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Recent Longevity News for the seven days ending 2/20/13.  You should consult your doctor if you are taking any medications.

Caffeine linked to low birth weight babies - Science Daily, 2/18/13 - "small for gestational age at birth (SGA). In this study we found no association between either total caffeine or coffee caffeine and preterm delivery but we did find an association between caffeine and SGA ... caffeine from all sources reduced birth weight. For a child of expected average weight (3.6kg) this equates to 21-28g lost per 100mg caffeine per day. But it was not just caffeine, but the source of caffeine, which affected pregnancy outcomes. Caffeine from all sources increased the length of the pregnancy by 5hr per 100mg caffeine per day, but caffeine intake from coffee was associated with an even longer gestational length -- 8hr extra for every 100mg caffeine per day ... SGA babies are at higher risk of both short term and lifelong health problems and it seems from these results that since even 200-300mg caffeine per day can increase the risk of SGA by almost a third these recommendations need to be re-evaluated"

Alcohol consumption is a leading preventable cause of cancer death in U.S., experts say - Science Daily, 2/18/13 - "alcohol is a major contributor to cancer deaths and years of potential life lost ... reducing alcohol consumption is an important cancer prevention strategy as alcohol is a known carcinogen even when consumed in small quantities"

Natural Probiotic for Osteoporosis? Building Healthy Bones Takes Guts - Science Daily, 2/14/13 - "inflammation in the gut can cause bone loss, though it's unclear exactly why ... the researchers fed the mice Lactobacillus reuteri, a probiotic known to reduce inflammation, a sometimes harmful effect of the body's immune response to infection ... the male mice showed a significant increase in bone density after four weeks of treatment. There was no such effect when the researchers repeated the experiment with female mice, an anomaly they're now investigating ... People tend to think of osteoporosis as just affecting postmenopausal women, but what they don't realize is that it can occur with other conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and Type 1 diabetes ... You don't want to put your child on medications that reduce bone remodeling for the rest of their life, so something natural could be useful for long-term treatment of bone loss that begins at childhood" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.

Gut Bacteria Linked to Cholesterol Metabolism - Science Daily, 2/18/13 - "gut bacteria reduce bile acid synthesis in the liver by signaling through a specific protein, known as the FXR receptor, in the small intestine ... The FXR receptor not only affects cholesterol metabolism but is also involved in the body's sugar and fat metabolism ... If future research can identify the specific bacteria that affect FXR signaling in the gut, this could lead to new ways to treat diabetes and cardiovascular disease" - See probiotic products at Amazon.com.

Statins and Colorectal Cancer - Medscape, 2/18/13 - "In a retrospective analysis conducted in more than 2500 veterans with a history of colonoscopic polypectomy for adenomas, Siddiqui et al[87] showed a 49% reduction in the incidence of recurrent adenomas, and a 29% reduction in the incidence of advanced adenomas, associated with continuous statin use over 3 to 5 years. In a subsequent analysis of 231 individuals from the same population,[88] significantly fewer adenomas, of smaller size, were observed at follow-up colonoscopy in individuals who had achieved 30% or more reduction in LDL cholesterol level, compared with those who had not. This suggests that lipid lowering, rather than statin use per se, may be partly responsible for the effect of statins on adenoma development and progression.[88] An independent case-control study of 197 patients, also from a veterans population, found no association between statin use and adenoma recurrence over a median of 3.4 years.[89] Furthermore, a secondary analysis of data from 3 large colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trials, with a combined total of 2915 subjects, failed to show any association between statin use and the recurrence of any adenomas, multiple adenomas, or advanced adenomas.[90] The prevalence of self-reported statin use was, however, low (8.1%) across the 3 chemoprevention trials, limiting power for the post hoc analysis.[90] Statin users comprised a much larger proportion (37%) of participants in the Adenoma Prevention With Celecoxib (APC) trial.[91] However, in a secondary analysis of APC trial data, Bertagnolli et al[91] found no evidence to support a chemopreventive effect of statin use over 5 years of follow-up. On the contrary, statin use of more than 3 years was associated with a 39% increased risk of adenoma recurrence. Although these data are derived from an RCT, statin use was self-selected, and the patient population comprised only high-risk patients with a history of multiple or large adenomas, limiting the generalizability of the results. Nonetheless, this analysis represents a large prospective study of statin use and incident adenomas. Furthermore, assessment of the association between statin use and study end points was a planned secondary analysis"

Effects of Vitamin D on Immune Disorders - Medscape, 2/18/13 - "For a long time, VD was regarded as an essential factor only in generation (in infancy) and maintenance (primarily in postmenopausal women) of bone mineralization but hardly anything more. However, during the last 10–15 years, so many new studies have been published on the extraskeletal effects of VD. They encompass three fields: a basically inhibitory effect on deleterious immune reactions, which facilitate the production of certain endogenous antimicrobial agents such as cathelicidin and defensins, which allegedly provide protection against a wide range of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy and common influenza, and inhibit of carcinogenesis, primarily in the colon, breast, prostate gland and so on. In view of the large amount of new data only the first topic has been reviewed in this paper. As discussed above, VD has been shown to be involved in the prevention of certain pathological immune reactions leading to various autoimmune disorders (Type 1 diabetes, colitis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and graft rejection) and asthma (and other atopic diseases), and even in COPD, which is not regarded as an autoimmune disease" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Copper can protect against Alzheimer's disease - Science Daily, 2/17/13 - "under conditions which are approximately similar to those found in the brain, copper can only protect against beta amyloid forming beta sheets and as such it is highly unlikely that copper is directly involved in the formation of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease ... The research, published by Nature's online journal Scientific Reports, may also imply that lower levels of copper in the brain may promote the mechanisms whereby beta amyloid is deposited as senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease" - See Jarrow Zinc Balance at Amazon.com.

Even a drink a day boosts cancer death risk, alcohol study finds - nbcnews.com, 2/14/13 - "consuming just 1.5 drinks a day -- or less -- was associated with up to 35 percent of those cancer deaths, suggesting that any alcohol use carries some risk ... Breast cancer accounted for most alcohol-related cancer deaths in women, about 15 percent of all breast cancer deaths ... studies that show benefits from moderate alcohol use are potentially flawed because they compare non-drinkers and drinkers, who may be healthy -- or not -- for other reasons than alcohol use. Non-drinkers may abstain because of existing health problems, for instance, while moderate drinkers might have other factors, such as education, wealth and lifestyle choices that boost their health independent of alcohol. Besides, there’s never been a “gold standard” study that addresses the issue"

Long, slow walks may beat shorter, higher intensity runs - TODAY Health, 2/13/13 - "when volunteers spent two hours standing and four hours walking each day they had healthier insulin levels and lower triglycerides than when they spent an hour a day at the gym cycling for all they were worth, Norwegian researchers found. And that was true even though the volunteers burned nearly the same amount of calories whether they were cycling or slow walking: The main difference was in the number of hours spent sitting ... The new study may go a long way to explaining the results of another recent report that found that baby boomers are less healthy than their parents at the same age. The older generation spent much more time walking to work and for errands" - Note:  I was thinking the same reason when I published this two weeks ago:

  • Baby Boomers' Overall Health Worse Than Their Parents - Medscape, 2/4/13 - "Despite their longer life expectancy over previous generations, US baby boomers have higher rates of chronic disease, more disability, and lower self-rated health than members of the previous generation at the same age ... As to comparative disability, more than twice as many baby boomers used walking assist devices (6.9% vs 3.3%), more were limited in their work by disability (13.8% vs 10.1%), and 13.5% vs 8.8% were coping with some type of functional limitation ... In addition, more baby boomers are obese compared with the previous generation (38.7% vs 29.4%), and they reported exercising significantly less often (35.0% vs 49.9% exercised >12 times per month) ... Moderate drinking was more common among the boomers compared with the previous generation (67.3% vs 37.2%) ... Hypertension, too, was more common (43.0% vs 36.4%) ... the present study demonstrates a clear need for policies that expand efforts at prevention and healthy lifestyle promotion in the baby boomer generation"

Vitamin C is beneficial against the common cold, review suggests - Science Daily, 2/13/13 - "Regular doses of vitamin C of one gram per day or higher have reduced the average duration of colds in adults by 8% and in children by 18%" - See vitamin C at Amazon.com.

Risk of cardiovascular death doubled in women with high calcium intake: High risk only in those taking supplements as well - Science Daily, 2/12/13 - "Researchers from Uppsala University in Sweden therefore studied 61,443 Swedish women (born between 1914 and 1948) for an average of 19 years to test this association ... The mean intake in the lowest quartile was 572mg/day (the equivalent of five slices of cheese ) and in the highest 2137mg/day ... Highest rates of all-cause, cardiovascular and heart disease were observed among those with a dietary calcium intake higher than 1400mg/day ... In addition, researchers observed higher death rates among women with an intake below 600mg/day ... Women who had a higher dietary intake of calcium exceeding 1400mg/day and also used supplements had a higher death rate compared to those not taking supplements. Women with a high dietary calcium intake (>1400 mg/day) were more than twice as likely to die compared with women with a 600-999mg/day calcium intake"

Lower autism risk with folic acid supplements in pregnancy - Science Daily, 2/12/13 - "Women who took folic acid supplements from four weeks before conception to eight weeks into pregnancy had a 40 per cent lower risk of giving birth to children with childhood autism (classic autism). Use of folic acid supplements midway through pregnancy (week 22) had no effect ... The ABC Study included participants in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) who were born in 2002-2008, and included a total of 85,176 children ... The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that women who are planning to become pregnant should take folic acid supplements from one month before conception and during the first three months of pregnancy" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.

Heart Attack Grill's Unofficial Spokesman Dies After Heart Attack - ABC News, 2/12/13 - "John Alleman, 52, who had come to the restaurant to eat every day, was on life support at the Las Vegas Sunrise Hospital after he had a "massive" coronary at a bus stop last week. He was taken off life support Monday ... Burgers on the Heart Attack Grill's menu have names like "Single Bypass," "Double Bypass," "Triple Bypass," "Quadruple Bypass" and so forth"

Abstracts from this week's Doctor's Guide Nutrition/Dietetics plus abstracts from my RSS feeds (Click here for the journals, the PubMed ones at the top):

GreenLight XPS 180W vs HPS 120W Laser Therapy for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: A Prospective Comparative Analysis After 200 Cases in a Single-center Study - Urology. 2013 Feb 12 - "Mean operating room time (43 vs 79 minutes) and mean laser time (22 vs 37 minutes) were significantly shorter for the GL-XPS group (both P <.01) and mean energy delivery was comparable (226 vs 268 kJ, P = .21), GL-XPS vs GL-HPS. Mean fiber use (1.0 vs 1.5) and 3L saline bags (4.1 vs 7) were significantly lower with GL-XPS, all P <.01. There were no significant differences in the 30-day complication rate. To date, no urethral strictures and 1 GL-HPS retreatment were observed. PSA reduction at 6 months was significantly greater with GL-XPS (54% vs 79%, P <.01)"

Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is independently associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Feb 13 - "Compared with matched controls, patients with NAFLD have significantly decreased serum 25(OH)D levels, suggesting that low 25(OH)D status might play a role in the development and progression of NAFLD" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

High serum vitamin D levels reduce the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in healthy men independent of metabolic syndrome - Endocr J. 2013 Feb 13 - "performed a cross-sectional study of 6,567 Korean men who participated in a health screening program, evaluating the association of serum 25(OH)D(3) levels with the risk of NAFLD assessed by abdominal ultrasonogram ... The mean 25(OH)D(3) level was significantly lower in participants with NAFLD than in those without (38.7 +/- 9.0 vs. 39.7 +/- 9.7 nmol/L, p < 0.001). When participants were divided into tertiles based on mean 25(OH)D(3) level, the proportion with NAFLD significantly increased as mean 25(OH)D(3) level decreased (40.0, 45.0 and 45.9%, p for linear trend < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses with NAFLD as the dependent variable showed that the tertiles with lower 25(OH)D(3) levels had a significantly increased risk for NAFLD compared with the highest tertile, even after adjusting for body mass index and metabolic syndrome (OR 1.247 and 1.408 vs. the highest tertile, p < 0.001). Thus, participants with higher serum 25(OH)D(3) showed a significantly reduced risk for NAFLD compared with the low 25(OH)D(3) groups, independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Associations of tea and coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk - Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Feb 15 - "We studied associations of tea and coffee consumption with PCa risk in a population-based case-control study from King County, Washington, USA. Prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2002-2005 and matched to controls by 5-year age groups ... The analysis of tea included 892 cases and 863 controls, and tea consumption was associated with a reduced overall PCa risk with an adjusted OR of 0.63 (95 % CI: 0.45, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02) for men in the highest compared to lowest category of tea intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1 cup/week). Risk estimates did not vary substantially by Gleason grade or disease stage. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of overall PCa or PCa in subgroups defined by tumor grade or stage" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.

Quercetin Induces Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Pathway in KB and KBv200 cells - J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Feb 14 - "In this study, anticancer activities of six compounds of flavonoids were investigated in human epidermoid carcinoma KB and KBv200 cells. Among these compounds, quercetin and acacetin showed strong inhibition of cell growth in KB and KBv200 cells" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.

High Concentrations of Plasma n3 Fatty Acids Are Associated with Decreased Risk for Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration - J Nutr. 2013 Feb 13 - "High dietary intakes of n3 (Ω3) PUFA and fish have been consistently associated with a decreased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) ... The Antioxydants Lipides Essentiels Nutrition et Maladies Occulaires (Alienor) Study is a prospective, population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 residents of Bordeaux (France) aged ≥73 y ... After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, physical activity, plasma HDL-cholesterol, plasma TGs, CFH Y402H, apoE4, and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms, and follow-up time, high plasma total n3 PUFA was associated with a reduced risk for late AMD [OR = 0.62 for 1-SD increase (95% CI: 0.44-0.88); P = 0.008]. Associations were similar for plasma 18:3n3 [OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88); P = 0.008] and n3 long-chain PUFA [OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.92); P = 0.01" - Note:  18:3n3 is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the form of omega-3 found in plant sources such as flax.  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.

Low serum potassium level is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its related metabolic disorders - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013 Feb 13 - "Subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Low serum potassium concentration or low dietary potassium intake can result in metabolic disorders ... conducted a community-based study in 8592 subjects to investigate the association of serum potassium with the risk of prevalent NAFLD ... The prevalence rate of NAFLD was 30.3% in this population and gradually decreased across serum potassium quartiles. With the reduction of serum potassium level, participants have larger waist circumference (WC) and more severe insulin resistance. The correlations hold also in multivariate linear regression analysis. In logistic regression analysis, compared with subjects in the highest quartile of serum potassium level, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the lowest quartile was 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 - 1.60) for NAFLD, 1.81 (95 % CI, 1.49 - 2.19) for insulin resistance and 1.58 (95 % CI, 1.30 - 1.93) for central obesity" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.

Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial - Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Feb 13 - "The objective was to determine in obese adolescents the efficacy and safety of 4000 IU vitamin D(3)/d and whether subsequent increased circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are associated with improved markers of insulin sensitivity and resistance and reduced inflammation ... fasting insulin (-6.5 compared with +1.2 μU/mL for placebo; P = 0.026), HOMA-IR (-1.363 compared with +0.27 for placebo; P = 0.033)" - Note:  The fasting insulin was 7.7 lower (difference between -6.5 and +1.2).  See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Anti-Diabetic Medications and the Risk of Hepatocellular Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis - Am J Gastroenterol. 2013 Feb 5 - "anti-diabetic medications (ADMs) ... performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies evaluating the effect of metformin, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), sulfonylureas, and/or insulin on the risk of HCC ... Meta-analysis of observational studies showed a 50% reduction in HCC incidence with metformin use (n=8 studies; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.34-0.73), 62% and 161% increase in HCC incidence with sulfonylurea (n=8 studies; OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.16-2.24) or insulin use (n=7; OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.46-4.65), respectively. TZDs did not modify the risk of HCC (n=4; OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.28-1.02). There was considerable heterogeneity across studies, which was partly explained by study setting, location, and whether the studies adjusted for the concomitant use of other ADMs"

Lutein supplementation reduces plasma lipid peroxidation and C-reactive protein in healthy nonsmokers - Atherosclerosis. 2013 Jan 29 - "117 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive 10 or 20 mg/d of lutein or placebo for 12 weeks ... total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) ... A significant reduction was found in malondialdehyde in the 20 mg lutein group. CRP concentration decreased in a dose-dependent manner for lutein supplementation, and there was a significant between-group difference in CRP between the 20 mg lutein and the placebo group. Serum CRP was directly related to the change in plasma lutein and TAOC for both active treatment groups" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.

Meat intake, cooking methods, and risk of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancer: The Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) cohort study - Int J Cancer. 2013 Feb 8 - "In the population-based Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort (NOWAC) we examined associations of meat intake with incident proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancer, in 84 538 women who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) during 1996-1998 or 2003-2005 (baseline or exposure update) at age 41-70 years, with follow-up by register linkages through 2009 ... Processed meat intake ≥60 vs. <15 g/day was associated with significantly increased cancer risk in all subsites with HRs (95% confidence interval, CI) of 1.69 (1.05-2.72) for proximal colon, 2.13 (1.18-3.83) for distal colon, and 1.71 (1.02-2.85) for rectal cancer ... Our study did not support an association between CRC risk and intake of red meat, chicken, or meat cooking methods, but a high processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancer. The effect of processed meat was mainly driven by the intake of sausages"

Neat Tech Stuff / "How To's":

Health Focus (Heart Disease):

Related Topics:

Popular Supplements:

Alternative News:

