Smoking, obesity and diabetes were also associated with a 20% greater risk of developing bowel cancer - the same risk linked with consuming high intakes of red and processed meat"
  • Inflammation In Colon May Get Doused Before Fueling Cancer Development - Science Daily, 2/10/09
  • Using 2 newer drugs may worsen colon cancer - MSNBC, 2/4/09
  • Inflammation Directly Linked To Colon Cancer; Potential New Drug Targets Revealed - Science Daily, 2/2/09
  • Inflammation Contributes To Colon Cancer - Science Daily, 1/22/09
  • Hormone Therapy Associated With Reduced Colorectal Cancer Risk - Science Daily, 1/8/09 - "The combination of estrogen plus progestin, which women stopped taking in droves following the news that it may increase their risk of breast cancer, may decrease their risk of colorectal cancer ... Any use of estrogen therapy was associated with a 17 percent reduced risk in colorectal cancer. Among those who used estrogen, the largest reductions were seen among those who were current users (25 percent reduced risk) and users of ten or more years duration (26 percent reduced risk)"
  • Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of colorectal cancer - Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Jan;18(1):196-203 - "evaluated colorectal cancer risk associated with the duration and recency of specific menopausal hormone therapy formulations (i.e., unopposed estrogen versus estrogen plus progestin) and regimens (i.e., sequential versus continuous estrogen plus progestin use) ... We observed a decreased risk of colorectal cancer among ever users of unopposed estrogen therapy (RR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99). Among estrogen users, the largest reduced risk was observed for current users (RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.54-1.05) and users of >/=ten years duration (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96). We found a reduced risk among users of estrogen plus progestin therapy (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.60-1.02), with sequential regimen users (progestin <15 days per cycle) having the largest risk reduction (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.95). Past users of >/=5 years ago (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.98) had the largest risk reduction. In this study, estrogen plus progestin use, especially sequential regimen use, was associated with the largest overall reduction of colorectal cancer risk"
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