  • High anthocyanin intake is associated with a reduced risk of myocardial infarction in young and middle-aged women - Circulation. 2013 Jan 15 - "We followed up 93 600 women 25 to 42 years of age from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) II who were healthy at baseline (1989) to examine the relationship between anthocyanins and other flavonoids and the risk of MI. Intake of flavonoid subclasses was calculated from validated food-frequency questionnaires ... An inverse association between higher intake of anthocyanins and risk of MI was observed (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.96; P=0.03, highest versus lowest quintiles) after multivariate adjustment ... Combined intake of 2 anthocyanin-rich foods, blueberries and strawberries, tended to be associated with a decreased risk of MI (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.08) in a comparison of those consuming >3 servings a week and those with lower intake. Intakes of other flavonoid subclasses were not significantly associated with MI risk" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Relationship of lycopene intake and consumption of tomato products to incident CVD - Br J Nutr. 2013 Jan 15:1-7 - "To address this potential misclassification, we used repeated measures of intake obtained over 10 years to characterise the relationship between lycopene intake and the incidence of CVD (n 314), CHD (n 171) and stroke (n 99) in the Framingham Offspring Study ... Using an average of three intake measures with a 9-year follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CVD incidence (HR 0.83, 95 % CI 0.70, 0.98). Using an average of two intake measures and 11 years of follow-up, lycopene intake was inversely associated with CHD incidence (HR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.58, 0.94). Lycopene intake was unrelated to stroke incidence" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Strawberries, blueberries may cut heart attack risk in women - Science Daily, 1/14/13 - "Blueberries and strawberries contain high levels of naturally occurring compounds called dietary flavonoids, also found in grapes and wine, blackberries, eggplant, and other fruits and vegetables. A specific sub-class of flavonoids, called anthocyanins, may help dilate arteries, counter the buildup of plaque and provide other cardiovascular benefits ... Nurses' Health Study II ... women completed questionnaires about their diet every four years for 18 years ... Women who ate the most blueberries and strawberries had a 32-percent reduction in their risk of heart attack compared to women who ate the berries once a month or less" - See Garden of Life, Radical Fruits Antioxidant Complex at Amazon.com.
  • Largest Study to Date Links Low Vitamin D to CVD Risk - Medscape, 9/26/12 - "The scientists compared the 5% lowest levels of vitamin D (<5 nmol/L) with the 50% highest levels (>50 nmol/L). In Denmark--where foods are not fortified with vitamin D--it is currently recommended to have a vitamin-D status of at least 50 nmol/L, they note ... they found a stepwise increase in risk: those with the lowest levels of vitamin D had a 40% increased risk of ischemic heart disease, a 64% higher chance of an MI, a 57% increased risk of early death, and an 81% higher likelihood of fatal ischemic heart disease/MI" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Olive oil intake and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Spanish cohort - Br J Nutr. 2012 Sep 25:1-8 - "we studied the association between olive oil and CHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort study. The analysis included 40,142 participants (38 % male), free of CHD events at baseline, recruited from five EPIC-Spain centres from 1992 to 1996 and followed up until 2004 ... Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the relationship between validated incident CHD events and olive oil intake (energy-adjusted quartiles and each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) increment), while adjusting for potential confounders. During a 10.4-year follow-up, 587 (79 % male) CHD events were recorded. Olive oil intake was negatively associated with CHD risk after excluding dietary mis-reporters (hazard ratio (HR) 0.93; 95 % CI 0.87, 1.00 for each 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal) and HR 0.78; 95 % CI 0.59, 1.03 for upper v. lower quartile). The inverse association between olive oil intake (per 10 g/d per 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)) and CHD was more pronounced in never smokers (11 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0.048)), in never/low alcohol drinkers (25 % reduced CHD risk (P < 0.001)) and in virgin olive oil consumers (14 % reduced CHD risk (P = 0.072)). In conclusion, olive oil consumption was related to a reduced risk of incident CHD events"
  • Nutraceutical pill containing berberine versus ezetimibe on plasma lipid pattern in hypercholesterolemic subjects and its additive effect in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia on stable cholesterol-lowering treatment - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Sep 22;11(1):123 - "Although statins (STs) are drugs of first choice in hypercholesterolemic patients, especially in those at high cardiovascular risk, some of them are intolerant to STs or refuse treatment with these drugs. In view of this, we have evaluated the lipid-lowering effect of a nutraceutical pill containing berberine (BBR) and of ezetimibe, as alternative treatments, in monotherapy or in combination, in 228 subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia (HCH), with history of STs intolerance or refusing STs treatment ... In HCH subjects the nutraceutical pill resulted more effective than EZE in lowering LDL cholesterol (-31.7% vs -25.4%, P < 0.001) and better tolerated. On treatment, LDL-C level below 3.36 mmol/L (<=130 mg/dl) was observed in 28.9% of subjects treated with the nutraceutical pill and 11.8% of those treated with EZE (P <0.007). In the group treated with EZE the subjects carrying the G allele of the g.1679 C > G silent polymorphism of NPC1L1 gene showed a higher response to EZE than homozygous for the common allele (GG + CG: LDL-C -29.4+/-5.0%, CC -23.6+/-6.5%, P <0.001). Combined treatment with these drugs was as effective as STs in moderate doses (LDL cholesterol -37%, triglycerides -23%). In HeFH patients the addition of BBR resulted in LDL cholesterol reductions inversely related to those induced by the stable therapy (r = -0.617, P <0.0001), with mean 10.5% further decrease" - See berberine products at iHerb.
  • Plasma and dietary omega-3 fatty acids, fish intake, and heart failure risk in the Physicians' Health Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Sep 5 - "The mean age was 58.7 y at blood collection. In a multivariable model, plasma α-linolenic acid (ALA) was associated with a lower risk of HF in a nonlinear fashion (P-quadratic trend = 0.02), and the lowest OR was observed in quintile 4 (0.66; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). Plasma EPA and DHA were not associated with HF, whereas plasma docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) showed a nonlinear inverse relation with HF for quintile 2 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.79). Dietary marine n-3 FAs showed a trend toward a lower risk of HF in quintile 4 (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.02) and a nonlinear pattern across quintiles. Fish intake was associated with a lower risk of HF, with RRs of ~0.70 for all categories of fish consumption greater than one serving per month" - Note:  alpha linolenic acid is the omega-3 in flaxseed oil.  See Jarrow Formulas, Flax Seed Oil, 32 fl oz (946 ml) or Flora, Flax-O-Mega, 180 Capsules.
  • Effects of Pycnogenol on Endothelial Function in Stable CAD - Medscape, 8/2/12 - "Recent studies suggested a blood pressure-lowering effect of Pycnogenol. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study involving 11 patients, supplementation with Pycnogenol 200 mg q.d. significantly reduced systolic blood pressure of patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension from 139.9 +/- 3.3 to 132.7 +/- 4.18 mmHg (P < 0.05) after 8 weeks of therapy, while diastolic blood pressure remained stable (93.8 +/- 1.23 vs. 92 +/- 1.7 mmHg, P = NS) ... This study demonstrates for the first time an improvement of endothelial function after 8-week treatment with Pycnogenol at a dose of 200 mg q.d. in patients with stable CAD. Pycnogenol significantly reduced oxidative stress as assessed by plasma levels of 8-isoprostanes, but left ADMA and SDMA as well as plasma ET-1 levels unaffected" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • L-Carnitine prevents the development of ventricular fibrosis and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in hypertensive heart disease - J Hypertens. 2012 Jul 12 - "Prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) remains poor because of unknown pathophysiology and unestablished therapeutic strategy ... L-carnitine supplementation attenuates cardiac fibrosis by increasing prostacyclin production through arachidonic acid pathway, and may be a promising therapeutic option for HFpEF" - See l-carnitine at Amazon.com.
  • Lower DHEA in Elderly Linked to Cardiovascular Events - Medscape, 6/27/12 - "Elderly men with decreased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) show increased rates of major cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for other traditional cardiovascular risk factors ... The men were all were participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Sweden study, a long-term project that is evaluating risk factors for various diseases ... Those in the lowest quartile of both DHEA and DHEA-S, compared with men in quartiles 2 through 4 of both, showed a higher risk for any major cardiovascular events (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06 - 1.70), coronary heart disease (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.05 - 1.89), and cerebrovascular events (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.00 - 1.99)" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Glycemic load, glycemic index and risk of cardiovascular diseases: Meta-analyses of prospective studies - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jun 6 - "Fourteen studies were identified, involving 229,213 participants and more than 11,363 cases. The pooled RRs of CVDs risk for the highest vs lowest categories of GL and GI were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.11-1.36) and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04-1.22) respectively. Both the risk estimates of GL and GI for women (GL: RR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.18-1.55; GI: RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.06-1.34) were higher than men (GL: RR = 1.10, 95% CI: 0.95-1.28; GI: RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.94-1.17) ... High GL and GI were associated with significant increased risk of CVDs, specifically for women"
  • Natural antioxidant can protect against cardiovascular disease - Science Daily, 6/16/12 - "The enzyme -- glutathione peroxidase, or GPx3 -- is a natural antioxidant that helps protect organisms from oxidant injury and helps the body naturally repair itself. Researchers have found that patients with high levels of good cholesterol, the GPx3 enzyme does not make a significant difference. However, those patients with low levels of good cholesterol, the GPx3 enzyme could potentially be a big benefit ... The new research, published June 16 by PLoS One, supports the view that natural antioxidants may offer the human body profound benefits ... people with high levels of the GPx3 enzyme and low levels of good cholesterol were six times less likely to develop cardiovascular disease than people with low levels of both"
    • Glutathione supplements pills benefit and side effects - raysahelian.com -  "This antioxidant, made from the combination of three amino acids cysteine, glutamate, and glycine, forms part of the powerful natural antioxidant glutathione peroxidase which is found in our cells ... Supplements that help make glutathione ... Acetylcysteine ... ALA ... Pycnogenol ... The frequent use of acetaminophen (Tylenol) depletes glutathione peroxidase levels" - See n-acetyl cysteine at Amazon.com.
  • Fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acids and risk of heart failure: A meta-analysis - Clin Nutr. 2012 Jun 6 - "Using random effect model, the pooled relative risk for heart failure comparing the highest to lowest category of fish intake was 0.85 (95% CI; 0.73-0.99), p = 0.04; corresponding value for marine omega-3 fatty acids was 0.86 (0.74-1.00), p = 0.05 ... there was no evidence for publication bias" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Mortality From Heart Failure and Cardiovascular Disease, and Premature Mortality from All-Cause in United States Adults - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Jun 1 - "the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which included 13,131 participants (6,130 men, 7,001 women) ≥35 years old at baseline (1988 to 1994) and followed through December 2000 ... Multivariate-adjusted Cox model indicated that subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml had 2.06 times higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 4.25) of HF death than those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml (p <0.001). In addition, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for premature death from all causes were 1.40 (1.17 to 1.68) in subjects with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/ml and 1.11 (0.93 to 1.33) in those with serum 25(OH)D levels of 20 to 29 ng/ml compared to those with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥30 ng/ml (p <0.001, test for trend). In conclusion, adults with inadequate serum 25(OH)D levels have significantly higher risk of death from HF and all CVDs and all-cause premature death" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • One-Year Consumption of a Grape Nutraceutical Containing Resveratrol Improves the Inflammatory and Fibrinolytic Status of Patients in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Apr 19 - "In contrast to placebo and conventional grape supplement, the resveratrol-rich grape supplement significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-26%, p = 0.03), tumor necrosis factor-α (-19.8%, p = 0.01), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (-16.8%, p = 0.03), and interleukin-6/interleukin-10 ratio (-24%, p = 0.04) and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (19.8%, p = 0.00). Adiponectin (6.5%, p = 0.07) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (-5.7%, p = 0.06) tended to increase and decrease, respectively. No adverse effects were observed in any patient. In conclusion, 1-year consumption of a resveratrol-rich grape supplement improved the inflammatory and fibrinolytic status in patients who were on statins for primary prevention of CVD and at high CVD risk (i.e., with diabetes or hypercholesterolemia plus ≥1 other CV risk factor). Our results show for the first time that a dietary intervention with grape resveratrol could complement the gold standard therapy in the primary prevention of CVD" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.One-Year Consumption of a Grape Nutraceutical Containing Resveratrol Improves the Inflammatory and Fibrinolytic Status of Patients in Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease - Am J Cardiol. 2012 Apr 19 - "In contrast to placebo and conventional grape supplement, the resveratrol-rich grape supplement significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-26%, p = 0.03), tumor necrosis factor-α (-19.8%, p = 0.01), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (-16.8%, p = 0.03), and interleukin-6/interleukin-10 ratio (-24%, p = 0.04) and increased anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (19.8%, p = 0.00). Adiponectin (6.5%, p = 0.07) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (-5.7%, p = 0.06) tended to increase and decrease, respectively. No adverse effects were observed in any patient. In conclusion, 1-year consumption of a resveratrol-rich grape supplement improved the inflammatory and fibrinolytic status in patients who were on statins for primary prevention of CVD and at high CVD risk (i.e., with diabetes or hypercholesterolemia plus ≥1 other CV risk factor). Our results show for the first time that a dietary intervention with grape resveratrol could complement the gold standard therapy in the primary prevention of CVD" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Low β-carotene concentrations increase the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality among Finnish men with risk factors - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Apr 9 - "During the median 15.9-year follow-up, 122 deaths from CVDs, were identified among the cohort subjects. Low serum concentrations of β-carotene were strongly related to an increased CVD mortality risk after adjustment for confounders. For β-carotene, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the lowest versus highest quartile was 2.23 (1.26-3.93; P=0.006). However, the strongest risk of CVD mortality was observed among smokers with lowest levels of β-carotene (HR=3.15, 95%, CI: 1.19-8.33; P=0.020). Other carotenoids and the sum of carotenoids were not significantly related to increased risk of CVD mortality" - See Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com.
  • Evidence for a Protective Effect of Polyphenols-containing Foods on Cardiovascular Health - Medscape, 4/5/12 - "There is supportive clinical evidence for the beneficial effects of some flavonoids-rich foods or supplements on multiple endpoints of cardiovascular risk, the more convincing being reduction in BP and improvement in endothelial function ... In addition to their identified beneficial impact on BP and endothelial function, flavonoid-rich dietary sources might also favourably modulate arterial stiffness" - See Jarrow Formulas OPCs + 95 at Amazon.com.
  • Hot pepper compound could help hearts - Science Daily, 3/27/12 - "The team found, for instance, that capsaicin and a close chemical relative boost heart health in two ways. They lower cholesterol levels by reducing accumulation of cholesterol in the body and increasing its breakdown and excretion in the feces. They also block action of a gene that makes arteries contract, restricting the flow of blood to the heart and other organs. The blocking action allows more blood to flow through blood vessels" - See capsaicin supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Diabetes drug can prevent heart disease, new study suggests - Science Daily, 3/25/12 - "one of the most common diabetes drugs, metformin, also has a protective effect on the heart ... metformin helps increase pumping capacity, improve energy balance, reduce the accumulation of fat, and limit the loss of heart cells through programmed cell death" - See metformin at IAS.
  • Nutrient found in dark meat of poultry, some seafood, may have cardiovascular benefits - Science Daily, 3/1/12 - "funded by the American Heart Association ... The comparison revealed serum taurine was not protective of CHD overall. However, among women with high cholesterol, those with high levels of serum taurine were 60 percent less likely to develop or die from CHD in the study, compared to women with lower serum taurine levels. If future studies are able to replicate the findings, taurine supplementation or dietary recommendations may one day be considered for women with high cholesterol at risk for CHD" - See taurine at Amazon.com.
  • Associations of dietary magnesium intake with mortality from cardiovascular disease: The JACC study - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jan 28 - "Dietary magnesium intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire administered between 1988 and 1990 ... median 14.7-year follow-up ... Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men and with mortality from total and ischemic strokes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and total cardiovascular disease in women. The multivariable hazard ratio (95% CI) for the highest vs. the lowest quintiles of magnesium intake after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factor and sodium intake was 0.49 (0.26-0.95), P for trend=0.074 for hemorrhagic stroke in men, 0.68 (0.48-0.96), P for trend=0.010 for total stroke, 0.47 (0.29-0.77), P for trend<0.001 for ischemic stroke, 0.50 (0.30-0.84), P for trend=0.005 for coronary heart disease, 0.50 (0.28-0.87), P for trend=0.002 for heart failure and 0.64 (0.51-0.80), P for trend<0.001 for total cardiovascular disease in women" - See Jarrow Formulas, Magnesium Optimizer Citrate, 100 Easy-Solv Tablets at iHerb.
  • Red wine polyphenols improve an established aging-related endothelial dysfunction in the mesenteric artery of middle-aged rats: Role of oxidative stress - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012 Feb 13 - "The present findings indicate that aging is associated with blunted endothelium-dependent relaxations involving an increased oxidative stress, and that these responses are improved by the intake of RWPs or apocynin for 4weeks most likely by normalizing the expression of eNOS, arginase I, NADPH oxidase and angiotensin receptors" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com and grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Acetyl-l-carnitine supplementation reverses the age-related decline in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity in interfibrillar mitochondria without changing the l-carnitine content in the rat heart - Mech Ageing Dev. 2012 Feb 1 - "The aging heart displays a loss of bioenergetic reserve capacity partially mediated through lower fatty acid utilization. We investigated whether the age-related impairment of cardiac fatty acid catabolism occurs, at least partially, through diminished levels of l-carnitine, which would adversely affect carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acyl-CoA uptake into mitochondria for β-oxidation. Old (24-28 mos) Fischer 344 rats were fed+/-acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR; 1.5% [w/v]) for up to four weeks prior to sacrifice and isolation of cardiac interfibrillar (IFM) and subsarcolemmal (SSM) mitochondria. IFM displayed a 28% (p<0.05) age-related loss of CPT1 activity, which correlated with a decline (41%, p<0.05) in palmitoyl-CoA-driven state 3 respiration. Interestingly, SSM had preserved enzyme function and efficiently utilized palmitate. Analysis of IFM CPT1 kinetics showed both diminished V(max) and K(m) (60% and 49% respectively, p<0.05) when palmitoyl-CoA was the substrate. However, no age-related changes in enzyme kinetics were evident with respect to l-carnitine. ALCAR supplementation restored CPT1 activity in heart IFM, but not apparently through remediation of l-carnitine levels. Rather, ALCAR influenced enzyme activity over time, potentially by modulating conditions in the aging heart that ultimately affect palmitoyl-CoA binding and CPT1 kinetics" - See propionyl-l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on endothelial function: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jan 20 - "Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids significantly improves the endothelial function without affecting endothelium-independent dilation" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of n-3 fatty acids on major cardiovascular events in statin users and non-users with a history of myocardial infarction - Eur Heart J. 2012 Feb 1 - "In statin users, an additional amount of n-3 fatty acids did not reduce cardiovascular events [HR(adj) 1.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 1.31; P = 0.88]. In statin non-users, however, only 9% of those who received EPA-DHA plus ALA experienced an event compared with 18% in the placebo group ... In patients with a history of MI who are not treated with statins, low-dose supplementation with n-3 fatty acids may reduce major cardiovascular events. This study suggests that statin treatment modifies the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the incidence of major cardiovascular events" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Inhibition of Na(+) -H(+) exchange as a mechanism of rapid cardioprotection by resveratrol - Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Jan 31 - "Resveratrol exerts cardioprotection by reducing ROS and preserving mitochondrial function. The PKC-α-dependent inhibition of NHE and subsequent attenuation of [Ca(2+) ](i) overload may be a cardioprotective mechanism" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Serum antioxidant vitamin levels in patients with coronary heart disease - Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2011 Jul;81(4):211-7 - "Fat mass (FM) ... Based on the results of this study, we propose that high FM, low HDL-C, and low serum antioxidant vitamin levels could be important risk factors for CHD"
  • Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study - Eur Heart J. 2012 Jan 11 - "Patients received Pycnogenol (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks followed by placebo or vice versa on top of standard cardiovascular therapy ... In CAD patients, Pycnogenol treatment was associated with an improvement of FMD from 5.3 +/- 2.6 to 7.0 +/- 3.1 (P < 0.0001), while no change was observed with placebo (5.4 +/- 2.4 to 4.7 +/- 2.0; P = 0.051). This difference between study groups was significant [estimated treatment effect 2.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.75, 3.75, P < 0.0001]. 15-F(2t)-Isoprostane, an index of oxidative stress, significantly decreased from 0.71 +/- 0.09 to 0.66 +/- 0.13 after Pycnogenol treatment, while no change was observed in the placebo group (mean difference 0.06 pg/mL with an associated 95% CI (0.01, 0.11), P = 0.012]. Inflammation markers, platelet adhesion, and blood pressure did not change after treatment with Pycnogenol or placebo. Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that the antioxidant Pycnogenol improves endothelial function in patients with CAD by reducing oxidative stress" - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com.
  • Serum ferritin levels associated with increased risk for developing CHD in a low-income urban population - Public Health Nutr. 2012 Jan 10:1-8 - "For men, there was a 0.5 % increase in risk for every 10-unit rise in serum ferritin (pmol/l). Other significant predictors included increased BMI, white race, unemployment and C-reactive protein ≥9.5 mg/l. For women, there was a 5.1 % increase in risk per 10-unit rise in serum ferritin (pmol/l). Other significant predictors included increased BMI, lower education, unemployment and C-reactive protein ≥9.5 mg/l"
  • Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults - Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan 4 - "Men and women with total flavonoid intakes in the top (compared with the bottom) quintile had a lower risk of fatal CVD (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01). Five flavonoid classes-anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins-were individually associated with lower risk of fatal CVD (all P-trend < 0.05). In men, total flavonoid intakes were more strongly associated with stroke mortality (RR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89; P-trend = 0.04) than with ischemic heart disease (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.13). Many associations appeared to be nonlinear, with lower risk at intakes above the referent category.Conclusions: Flavonoid consumption was associated with lower risk of death from CVD. Most inverse associations appeared with intermediate intakes, suggesting that even relatively small amounts of flavonoid-rich foods may be beneficial"
  • Young women may reduce heart disease risk eating fish with omega 3 fatty acids, study finds - Science Daily, 12/5/11 - "In the first population-based study in women of childbearing age, those who rarely or never ate fish had 50 percent more cardiovascular problems over eight years than those who ate fish regularly. Compared to women who ate fish high in omega-3 weekly, the risk was 90 percent higher for those who rarely or never ate fish ... Fish oil contains long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are believed to protect against heart and vascular disease. Few women in the study took fish oil supplements, so these were excluded from the analyses and the results were based on the dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, not intake from supplements" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Plasma retinol: A novel marker for cardiovascular disease mortality in Australian adults - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Nov 25 - "Vitamin A affects inflammation and immune function and is thus a factor of interest in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD). As vitamin A circulates in the plasma in the form of retinol, this study aims to describe the relationship between plasma retinol and the 5-year incidence of CVD mortality ... Community-dwelling adults (n = 441, 45% with type 2 diabetes) were recruited in Melbourne, assessed at baseline and followed for 5 years. At baseline, CVD risk factors were assessed by clinical evaluation, by personal lifestyle questionnaire and from biochemistry (plasma fasting glucose, lipids, total homocysteine, C-reactive protein, retinol and carotenoids plus the urinary albumin excretion rate over 24 h.). Dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. CVD mortality over 5-years was determined by consulting state or national registries. The majority of participants had adequate plasma retinol concentrations (≥30 μg/dL). The final Cox regression model indicated that those in the highest tertile of plasma retinol (mean +/- SD) 76 +/- 14 μg/dL) had a significantly lower risk of 5-year CVD mortality (hazard ratio 0.27 [95% confidence interval 0.11, 0.68], P = 0.005), an effect that was not readily explained in terms of traditional CVD risk factors or dietary intake"
  • Effects of coenzyme Q10 on vascular endothelial function in humans: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Oct 25 - "Coenzyme Q10 supplementation is associated with significant improvement in endothelial function. The current study supports a role for CoQ10 supplementation in patients with endothelial dysfunction" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Pomegranate Juice Lowers Cardiovascular Risk Factors - Medscape, 11/12/11 - "Hemodialysis patients were randomized to receive 100 mL of pomegranate juice (n = 66) or an equivalent-tasting placebo (n = 35) 3 times a week for 12 months ... At 12 months, all components of the lipid profile improved in the pomegranate juice group but not in the placebo group. In the juice group, there were statistically significant decreases in TGs from baseline to 12 months (P = .01), especially in patients with a baseline TG level of at least 200 mg/dL (P < .001). Over the same time period, HDL rose significantly (P = .005) in the juice group. There was no significant change in any of these parameters in the placebo group ... During the study period, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in the juice group overall (P < .006), especially in patients who had a baseline systolic pressure of at least 140 mm Hg (P < .005); this was not the case in the placebo group ... At 12 months, those in the juice group were taking significantly fewer antihypertensive drugs than those in the placebo group (P < .05). In the juice group, 22% of the subjects were taking fewer and 12.2% were taking more antihypertensive drugs; in the placebo group, 7.7% were taking fewer and 34.6% were taking more antihypertensive drugs" - See pomegranate at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Supplementation and Relation to Cardiovascular Health - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Nov 7 - "Serum vitamin D measurements for 5 years and 8 months from a large academic institution were matched to patient demographic, physiologic, and disease variables. The vitamin D levels were analyzed as a continuous variable and as normal (≥30 ng/ml) or deficient (<30 ng/ml). Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard modeling were performed. Of 10,899 patients, the mean age was 58 +/- 15 years, 71% were women (n = 7,758), and the average body mass index was 30 +/- 8 kg/m(2). The mean serum vitamin D level was 24.1 +/- 13.6 ng/ml. Of the 10,899 patients, 3,294 (29.7%) were in the normal vitamin D range and 7,665 (70.3%) were deficient. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with several cardiovascular-related diseases, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes (all p <0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was a strong independent predictor of all-cause death (odds ratios 2.64, 95% confidence interval 1.901 to 3.662, p <0.0001) after adjusting for multiple clinical variables. Vitamin D supplementation conferred substantial survival benefit (odds ratio for death 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.277 to 0.534, p <0.0001)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Soy beats milk protein for cholesterol improvements: RCT - Nutra USA, 10/22/11 - "Results showed that, compared with carbohydrates, the soy protein was associated with a 3.97 mg/dl reduction in total cholesterol levels, and a 0.12 mg/dl reduction in the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol ... In addition, compared to milk protein, the soy protein was associated with a 1.54 mg/dl increase in HDL cholesterol levels and a 0.14 mg/dl decrease in the ratio of total:HDL cholesterol ... On the other hand, milk protein supplementation was significantly associated with a 1.13 mg/dL decrease in HDL levels, compared to carb supplement ... The effect of milk protein did not confer a significant favorable effect on any lipid measures compared with carbohydrate" - Note:  In addition to homemade yogurt, I been using Silk plus DHA Omega-3 on my cereal.  If you read the ingredients, it's probably not the best for you but it sure tastes good.  The soy adds variety over the milk used to make the yogurt.
  • Folate and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis of prospective studies - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Sep 14 - "Data were independently abstracted by 2 investigators using a standardized protocol. Study-specific risk estimates were combined by using a random effects model. A total of 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis: 7 studies on dietary folate intake and 8 studies on blood folate levels. For dietary intake, the summary relative risk (RR) indicated a significant association between the highest folate intake and reduced risk of CHD (summary RR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.80). Furthermore, an increase in folate intake of 200 ug/day was associated with a 12% decrease in the risk of developing CHD (summary RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94). For blood folate levels, we also found a borderline inverse association of highest blood folate levels on CHD risk (summary RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.02); our dose-response analysis indicated that an increment in blood folate levels of 5 mmol/l was associated with an 8% decrease in the risk of developing CHD (summary RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.00)" - See folic acid products at Amazon.com.
  • Systematic review: Chocolate can reduce heart disease risk by a third - Nutra USA, 8/29/11 - "A Cambridge University-led systematic review published today in the British Medical Journal has concluded that polyphenol-rich consumption can reduce the risk of heart disease by a third ... The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels ... These favourable effects seem mainly mediated by the high content of polyphenols present in cocoa products and probably accrued through increasing the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which subsequently might lead to improvements in endothelial function, reductions in platelet function, and additional beneficial effects on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and blood lipids ... But they noted none of the selected trials were controlled, randomised studies with six cohort studies and a cross sectional study, and therefore offered the caveat: "We expect further studies will be done to confirm or refute the results of our analyses""
  • Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Adipose Tissue and the Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome - Circulation. 2011 Aug 22 - "Comparing men in the highest and lowest quintiles gave a hazard ratio of 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.95) for total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.73) for docosahexaenoic acid. Nonfatal cases constituted >86% of cases, and the association was driven primarily by a reduction in the risk of nonfatal acute coronary syndrome. No consistent associations were found among women. Conclusion- Intake of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against acute coronary syndrome in men" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Some exercise is better than none: More is better to reduce heart disease risk - Science Daily, 8/1/11 - "150 minutes of exercise per week is beneficial, 300 minutes per week will give even more benefits ... researchers examined more than 3,000 studies of physical activity and heart disease, and included 33 of them in their analysis. Among those, nine measured leisure activity quantitatively"
  • Impact of low v. moderate intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids on risk of coronary heart disease - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 31:1-13 - "The objective of the present study was to determine whether the consumption of ≥ 250 v. < 250 mg of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCFA) per d is associated with a reduction in the risk of fatal and non-fatal CHD in individuals with no prior history of CHD. A comprehensive and systematic review of the published scientific literature resulted in the identification of eight prospective studies (seven cohorts and one nested case-control study) that met predefined inclusion criteria. Relative to the consumption of < 250 mg n-3 LCFA per d, the consumption of ≥ 250 mg/d was associated with a significant 35.1 % reduction in the risk of sudden cardiac death and a near-significant 16.6 % reduction in the risk of total fatal coronary events, while the risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction was not significantly reduced. In several meta-analyses, which were based on US studies, risk of CHD death was found to be dose-dependently reduced by the n-3 LCFA, with further risk reductions observed with intakes in excess of 250 mg/d. Prospective observational and intervention data from Japan, where intake of fish is very high, suggest that n-3 LCFA intakes of 900 to 1000 mg/d and greater may confer protection against non-fatal myocardial infarction. Thus, the intake of 250 mg n-3 LCFA per d may, indeed, be a minimum target to be achieved by the general population for the promotion of cardiovascular health" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Adherence to the Mediterranean diet reduces mortality in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain) - Br J Nutr. 2011 May 17:1-11 - "A high compared with a low rMED score was associated with a significant reduction in mortality from all causes (hazard ratio (HR) 0.79; 95 % CI 0.69, 0.91), from CVD (HR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.49, 0.89)" - Click here for my olive oil mayonnaise recipe.
  • Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 29 - "We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify relevant trials of green tea beverages and extracts on lipid profiles in adults ... The analysis of eligible studies showed that the administration of green tea beverages or extracts resulted in significant reductions in serum TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but no effect on HDL cholesterol was observed" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Low serum magnesium concentrations predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jun 12 - "Low serum magnesium (Mg(++)) levels are associated with future development of left ventricular hypertrophy independently of common cardiovascular risk factors, as recently demonstrated in the five-year follow-up of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). As left ventricular hypertrophy has significant prognostic implications, we hypothesized that serum Mg(++) levels are associated with cardiovascular mortality ... median duration of mortality follow-up was 10.1 years ... During the follow-up, 417 deaths occurred. Mortality in subjects with Mg(++)≤0.73mmol/l was significantly higher for all-cause deaths (10.95 death per 1000 person years), and cardiovascular deaths (3.44 deaths per 1000 person years) in comparison to higher Mg(++) concentrations (1.45 deaths from all-cause per 1000 person years, 1.53 deaths from cardiovascular cause per 1000 person years). This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including arterial hypertension, and antihypertensive therapy including diuretics (log-rank-test p=0.0001 for all-cause mortality, and p=0.0174 for cardiovascular mortality)" - See Jarrow Formulas, Magnesium Optimizer Citrate, 100 Easy-Solv Tablets at iHerb.
  • Vitamin E tocotrienols show cholesterol benefits for healthy adults: Study - Nutra USA, 6/29/11 - "Daily supplements of a palm oil-based tocotrienol-rich product increased the ratio of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol – reported to be the most specific lipid risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) – by 14 percent in people over 50, compared to a decrease of about 5 percent in the placebo group ... HDL cholesterol increases of the magnitude observed in this study have been associated with a 22.5 percent reduced risk of cardiovascular events" - [Abstract] - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Pine bark extract plus CoQ10 shows benefits for heart failure patients - Nutra USA, 6/23/11 - "12 weeks of daily supplementation with 350 milligrams of CoQ10 (Kaneka) and 105 milligrams of the branded pine bark extract Pycnogenol ... recruited 53 heart failure patients aged between 54 and 68 were randomly assigned to receive either the PycnoQ10 supplement or placebo for 12 weeks ... systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased following the CoQ10-pine bark combination, from 139.2 to 133.2 mmHg and 82.3 to 77.3 mmHg, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 140.3 to 139.5 mmHg and 83.4 to 81.2 mmHg, respectively, in the placebo group ... In addition to increases in the amount of blood pumped by the heart, the researchers also reported improvements in heart rate were also observed in the PycnoQ10 supplement group from 78.4 to 74.2 beats per minute, compared with a decrease from 79.1 to 78.4 in the placebo group" - [Abstract] - See Pycnogenol at Amazon.com and ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on coronary plaque instability: An integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jun 1 - "Patients with acute coronary syndrome had significantly lower levels of ω3 PUFAs (especially of EPA and DPA) than those without it. IB-IVUS analyses showed that ω3 PUFAs correlated inversely with % lipid volume and positively with % fibrous volume. Patients with low EPA levels, low DPA levels, and low DHA levels had a significantly higher % lipid volume (p=0.048, p=0.008, and p=0.036, respectively) and a significantly lower % fibrous volume (p=0.035, p=0.008, and p=0.034, respectively) than those with high levels of these fatty acids. Even after adjustment for confounders, the presence of both low EPA and low DPA levels proved to be an independent predictor for lipid-rich plaques in any of the two categories ... A lower serum content of ω3 PUFAs (especially of EPA and DPA) was significantly associated with lipid-rich plaques, suggesting the contribution to the incidence of acute coronary syndrome" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Colours of fruit and vegetables and 10-year incidence of CHD - Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun 8:1-8 - "For each 25 g/d increase in the intake of the sum of all four colours of fruit and vegetables, a borderline significant association with incident CHD was found (HR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.97, 1.01). No clear associations were found for the colour groups separately. However, each 25 g/d increase in the intake of deep orange fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CHD (HR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.55, 1.00). Carrots, their largest contributor (60 %), were associated with a 32 % lower risk of CHD (HR 0.68; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.98). In conclusion, though no clear associations were found for the four colour groups with CHD, a higher intake of deep orange fruit and vegetables and especially carrots may protect against CHD"
  • Associations between vitamin D and cardiovascular outcomes; Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 23 - "The mean age of participants was 56.84+/-11.17 years and 244 (48.6%) were women. The median (IQ: 25-75) of serum 25-OH-D was 14.1ng/ml (9.6-29ng/ml) and 306 (61%) of participants had serum 25-OH-D<15g/ml. Median serum 25-OH-D was lower in cases (12.5 vs. 18.1, P<0.001). After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratio of serum 25-OH-D<10ng/ml for having CVD outcomes was 2.90 compared with 25-OH-D≥15 (95% confidence interval" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary fiber intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Japanese population: the Japan Public Health Center-based study cohort - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of CVD for the third to fifth quintiles of total fiber were 0.79 (0.63-0.99), 0.70 (0.54-0.89) and 0.65 (0.48-0.87) in women, respectively, compared with the lowest quintile. Total fiber intake was inversely associated with the incidence of stroke, either cerebral infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage in women. The results for insoluble fiber in women were similar to those for total fiber, whereas those for soluble fiber were weak. An inverse association of total fiber with CVD was observed primarily in non-smokers (P for trend=0.045 and 0.001) and not in smokers (probability values for interaction between total fiber and smoking were 0.06 and 0.01 in men and women, respectively).Conclusions:Higher total dietary fiber was associated with reduced risk of CVD in Japanese non-smokers"
  • Vitamin D intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US men and women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun 8 - "After multivariate adjustment for age and other CVD risk factors, a higher total vitamin D intake (from foods and supplements) was associated with a decreased risk of CVD in men but not in women; the relative risks (95% CIs) for a comparison of participants who met the Dietary Reference Intake of vitamin D (≥600 IU/d) with participants whose vitamin D intake was <100 IU/d were 0.84 (0.72, 0.97; P for trend = 0.009) for men and 1.02 (0.89, 1.17; P for trend = 0.12) for women" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Link between phosphate intake and heart disease demonstrated in new study - Science Daily, 6/7/11 - "cholesterol deposits in the wall of arteries are increased following a higher phosphate diet. This leads to narrowing of the arteries, which is the cause of most heart attacks and strokes ... Food high in phosphate includes biscuits, cakes, sweets, dairy products and meats such as offal and veal" - Note:  They left out soda which is high in phosphate.
  • Effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoproteins B, A-I, and their ratio: A randomized, controlled trial - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 6 - "Apolipoprotein (Apo)B, ApoA-I, and their ratio could predict coronary heart disease (CHD) risk more accurately than conventional lipid measurements. Our aim was to assess the effect of a traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) on apolipoproteins ... Participants assigned to a low-fat diet (control) (n=177), or TMDs (TMD+virgin olive oil (VOO), n=181 or TMD+nuts, n=193) received nutritional education and either free VOO (ad libitum) or nuts (dose: 30g/day). A 3-month evaluation was performed ... Both TMDs promoted beneficial changes on classical cardiovascular risk factors. ApoA-I increased, and ApoB and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio decreased after TMD+VOO, the changes promoting a lower cardiometabolic risk. Changes in TMD+VOO versus low-fat diet were -2.9mg/dL (95% CI, -5.6 to -0.08), 3.3mg/dL (95% CI, 0.84 to 5.8), and -0.03mg/dL (-0.05 to -0.01) for ApoB, ApoA-I, and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, respectively ... Individuals at high-cardiovascular risk who improved their diet toward a TMD pattern rich in virgin olive oil, reduced their Apo B and ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and improved ApoA-I concentrations" - The question is; is it the polyphenols or the omega-9 or both in the virgin olive oil responsible for the benefit? See olive leaf extract at Amazon.com.
  • Heart failure risk lower in women who often eat baked/broiled fish - Science Daily, 5/24/11 - "In a large-scale analysis, women who ate the most baked/broiled fish (five or more servings/week) had a 30 percent lower risk of heart failure compared to women who seldom ate it (less than one serving/month) ... dark fish (salmon, mackerel and bluefish) were associated with a significantly greater risk reduction than either tuna or white fish (sole, snapper and cod) ... eating fried fish was associated with increased heart failure risk. Even one serving a week was associated with a 48 percent higher heart failure risk"
  • Anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-atherosclerotic effects of quercetin in human in vitro and in vivo models - Atherosclerosis. 2011 May 5 - "In cultured human endothelial cells, quercetin protected against H(2)O(2)-induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the cytokine-induced cell-surface expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. Quercetin also reduced the transcriptional activity of NFκB in human hepatocytes. In human CRP transgenic mice (quercetin plasma concentration: 12.9+/-1.3μM), quercetin quenched IL1β-induced CRP expression, as did sodium salicylate. In ApoE*3Leiden mice, quercetin (plasma concentration: 19.3+/-8.3μM) significantly attenuated atherosclerosis by 40% (sodium salicylate by 86%). Quercetin did not affect atherogenic plasma lipids or lipoproteins but it significantly lowered the circulating inflammatory risk factors SAA and fibrinogen. Combined histological and microarray analysis of aortas revealed that quercetin affected vascular cell proliferation thereby reducing atherosclerotic lesion growth. Quercetin also reduced the gene expression of specific factors implicated in local vascular inflammation including IL-1R, Ccl8, IKK, and STAT3 ...Quercetin reduces the expression of human CRP and cardiovascular risk factors (SAA, fibrinogen) in mice in vivo. These systemic effects together with local anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects in the aorta may contribute to the attenuation of atherosclerosis" - See quercetin at Amazon.com.
  • Cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality - Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 May 18 - "Overall, fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with risk of total mortality in both women and men, and a dose-response pattern was particularly evident for cruciferous vegetable intake. The pooled multivariate hazard ratios (95% CIs) for total mortality across increasing quintiles of intake were 1 (reference), 0.91 (0.84, 0.98), 0.88 (0.77, 1.00), 0.85 (0.76, 0.96), and 0.78 (0.71, 0.85) for cruciferous vegetables (P < 0.0001 for trend) and 0.88 (0.79, 0.97), 0.88 (0.79, 0.98), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), and 0.84 (0.69, 1.00) for total vegetables (P = 0.03 for trend). The inverse associations were primarily related to cardiovascular disease mortality but not to cancer mortality"
  • Damaged hearts pump better when fueled with fats, study suggests - Science Daily, 5/4/11 - "for a damaged heart, a balanced diet that includes mono- and polyunsaturated fats, and which replaces simple sugars (sucrose and fructose) with complex carbohydrates, may be beneficial ... researchers previously thought a high-fat diet fed to animal models that have suffered a heart attack, would overload their tissues with fat, which in turn would have a toxic effect on their hearts. Surprisingly, the heart's pump function improved on the high-fat diet. Through further testing, the researchers found that animal models suffering from heart failure and receiving a low fat diet were able to produce insulin and take up glucose from the blood, just as healthy hearts do. However, the biological models with heart failure that were fed high-fat diets showed signs of insulin resistance, exhibited by a decreased amount of glucose taken up by the heart, as might be expected in a diabetic patient ... One of the main implications of these findings is that contrary to previously held beliefs, a state of insulin-resistance might actually be beneficial to a failing heart"
  • Load up on fiber now, avoid heart disease later - Science Daily, 3/22/11 - "adults between 20 and 59 years old with the highest fiber intake had a significantly lower estimated lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease compared to those with the lowest fiber intake ... It's long been known that high-fiber diets can help people lose weight, lower cholesterol and improve hypertension ... In adults 60 to 79 years, dietary fiber intake was not significantly associated with a reduction in lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. It's possible that the beneficial effect of dietary fiber may require a long period of time to achieve, and older adults may have already developed significant risk for heart disease before starting a high-fiber diet"
  • A Dietary Mixture Containing Fish Oil, Resveratrol, Lycopene, Catechins, and Vitamins E and C Reduces Atherosclerosis in Transgenic Mice - J Nutr. 2011 Mar 16 - "Chronic inflammation and proatherogenic lipids are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specific dietary constituents such as polyphenols and fish oils may improve cardiovascular risk factors and may have a beneficial effect on disease outcomes ... AIDM was evaluated in an inflammation model, male human C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mice, and an atherosclerosis model, female ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice. Two groups of male human-CRP transgenic mice were fed AIDM [0.567% (wt:wt) powder and 0.933% (wt:wt oil)] or placebo for 6 wk. The effects of AIDM on basal and IL-1β-stimulated CRP expression were investigated. AIDM reduced cytokine-induced human CRP and fibrinogen expression in human-CRP transgenic mice. In the atherosclerosis study, 2 groups of female ApoE*3Leiden transgenic mice were fed an atherogenic diet supplemented with AIDM [0.567% (wt:wt) powder and 0.933% (wt:wt oil)] or placebo for 16 wk. AIDM strongly reduced plasma cholesterol, TG, and serum amyloid A concentrations compared with placebo. Importantly, long-term treatment of ApoE*3Leiden mice with AIDM markedly reduced the development of atherosclerosis by 96% compared with placebo. The effect on atherosclerosis was paralleled by a reduced expression of the vascular inflammation markers and adhesion molecules inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin. Dietary supplementation of AIDM improves lipid and inflammatory risk factors of CVD and strongly reduces atherosclerotic lesion development in female transgenic mice" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com, Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com, Jarrow Formulas, CarotenALL at Amazon.com, green tea extract at Amazon.com and Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by coenzyme Q10 supplement improves endothelial function in patients with ischaemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: A randomized controlled trial - Atherosclerosis. 2011 Feb 17 - "Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with endothelial dysfunction and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) ... brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in patients with ischaemic LVSD (left ventricular ejection fraction <45%) ... In patients with ischaemic LVSD, 8weeks supplement of CoQ improved mitochondrial function and FMD; and the improvement of FMD correlated with the change in mitochondrial function, suggesting that CoQ improved endothelial function via reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with ischaemic LVSD" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Young rats given polyphenols show less endothelial function deterioration with aging - Science Daily, 1/31/11 - "The endothelium is the inner lining of our blood vessels and normal functions of endothelial cells include enabling coagulation, platelet adhesion and immune function. Endothelial dysfunction is associated with reduced anticoagulant properties and the inability of arteries and arterioles to dilate fully ... The gradual decrease in endothelial function over time is a key factor in the development of diseases associated with ageing, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD).  Many epidemiologic studies suggest protection against CVD from moderate intake of alcoholic beverages, especially those rich in antioxidants, such as red wine, which is high in polyphenols (RWPs) ... RWPs and apocynin improved the endothelial dysfunction, normalized oxidative stress and the expression of the different proteins. RWPs also improved ageing-related decline in physical exercise. Thus, intake of RWPs protects against ageing-induced endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance ... RWPs intake had also a physiological beneficial effect since it improved the physical exercise capacity of old rats" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com and resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • α-Lipoic acid can improve endothelial dysfunction in subjects with impaired fasting glucose - Metabolism. 2011 Jan 19 - "Our data showed that IFG subjects have impaired endothelial function and that antioxidant α-lipoic acid can improve endothelial function through a decrease of oxygen-derived free radicals" - See alpha lipoic acid at Amazon.com.
  • HEPA filters reduce cardiovascular health risks associated with air pollution, study finds - Science Daily, 1/12/11 - "portable HEPA filters reduced the average concentrations of fine particulates inside homes by 60% and woodsmoke by 75%, and their use was associated with improved endothelial function (a 9.4% increase in reactive hyperemia index) and decreased inflammation (a 32.6% decrease in C-reactive protein)"
  • Tomatoes found to contain nutrient which prevents vascular diseases - Science Daily, 1/6/11 - "Tomatoes are already known to contain many compounds beneficial to health. In this study the team analyzed 9-oxo-octadecadienoic acid, to test its potential anti-dyslipidemia properties ... The compound was found to enhance fatty acid oxidation and contributed to the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that 9-oxo-octadecadienoic acid has anti-dyslipidemia affects and can therefore help prevent vascular diseases" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of lycopene supplementation on oxidative stress and markers of endothelial function in healthy men - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Dec 9 - "An increase in serum lycopene after supplementation can reduce oxidative stress which may play a role in endothelial function" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Three Whole-Grain Portions Daily May Lower Cardiovascular Risk - Medscape, 1/4/11 - "Daily consumption of 3 portions of whole-grain foods (WGF) is linked to lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy, middle-aged people mainly by lowering blood pressure (BP) ... assigned to continue the refined diet (control) or to switch to a whole-wheat diet or to a whole-wheat plus oat diet, for 12 weeks ... Compared with the control group, the WGF groups had a significant reduction in systolic BP (6 mm Hg) and a significant reduction (3 mm Hg) in pulse pressure ... The observed decrease in systolic blood pressure could decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and stroke by ≥ 15% and 25%, respectively"
  • Fruit, vegetables, and olive oil and risk of coronary heart disease in Italian women: the EPICOR Study - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec 22 - "aimed to investigate the association between consumption of fruit, vegetables, and olive oil and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in 29,689 women enrolled between 1993 and 1998 ... A strong reduction in CHD risk among women in the highest quartile of consumption of leafy vegetables (hazard ratio: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.90; P for trend = 0.03) and olive oil (hazard ratio: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.99; P for trend = 0.04) was found. In contrast, no association emerged between fruit consumption and CHD risk"
  • Protective effect of lycopene on serum cholesterol and blood pressure: Meta-analyses of intervention trials - Maturitas. 2010 Dec 14 - "Lycopene, a carotenoid found in tomatoes ... Meta-analysis of the effect of lycopene on systolic blood pressure of all trials suggested a significant blood pressure reducing effect (mean systolic blood pressure change+/-SE: -5.60+/-5.26mm Hg, p=0.04) ... Our meta-analysis suggests that lycopene taken in doses ≥25mg daily is effective in reducing LDL cholesterol by about 10% which is comparable to the effect of low doses of statins in patient with slightly elevated cholesterol levels" - See Jarrow Lyco-Sorb (contains Lyco-O-Mato) at Amazon.com.
  • Whey supplements lower blood pressure: Low-cost protein gets big results in people with elevated blood pressure - Science Daily, 12/8/10 - "Beverages supplemented by whey-based protein can significantly reduce elevated blood pressure, reducing the risk of stroke and heart disease ... daily doses of commonly available whey brought a more than six-point reduction in the average blood pressure of men and women with elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressures ... blood-pressure reductions like those seen by Fluegel can reduce cardiovascular disease and bring a 35 to 40 percent reduction in fatal strokes" - See whey protein at Amazon.com.
  • Chronic high cholesterol diet produces brain damage - Science Daily, 11/24/10 - "chronic high fat cholesterol diet in rats exhibited pathologies similar to Alzheimer's disease ... A third hypothesis suggests that chronic long-lasting mild cerebrovascular damage, including inflammatory processes and oxidative stress, may cause Alzheimer's disease ... chronic hypercholesterolemia [in rats] caused memory impairment, cholinergic dysfunction, inflammation, enhanced cortical beta-amyloid and tau and induced microbleedings, all indications, which resemble an Alzheimer's disease-like pathology"
  • Fish consumption and myocardial infarction: a second prospective biomarker study from northern Sweden - Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov 3 - "fish also contains methylmercury, which may increase the risk of MI ... mercury (Ery-Hg) ... selenium (Ery-Se) ... (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) in plasma phospholipids (P-EPA+DHA) ... sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) ... Odds ratios for the third compared with the first tertile were 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.91) for Ery-Hg, 0.75 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.06) for Ery-Se, and 0.78 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.11) for P-EPA+DHA. Ery-Hg and P-EPA+DHA were intercorrelated (Spearman's R = 0.34). No association was seen for reported fish consumption ... High concentrations of Ery-Se were associated with an increased risk of SCD" - Note:  See my Toxins in Fish/Fish oil page.  Mercury has not been a problem in brand name supplements.  See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Chocolate eaters may have healthier hearts: study - MSNBC, 11/8/10 - "The authors found that women older than 70 who ate chocolate at least once per week were 35 percent less likely to be hospitalized or die from heart disease over the course of the study, and nearly 60 percent less likely to be hospitalized or die from heart failure ... The danger is that many people will start eating more of it than is necessary, without cutting back in calories from other snacks, which will result in weight gain and will counteract any beneficial effects of chocolate ... Flavonoids are thought to reduce the risk of heart disease, the leading cause of death in many industrialized countries, by helping to increase nitric oxide, which in turn helps boost the functioning of blood vessels and lower blood pressure"
  • Eating mostly whole grains, few refined grains linked to lower body fat - Science Daily, 10/20/10 - "People who consume several servings of whole grains per day while limiting daily intake of refined grains appear to have less of a type of fat tissue thought to play a key role in triggering cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes ... Visceral Adipose Tissue ... VAT volume was approximately 10 % lower in adults who reported eating three or more daily servings of whole grains and who limited their intake of refined grains to less than one serving per day ... Visceral fat surrounds the intra-abdominal organs while subcutaneous fat is found just beneath the skin ... visceral fat is more closely tied to the development of metabolic syndrome ... participants who consumed, on average, three daily servings of whole grains but continued to eat many refined grains did not demonstrate lower VAT volume"
  • Serum Magnesium and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Medscape, 10/19/10 - "sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... SCD was inversely associated with serum Mg (P for linear trend < .0001). Compared with the lowest quartile of Mg, the risk of SCD was 55% lower (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.31–0.67) in the highest Mg quartile and 47% lower in the second highest quartile (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38–0.74)" - See Jarrow Formulas, Magnesium Optimizer Citrate at Amazon.com.
  • Association of Japanese dietary pattern with serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Sep 27 - "Although previous studies suggest that the traditional Japanese dietary pattern is independently associated with a low cardiovascular disease mortality risk, the mechanisms mediating or linking this association are not well understood. Adiponectin has emerged as a valuable biomarker for cardiovascular diseases ... Greater adherence to the "Japanese" dietary pattern was independently associated to a higher serum adiponectin concentration in Japanese adult men. This finding supports the hypothesis that the traditional Japanese diet may have a potentially beneficial effect on adiponectin concentrations"
  • Sulphoraphane inhibited the expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 through MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor-4 pathway in cultured endothelial cells - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Sep 27 - "Chronic inflammation plays pivotal roles in both cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A large body of evidence suggests that high intake of cruciferous vegetables is closely related with low risk of these disorders ... Taken all together, adhesion molecules are confirmed to be the novel targets of sulphoraphane in preventing inflammatory insult to endothelial cells. Sulphoraphane suppressed TLR-4 followed by MyD88 and downstream factors such as p38 MAPK and JNK, ultimately blocking NF-кB translocation and the subsequent expression of adhesion molecules. These data suggested a novel inflammatory pathway mediated by sulphoraphane" - See sulforaphane at Amazon.com.
  • Garlic oil may reverse diabetes linked heart disease - Nutra USA, 9/30/10 - "garlic oil supplementation for diabetic rats leads to several alterations at multiple levels in hearts including cardiac contractile functions and structures, myosin chain gene expressions, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and related signaling activities" - [Abstract]
  • Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction and Apoptosis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Are Ameliorated by Garlic Oil Supplementation - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Sep 13 - "these diabetes-related cardiac dysfunctions were almost dose-dependently ameliorated by garlic oil administration. In conclusion, garlic oil possesses significant potential for protecting hearts from diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy" - See garlic oil products at iHerb.
  • Garlic oil shows protective effect against heart disease in diabetes - Science Daily, 9/29/10 - "Garlic has "significant" potential for preventing cardiomyopathy, a form of heart disease that is a leading cause of death in people with diabetes ... people with diabetes have at least twice the risk of death from heart disease as others ... The scientists fed either garlic oil or corn oil to laboratory rats with diabetes. Animals given garlic oil experienced beneficial changes associated with protection against heart damage" - See garlic supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Low serum magnesium concentrations predict increase in left ventricular mass over 5 years independently of common cardiovascular risk factors - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Sep 21 - "Mg(2+) at baseline (0.790+/-0.003mmol/l, mean+/-SEM) inversely correlated with the difference in LVM over 5 years (p<0.0001, females: p<0.002, males: p<0.024). In the lowest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)<=0.73mmol/l), LVM (187.4+/-3.1g at baseline) increased by 14.9+/-1.2g, while in the highest Mg(2+)-quintile (Mg(2+)>=0.85mmol/l) LVM (186.7+/-3.4g at baseline) decreased by -0.5+/-2.8g (p<0.0001 between quintiles). By multivariable analysis including several cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive treatment, serum Mg(2+) was associated with the increase in LVM at a statistically high significant level (p<0.0001). LVM after 5 years was significantly higher in subjects within the lower Mg(2+)-quintiles. This association remained highly significant after adjustment for several cardiovascular risk factors including arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with prevalent coronary heart disease: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study - Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep 19 - "Compared to subjects who did not report any chocolate intake, odds ratios (95% CI) for CHD were 1.01 (0.76-1.37), 0.74 (0.56-0.98), and 0.43 (0.28-0.67) for subjects consuming 1-3 times/month, 1-4 times/week, and 5+ times/week, respectively (p for trend <0.0001) adjusting for age, sex, family CHD risk group, energy intake, education, non-chocolate candy intake, linolenic acid intake, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and fruit and vegetables. Consumption of non-chocolate candy was associated with a 49% higher prevalence of CHD comparing 5+/week vs. 0/week [OR = 1.49 (0.96-2.32)]"
  • Frequent chocolate consumption could reduce CHD risk, US study - Nutra USA, 9/21/10 - "dark chocolate intake was associated with a 39 per cent lower risk of myocardial infarction and stroke combined ... In the fully adjusted model, consumption of chocolate more than five times a week was associated with 57 per cent lower prevalent CHD compared with subjects who did not consume chocolate ... Exclusion of subjects with prevalent diabetes and those who were on a weight loss diet made the association stronger ... the inability to distinguish the different types of chocolate might have led to an underestimation of the true association between cocoa/chocolate polyphenol consumption and CHD in the study"
  • Dietary polyphenols: Focus on resveratrol, a promising agent in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and control of glucose homeostasis - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Oct;20(8):618-25 - "Plants continuously produce an extraordinary variety of biologically active low-molecular-mass compounds. Among them, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is endowed with significant positive activities by protecting against cardiovascular diseases and preventing the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, the molecule significantly ameliorates glucose homeostasis in obese mice. These beneficial effects have driven considerable interest towards resveratrol molecular activities, and intensive efforts for the identification of the stilbene targets have been made. The molecule shows a pleiotropic mode of action. Particularly, its cellular targets are crucial for cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, antioxidant defence and mitochondrial energy production. The complexity of resveratrol activities might account for its effectiveness in ameliorating multifactorial processes, including the onset and/or progression of several degenerative diseases such as myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol improves myocardial perfusion in a swine model of hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia - Circulation. 2010 Sep 14;122(11 Suppl):S142-9 - "hypercholesterolemic diet with supplemental resveratrol (100 mg/kg/d orally, HCRV ... Total cholesterol was lowered about 30% in HCRV animals (P<0.001). Regional wall motion analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in inferolateral function from baseline to 7 weeks in HCC swine (P=0.04). There was no significant change in regional function in HCRV swine from baseline to 7 weeks (P=0.32). Tissue blood flow during stress was 2.8-fold greater in HCRV swine when compared with HCC swine (P=0.04). Endothelium-dependent microvascular relaxation response to Substance P was diminished in HCC swine, which was rescued by resveratrol treatment (P=0.004). Capillary density (PECAM-1 staining) demonstrated fewer capillaries in both HCC and HCRV swine versus control swine (P=0.02). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated significantly greater expression in HCRV versus HCC swine of the following markers of angiogenesis: VEGF (P=0.002), peNOS (ser1177) (P=0.04), NFkB (P=0.004), and pAkt (thr308) (P=0.001) ... Supplemental resveratrol attenuates regional wall motion abnormalities, improves myocardial perfusion in the collateral dependent region, preserves endothelium-dependent coronary vessel function, and upregulates markers of angiogenesis associated with the VEGF signaling pathway" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Cardiac hypertrophy and remodelling: pathophysiological consequences and protective effects of melatonin - J Hypertens. 2010 Sep;28 Suppl 1:S7-12 - "Whereas melatonin did not reduce left ventricular hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats or in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension, it did have other beneficial effects, e.g. it curtailed oxidative damage to the heart that resulted in an attenuation of left ventricular fibrosis. In contrast to the findings in hypertensive rats, melatonin administration was effective in overcoming cardiac enlargement resulting from induced hyperthyroidism or chronic hypoxia exposure. In addition, in these situations, melatonin also conferred protection against free radical-mediated damage at the level of cardiomyocytes. Collectively, the results of the publications summarized herein along with numerous other published reports on other aspects of cardiovascular physiology indicate that, when damage to the heart is a result of free radicals, melatonin is clearly protective. This is not unexpected considering the now well documented potent antioxidative actions of both melatonin and its metabolites. In general, melatonin improves cardiovascular physiology and heart function" - See my favorite Source Naturals, Melatonin, Peppermint Flavored Sublingual, 1 mg, 300 Tablets at iHerb.
  • Melatonin improves the restoration of endothelium-derived constricting factor signalling and inner diameter in the rat femoral artery after cessation of L-NAME treatment - J Hypertens. 2010 Sep;28 Suppl 1:S19-2 - "Although melatonin did not accelerate blood pressure reduction, it attenuated EDCF-contractions and oxidative load and enlarged arterial diameter. These effects may be beneficial for cardiovascular protection" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Continuous light and L-NAME-induced left ventricular remodelling: different protection with melatonin and captopril - J Hypertens. 2010 Sep;28 Suppl 1:S13-8 - "In hypertension induced by a combination of continuous light and L-NAME treatment, melatonin and captopril protect the heart against pathological left ventricular remodelling differently" - See melatonin at Amazon.com.
  • Serum magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study - Am Heart J. 2010 Sep;160(3):464-70 - "sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... Individuals in the highest quartile of serum Mg were at significantly lower risk of SCD in all models. This association persisted after adjustment for potential confounding variables, with an almost 40% reduced risk of SCD (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.93) in quartile 4 versus 1 of serum Mg observed in the fully adjusted model ... This study suggests that low levels of serum Mg may be an important predictor of SCD" - See magnesium supplements at Amazon.com.
  • 'Jailbreak' bacteria can trigger heart disease - Science Daily, 9/5/10 - "Poor dental hygiene can lead to bleeding gums, providing bacteria with an escape route into the bloodstream, where they can initiate blood clots leading to heart disease"
  • Vitamin D is a prognostic marker in heart failure, study finds - Science Daily, 8/31/10 - "Survival rates in heart failure patients with reduced levels of vitamin D are lower than in patients with normal levels ... Results also suggest that low levels of vitamin D are associated with activation of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS -- a pivotal regulatory system in heart failure) and an altered cytokine profile" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Iron deficiency in heart failure - Science Daily, 8/31/10 - "Iron deficiency is a relatively common nutritional disorder that affects more than one third of the general population, and is often associated with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid diseases and renal failure ... iron deficiency must be viewed in a much broader clinical context, as it also affects at least one-third of non-anaemic CHF patients ... Iron deficiency appears to be independent of the severity of CHF symptoms, and occurs irrespective of anaemia. It also seems to be associated with exercise intolerance and leads to a reduced quality of life. Our research shows that it probably constitutes an ominous sign of a poor outcome, independently of the other well-established prognosticators. In light of its high prevalence and clinical consequences, iron deficiency may well be perceived as an attractive therapeutic target in CHF" - See Slow Fe Slow Release Iron Tablets 90-Count Box at Amazon.com.
  • DHEA-S Levels and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Postmenopausal Women - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Aug 25 - "Women in the lowest DHEA-S tertile had higher CVD mortality (17% 6-yr mortality rate vs. 8%; log-rank P = 0.011), and all-cause mortality (21 vs. 10%; P = 0.011) compared with women with higher DHEA-S levels. The increased CVD mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-5.45] remained unchanged after adjustment for multiple CVD risk factors (HR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.06-5.56) but became nonsignificant when further adjusting for the presence or severity of angiographic obstructive CAD (HR = 1.99; 95% CI = 0.87-4.59). Results were similar for all-cause mortality. Lower DHEA-S levels were only marginally but not independently associated with obstructive CAD" - See DHEA at Amazon.com.
  • Major Dietary Protein Sources and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women - Circulation. 2010 Aug 16 - "26 years of follow-up ... higher intakes of red meat, red meat excluding processed meat, and high-fat dairy were significantly associated with elevated risk of CHD. Higher intakes of poultry, fish, and nuts were significantly associated with lower risk. In a model controlling statistically for energy intake, 1 serving per day of nuts was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval, 17% to 42%) lower risk of CHD compared with 1 serving per day of red meat. Similarly, compared with 1 serving per day of red meat, a lower risk was associated with 1 serving per day of low-fat dairy (13%; 95% confidence interval, 6% to 19%), poultry (19%; 95% confidence interval, 3% to 33%), and fish (24%; 95% confidence interval, 6% to 39%). Conclusions-These data suggest that high red meat intake increases risk of CHD and that CHD risk may be reduced importantly by shifting sources of protein in the US diet"
  • N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids early supplementation improves ultrasound indices of endothelial function, but not through NO inhibitors in patients with acute myocardial infarction N-3 PUFA supplementation in acute myocardial infarction - Clin Nutr. 2010 Aug 11 - "the study group (group P; n = 20; standard therapy + n-3 PUFA 1g daily) or the control group (group C; n = 20; standard therapy) ... There was a significant difference between both groups in mean delta (baseline/after one month) FMD (P: 8.1 +/- 12.6% vs C: -2.2 +/- 11.8%; p = 0.02) with no difference in mean delta NMD (P: 3.3 +/- 11.9% vs 0.66 +/- 14.3%; p = 0.53). We found also a significant increase in mean FMD (7.4 +/- 6.4 to 15.5 +/- 10.5%; p = 0.02) with a nonsignificant change in mean NMD values (26.9 +/- 12.1 to 30.2 +/- 14.0%; p = 0.24) after 1-month therapy with n-3 PUFA. FMD and NMD mean values did not change in control patients (FMD: 11.6 +/- 6.1% to 9.4 +/- 8.0%; p = 0.5 NMD: 25.1 +/- 11.4% to 25.8 +/- 14.0%; p = 0.84). The comparison of mean delta ADMA values for both groups revealed no differences (P: 6.2 +/- 9.7 mumol/l vs C: 3.6 +/- 9.5 mumol/l; p = 0.43). Mean serum ADMA concentrations were significantly increased after 1-month therapy in the group P (P: 2.1 +/- 1.8 to 8.3 +/- 9.7 mumol/l; p = 0.001; C: 4.5 +/- 7.1 to 8.1 +/- 9.5 mumol/l; p = 0.09). However, there was a nonsignificant difference in mean baseline serum ADMA levels between both groups (P: 2.1 +/- 1.8 mumol/l vs C: 4.5 +/- 7.1 mumol/l; p = 0.32). There were no significant correlations between FMD, NMD, ADMA levels and demographic, clinical or biochemical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Early and short-term n-3 PUFA supplementation improved ultrasound indices of endothelial function without affecting serum ADMA levels in patients with AMI and successful primary PCI" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Bilberry anthocyanin-rich extract alters expression of genes related to atherosclerosis development in aorta of apo E-deficient mice - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Jul 31 - "bilberry anthocyanin-rich extract (BE) ... BE supplementation significantly improved hypercholesterolemia whereas the plasmatic antioxidant status remained unchanged. Nutrigenomic analysis identified 1261 genes which expression was modulated by BE in the aorta. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these genes are implicated in different cellular processes such as oxidative stress, inflammation, transendothelial migration and angiogenesis, processes associated with atherosclerosis development/protection. Some of the most significantly down-regulated genes included genes coding for AOX1, CYP2E1 or TXNIP implicated in the regulation of oxidative stress, JAM-A coding for adhesion molecules or VEGFR2 implicate in regulation of angiogenesis. Other genes were up-regulated, such as CRB3, CLDN14 or CDH4 potentially associated with increased cell-cell adhesion and decreased paracellular permeability. These results provide a global integrated view of the mechanisms involved in the preventive action of bilberry anthocyanin-rich extract against atherosclerosis" - See bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • Red meat consumption and risk of heart failure in male physicians - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Jul 30 - "there was a positive and graded relation between red meat consumption and HF [hazard ratio (95% CI) of 1.0 (reference), 1.02 (0.85-1.22), 1.08 (0.90-1.30), 1.17 (0.97-1.41), and 1.24 (1.03-1.48) from the lowest to the highest quintile of red meat, respectively"
  • Industry : Calcium research “cherry picked” results - Nutra USA, 7/30/10
  • Calcium supplements linked to increased risk of heart attack, study finds - Science Daily, 7/29/10 - "calcium supplements were associated with about a 30% increased risk of heart attack and smaller, non-significant, increases in the risk of stroke and mortality"
  • Calcium supplements play an important role in maintaining bone health, experts say - Science Daily, 7/29/10 - "The authors of the meta-analysis examined the effects of calcium supplements on the risk of cardiovascular events, concluding there is an increased risk, and calling for a reassessment of the role of calcium supplements for osteoporosis. According to CRN, these conclusions are dramatically overstated, considering the limitations of meta-analysis, in general, and this meta-analysis, specifically ... The authors characterize these findings as though all of the selected studies suggest increased risk. In fact, the opposite is true: most of the studies do not suggest increased risk ... these researchers are making sweeping judgments about the value of calcium supplements by only assessing a handful of handpicked studies ..."
  • Vitamin D levels and mortality in type 2 diabetes - Diabetes Care. 2010 Jul 6 - "All-cause mortality was increased in patients with severe vitamin D deficiency; HR [95% CI] 1.96 [1.29-2.98] ... Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality; HR 1.95 [1.11-3.44]" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Dietary Fiber Intake Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Mortality from Cardiovascular Disease among Japanese Men and Women - J Nutr. 2010 Jun 23 - "Total, insoluble, and soluble dietary fiber intakes were inversely associated with risk of mortality from CHD and total CVD for both men and women. For men, the multivariable HR (95% CI) for CHD in the highest vs. the lowest quintiles were 0.81 [(95% CI, 0.61-1.09); P-trend = 0.02], 0.48 [(95% CI, 0.27-0.84); P-trend < 0.001], and 0.71 [(95% CI, 0.41-0.97); P-trend = 0.04] for total, insoluble, and soluble fiber, respectively. The respective HR (95% CI) for women were 0.80 [(95% CI, 0.57-0.97); P-trend = 0.01], 0.49 [(95% CI, 0.27-0.86); P-trend = 0.004], and 0.72 [(95% CI, 0.34-0.99); P-trend = 0.03], respectively. For fiber sources, intakes of fruit and cereal fibers but not vegetable fiber were inversely associated with risk of mortality from CHD. In conclusion, dietary intakes of fiber, both insoluble and soluble fibers, and especially fruit and cereal fibers, may reduce risk of mortality from CHD"
  • Effect of Long-Term L-Arginine Supplementation on Arterial Compliance and Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Multiple Cardiovascular risk Factors: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study - J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 7 - "large artery elasticity index (LAEI) ... Although large artery elasticity index (LAEI) did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline (10.64.3 vs.11.64.5 ml/mm HgX100, p=0.346), at the end of the study LAEI was significantly greater in patients treated with L-arginine than in the placebo group (12.73.4 vs. 8.02.8 ml/mm HgX10, p<0.0001). Systemic vascular resistance was significantly lower in patients treated with L-arginine than in the placebo group after 6 months. Small artery elasticity index (SAEI) did not differ significantly between the groups at baseline or at the end of the study. Serum aldosterone decreased significantly in Group 1 from 10.76.3 to 8.45.0 ng/ml (p=0.008), but did not change in the placebo group. CONCLUSION:: L-arginine supplementation improves LAEI in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. This improvement was associated with a decrease in systolic blood pressure, peripheral vascular resistance as well as a decrease in aldosterone levels. The results suggest that long term L-arginine supplementation has beneficial vascular effects in pathologic disease states associated with endothelial dysfunction" - See L-arginine products at Amazon.com.
  • Mediterranean-style diet improves heart function, twin study shows - Science Daily, 6/15/10 - "heart rate variability (HRV) ... Eating a Mediterranean-style diet -- one characterized by low saturated fats and high in fish, fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, olive oil, cereals and moderate alcohol consumption -- reduces a person's heart disease risk ... the higher a person's diet score, the more variable the heart beat-to-beat time interval -- 10 percent to 58 percent (depending on the HRV measure considered) for men in the top Mediterranean diet score quarter compared to those in the lowest quarter; this equates to a 9 percent to 14 percent reduction in heart-related death"
  • Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 Levels Are Reduced following Low-Calorie Cranberry Juice Supplementation in Men - J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Dec;28(6):694-701 - "Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, also known as gelatinase B, is implicated in the development of hypertension and atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability to rupture, an important step in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases ... cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) ... We found that CJC supplementation significantly decreased plasma MMP-9 concentrations (mean +/- SEM: -36% +/- 9%, p < 0.0005; week 12 vs. baseline) while baseline plasma MMP-9 concentrations strongly correlated with the changes noted over the entire intervention (r = -0.71, p < 0.0001). We also show that the reduction in plasma MMP-9 levels was associated with a change in plasma nitrites/nitrates (NOx) concentration over the entire intervention (r = -0.38, p < 0.05; week 12 vs. baseline). Significant correlations were also noted between changes in plasma MMP-9 levels and those of systolic (r = 0.39, p < 0.05) and diastolic (r = 0.60, p < 0.001) blood pressure during the course of the study (week 12 vs. baseline). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that daily CJC consumption is associated with a decrease in plasma MMP-9 concentrations in abdominally obese men. We hypothesize that polyphenolic compounds from cranberries may be responsible for this effect, supporting the notion that the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods can exert cardioprotective effects" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Brushing Teeth May Keep Away Heart Disease - WebMD, 5/27/10 - "people who admitted to brushing their teeth less frequently had a 70% extra risk of heart disease ... People who reported poor oral hygiene also tested positive for bloodstream inflammatory markers such as fibrinogen and C-reactive protein"
  • Anti-atherogenic effects of resveratrol - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 May 19 - "RS exerts several health benefits including anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. RS may also prevent lipid oxidation, platelet aggregation, arterial vasodilation and modulates the levels of lipids and lipoproteins. As a potent, anti-oxidant RS reduces oxidative stress and regenerates alpha-tocopherol, which further strengthens the anti-oxidant defense mechanism. RS has been considered safe as no significant toxic effects have been identified, even when consumed at higher concentrations. This evidence identified RS as an effective anti-atherogenic agent, which could be used in the prevention and treatment of CVD" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Bran Reduces Heart Disease Deaths - WebMD, 5/10/10 - "women who ate the most bran had a 35% lower risk of death from heart disease and a 28% lower risk of death from all causes than women who ate the least"
  • Couple of Coffees May Help Some Heart Patients - Medscape, 5/7/10 - "A study of 374 patients who had a heart attack or other acute coronary event found those with normal blood pressure drinking one or two coffees a day were 88% less likely than non-coffee drinkers to develop left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD)"
  • Grapes reduce risk factors for heart disease and diabetes, animal study shows - Science Daily, 5/10/10 - "After three months, the rats that received the grape-enriched diet had lower blood pressure, better heart function, and reduced indicators of inflammation in the heart and the blood than rats who received no grape powder. Rats also had lower triglycerides and improved glucose tolerance" - See Jarrow Formulas, OPCs + 95, 100 mg, 100 Capsules.
  • Curcumin inhibits cholesterol uptake in Caco-2 cells by down-regulation of NPC1L1 expression - Lipids Health Dis. 2010 Apr 19;9(1):40 - "Curcumin inhibits cholesterol uptake through suppression of NPC1L1 expression in the intestinal cells"
  • Diet high in B vitamins lowers heart risks in Japanese study - Science Daily, 4/15/10 - "The findings on the value of B vitamins were consistent with studies in Europe and North America, although the dietary consumption of vitamin B-6 is generally lower in Japan than in the United States ... Comparing those with the diets lowest and highest for each nutrient, they found that higher consumption of folate and vitamin B-6 was associated with significantly fewer deaths from heart failure in men, and significantly fewer deaths from stroke, heart disease and total cardiovascular diseases in women"
  • Coffee Consumption and Mortality Due to All Causes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Cancer in Japanese Women - J Nutr. 2010 Mar 24 - "In women, the multivariate hazard ratios (HR) (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in participants who drank coffee never, occasionally, 1-2 cups (150-300 mL)/d, and >/=3 cups/d were 1.00, 0.88 (0.73-1.06), 0.82 (0.66-1.02), and 0.75 (0.53-1.05), respectively (P-trend = 0.04). For CVD mortality in women, the multivariate HR (95% CI) were 1.00, 0.56 (0.36-0.86), 0.48 (0.29-0.80), and 0.45 (0.20-1.03), respectively (P-trend = 0.006). Of the specific CVD diseases, there was a strong inverse association between coffee consumption and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) in women (P-trend = 0.02) but not in men. Death due to cancer was not associated with coffee consumption in either men or women, except for colorectal cancer in women. Our results suggest that coffee may have favorable effects on morality due to all causes and to CVD, especially CHD, in women"
  • Marine (n-3) Fatty Acids, Fish Consumption, and the 10-Year Risk of Fatal and Nonfatal Coronary Heart Disease in a Large Population of Dutch Adults with a Low Fish Intake - J Nutr. 2010 Mar 24 - "Compared with the lowest quartile of EPA+DHA, participants in the top quartile had a 49% lower risk of fatal CHD (95% CI: 6-73%) and a 62% lower risk of fatal MI (95% CI: 23-81%). We observed inverse dose-response relations for EPA+DHA intake and fatal CHD (P-trend = 0.05) and fatal MI (P-trend = 0.01)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Treating vitamin D deficiency significantly reduces heart disease risk, studies find - Science Daily, 3/15/10 - "Preventing and treating heart disease in some patients could be as simple as supplementing their diet with extra vitamin D ... For the first study ... 47 percent of the patients who increased their levels of vitamin D between the two visits showed a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease ... In the second study ... The patients in each category who increased their vitamin D levels to 43 nanograms per milliliter of blood or higher had lower rates of death, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, high blood pressure, depression, and kidney failure. Currently, a level of 30 nanograms per milliliter is considered "normal" ... Increasing vitamin D intake by 1000 to 5000 international units (IU) a day may be appropriate" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of Niacin Therapy on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease - J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Mar 5 - "Compared to placebo group, niacin therapy significantly reduced coronary artery revascularization (RR [relative risk]: 0.307 with 95% CI: 0.150-0.628; P = .001), nonfatal myocardial infarction ([MI]; RR: 0.719; 95% CI: 0.603-0.856; P = .000), stroke, and TIA ([transient ischemic attack] RR: 0.759; 95%CI: 0.613-0.940; P = .012), as well as a possible but nonsignificant decrease in cardiac mortality (RR: 0.883: 95% CI: 0.773-1.008; p= 0.066). CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis of seven trials of secondary prevention, niacin was associated with a significant reduction in cardiovascular events and possible small but non-significant decreases in coronary and cardiovascular mortality" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Risks from low potassium in heart failure patients with chronic kidney disease - Science Daily, 2/22/10 - "In findings reported in January in Circulation: Heart Failure, a journal of the American Heart Association, the researchers say that even a mild decrease in serum potassium level increased the risk of death in this patient group ... Hypokalemia, or low potassium, is common in heart-failure patients and is associated with poor outcomes, as is chronic kidney disease ... Death occurred in 48 percent of the patients with hypokalemia during the 57-month follow-up period, compared with only 36 percent of patients with normal potassium. The vast majority of subjects, 87 percent, had mild hypokalemia" - See potassium citrate at Amazon.com.
  • High levels of vitamin D in older people can reduce heart disease and diabetes - Science Daily, 2/16/10 - "Researchers looked at 28 studies including 99,745 participants across a variety of ethnic groups including men and women. The studies revealed a significant association between high levels of vitamin D and a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (33% compared to low levels of vitamin D), type 2 diabetes (55% reduction) and metabolic syndrome (51% reduction)" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Red clover extract: a source for substances that activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and ameliorate the cytokine secretion profile of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages - Menopause. 2010 Feb 5 - "In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, red clover extract and its compounds reduced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, increased the secretion of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10, and/or reduced the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and/or cyclooxygenase 2. Tumor necrosis factor alpha production was most efficiently reduced by biochanin A and genistein. Interleukin-6 levels were most efficiently reduced by genistein and equol. CONCLUSIONS:: Owing to its PPARalpha activation and modulation of the secreted cytokine profile, red clover extract is a putative candidate for preventing atherosclerosis and, thus, cardiovascular disease" - See Trinovin at Amazon.com.
  • OPCs come out tops for heart health beverages - Nutra USA, 2/5/10 - "Cranberry juice rich in antioxidant procyanidins is effective at boosting the health of blood vessels ... oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) had “by far the most potent effects” on the function of the endothelium (the cells lining blood vessels)" - [Abstract] - See cranberry extract at Amazon.comand grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Function by Procyanidin-Rich Foods and Beverages (dagger) - J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Jan 28 - "Evaluation of the relative effects of extracts of cranberry juice compared to apple, cocoa, red wine, and green tea showed inhibition of ET-1 synthesis was dependent primarily on their oligomeric procyanidin content. Procyanidin-rich extracts of cranberry juice triggered morphological changes in endothelial cells with reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and increased immunostaining for phosphotyrosine residues ... procyanidin tetramer, pentamer, hexamer, and heptamer produced concentration-dependent decreases with IC(50) values of 5.4, 1.6, 0.9, and 0.7 muM, respectively. Levels of ET-1 mRNA showed a similar pattern of decreases, which were inversely correlated with increased expression of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a key endothelial transcription factor with a broad range of antiatherosclerotic actions including suppression of ET-1 synthesis" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.comand grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • High Omega-3 Levels May Slow Aging in Heart Patients - WebMD, 1/19/10 - "Heart disease patients with the highest blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids appear to age more slowly than those with the lowest blood levels ... Farzaneh-Far and his colleagues looked at a marker of biological age -- the rate of shortening of telomeres, structures at the end of a chromosome involved in its replication and stability. As the telomeres shorten over time, the eventual result is cell death, scientists believe ... In the new study, the higher the blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the patients evaluated, the slower the rate of telomere shortening ... patients with the lowest blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids exhibited a rate of telomere shortening 2.6 times faster than patients with the highest levels of omega-3 fatty acids" - [Science Daily] - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Has a Role in Heart Risk - WebMD, 1/7/10 - "Darker-skinned people produce less vitamin D from the sun than those with lighter skin, and studies show that blacks are far more likely to have lower levels of the vitamin than whites ... Several recent studies also suggest that low levels of vitamin D are associated with an increased risk for heart attack and stroke ... Compared to everyone else in the study, the quarter with the lowest vitamin D levels had a 40% higher risk of dying from heart attacks, strokes, and other heart-related events ... Blacks were 38% more likely to die of cardiovascular causes than non-Hispanic whites, and the researchers concluded that most of this excess was related to their lower vitamin D levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Moderate Fish Consumption May Lower Risk in Patients with a History of Heart Failure - Science Daily, 12/18/09 - "Including fish in a balanced diet has long been associated with the prevention of heart disease, and scientists now believe that it can help preserve heart function in patients who have experienced heart failure. A new study in the Journal of Food Science reports that moderate fish consumption can help reduce the risk of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in post acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Sea of science deepens for fish heart benefits - Nutra USA, 12/16/09 - "left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) ... moderate fish consumption, defined as , was associated with 53 per cent reduction in the risk of developing LVSD compared to no/rare consumption of fish ... In addition, moderate fish consumption was associated with a lower inhibition of the nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme which produces nitric oxide – a potent vasodilator that relaxes blood vessels and improves blood flow" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com and glucosamine products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D May Reduce Cardiac Work - Medscape, 12/10/09 - "Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are linked with increased heart rate and systolic blood pressure and with the rate-pressure product (RPP) ... The inverse association between vitamin D status and the rate-pressure product suggests that people with high vitamin D levels have hearts that work more efficiently" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Continuous Aspirin May Lower Mortality Despite Increased Risk for Recurrent Peptic Ulcer Bleeding - Medscape, 12/1/09 - "Continuous low-dose aspirin therapy may increase the risk for recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding but potentially lowers mortality rates ... Compared with patients who received placebo, patients who received aspirin had lower all-cause mortality rates (1.3% vs 12.9%; difference, 11.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.7 - 19.5 percentage points). In addition, patients in the aspirin group had lower mortality rates resulting from cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or gastrointestinal tract complications vs patients in the placebo group (1.3% vs 10.3%; difference, 9 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.7 - 16.3 percentage points)"
  • Alcohol May Reduce Men's Heart Risk - WebMD, 11/18/09 - "Drinking any type of alcohol lowered the risk of serious heart disease in men, with the amount of risk reduction associated with the amount of alcohol: ... Light drinking reduced risk by 35% ... Moderate drinking reduced risk by 51% ... High and very high levels of drinking reduced risk by 54% and 50% ... Light drinking was up to 5 grams a day -- or about one glass of wine, one and one-half beers, or less than a half glass of hard liquor ... Moderate drinking was 5 to 30 grams a day, or about two glasses of wine, two or three beers, or a half to one glass of hard liquor ... High and very high levels of drinking were 30 to 90 grams a day, or about five or more glasses of wine, seven or more beers, and one to one and a half glasses or more of hard liquor"
  • Inadequate levels of vitamin D may significantly increase risk of stroke, heart disease and death - Science Daily, 11/16/09 - "a new study by researchers at the Heart Institute at Intermountain Medical Center in Salt Lake City suggests that Vitamin D contributes to a strong and healthy heart as well -- and that inadequate levels of the vitamin may significantly increase a person's risk of stroke, heart disease, and death, even among people who've never had heart disease ... patients with very low levels of Vitamin D were 77 percent more likely to die, 45 percent more likely to develop coronary artery disease, and 78 percent were more likely to have a stroke than patients with normal levels. Patients with very low levels of Vitamin D were also twice as likely to develop heart failure than those with normal Vitamin D levels ... Recently, studies have also linked Vitamin D to the regulation of many other bodily functions including blood pressure, glucose control, and inflammation, all of which are important risk factors related to heart disease" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Niacin Tops Zetia in Cutting Artery Plaque - WebMD, 11/16/09 - "The question is whether ezetimibe works at all ... Niacin has been around for 50 years. It's a well-understood drug, and in this trial it was clearly superior ... Ultrasound images of neck arteries showed that Niaspan reduced artery plaque by about 2%. Zetia did not slow plaque buildup, although it did lower cholesterol" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Low HDL Levels as the Most Common Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factor in Heart Failure - Int Heart J. 2009 Sep;50(5):571-80 - "The most prevalent parameters were low HDL-C (69%) and hypertension (69%) in all participants" -  Note:  The best way to raise HDL is with niacin.  The no flush form doesn't work and the slow release may cause liver damage.  People complain about the flush but I've been taking it for years and the longer you take it the less flush.  After a while, there is no flush at all but be sure to take it with food.  http://www.lipidsonline.org/slides/slide01.cfm?tk=25&dpg=34 shows that with extended release niacin, HDL peaks out at 2,500 mg.  http://www.lipidsonline.org/slides/slide01.cfm?q=effect+of+niacin&dpg=4 shows immediate release crystalline niacin compared to Niaspan.  The numbers are basically the same.  I don't see any point in the prescription other than that it might have less flushing when you first start taking it.  See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Insufficient Levels Of Vitamin D Puts Elderly At Increased Risk Of Dying From Heart Disease - Science Daily, 9/21/09 - "Compared to those with optimal vitamin D status, those with low vitamin D levels were 3 times more likely to die from heart disease and 2.5 times more likely to die from any cause ... Dr. Ginde says the findings suggest that current daily recommendations of vitamin D may not be enough for older adults to maintain optimal health" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea slashes heart disease death - Nutra USA, 9/8/09 - "Compared to people who drank less than one cup a day, seven or more cups of green tea a day may reduce the risk of dying from heart disease by a whopping 75 per cent ... Additionally, a reduction in the risk of colorectal cancer mortality of 31 per cent was observed for people who drank more than seven cups of green a day, compared to people who frank less than three cups a day" - [Abstract] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Green Tea Consumption and Mortality among Japanese Elderly People: The Prospective Shizuoka Elderly Cohort - Ann Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;19(10):732-739 - "The multivariate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD mortality compared those who consumed seven or more cups per day with those who consumed less than one cup per day, were 0.24 (0.14-0.40), 0.30 (0.15-0.61), and 0.18 (0.08-0.40) for total participants, men, and women, respectively. Although green tea consumption was not inversely associated with cancer mortality, green tea consumption and colorectal cancer mortality were inversely associated with a moderate dose-response relationship" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • How Much Omega-3 Fatty Acid Do We Need To Prevent Cardiovascular Disease? - Science Daily, 9/1/09 - "a 200 mg dose of DHA per day is enough to affect biochemical markers that reliably predict cardiovascular problems, such as those related to aging, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. This study is the first to identify how much DHA is necessary to promote optimal heart health" - See Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Why Low Vitamin D Raises Heart Disease Risks In Diabetics - Science Daily, 8/21/09 - "Low levels of vitamin D are known to nearly double the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes ... When people are deficient in vitamin D, the macrophage cells eat more cholesterol, and they can't get rid of it. The macrophages get clogged with cholesterol and become what scientists call foam cells, which are one of the earliest markers of atherosclerosis" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol prevents hyperglycemia-induced endothelial dysfunction via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Aug 7 - "Endothelial dysfunction secondary to persistent hyperglycemia plays a key role in the development of type 2 diabetic vascular disease ... These results provide new insight into the protective properties of resveratrol against endothelial dysfunction caused by high glucose, which is attributed to the AMPK mediated reduction of superoxide level" - Click here for a definition of endothelial dysfunction.  See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Aug 11;54(7):585-94 - "The most compelling evidence for CV benefits of omega-3 PUFA comes from 4 controlled trials of nearly 40,000 participants randomized to receive eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) with or without docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in studies of patients in primary prevention, after myocardial infarction, and most recently, with heart failure (HF) ... The target EPA + DHA consumption should be at least 500 mg/day for individuals without underlying overt CV disease and at least 800 to 1,000 mg/day for individuals with known coronary heart disease and HF" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of grape seed extract in Type 2 diabetic subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial examining metabolic markers, vascular tone, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity - Diabet Med. 2009 May;26(5):526-31 - "GSE significantly improved markers of inflammation and glycaemia and a sole marker of oxidative stress in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects at high risk of cardiovascular events over a 4-week period, which suggests it may have a therapeutic role in decreasing cardiovascular risk" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Daily Omega-3s Recommended for Heart - WebMD, 8/3/09 - "omega-3 fatty acids' strongest protective effect appears to be in people with established heart disease after a heart attack. In these people, a daily dose of DHA and EPA is associated with a 30% reduction in the risk of heart-related death ... But researchers say healthy people can also benefit from including omega-3s in their diet. Research shows a diet rich in omega-3s can also reduce the risk of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), heart attack, sudden cardiac death, and heart failure" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Anthocyanin supplementation improves serum LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations associated with the inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein in dyslipidemic subjects - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul 29 - "Anthocyanin consumption increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations (13.7% and 2.8% in the anthocyanin and placebo groups, respectively; P < 0.001) and decreased LDL-cholesterol concentrations (13.6% and -0.6% in the anthocyanin and placebo groups, respectively; P < 0.001). The cellular cholesterol efflux to serum increased more in the anthocyanin group than in the placebo group (20.0% and 0.2%, respectively; P < 0.001). Anthocyanin supplementation decreased the mass and activity of plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) (10.4% and 6.3% in the anthocyanin group and -3.5% and 1.1% in the placebo group, respectively; P < 0.001)" - See blueberry extract at Amazon.com and bilberry at Amazon.com.
  • Influence of conjugated linoleic acids on functional properties of vascular cells - Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul 22:1-18 - "Based on these studies, it can be concluded that CLA exert several beneficial actions in cells of the vascular wall through the activation of nuclear PPAR. These actions of CLA, which may, at least partially, explain the inhibition of atherogenesis by dietary CLA, include modulation of vasoactive mediator release from endothelial cells, inhibition of inflammatory and fibrotic processes in activated smooth muscle cells, abrogation of inflammatory responses in activated macrophages, and reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophage-derived foam cells" - See conjugated linoleic acid at Amazon.com.
  • Ameliorating Hypertension and Insulin Resistance in Subjects at Increased Cardiovascular Risk. Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Therapy - Hypertension. 2009 Jul 20 - "glucose disposal rate (GDR) ... Systolic blood pressure decreased from 144.0+/-13.6 to 135.1+/-8.4 mm Hg and from 130.8+/-12.4 to 123.8+/-10.8 mm Hg in the lower and higher GDR groups, respectively (P<0.05 for both; P<0.001 overall) and progressively recovered toward baseline over 8 weeks posttreatment. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels followed specular trends. Diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased only in those with higher GDRs. Treatment was well tolerated in all of the patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine safely ameliorated arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypoadiponectinemia in subjects at increased cardiovascular risk" - See acetyl l-carnitine products at Amazon.com.
  • Daily Glass of Orange Juice Is Heart Smart - WebMD, 7/20/09 - "An antioxidant in orange juice called hesperidin improves blood vessel function and helps lower a person’s risk of heart disease ... An antioxidant in orange juice called hesperidin improves blood vessel function and helps lower a person’s risk of heart disease" - See hesperidin at Amazon.com or Natural Balance, Great Legs, 60 Capsules at iHerb.
  • Curcumin May Prevent Clogged Arteries - WebMD, 7/20/09 - "The current study suggests curcumin may thwart the development of atherosclerosis, or clogged arteries, a key risk factor for heart attacks and strokes ... Researchers in France fed 20 mice a diet supplemented with curcumin or a comparison diet not supplemented with curcumin. After 16 weeks, mice fed on the curcumin-based diet had a 26% reduction in fatty deposits in their arteries compared to mice on the comparison diet ... In addition, curcumin appeared to alter the genetic signaling involved in plaque buildup at the molecular level" - See curcumin products at Amazon.com.
  • Fish Oil and Heart Health - J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009 Jun 26 - "Large controlled trials have shown that intake of fish oil (marine n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid), whether from dietary sources or fish oil supplements, may exhibit beneficial effects on total and cardiovascular disease mortality. Stabilization of cell membranes and suppression of cardiac arrhythmias have been identified as possible mechanisms. Moreover, n-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory effects, reduce blood pressure, and may also be antiatherogenic. Finally, high doses of n-3 fatty acids can lower elevated serum triglyceride levels. The n-3 index (erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid) may be considered as a potential risk marker for coronary heart disease mortality, especially sudden cardiac death. The balance of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids is an important determinant in decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease, both in the primary and in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Patients with known coronary heart disease should be recommended to consume n-3 fatty acid supplements at 1 g per day, without raising concerns for interactions with other medications or side effects. On the other hand, fish in the diet (preferably oily fish, 1-2 meals/week) should be considered as part of a healthy diet low in saturated fat"
  • A new insight into resveratrol as an atheroprotective compound: Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and enhancement of cholesterol efflux - Atherosclerosis. 2009 May 22 - "Resveratrol thus appears to be a natural antioxidant that enhances cholesterol efflux. These properties make it a potential natural antioxidant that could be used to prevent and treat CVD" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Prospective Study of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All-Cause Mortality in Older U.S. Adults - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Jun 22 - "In noninstitutionalized older adults, a group at high risk for all-cause mortality, serum 25(OH)D levels had an independent, inverse association with CVD and all-cause mortality" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • High Carbohydrate Foods Can Cause Heart Attacks - Science Daily, 6/25/09 - "Doctors have known for decades that foods like white bread and corn flakes aren't good for cardiac health ... foods with a high glycemic index distended brachial arteries for several hours ... Enormous peaks indicating arterial stress were found in the high glycemic index groups: the cornflakes and sugar group ... During the consumption of foods high in sugar, there appears to be a temporary and sudden dysfunction in the endothelial walls of the arteries ... Endothelial health can be traced back to almost every disorder and disease in the body. It is "the riskiest of the risk factors,""
  • Low HDL-cholesterol is associated with the risk of stroke in elderly diabetic individuals: Changes in the risk for atherosclerotic diseases at various ages - Diabetes Care. 2009 Jun 9 - "IHD and CVD occurred in 1.59% and 1.43% of participants over 2-year period. The relation of lower HDL-cholesterol and/or higher LDL-cholesterol to occurrence of IHD in subjects<65 y.o. was significant. Lower HDL-cholesterol was also significantly related to CVD in subjects >=65y.o. and especially those>=75 y.o. (n=1016; odds ratio, 0.511*; 95%CI, 0.239- 0.918, *P<0.05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis with onset of CVD as a dependent variable showed same result. Conclusion: Lower HDL-cholesterol is an important risk factor for not only IHD but also CVD, especially in the diabetic elderly" - See niacin at Amazon.com (niacin increases HDL).
  • Red-wine Polyphenol Called Resveratrol Demonstrates Significant Health Benefits - Science Daily, 6/11/09 - "The breadth of benefits is remarkable – cancer prevention, protection of the heart and brain from damage, reducing age-related diseases such as inflammation, reversing diabetes and obesity, and many more ... Resveratrol exhibits therapeutic potential for cancer chemoprevention as well as cardioprotection ... The simplest explanation is that resveratrol turns on the cell's own survival pathways, preventing damage to individual cells ... Further mechanisms help, including removing very reactive oxidants in the body and improving blood supply to cells ... Low doses of resveratrol improve cell survival as a mechanism of cardio- and neuro-protection, while high doses increase cell death" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Can Omega-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Depression In Coronary Heart Disease? - Science Daily, 6/9/09 - "The prevalence of depression ranged from 23% in participants in the lowest tertile of omega –3 fatty acids (< 3.1% of total blood fatty acids) to 13% in participants in the highest tertile ( >4.3% of total blood fatty acids; p for trend = 0.004). Each unit decrease in EPA + DHA was inversely associated with depressive symptoms as a continuous variable, and these associations persisted after adjustment for age, sex and race. Similarly, each SD decrease in EPA + DHA was associated with significantly greater odds of depression as a dichotomous variable (Patient Health Questionnaire score >10)" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Ignored cholesterol blamed for heart attacks - MSNBC, 6/9/09 - "Statins — taken by millions to cut heart attack and stroke risk — do not affect lipoprotein (a) ... people with the highest liporotein (a) levels were two to three times more likely to have a heart attack than those with the lowest levels ... Niacin, a vitamin often prescribed generically to lower cholesterol, also lowers lipoprotein (a) levels. It can cause uncomfortable flushing, however. Aspirin can also lower lipoprotein (a) levels" - [WebMD]
  • CoQ10 Improves Endothelial Dysfunction in Statin-Treated Type 2 Diabetics - Medscape, 5/29/09 - "Study subjects were randomized to receive either 200 mg/day of oral CoQ10 or placebo for 12 weeks ... Our absolute improvement in FMD of 1% with CoQ10 supplementation may potentially translate to a 10-25% reduction in residual cardiovascular risk in these patients" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Suppressive effect of EPA on the incidence of coronary events in hypercholesterolemia with impaired glucose metabolism: Sub-analysis of the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Apr 5 - "investigated the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on coronary artery disease (CAD) ... impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and normoglycemic (NG) patients ... Compared to NG patients, IGM patients had a significantly higher CAD hazard ratio (1.71 in the non-EPA group and 1.63 in the EPA group). The treatment with EPA resulted in a 22% decrease in the CAD incidence (P=0.048) in IGM patients and an 18% decrease (P=0.062) in NG patients" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Eating Fatty Fish And Marine Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Reduce Risk Of Heart Failure - Science Daily, 4/28/09 - "men who consumed approximately 0.36 grams a day were 33% less likely to develop heart failure than men who consumed little or no marine omega-3 fatty acids"
  • Vitamin K supplementation and progression of coronary artery calcium in older men and women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Apr 22 - "those who received phylloquinone supplements had 6% less progression than did those who received the multivitamin alone ... Phylloquinone supplementation slows the progression of CAC in healthy older adults with preexisting CAC, independent of its effect on total MGP concentrations"
  • Benefit Of Grapes May Be More Than Skin Deep: Lower Blood Pressure, Reduced Heart Damage - Science Daily, 4/22/09 - "After 18 weeks, the rats that received the grape-enriched diet powder had lower blood pressure, better heart function, and fewer signs of heart muscle damage than the rats that ate the same salty diet but didn't receive grapes ... Rats that received the blood pressure medicine, hydrazine, along with a salty diet also had lower blood pressure, but their hearts were not protected from damage as they were in the grape-fed group" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Fatty Fish May Lower Heart Failure Risk - WebMD, 4/22/09 - "Study participants who got the equivalent of 0.36 grams of omega-3 a day from fish had a 33% reduction in heart failure risk"
  • Resveratrol attenuates angiotensin II-induced interleukin-6 expression and perivascular fibrosis - Hypertens Res. 2009 Apr 17 - "Resveratrol significantly attenuated Ang II-induced IL-6 mRNA expression and IL-6 protein in the supernatant of VSMC in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol suppressed the IL-6 gene promoter activity. Resveratrol inhibited the Ang II-induced cAMP-response element-binding protein and nuclear factor-kappa B activity, which are critical for Ang II-induced IL-6 gene activation. An increase in the serum concentration of IL-6 induced by Ang II infusion was attenuated by an oral administration of resveratrol. Resveratrol also inhibited Ang II-induced hypertension and perivascular fibrosis of the heart. Although hydralazine reduced blood pressure level equal to resveratrol, it did not reduce the Ang II-induced IL-6 production and perivascular fibrosis. These data suggest that the inhibition of Ang II-induced vascular inflammation and high blood pressure by resveratrol may contribute, at least in part, to the anti-atherogenic effects of resveratrol" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • The More Oral Bacteria, The Higher The Risk Of Heart Attack, Study Shows - Science Daily, 4/1/09 - "two oral pathogens in the mouth were associated with an increased risk of having a heart attack, but that the total number of germs, regardless of type, was more important to heart health"
  • Late Bedtimes Linked to Heart Disease - WebMD, 3/30/09 - "The fewer hours a man slept each night, the higher his BMI, blood pressure, and triglyceride levels"
  • Red blood cell membrane alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of sudden cardiac arrest - Metabolism. 2009 Apr;58(4):534-40 - "Higher levels of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membranes are associated with lower risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Whether membrane levels of alpha-linolenic acid, a medium-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, show a similar association is unclear ... Higher membrane alpha-linolenic acid was associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest: after adjustment for matching factors and smoking, diabetes, hypertension, education, physical activity, weight, height, and total fat intake, the odds ratios corresponding to increasing quartiles of alpha-linolenic acid were 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-3.0), 1.9 (95% CI, 1.1-3.3), and 2.5 (95% CI, 1.3-4.8) compared with the lowest quartile. The association was independent of red blood cell levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, trans-fatty acids, and linoleic acid. Higher membrane levels of alpha-linolenic acid are associated with higher risk of sudden cardiac arrest" - Note:  Alpha-linolenic acid (a medium-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) is the omega-3 found in vegetable sources such as flaxseed as opposed to the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) forms (long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) found in fish oils.
  • The response of gamma vitamin E to varying dosages of alpha vitamin E plus vitamin C - Metabolism. 2009 Apr;58(4):469-78 - "vitamin E has several isomers, with the alpha form being available via dietary supplements and the gamma form being available via dietary foodstuffs. The gamma form of vitamin E demonstrates several superior properties (such as trapping reactive nitrogen species and detoxifying nitrogen dioxide) compared with alpha vitamin E. All clinical trials have used the alpha isomer, with little concern that this isomer of vitamin E may actually suppress the gamma isomer of vitamin E ... The results demonstrate that alpha vitamin E levels increased in proportion to the dose administered. However, at every dose of alpha vitamin E, gamma vitamin E concentration was significantly suppressed ... Our results suggest that all prospective cardiovascular clinical trials that used vitamin E supplementation actually suppressed the beneficial antioxidant gamma isomer of vitamin E" - Dah!!  I've been saying that for years.  They're finally catching on.  See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease - Metabolism. 2009 Apr;58(4):460-8 - "Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with the risk of CVD per se in a dose-response manner"
  • Resveratrol Prevents the Prohypertrophic Effects of Oxidative Stress on LKB1 - Circulation. 2009 Mar 16 - "Our data identify a molecular mechanism in the cardiomyocyte involving the oxidative stress-derived lipid peroxidation byproduct HNE and the LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway that contributes to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. We also suggest that resveratrol may be a potential therapy for patients at risk for developing pathological cardiac hypertrophy by preventing this prohypertrophic process" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Consuming A Little Less Salt Could Mean Fewer Deaths - Science Daily, 3/11/09 - "A 3-gram–a-day reduction in salt intake (about 1200 mg of sodium) would result in 6 percent fewer cases of new heart disease, 8 percent fewer heart attacks, and 3 percent fewer deaths ... Currently, Americans eat 9-12 grams of salt per day"
  • Catechin prevents endothelial dysfunction in the prediabetic stage of OLETF rats by reducing vascular NADPH oxidase activity and expression - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Feb 3 - "studies have indicated that regular intake of green tea reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study examined whether catechin prevents endothelial dysfunction and hyperglycemia in the prediabetic stage of a type 2 diabetic (T2D) rat ... Catechin significantly reduced blood pressure (OLETF vs. Catechin-OLETF; 138+/-16mmHg vs. 126+/-16mmHg, p=0.013), fasting sugar (129+/-11mg/dL vs. 118+/-9mg/dL, p=0.02) and the insulin level (2.13+/-1.29ng/mL vs. 0.53+/-0.27ng/mL, p=0.004). In the aorta of Catechin-OLETF at 25 weeks, endothelium-dependent relaxations were significantly improved and NADPH oxidase activity in aortic rings was markedly decreased compared with those of OLETF. Catechin reduced vascular reactive oxygen species formation in the aorta and suppressed the expression of p22phox and p47phox NADPH oxidase subunits" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee consumption and mortality after acute myocardial infarction: The Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program - Am Heart J. 2009 Mar;157(3):495-501 - "Self-reported coffee consumption at the time of hospitalization for myocardial infarction was inversely associated with subsequent postinfarction mortality in this population with broad coffee intake"
  • Sweetened beverage consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in women - Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Feb 11 - "sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) ... After standard and dietary risk factors were adjusted for, the RRs (and 95% CIs) of CHD according to categories of cumulative average of SSB consumption (<1/mo, 1-4/mo, 2-6/wk, 1/d, and >/=2 servings/d) were 1.0, 0.96 (0.87, 1.06), 1.04 (0.95, 1.14), 1.23 (1.06, 1.43), and 1.35 (1.07, 1.69)"
  • Vitamin K2, but not K1, effective for heart health benefits: Study - Nutra USA, 2/12/09 - "This study confirms our findings in the Rotterdam study, showing that increased vitamin K2 intake strongly reduces the risk of coronary heart disease" - [Abstract] - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • A high menaquinone reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease in women - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Jan 27 - "A high intake of menoquinones, especially MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9, could protect against CHD" - See vitamin K at Amazon.com.
  • Novel Benefits Of Fatty Acids In Arteries Shown - Science Daily, 2/11/09 - "a diet rich in fish oils can prevent the accumulation of fat in the aorta, the main artery leaving the heart. The beneficial actions of fish oil that block cholesterol buildup in arteries are even found at high fat intakes ... the fatty acids contained in fish oil markedly inhibit the entry of "bad," or LDL, cholesterol into arteries and, as a result, much less cholesterol collects in these vessels ... Dr. Deckelbaum advises those interested in increasing omega-3 intakes do so by either increasing fish intake or by using supplements that contain the "long-chain" fatty acids, EPA and DHA, which are found in cold water fish" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Novel Benefits Of Fatty Acids In Arteries Shown - Science Daily, 2/5/09 - "Now, a CUMC research team led by Richard J. Deckelbaum, M.D., Director of the Columbia Institute of Human Nutrition, has found that a diet rich in fish oils can prevent the accumulation of fat in the aorta, the main artery leaving the heart. The beneficial actions of fish oil that block cholesterol buildup in arteries are even found at high fat intakes" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Salt May Restrict Blood Flow to Heart - WebMD, 1/22/09 - "Overweight and obese study participants with normal blood pressure who restricted the sodium in their diets showed evidence of improved endothelial function compared to participants who did not restrict salt ... The improvement appeared to be unrelated to the impact on blood pressure, suggesting that salt restriction is independently protective of blood vessel function"
  • Red Rice Yeast for Cholesterol Control? - Dr. Weil, 1/22/09 - "Of all the natural supplements available to help lower cholesterol, red rice yeast extracts are by far the most effective" - See red yeast rice at Amazon.com.
  • High-Dose B Vitamin Supplementation and Progression of Subclinical Atherosclerosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial - Stroke. 2008 Dec 31 - "high-dose B vitamin supplementation (5 mg folic acid+0.4 mg vitamin B12+50 mg vitamin B6) or matching placebo for 3.1 years ... High-dose B vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid artery intima media thickness) in well-nourished healthy B vitamin "replete" individuals at low risk for cardiovascular disease with a fasting tHcy >/=9.1 micromol/L"
  • Resveratrol inhibits the mTOR mitogenic signaling evoked by oxidized LDL in smooth muscle cells - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Nov 24 - "Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a major feature in atherosclerosis, since it contributes to the formation of the fibrous cap, thus to plaque stability, but also to arterial stenosis and post-angioplasty restenosis ... These data indicate that the mTOR pathway is activated by oxLDL via PI3K/PDK1/Akt, and is required for SMC proliferation. Resveratrol blocks specifically this pathway, thereby inhibiting oxLDL-induced SMC proliferation. These data highlight a new property for resveratrol that could contribute to the general anti-atherogenic properties of this polyphenol" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Go ahead, sleep in — it’s good for the heart - msnbc.com, 12/23/08 - "About 12 percent of the people in the study developed artery calcification during the five-year study period. Among those who had slept less than five hours a night, 27 percent had developed artery calcification ... That dropped to 11 percent among those who slept five to seven hours, and to 6 percent among those who slept more than seven hours a night"
  • Inflamed Gums Linked To Heart Disease - Science Daily, 12/20/08 - "a protein associated with inflammation (called CRP) is elevated in people who are at risk for heart disease. But where's the inflammation coming from? ... infected gums may be one place ... something as simple as taking good care of your teeth and gums can greatly reduce your risk of developing serious diseases"
  • Vitamin D Deficiency Increases Risk of Cardiovascular Disease - Doctor's Guide, 12/10/08 - "a review article published in the December 9 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology ... patients with vitamin D levels below 15 ng/mL were twice as likely to experience a heart attack, stroke, or other CV event within the next 5 years compared with those with higher levels" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Fish consumption and risk of major chronic disease in men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1618-1625 - "Compared with fish consumption of <1 serving/mo, consumption of 1 serving/wk and of 2-4 servings/wk was associated with a lower risk of total cardiovascular disease of approximately 15%" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis through the SIRT1-FoxO1 pathway - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Dec 3 - "Loss of cardiomyocytes through apoptosis has been proposed as a cause of ventricular remodeling and heart failure. Ischemia- and hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes reportedly plays an important role in many cardiac pathologies. We investigated whether resveratrol (Res) has direct cytoprotective effects against ischemia/hypoxia for cardiomyocytes. Exposure of H9c2 embryonic rat heart-derived cells to hypoxia for 24h caused a significant increase in apoptosis, as evaluated by TUNEL and flow cytometry, while treatment with 20muM Res greatly decreased hypoxia-induced apoptosis in these cells. Exposure of the cells to Res (20muM) caused rapid activation of SIRT1, which had a dual effect on FoxO1 function: SIRT1 increased FoxO1's ability to induce cell cycle arrest, but inhibited FoxO1's ability to induce cell death. This effect could be reversed by SIRT1 inhibition. Results of our study indicate that Res inhibits hypoxia-induced apoptosis via the SIRT1-FoxO1 pathway in H9c2 cells. This polyphenol may have potential in preventing cardiovascular disease, especially in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency An Important, Common, and Easily Treatable Cardiovascular Risk Factor? - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Dec 9;52(24):1949-1956 - "Vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition, present in approximately 30% to 50% of the general population. A growing body of data suggests that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels may adversely affect cardiovascular health. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and can predispose to hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Additionally, vitamin D deficiency causes an increase in parathyroid hormone, which increases insulin resistance and is associated with diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. Epidemiologic studies have associated low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with coronary risk factors and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is simple, safe, and inexpensive. Large randomized controlled trials are needed to firmly establish the relevance of vitamin D status to cardiovascular health. In the meanwhile, monitoring serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and correction of vitamin D deficiency is indicated for optimization of musculoskeletal and general health" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effect of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with Type 2 diabetes - Diabet Med. 2008 Dec;25(12):1473-7 - "Changes in lipid profiles, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), glycaemic control, components of the metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein (CRP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were assessed after cranberry or placebo treatment for 12 weeks ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased significantly in the cranberry group (from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.005) and the decrease was significantly greater than that in the placebo group (-0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P < 0.001). Total cholesterol and total : high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio also decreased significantly (P = 0.020 and 0.044, respectively) in the cranberry group and the reductions were significantly different from those in the placebo group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.032, respectively) ... Cranberry supplements are effective in reducing atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles, including LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels, as well as total : HDL cholesterol ratio, and have a neutral effect on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetic subjects taking oral glucose-lowering agents" - See cranberry extract at Amazon.com.
  • Vitamin E Shows Possible Promise In Easing Chronic Inflammation - Science Daily, 12/4/08 - "the larger take-home message of the study, published in the December issue of the journal Experimental Physiology, is that Vitamin E “may be beneficial in individuals with chronic inflammation, such as the elderly or patients with type II diabetes or chronic heart failure" - See Jarrow FamilE (contains all eight members of the vitamin E family, includes Tocomin) at Amazon.com.
  • Too Little Vitamin D Puts Heart at Risk - WebMD, 12/1/08 - "people with low vitamin D levels were twice as likely to have a heart attack, stroke, or other heart-related event during follow-up, compared with those with higher vitamin D levels ... Sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 blocks approximately 99% of vitamin D synthesis by the skin ... The safe upper limit of vitamin D consumption is 10,000 IU per day ... Vitamin D supplements are available in two different forms: Vitamin D2 and Vitamin D3. Although both appear effective in raising vitamin D blood levels, Vitamin D3 supplements appear to result in a longer-lasting boost" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Caffeinated Coffee Consumption, Cardiovascular Disease, and Heart Valve Disease in the Elderly (from the Framingham Study) - Am J Cardiol. 2008 Dec 1;102(11):1502-8. Epub 2008 Sep 11 - "A significant negative association between caffeinated coffee consumption and CHD mortality was observed for subjects with systolic blood pressure (BP) <160 mm Hg and diastolic BP <100 mm Hg. The decrease in risk of CHD mortality for any caffeinated coffee versus none was 43% (95% confidence interval 9 to 64). This decreased risk appeared to be caused primarily by an inverse prospective relation between caffeinated coffee consumption and the development or progression of heart valve disease. The decrease in risk of heart valve disease for subjects with systolic BP <160 mm Hg and diastolic BP <100 mm Hg for any caffeinated coffee versus none was 43%"
  • Higher Blood Phosphorus and Calcium Levels in Coronary Arteries - Science Daily, 11/26/08 - "Higher serum phosphorus levels, even within the normal range, may be a risk factor for coronary artery atherosclerosis in healthy young adults"
  • Coenzyme Q(10) An Independent Predictor of Mortality in Chronic Heart Failure - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Oct 28;52(18):1435-1441 - "Plasma CoQ(10) concentration was an independent predictor of mortality in this cohort. The CoQ(10) deficiency might be detrimental to the long-term prognosis of CHF, and there is a rationale for controlled intervention studies with CoQ(10)" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Grapes May Aid A Bunch Of Heart Risk Factors, Animal Study Finds - Science Daily, 10/29/08 - "Could eating grapes help fight high blood pressure related to a salty diet? And could grapes calm other factors that are also related to heart diseases such as heart failure? A new University of Michigan Cardiovascular Center study suggests so" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Grapes And Grape Extracts May Lower Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Review Article Suggests - Science Daily, 10/28/08 - "grape polyphenols work in many different ways to prevent cardiovascular and other "inflammatory-mediated" diseases. Polyphenols are natural antioxidants found in grapes and some other plant foods. Their types and actions vary, depending on where in the grape they are found. Grape seeds, grape skin, and grape juice contain several types of polyphenols, including resveratrol, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and flavonoids" - See grape seed extract at Amazon.com.
  • Eating Whole Grains Lowers Heart Failure Risk, According To New Study - Science Daily, 10/27/08 - "whole grain consumption lowered HF risk, while egg and high-fat dairy consumption raised risk. Other food groups did not directly affect HF risk"
  • Coenzyme Q-10 Depletion Linked to Worse Heart Failure Outcomes - Medscape, 10/22/08 - "Low plasma concentration of coenzyme Q-10 is an independent predictor of reduced survival in patients with chronic heart failure" - See ubiquinol products at Amazon.com.
  • Flavonoids’ heart health benefits in the blood vessels: Study - Nutra USA, 10/10/08 - "A daily dose of quercetin or (-)-epicatechin led to improvements in endothelial function, a key marker of cardiovascular health" - [Abstract]
  • Dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality over 40 y: the Zutphen Study -  Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1119-25 - "Every additional 10 g of recent dietary fiber intake per day reduced coronary heart disease mortality by 17% (95% CI: 2%, 30%) and all-cause mortality by 9% (0%, 18%). The strength of the association between long-term dietary fiber intake and all-cause mortality decreased from age 50 y (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.93) until age 80 y (0.99; 0.87, 1.12). We observed no clear associations for different types of dietary fiber. CONCLUSIONS: A higher recent dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower risk of both coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. For long-term intake, the strength of the association between dietary fiber and all-cause mortality decreased with increasing age"
  • Intakes of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fish in relation to measurements of subclinical atherosclerosis - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1111-8 - "After adjustment for potential confounders, intakes of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and nonfried (broiled, steamed, baked, or raw) fish were inversely related to subclinical atherosclerosis determined by cCIMT but not by iCIMT, CAC score, or ABI. The multivariate odds ratio comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of dietary exposures in relation to subclinical atherosclerosis determined by cCIMT was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.86; P for trend < 0.01) for n-3 PUFA intake; 0.80 (95% CI: 0.64, 1.01; P = 0.054) for nonfried fish consumption; and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.11; P = 0.38) for fried fish consumption" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Pure dietary flavonoids quercetin and (-)-epicatechin augment nitric oxide products and reduce endothelin-1 acutely in healthy men - Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1018-25 - "Dietary flavonoids, such as quercetin and (-)-epicatechin, can augment nitric oxide status and reduce endothelin-1 concentrations and may thereby improve endothelial function"
  • Increasing dietary fish intake has contributed to decreasing mortality from CHD among the older population in Hong Kong - Public Health Nutr. 2008 Oct 7:1-6 - "The time trend of CHD mortality was inversely related to the trend of fish intake. The frequency of fish intake may have a substantial impact on the population for the prevention of CHD deaths in Hong Kong" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea and cardiovascular disease: from molecular targets towards human health - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2008 Nov;11(6):758-65 - "Consumption of green tea has been inversely associated with the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors. Mechanisms that have been suggested as being involved in the antiatherosclerotic effects of green tea consumption primarily entail antioxidative, antiinflammatory, antiproliferative, and antithrombotic properties, as well as beneficial effects on endothelial function. Moreover, evidence exists for myocardial effects of tea constituents, including positive inotropic and antihypertrophic effects, and beneficial impact in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Fish, omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, and Mortality From Cardiovascular Diseases in a Nationwide Community-Based Cohort of Japanese Men and Women The JACC (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk) Study - J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Sep 16;52(12):988-996 - "For mortality from total cardiovascular disease, intakes of fish and omega-3 PUFA were associated with 18% to 19% lower risk ... We found an inverse association between fish and omega-3 PUFA dietary intakes and cardiovascular mortality, especially for heart failure, suggesting a protective effect of fish intake on cardiovascular diseases" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant sterols in hyperlipidemic individuals - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Sep 27 - "The combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduced several inflammatory markers. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was reduced by 39% (P=0.009), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by 10% (P=0.02), interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 10.7% (P=0.009), leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) by 29.5% (P=0.01) and adiponectin was increased by 29.5% (P=0.05). Overall cardiovascular risk was reduced by 22.6% (P=0.006) in the combination group. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated, for the first time that dietary intervention with n-3 PUFA and plant sterols reduces systemic inflammation in hyperlipidemic individuals. Furthermore, our results suggest that reducing inflammation provides a potential mechanism by which the combination of n-3 PUFA and plant sterols are cardioprotective" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com and Jarrow Max DHA at Amazon.com.
  • Bleeding Gums Linked To Heart Disease - Science Daily, 9/10/08 - "People with poor dental hygiene and those who don't brush their teeth regularly end up with bleeding gums, which provide an entry to the bloodstream for up to 700 different types of bacteria found in our mouths. This increases the risk of having a heart attack"
  • Vitamin K2 linked to better heart health - NutraUSA, 9/10/08 - "When the intakes of K1 and K2 were divided into four groups from the lowest to highest, no association was found between K1 intakes and calcification. However, high consumption of K2 (about 45 micrograms per day) was associated with 20 per cent decreased coronary calcification, compared with low consumption of K2 (about 18micrograms per day)" - See Vitamin K products at iHerb.
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids, but Not Statin Therapy, Cuts Mortality and Hospitalizations in Heart Failure - Medscape, 9/3/08 - "Speaking to the media, Tavazzi said the advantage of n-3 PUFA, as documented by the primary end points, is that they appear to have a beneficial effect on the mechanisms leading to the progression of heart failure. Although the exact reasons are unknown, omega-3 fatty acids could possibly exert favorable effects on inflammatory processes, such as reductions in endothelial activation and cytokine production, as well as influence platelet aggregation, blood pressure, heart rate, ventricular function, and autonomic tone" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Effects Of N-3 PUFA In Patients With Symptomatic Chronic Heart Failure: The GISSI-HF Results - Science Daily, 8/31/08 - "undertook a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial in 357 cardiology sites in Italy. They enrolled 6 975 patients with chronic heart failure of New York Heart Association class II-IV, assigned to n-3 PUFA 1 g daily or placebo. Patients were followed up for a median of 3•9 years ... In a per-protocol analysis performed in about 5000 full complier patients, the relative risk of death was reduced by 14% (p 0.004). Safety was excellent" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Fish oil helps patients with chronic heart failure - MSNBC, 8/31/08 - "Comparing the results from both studies, the researchers concluded that fish oil is slightly more effective than the drug because the oil performed better against a placebo than did Crestor ... Both studies were paid for by an Italian group of pharmaceuticals including Pfizer Inc., Sigma Tau SpA and AstraZeneca PLC" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol, at concentrations attainable with moderate wine consumption, stimulates human platelet nitric oxide production - J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1602-8 - "resveratrol, at concentrations attainable after moderate wine intake, activates platelet eNOS and in this way blunts the proinflammatory pathway linked to p38MAPK, thus inhibiting ROS production and ultimately platelet function. This activity may contribute to the beneficial effects of moderate wine intake on ischemic cardiovascular disease" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Coffee consumption and risk of coronary heart diseases: A meta-analysis of 21 prospective cohort studies - Int J Cardiol. 2008 Aug 14 - "Our findings do not support the hypothesis that coffee consumption increases the long-term risk of coronary heart disease. Habitual moderate coffee drinking was associated with a lower risk of CHD in women"
  • Green tea reduces LDL oxidability and improves vascular function - J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Apr;27(2):209-13 - "The mean diameter of the brachial artery following the post-compression hyperaemia phase rose significantly (p < 0.0001) after treatment with green tea extract. Flow-mediated brachial artery vasodilation ranged from 5.68% for the placebo phase to 11.98% after the green tea extract (p = 0.02). The consumption of green tea extract was associated with a significant 37.4% reduction in the concentration of oxidized LDL (TBARS) (p = 0.017). The levels of anti-oxidized LDL IgM antibodies fell significantly after treatment (p = 0.002) ... This study found that consumption of green tea extract by women for five weeks produced modifications in vascular function and an important decrease in serum oxidizability" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Levels Pose Large Threat To Health; Overall 26 Percent Increased Risk Of Death - Science Daily, 8/12/08 - "This translates overall to an estimated 26 percent increased risk of any death, though the number of deaths from heart disease alone was not large enough to meet scientific criteria to resolve that it was due to low vitamin D levels ... Previous results from the same nationwide survey showed that 41 percent of men and 53 percent of women are technically deficient in the nutrient, with vitamin D levels below 28 nanograms per milliliter" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Association of vitamin D deficiency with heart failure and sudden cardiac death in a large cross-sectional study of patients referred for coronary angiography - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Aug 5 - "sudden cardiac death (SCD) ... Low levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D are associated with prevalent myocardial dysfunction, deaths due to heart failure and SCD" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Effects of EPA on coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic patients with multiple risk factors: Sub-analysis of primary prevention cases from the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS) - Atherosclerosis. 2008 Jun 19 - "Multiple risk factors besides cholesterol are associated with markedly increased incidence of CAD. High TG with low HDL-C represents a particularly potent risk factor. EPA was effective in reducing the incidence of CAD events for patients with this dyslipidemic pattern, suggesting that EPA may be especially beneficial in patients who with abnormal TG and HDL-C levels" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Exercise Could Be The Heart's Fountain Of Youth - Science Daily, 7/23/08 - "Absence may make the heart grow fonder, but endurance exercise seems to make it younger ... older people who did endurance exercise training for about a year ended up with metabolically much younger hearts ... after endurance exercise training -- which involved walking, running or cycling exercises three to five days a week for about an hour per session -- the participants' hearts doubled their glucose uptake during high-energy demand"
  • Long-term fish consumption and n-3 fatty acid intake in relation to (sudden) coronary heart disease death: the Zutphen study - Eur Heart J. 2008 Jul 18 - "long-term fatty-fish consumption lowered the risk of sudden coronary death [HR: 0.46" - See Mega Twin EPA at Amazon.com.
  • Alpha-linolenic acid reduces risk of nonfatal MI - theheart.org, 7/9/08 - "ALA is an intermediate-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is often overshadowed by the more famous long-chain members of the n-3 family, namely EPA and DHA acids that are found in fish oils ... ALA intake, g/day ... 1.79 ... Relative risk of MI ... 0.43 ... The relationship between ALA and myocardial infarction was nonlinear ... We see a dose effect, but only up to about 0.7% of adipose tissue, which corresponds to about 1.8 g/day. Increasing intake further was not associated with increased protection" - See flax seed at Amazon.com.
  • Long-term effects of resveratrol supplementation on suppression of atherogenic lesion formation and cholesterol synthesis in apo E-deficient mice - Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jul 5 - "The concentration of total-cholesterol (total-C) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) in plasma was significantly lower in the resveratrol-supplemented groups compare to the control group over the entire experimental period. The plasma HDL-C concentration was significantly elevated, and the ratio of HDL-C/total-C was significantly higher in the CF and RV groups than in the control group. Plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity was significantly higher in the 0.06% resveratrol group. The hepatic HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) activity was significantly lower in the clofibrate and resveratrol groups than in the control group. Resveratrol supplements attenuated the presence of atherosclerotic lesions and periarterial fat deposition in the apo E(-/-) mice. The presence of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in atherosclerotic vessels was diminished in the resveratrol-supplemented apo E(-/-) mice. These results provide new insight into the anti-atherogenic and hypocholesterolemic properties of resveratrol in apo E(-/-) mice that were fed a normal diet" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Green tea's heart benefits gain support - Nutra USA, 7/7/08 - "Regular consumption of green tea may improve the function of endothelial cells - cells lining the walls of blood vessels - and boost cardiovascular health, according to new research from Greece" - [Abstract] - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • The acute effect of green tea consumption on endothelial function in healthy individuals - Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Jun;15(3):300-5 - "Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) ... FMD increased significantly with tea (by 3.69%, peak at 30 min, P<0.02), whereas it did not change significantly with caffeine (increase by 1.72%, peak at 30 min, P=NS) ... Green tea consumption has an acute beneficial effect on endothelial function, assessed with FMD of the brachial artery, in healthy individuals. This may be involved in the beneficial effect of tea on cardiovascular risk" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Benefits Of Green Tea In Reducing An Important Risk Factor For Heart Disease - [WebMD] - Science Daily, 7/2/08 - "More evidence for the beneficial effect of green tea on risk factors for heart disease has emerged in a new study. The study found that the consumption of green tea rapidly improves the function of (endothelial) cells lining the circulatory system; endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the progression of atherosclerosis" - See green tea extract at Amazon.com.
  • Resveratrol inhibits cardiac hypertrophy via AMP-activated protein kinase and Akt - J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 18 - "Taken together, our data suggest that resveratrol exerts anti-hypertrophic effects by activating AMPK via LKB1 and inhibiting Akt, thus suppressing protein synthesis and gene transcription" - See resveratrol products at Amazon.com.
  • Drinking Large Amounts Of Coffee May Actually Extend One's Lifespan, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 6/16/08 - "Women consuming two to three cups of caffeinated coffee per day had a 25 percent lower risk of death from heart disease during the follow-up period (which lasted from 1980 to 2004 and involved 84,214 women) as compared with non-consumers, and an 18 percent lower risk of death caused by something other than cancer or heart disease as compared with non-consumers during follow-up. For men, this level of consumption was associated with neither a higher nor a lower risk of death during the follow-up period"
  • Vitamin D: New Way To Treat Heart Failure? - Science Daily, 6/11/08 - "treatments with activated vitamin D prevented heart muscle cells from growing bigger – the condition, called hypertrophy, in which the heart becomes enlarged and overworked in people with heart failure. The treatments prevented heart muscle cells from the over-stimulation and increased contractions associated with the progression of heart failure" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.
  • Low Vitamin D Ups Heart Risk in Men - WebMD, 6/9/08 - "men who had vitamin D levels of 15 ng/mL or less in their blood samples -- an indication of vitamin D deficiency -- had an increased risk for heart attack compared to those whose vitamin D level was considered sufficient (30 ng/mL). The twofold increased risk remained significant even when adjusting for other factors known to contribute to heart disease, such as high cholesterol, diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of heart disease" - See vitamin D at Amazon.com.

Other News:

  • Impaired Fasting Glucose and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Men and Women: The Korean Heart Study - Diabetes Care. 2012 Sep 21 - "evaluated the relationship between IFG and CVD or IHD among Korean men and women ... IFG was categorized as grade 1 (fasting glucose 100-109 mg/dL) or grade 2 (110-125 mg/dL) ... Incidence rates of CVD (per 100,000 person-years) were 2,203 for diabetes. Age-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD were 1.17 (95% CI 1.13-1.20) for grade 1 IFG, 1.30 (1.24-1.35) for grade 2 IFG, and 1.81 (1.75-1.86) for diabetes"
  • Glycated Hemoglobin is Associated with the Complexity of Coronary Artery Disease, Even in Non-Diabetic Adults - J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012 Aug 9 - "Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death from any cause. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between HbA1c value and coronary artery lesion complexity ... The complexity of the coronary artery lesions was evaluated using the SYNTAX score (SXscore). The subjects were divided into quartiles according to either the HbA1c or the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values ... Both the higher HbA1c quartiles (Q1 to Q4) and higher FPG quartiles were significantly associated with a higher SXscore ... HbA1c is significantly associated with the complexity of coronary lesions. This association is even observed in non-diabetic adults. A higher HbA1c value is an independent predictor of the prevalence of complex coronary lesions"
  • Air pollution linked to chronic heart disease - Science Daily, 6/5/12 - "Compared to patients who lived in areas with the lowest recorded levels of pollution, those in the most polluted environment were 43 percent more likely to have a second heart attack or suffer congestive heart failure and 46 percent more likely to suffer a stroke. The study also found that patients exposed to air pollution were 35 percent more likely to die in the almost 20 year period following their first heart attack than those who were exposed to lower levels of pollution"
  • A high normal TSH level is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in euthyroid non-smokers with newly diagnosed asymptomatic coronary heart disease - Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Mar 27;11(1):44 - "The TSH level, even within the normal range, was positively and linearly correlated with total cholesterol (TC), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) (Beta = 0.173, 0.181 and 0.103, respectively, P < 0.01in all). With 1 mIU/L rise of TSH, the levels of TC, TG and non-HDL-C will increase by 1.010, 1.064, and 1.062 mmol/L, respectively. The odds ratio of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia with respect to the serum TSH level was 1.640 (95% CI 1.199-2.243, P = 0.002) and 1.349 (95% CI 1.054-1.726, P = 0.017), respectively"
  • Meat consumption in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb 15 - "Moderate meat consumption, up to ~ 100 g/day, was not associated with increased mortality from ischemic heart disease, stroke or total cardiovascular disease among either gender"
  • Cleaning your teeth can cut heart attack risk - MSNBC, 11/14/11 - "According to data compiled by researchers in Taiwan, people who had their teeth professionally scraped and cleaned had a 24 percent lower risk of heart attack and 13 percent lower risk of stroke compared to those who never had a dental cleaning"
  • Change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of subsequent hospitalization for coronary artery disease or stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Am J Cardiol. 2011 Oct 15;108(8):1124-8 - "During a mean follow-up of 55.8 +/- 23.8 months, 3,023 patients (10.1%) experienced a CVD hospitalization. After multivariate adjustment, each 5 mg/dl of baseline HDL cholesterol was significantly associated with a 6% lower CVD hospitalization risk (hazard ratio 0.94 per 5 mg/dl, 95% confidence interval 0.92 to 0.95, p <0.0001) and each 5-mg/dl increase in HDL cholesterol was associated with a 4% CVD risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 0.99, p <0.003). In the categorical analysis, a ≥6.5-mg/dl HDL cholesterol decrease was associated with an 11% increased CVD risk (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.24, p = 0.047) and a ≥6.5-mg/dl increase was associated with an 8% CVD risk reduction (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 1.01, p = 0.077) relative to those with stable HDL cholesterol"
  • Link between high cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease revealed in new study - Science Daily, 9/12/11 - "high cholesterol levels were significantly related to brain plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease ... the cholesterol levels were tested for 2,587 people age 40 to 79 who had no signs of Alzheimer's disease. Then they examined 147 autopsied people who died after a long observation period (10 to 15 years) ... People with high cholesterol levels, defined by a reading of more than 5.8 mmol/L, had significantly more brain plaques when compared to those with normal or lower cholesterol levels. A total of 86 percent of people with high cholesterol had brain plaques, compared with only 62 percent of people with low cholesterol levels ... insulin resistance, a sign of diabetes, may be another risk factor for brain plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease"
  • Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in the SUN Project - Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 23 - "Egg intake was assessed using a 136-item-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Baseline consumption was categorized into no consumption or <1 egg/week, 1 egg/week, 2-4 eggs/week and >4 eggs/week. The presence of cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by questionnaire at baseline, and the incidence of CVD was assessed using biennial assessments. The median follow-up was 6.1 years. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD (myocardial infarction, revascularization procedures or stroke). Outcomes were confirmed by review of medical records.Results:During a median follow-up of 6.1 years, 91 new confirmed cases of CVD were observed. No association was found between egg consumption and the incidence of CVD (HR: 1.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-2.63) for the highest versus the lowest category of egg consumption after adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, adherence to the Mediterranean food pattern and other cardiovascular risk factors"
  • High cholesterol and blood pressure in middle age tied to early memory problems - Science Daily, 2/21/11 - "people who had higher cardiovascular risk were more likely to have lower cognitive function and a faster rate of overall cognitive decline compared to those with the lowest risk of heart disease. A 10-percent higher cardiovascular risk was associated with poorer cognitive test scores in all areas except reasoning for men and fluency for women. For example, a 10 percent higher cardiovascular risk was associated with a 2.8 percent lower score in the test of memory for men and a 7.1 percent lower score in the memory test for women ... Higher cardiovascular risk was also associated with a 10-year faster rate of overall cognitive decline in both men and women compared to those with lower cardiovascular risk"
  • U-Shaped Curve for Sleep Duration and Cardiovascular Disease - Medscape, 2/10/11 - "They list causative mechanisms relating short duration of sleep to adverse health outcomes as including changes in circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin, which in turn would increase appetite, caloric intake, reduce energy expenditure, and facilitate the development of obesity and impaired glycemic control, with increased cardiovascular risk. Increased cortisol secretion and altered growth hormone metabolism have also been implicated. Low-grade inflammation is also activated during short sleep, with possible implications not only for cardiovascular disease but also for other chronic conditions, including cancer ... people reporting consistently sleeping five hours or less per night should be regarded as a higher-risk group for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. And that sleeping nine hours or more per night may represent a useful diagnostic tool for detecting subclinical or undiagnosed comorbidity"
  • Diet soda may raise odds of vascular events; Salt linked to stroke risk - Science Daily, 2/9/11 - "In findings involving 2,564 people in the large, multi-ethnic Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), scientists said people who drank diet soda every day had a 61 percent higher risk of vascular events than those who reported no soda drinking ... In separate research using 2,657 participants also in the Manhattan study, scientists found that high salt intake, independent of the hypertension it causes, was linked to a dramatically increased risk of ischemic strokes (when a blood vessel blockage cuts off blood flow to the brain)"
  • Sleep duration predicts cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies - Eur Heart J. 2011 Feb 7 - "Short duration of sleep was associated with a greater risk of developing or dying of CHD (RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.22-1.80, P < 0.0001), stroke (1.15, 1.00-1.31, P = 0.047), but not total CVD (1.03, 0.93-1.15, P = 0.52) with no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.95, P = 0.30, and P = 0.46, respectively). Long duration of sleep was also associated with a greater risk of CHD (1.38, 1.15-1.66, P = 0.0005), stroke (1.65, 1.45-1.87, P < 0.0001), and total CVD (1.41, 1.19-1.68, P < 0.0001) with no evidence of publication bias (P = 0.92, P = 0.96, and P = 0.79, respectively). Conclusion Both short and long duration of sleep are predictors, or markers, of cardiovascular outcomes"
  • Comparison of Effects of Alpha Receptor Blockers on Endothelial Functions and Coagulation Parameters in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia - Urology. 2011 Jan 20 - "When coagulation tests were evaluated, there were significant increases in bleeding and coagulation times in the groups using doxazosin and terazosin. Doxazosin and terazosin lowered arterial blood pressure significantly compared with other treatments. With regard to effects on endothelial function, there were significant differences in flow-mediated dilation rates of the brachial artery at 60 and 90 seconds before and during treatment in the alfuzosin and terazosin groups ... Alpha receptor blockers can decrease the risk of cardiovascular complications by both reducing platelet aggregation and protecting endothelial functions in patients with prostatic hyperplasia. The only drug with a favorable effect in all 4 areas of interest, including BPH symptoms, blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and endothelial functions, was terazosin"
  • From dusty punch cards, new insights into link between cholesterol and heart disease - Science Daily, 1/5/11 - "He also found an old punch card machine to extract their data. Then, with the help of students and research assistants, he located and contacted 97 percent of the people in Gofman's study over the next nine years ... Their 29-year follow-up uncovered 363 cases of coronary heart disease. They found that both HDL2 and HDL3 lowered heart disease risk, and that a one-milligram per milliliter increase in HDL2 produced a significantly larger reduction in coronary heart disease risk than a one-milligram per milliliter increase in HDL3" - I doubt if many people besides me even remember what punch cards were.
  • High resting heart linked to shorter life expectancy in stable heart disease patients, study suggests - Science Daily, 10/26/10 - "Compared to heart disease patients with the lowest heart rate (58 beats per minute or less), those who had heart rates greater than 78 had a 39 per cent increased risk of suffering a major vascular event, a 77 per cent increased risk of cardiovascular disease death, and a 65 per cent increased risk of all-cause deaths"
  • Long-term exposure to elevated blood pressure and mortality from cardiovascular disease in a Japanese population: the Ibaraki Prefectural Health Study - Hypertens Res. 2010 Oct 7 - "Multivariate HRs (95% confidence interval) associated with a 10 mm Hg increase in systolic BP were measured in 1993 and 1998, and their averages were 1.11 (1.05-1.16), 1.13 (1.07-1.18) and 1.17 (1.10-1.27), respectively. Multivariate HRs for a 10 mm Hg increase in time-averaged systolic BP were 1.12 (1.03-1.21) in men and 1.24 (1.13-1.35) in women. The subgroup analysis of antihypertensive use showed that multivariate HRs for time-averaged systolic BP were 1.20 (1.11-1.29) in sustained non-users and 1.17 (1.04-1.32) in sustained users. Similar results were also obtained for diastolic BP. In conclusion, long-term exposure to elevated BP substantially associates with excess risk for cardiovascular disease mortality among Japanese subjects, irrespective of antihypertensive medication use. Thus, appropriate management of BP is important in both users and non-users of antihypertensive medication"
  • Resting heart rate in patients with stable coronary artery disease and diabetes: a report from the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the Heart - Eur Heart J. 2010 Oct 8 - "resting heart rate (RHR) ... cardiovascular events (CVE) ... Overall, median RHR was 70 (62-78) b.p.m. The RHR quartile stratification was significantly associated with outcome in the overall population (P = 0.002 and P = 0.021 for survival and CVE, respectively), whereas it was not in patients without DM. In patients with DM, the RHR quartiles correlated with survival (P = 0.032). In an adjusted regression model performed in patients without DM, RHR associated with neither survival [hazard ratio (HR): 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-1.27; P = 0.804] nor CVE (HR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.71-1.01, P = 0.068). In contrast, a 10-b.p.m. increase in RHR was independently associated with survival (HR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.06-1.69, P = 0.015), but not with CVE (HR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.84-1.18; P = 0.359) in patients with DM. Conclusion The present report, based on patients with stable CAD, is the first to reveal that the association between RHR and CVE seems to subsist in those with DM, however, not in those without DM"
  • Persistently noisy workplace more than doubles heart disease risk - Science Daily, 10/5/10
  • J-curve revisited: an analysis of blood pressure and cardiovascular events in the Treating to New Targets (TNT) trial - Eur Heart J. 2010 Sep 16 - "The relationship between SBP or DBP and primary outcome followed a J-curve with increased event rates above and below the reference BP range, both unadjusted and adjusted (for baseline covariates, treatment effect, and LDL levels). A time-dependent, non-linear, multivariate Cox proportional hazard model identified a nadir of 146.3/81.4 mmHg where the event rate was lowest. A similar non-linear relationship with a higher risk of events at lower pressures was found for most of the secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal MI, or angina. However, for the outcome of stroke, lower was better for SBP. Conclusion In patients with CAD, a low BP (<110-120/<60-70 mmHg) portends an increased risk of future cardiovascular events (except stroke)"
  • High stress hormone levels linked to increased cardiovascular mortality - Science Daily, 9/9/10 - "urinary cortisol did not increase the risk of non-cardiovascular mortality but did increase cardiovascular mortality risk. The third of the subjects with the highest urinary cortisol had a five-fold increased risk of dying of cardiovascular disease"
  • Hair provides proof of the link between chronic stress and heart attack - Science Daily, 9/3/10 - "Cortisol is considered to be a stress hormone. Its secretion is increased during times of stress. Traditionally it's been measured in serum, urine and saliva, but that only shows stress at the time of measurement, not over longer periods of time. Cortisol is also captured in the hair shaft"
  • Urinary Cortisol and Six-Year Risk of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Aug 25 - "During a mean follow-up of 5.7 (SD = 1.2) yr, 183 persons died, of whom 41 died from cardiovascular disease. After adjustment for sociodemographics, health indicators, and baseline cardiovascular disease, urinary cortisol did not increase the risk of noncardiovascular mortality, but it did increase cardiovascular mortality risk. Persons in the highest tertile of urinary cortisol had a five times increased risk of dying of cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio = 5.00; 95% confidence interval = 2.02-12.37). This effect was found to be consistent across persons with and without cardiovascular disease at baseline"
  • Periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis: Are hemodynamic forces a link? - Atherosclerosis. 2010 Jul 29 - "Worse periodontal health was associated to the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. Patients with carotid plaques (n=19) had higher periodontal indices compared with subjects without plaques (n=14) (gingival index: 1.40+/-0.71 vs. 0.69+/-0.64, p=0.006) ... In the 66 examined common carotids, wall shear stress was inversely related to all periodontal indices (r=0.54, p<0.00001 for peak wall shear stress and gingival index) ... The present study identifies for the first time a link between periodontal indices and wall shear stress, suggesting that an alteration of hemodynamic profile might contribute to atherosclerosis in subjects with periodontal disease"
  • Elevated heart rate over time linked to significant risk of death - Science Daily, 8/12/10 - "development of a heart rate of 84 beats per minute or greater that either developed or persisted in patients during the study's average five-year time span was linked to a 55 percent greater risk of cardiovascular death and a 79 percent greater risk of death from all causes ... A healthy heart rate is between 60 and 80 beats per minute ... every extra 10 beats per minute higher than a normal resting pulse was associated with a 16 percent increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease and a 25 percent greater risk of all-cause death ... To date, no medication has been approved in the United States that can reduce heart rate without side effects, although a drug (ivabradine) is being tested"
  • Waist Circumference but Not Body Mass Index Predicts Long-Term Mortality in Elderly Subjects with Chronic Heart Failure - J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010 Jul 28 - "Mortality increased as WC increased in elderly subjects without CHF (from 47.8% to 56.7%, P=.01), and the increase was even greater in patients with CHF (from 58.1% to 82.0%, P=.01). In contrast, mortality decreased as BMI increased in elderly subjects without CHF (from 53.8% to 46.1%, P0 =.046) but not in those with CHF. According to Cox regression analysis, BMI protected against long-term mortality in the absence but not in the presence of CHF. In the absence of CHF, WC was associated with a 2% increased risk of long-term mortality for each 1-cm greater WC (Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.03; P<.001), versus 5% increased in the presence of CHF (HR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.10; P<.001)"
  • Egg consumption and CHD and stroke mortality: a prospective study of US adults - Public Health Nutr. 2010 Jul 16:1-10 - "'high' egg consumption (>/=7 times/week v. <1 time/week) was not associated with significantly increased CHD mortality (HR = 1.13, 95 % CI 0.61, 2.11 (men); HR = 0.92, 95 % CI 0.27, 3.11 (women)). There was a statistically significant inverse association between 'high' egg consumption and stroke mortality among men (HR = 0.27, 95 % CI 0.10, 0.73), but the estimate was imprecise because of sparse data. We did not observe a statistically significant positive association between 'high' egg consumption and CHD or stroke mortality in analyses restricted to individuals with diabetes, but these analyses may be limited due to the small number of diabetics. CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a significant positive association between egg consumption and increased risk of mortality from CHD or stroke in the US population. These results corroborate the findings of previous studies"
  • High blood cortisol levels significantly increases death rate in patients with acute coronary syndrome - Science Daily, 5/27/10 - "1036 patients with acute coronary syndrome were studied for an average period of 7.7 years. There were no significant differences in the serum cortisol levels between patients with and without acute coronary syndrome. However, the patients with ACS and high cortisol levels had a significantly elevated number of deaths when compared to the patients with ACS and the lowest cortisol levels. 758 total deaths were reported during the follow-up period. The ACS patients with the highest cortisol levels (i.e. the highest 25% serum cortisol) were significantly more likely to die from fatal cardiovascular events than those with the lowest cortisol levels (the lowest 25% serum cortisol). (The hazard ratio for highest versus lowest quartile of SCC was 1.89"
  • Eating processed meats, but not unprocessed red meats, may raise risk of heart disease and diabetes, study finds - Science Daily, 5/17/10 - "eating processed meat, such as bacon, sausage or processed deli meats, was associated with a 42% higher risk of heart disease and a 19% higher risk of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, the researchers did not find any higher risk of heart disease or diabetes among individuals eating unprocessed red meat, such as from beef, pork, or lamb"
  • Study: Too Much Sugar Increases Heart Risks - Time Magazine, 4/21/10 - "Compared with people consuming less than 5% of their daily calories in added sugar, those in the highest consumption group — who got 25% or more of their daily calories in added sugar — were twice as likely to have low levels of HDL cholesterol, the beneficial lipid that mops up artery-clogging LDL cholesterol. According to government health guidelines, HDL levels below 50 mg/dL for women and 40 mg/dL for men are considered low; 43% of the highest sugar consumers recorded low HDL, while only 22% of the lowest sugar consumers did ... People eating the most added sugar also recorded the highest triglyceride levels ... Low HDL and high triglyceride levels are two of the primary risk factors for heart disease"
  • ApoB/apoA-I ratio is better than LDL-C in detecting cardiovascular risk - Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Feb 18 - "An unfavourable apoB/apoA-I (>/=0.9 for males and >/=0.8 for females) was present in 13.9% of 108 patients with LDL-C <100mg/dL: compared to subjects with lower apoB/apoA-I (<0.9 for males and <0.8 for females), they had more elements of MetS and their lipid profile strongly correlated with high CV risk. Out of 314 patients with lower apoB/apoA-I, 40.12% had LDL-C >/=130mg/dL: these retained a more favourable lipid profile than corresponding subjects with elevated apoB/apoA-I ratio. Finally, we found a significant correlation between LDL-C and apoB/apoA-I ratio (r=0.48, p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In NGT with LDL-C <100mg/dL, a higher apoB/apoA-I exhibited an atherogenic lipid profile, indicating that LDL-C alone is insufficient to define CV risk. Independent from LDL-level, when apoB/apoA-I is lower, the lipid profile is, in fact, less atherogenic. This study demonstrates that apoB/apoA-I is at least complementary to LDL-C in identifying the "effective" CV risk profile of asymptomatic NGT subjects"
  • Telmisartan: a Different Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Protecting a Different Population? - J Int Med Res. 2009;37(6):1662-1679 - "Telmisartan has a unique profile among ARBs, with a high affinity for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, a long duration of receptor binding, a high lipophilicity and a long plasma half life. This leads to sustained and powerful blood pressure lowering when compared with the first marketed ARBs, such as losartan and valsartan. Some pharmacological properties of telmisartan clearly distinguish it from other members of the ARB class and may contribute to the clinical effects seen with telmisartan. A class effect for ARBs cannot be assumed. To date, telmisartan is the only ARB that has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk in at-risk cardiovascular patients" - Click here for reasons to consider telmisartan as a first line treatment for hypertension.  See telmisartan at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Low IQ among strongest predictors of cardiovascular disease -- second only to cigarette smoking in large population study - Science Daily, 2/9/10
  • Hyperglycemia: New mechanism underlying cardiovascular disease described - Science Daily, 12/12/09 - "Hyperglycemia starts a complex chain of events that damages blood vessels and cause cardiovascular disease"
  • Low testosterone level as a predictor of cardiovascular events in Japanese men with coronary risk factors - Atherosclerosis. 2009 Nov 13 - "Cox proportional hazards models showed that the subjects with the lowest tertile of plasma testosterone (<14.2nmol/L) had an approximately 4-fold higher CV event risk compared to those with the higher testosterone tertiles after adjustment for coronary risk factors including medication and FMD (unadjusted hazard ratio, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.47-8.86: multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio, 4.61; 95% CI, 1.02-21.04). Multivariate analysis did not show any significant association of DHEA-S, estradiol or cortisol with CV events"
  • Kidney Function Decline Increases Risk Of Heart Failure And Premature Death - Science Daily, 11/5/09 - "Among 4,378 eligible participants in the study, those with rapid kidney decline (1,083 patients) demonstrated a 32% increased risk of experiencing heart failure, a 48% increased risk of having a heart attack, and a 67% increased risk of developing peripheral arterial disease ... Patients whose kidney function dropped by more than 5.6% per year demonstrated a 30% increased risk of developing heart disease and a 22% increased risk of dying prematurely compared to patients with stable kidney function"
  • Low-Cost Drugs Prevent Heart Attack, Stroke - WebMD, 10/1/09 - "Besides being encouraged to take a daily aspirin, patients were prescribed a medication bundle, typically lovastatin (40 milligrams a day) to lower cholesterol and lisinopril (20 milligrams a day) to lower blood pressure ... Compared with the no-exposure group, the low-exposure group (whose members picked up medicines less than half the time) had a 60% reduction in hospitalizations for heart attack and stroke"
  • Association of Kidney Function With Coronary Atherosclerosis and Calcification in Autopsy Samples From Japanese Elders: The Hisayama Study - Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Sep 16 - "The autopsy findings presented here suggest that CKD is associated significantly with severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Patients with CKD should be considered a high-risk population for advanced coronary atherosclerosis"
  • Increase In Visceral Fat During Menopause Linked With Testosterone - Science Daily, 8/20/09 - "The culprit is likely not age, as is commonly believed, but the change in hormone balance that occurs during the menopause transition ... Of all the factors we analyzed that could possibly account for the increase in visceral fat during this period in a woman's lifetime, levels of active testosterone proved to be the one most closely linked with abdominal fat ... in women, it is the change in the hormonal balance – specifically, the increase in active testosterone – that is predominantly responsible for visceral fat, and for the increased risk of cardiovascular disease"
  • Stress Raises Belly Fat, Heart Risks - WebMD, 8/6/09 - "Even compared to other monkeys with the same body mass index and weight, CT scans showed that the stressed monkeys had a great deal more belly fat. And when the researchers looked at the animals' arteries, they found plaque clogging the arteries of the stressed monkeys ... it's not how much fat you have, but where it is located ... Over time, high cortisol levels cause belly fat to accumulate. It also makes individual fat cells get larger ... When you have lots more fat in visceral fat cells and all the characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, each of these things promotes atherosclerosis"
  • High Cholesterol Linked to Alzheimer's - WebMD, 8/4/09 - "Adults with even moderately elevated cholesterol in their early to mid-40s appear to have an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and related dementias decades later ... Total cholesterol in the high range at study entry was associated with a 66% increase in Alzheimer's risk, while having borderline high cholesterol raised the risk for vascular dementia by 52% ... total cholesterol of 240 or higher is considered high, and a cholesterol of 200 to 239 is considered borderline high" - Maybe that's why most studies on statins show that statins reduce the odds of having Alzheimer's. - Ben
  • High Calcium Level In Arteries May Signal Serious Heart Attack Risk - Science Daily, 7/28/09
  • Link Between Oral Infections And Cardiovascular Disease Morbidity Explained - Science Daily, 7/9/09 - "A recent study that will be cited during the presentation explored the existence of bacteria known to cause periodontitis and the growth of blood vessel walls, which is a symptom of CVD. After examining the subjects used, the investigators found a positive connection between the growth of blood vessel walls and the existence of bacteria found in dental plaque, causing periodontitis"
  • Cholesterol OK? Statins Still Help Heart - WebMD, 7/1/09 - "Combined data from 10 trials that included more than 70,000 patients without cardiovascular disease, but with cardiovascular risk factors, showed a 12% reduction in deaths among patients who took statins ... The statin group also had 30% fewer heart attacks and 20% fewer strokes over four years of follow-up"
  • Patients With Moderate To Severe Periodontitis Need Evaluation For Heart Disease Risk - Science Daily, 6/30/09 - "Periodontitis is common, with mild to moderate forms affecting 30 to 50% of adults and the severe generalized form affecting 5 to 15% of all adults in the USA. In addition, there is now strong evidence that people with periodontitis are at increased risk of atherosclerotic CVD — the accumulation of lipid products within the arterial vascular wall"
  • New Therapy Found To Prevent Heart Failure In Many Patients - Science Daily, 6/23/09
  • Pioglitazone Improves Endothelial Function with Increased Adiponectin and High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Type 2 Diabetes - Endocr J. 2009 Jun 9 - "After treatment, HbA1c levels equally decreased in both groups, but PIO-treated group had significantly increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and decreased triglyceride,fasting insulin levels and HOMA-R. After treatment, increases in %FMD, plasma HDL-C and adiponectin (APN) levels were significantly greater in PIO-treated group than those in control group. Changes of %FMD showed significant positive correlations with those of plasma APN and HDL-Clevels. In conclusion, the present study showed that treatment of T2DM improved endothelial function with greater increases in %FMD, APN and HDL-C levels in PIO-treated group than those in control group, suggesting the beneficial effect of PIO on endothelial function in T2DM" - See pioglitazone at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Blood-pressure-lowering Drugs Should Not Be Limited To People With High Blood Pressure - Science Daily, 5/19/09 - "Blood pressure lowering drugs should be offered to anyone old enough to be at risk of a heart attack or stroke (or who is otherwise known to be at risk), regardless of their blood pressure ... using any one of the main classes of blood pressure lowering drugs at standard dose reduced fatal and non-fatal heart attacks by about a quarter and stroke by about a third. Heart failure was also reduced by about a quarter. The reductions in disease were similar in people with and without clinical cardiovascular disease and regardless of blood pressure before treatment ... three drugs together, each at low dose to minimize side effects, could increase the preventive effect, reducing heart attacks by about 45% and stroke by about 60%"
  • High, Low Estradiol Levels and Mortality in Men With Systolic HF - Medscape, 5/19/09 - "Both low and high serum levels of estradiol, compared with mid-range levels, are significantly and independently associated with increased all-cause mortality in men with chronic systolic heart failure" - Note:  See my aromatization page for ways to reduce it.  I take a quarter tablet of letrozole every day.  See letrozole at OffshoreRx1.com.
    Serum Estradiol Concentration Quintiles as Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in Men (With Quintile 3 as the Reference Group)
    Parameter Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5
    Estradiol concentration (pg/mL) <12.903 12.90–21.79 21.80–30.11 30.12–37.39 >37.40
    3-y survival* (%) 44.6 65.8 82.4 79.0 63.6
    Quintile as mortality predictor,* HR (95% CI) vs quintile 3 4.17 (2.33–7.45) 2.15 (1.16–3.99) -- 1.22 (0.64–2.31) 2.33 (1.30–4.18)
    HR= hazard ratio
  • Different Treatment Options In Chronic Coronary Artery Disease - Science Daily, 4/27/09
  • Fructose-Sweetened Beverages Linked to Heart Risks - NYTimes.com, 4/23/09 - "a controlled and randomized study has found that drinks sweetened with fructose led to higher blood levels of L.D.L, or "bad" cholesterol, and triglycerides in overweight test subjects, while drinks sweetened with another sugar, glucose, did not. Both L.D.L. and triglycerides have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease"
  • Insulin resistance independently predicts the progression of coronary artery calcification - Am Heart J. 2009 May;157(5):939-45 - "After controlling for these variables, higher fasting insulin levels independently predicted CAC progression"
  • Heart Disease: Combined Treatment Is Best - WebMD, 3/23/09 - "Heart disease patients who achieve normal blood pressure and very low cholesterol levels with aggressive drug therapy do better than patients who achieve only one of these goals ... Patients who achieved LDL levels below 70 and systolic blood pressures of below 120 had the slowest progression, as measured by increase in plaque volume"
  • Neck Size Linked to Heart Risk - WebMD, 3/11/09 - "the bigger a person's neck size, the greater that person's risk of high levels of LDL "bad" cholesterol and blood fat, insulin resistance, and high blood sugar"
  • New Test Successfully Identifies Life-threatening Heart Disease - Science Daily, 3/11/09
  • Heart Disease Tied to Depression, Anger - WebMD, 3/9/09 - "Chronically angry or hostile adults with no history of heart disease may be 19% more likely than their peers to develop heart disease"
  • Heart Rate Predicts Women's Heart Risk - WebMD, 2/3/09 - "among women with the highest heart rates (greater than 76 beats per minute) were more likely to suffer coronary events such as a heart attack than women with the lowest resting pulse rates (62 beats per minute or less)"
  • Newer Antipsychotic Drugs Increase the Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death - WebMD, 1/14/09 - "because these older agents cause movement disorders in some patients, they have largely been replaced with newer medications such as Zyprexa, Risperdal, and Seroquel ... Although the study's results reaffirmed that people who use the older antipsychotic drugs are twice as likely as nonusers to have sudden cardiac death, it also showed a similar increase in risk for the newer medications. For these, the rate of sudden cardiac death was more than twice that for nonusers"
  • More May Benefit From Cholesterol Drugs - WebMD, 1/13/09 - "Eight out of 10 middle-aged and older Americans may benefit from treatment with cholesterol-lowering statin drugs ... All the participants had elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ... Over an average of two years of treatment, participants who took the statin Crestor had half as many heart attacks, strokes, and deaths from cardiovascular causes as participants randomly assigned to receive a placebo"
  • High Systolic Pressure a Positive Sign in Chronic Heart Failure - Medscape, 1/5/09 - "In patients with chronic heart failure, higher systolic blood pressures paradoxically predict better survival ... The decrease in mortality rates associated with a 10 mm Hg higher systolic blood pressure was 13.0%...in the heart failure population ... in patients with cardiac disease but without chronic heart failure affecting systolic function, mean arterial blood pressure is largely determined by peripheral vasoconstriction, and higher systolic pressure indicates poor elasticity of the arteries ... In patients with heart failure, however, systolic pressure reflects the ejection fraction and cardiac output ... a higher blood pressure is associated with a decreased mortality as it serves as an indirect measure of cardiac function"
  • Low Dose Of Caffeine When Pregnant May Damage Heart Of Offspring For A Lifetime - Science Daily, 12/16/08 - "the equivalent of one dose of caffeine (just two cups of coffee) ingested during pregnancy may be enough to affect fetal heart development and then reduce heart function over the entire lifespan of the child"
  • Increased Calcium Sensitivity In The Heart Can Make For An Irregular Heartbeat - Science Daily, 11/20/08
  • JUPITER hits New Orleans: Landmark study shows statins benefit healthy individuals with high CRP levels - theheart.org, 11/9/08 - "In a study of individuals with low LDL cholesterol but elevated C-reactive-protein (CRP) levels, investigators showed that rosuvastatin (Crestor, AstraZeneca) 20 mg significantly reduced the primary end point—a composite of nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, revascularization, and confirmed death from cardiovascular causes—by 44% compared with individuals treated with placebo" - Note:  They seem to be attributing this to the reduction in CRP.  At 12 months, the CRP  of the 20 mg Crestor group was 2.2.  The baseline was 4.2.  That's a (4.2 - 2.2)/4.2 = 47.6% reduction in CRP.  Another option to reduce CRP might be Periostat (low dose doxycycline for periodontal disease).  See my CRP page for other ways to reduce it.  See:
    • Low-dose Periostat (Doxycycline) Shows Benefits in Patients with Heart Failure - Doctor's Guide, 11/20/02 - "At six-month follow-up, sub-antimicrobial dose doxycyline significantly reduced CRP levels by 45.8 percent compared to baseline values (p<0.05). The drug was also associated with a 33.5 percent reduction in interleukin-6 and a 50 percent reduction in metalloproteinase ... The findings are exciting, since research is now showing that CRP is both a key marker of inflammation leading to future acute coronary events, but also that CRP itself may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis"
  • Novel Approaches To Heart Disease And Inflammation - Science Daily, 9/30/08 - "the immune system's role in heart disease is a relatively recent finding, with the first inklings of its importance discovered in the early 1980s. Prior to that time, scientists believed that atherosclerosis, a blockage in the arteries and the underlying cause of most heart problems, was due to plaque formation caused solely by cholesterol buildup ... inflammatory T cells not only contributed to plaque formation, but they also played a key role in the rupture of the artery wall, which produces a heart attack"
  • Top-selling Cholesterol Drug Does Little For Women, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 9/17/08 - "Not one of the studies that included women with a mixture of risk factors for heart attacks provided statistically significant support for prescribing Lipitor or other statins to protect against cardiovascular problems. Pfizer’s claims of clinical proof that Lipitor reduces risk of heart attack in patients with multiple risk factors for heart disease does not appear to be scientifically supported for large segments of the female population ... Lipitor’s advertising repeatedly fails to report that clinical trials were statistically significant for men but not for women. Unqualified advertising claims of protection against heart attacks may therefore be misleading"
  • Treatment Appears To Reduce Heart Attack Risk And Revascularisation In Stable Coronary Patients - Science Daily, 8/31/08
  • Sex Hormones Link To Heart Risk - Science Daily, 8/31/08 - "one of the sex hormones - estradiol - was associated positively with total cholesterol and negatively with HDL-cholesterol. Circulating concentrations of another sex hormone - estrone - showed strong positive associations with both total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol ... Thus, men with the highest concentrations of estrone and estradiol may have the highest level of cardiovascular risk as their levels of detrimental LDL-cholesterol are high whilst their cardio-protective HDL-cholesterol is low" - See my aromatization page for ways to reduce these.
  • HbA1c Tied to Cardiovascular Risks in Patients With Symptomatic HF - Medscape, 8/28/08 - "Over a median follow-up period of almost 3 years, the researchers found that for each 1% rise in HbA1c, the risk of cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization and overall mortality rose by about 25%. Moreover, this was true in subjects with and without a history of diabetes and whether or not ejection fraction was reduced or preserved"
  • Air Pollution May Hurt the Heart - WebMD, 8/13/08 - "Air pollution -- even at levels deemed "acceptable" by the Environmental Protection Agency -- leads to short- and long-term injury to the heart and blood vessels, increases rates of heart disease-related hospitalizations, and can even cause death"
  • Salivary cortisol is related to atherosclerosis of carotid arteries - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Aug 5 - "area under the curve (AUC), which is a measure of total cortisol exposure while awake, and the slope, which is a measure of diurnal cortisol decline. Results: Total cortisol exposure while awake (AUC) was associated with higher plaque scores (beta = 0.08 per SD of AUC, 95% CI; 0.00 - 0.17, p-value = 0.04) in a fully adjusted linear regression model. Persons with an AUC in the highest tertile had a higher number of plaques of carotid arteries compared to those in the lowest tertile (3.08 versus 2.80 ... Our results support the hypothesis that increased total cortisol exposure is independently associated with atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries" - See my cortisol page for ways to reduce it.
  • Lowering Cholesterol Early In Life Could Save Lives - Science Daily, 8/4/08 - "Our review of the literature convinces us that more aggressive and earlier intervention will probably prevent considerably more than 30% of coronary heart disease ... Studies show that fatty streak lesions in the arteries that are a precursor to atherosclerosis and heart disease begin in childhood, and advanced lesions are not uncommon by age 30. Why not nip things in the bud?" Such early signs of heart disease should be taken as seriously as early signs of cancer or diabetes"
  • Erectile Dysfunction May Signal A Broken Heart - Science Daily, 5/20/08
  • Cardiovascular Risk: Low Sodium Diets Might Be Worse Than High Salt Diets - Science Daily, 5/15/08 - "Contrary to long-held assumptions, high-salt diets may not increase the risk of death ... The Einstein researchers actually observed a significantly increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD) associated with lower sodium diets" - This has been going back and forth for years.  I try to cut down and use Morton Lite salt, etc.
  • Inflammatory Markers and Albuminuria Independently Predict Heart Failure - Medscape, 5/2/08 - "Interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein, and macroalbuminuria are significant predictors of congestive heart failure, independent of obesity and other established risk factors" - Also see my inflammation page for ways to reduce it.
  • Statin Drug Crestor Slows Artery Plaque - WebMD, 4/1/08 - "A trial of the statin drug Crestor [rosuvastatin] has been halted early due to "unequivocal evidence" that it reduces heart attacks, strokes, and deaths due to cardiovascular disease in people with no signs of heart disease" - See rosuvastatin at OffshoreRx1.com.
  • Cholesterol Testing Not Enough for Some - WebMD, 3/27/08 - "once LDL cholesterol is lowered to recommended levels in high-risk patients, testing for the protein ApoB may more accurately identify those still at risk for cardiovascular events" - See my ApoB page fro ways to reduce it.
  • Half Of Heart Patients Significantly Underuse Effective Heart Medications, Many Because Of Cost - Science Daily, 2/18/08 - "American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend heart attack patients receive treatment with a beta-blocker, a statin cholesterol-lowering drug, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), and aspirin. A combination of the drugs has reduced coronary heart disease death by 80 percent compared to placebo"
  • Dangerous Duo: Hostility Plus Depression Elevates Risk For Heart Disease - Science Daily, 2/11/08
  • Stress At Work Is Linked To Heart Disease - Science Daily, 1/22/08 - "chronic work stress was associated with CHD and this association was stronger among both men and women aged under 50 -- their risk of CHD was an average of 68% more than for people who reported no stress at work"
  • Egg Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure in the Physicians' Health Study - Circulation. 2008 Jan 14 - "Although egg consumption up to 6 times per week was not associated with incident HF, egg consumption of >/=7 per week was associated with an increased risk of HF. Compared with subjects who reported egg consumption of <1 per week, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for HF were 1.28 (1.02 to 1.61) and 1.64 (1.08 to 2.49) for egg consumption of 1 per day and >/=2 per day, respectively, after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, and history of atrial fibrillation, hypertension, valvular heart disease, and hypercholesterolemia"
  • Insulin-Resistant Cardiomyopathy - Medscape, 1/15/08 - "Increasing evidence points to insulin resistance as a primary etiologic factor in the development of nonischemic heart failure (HF) ... Epidemiological evidence suggests more than simply a correlation between insulin resistance and HF, demonstrating that insulin resistance precedes HF rather than occurring as a consequence of it ... Medications that work primarily by improving insulin sensitivity (metformin, thiazolidinediones [TZDs]) might theoretically be the most attractive therapies" - See my web page on Insulin and Aging.
  • Blood Pressure and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Chinese Men and Women - Am J Hypertens. 2008 Jan 10 - "Our results indicate that there is a strong, linear, and independent relationship between BP levels and the risk of CVD in Chinese adults. Systolic BP is a stronger predictor of CVD risk compared to diastolic BP"
  • Statins for All Adults with Diabetes? - WebMD, 1/10/08 - "One-third fewer people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes would suffer heart attacks or strokes if they took cholesterol-lowering statin drugs"
  • CRP Levels Predict Death in Patients With Chronic Heart Disease - Medscape, 1/8/08 - "Elevated baseline CRP levels raised the risk (per unit of log-transformed CRP level change) of the primary endpoint by 19%, MI by 17%, total death by 19%, and cardiac death by 28%"
  • Healthy Smile May Promote A Healthy Heart - Science Daily, 1/8/08 - "individuals with periodontal disease whose biomarkers showed increased bacterial exposure were more likely to develop coronary heart disease or atherogenesis (plaque formation in the arteries)"
  • Sept. 11 Stress Increases Risk Of Heart Problems, Study Suggests - Science Daily, 1/7/08 - "Our study is the first to show that even among people who had no personal connection to the victims, those who reported high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms in the days following the 9/11 attacks were more than twice as likely to report being diagnosed by their doctors with cardiovascular ailments like high blood pressure, heart problems and stroke up to three years later"
  • ACUTE EFFECTS OF TRIIODOTHYRONINE REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AND LOW-T3 SYNDROME: A RANDOMIZED, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED STUDY - J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jan 2 - "Low-triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome is a predictor of poor outcome in patients with cardiac dysfunction ... dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) ... In DC patients, short-term synthetic L-T3 replacement therapy significantly improved neuroendocrine profile and ventricular performance" - See T3 at International Anti-aging Systems.
  • Most Adults With Conditions That Increase Cardiovascular Disease Risk Have High Blood Pressure - Science Daily, 12/17/07 - "High blood pressure was found in most persons with cardiovascular diseases and related problems ... 75 percent or more were being treated for hypertension, but only one-third to one-half of those in treatment reached goal levels for blood pressure (140/90 milligrams of mercury for most patients, or 130/80 milligrams of mercury for patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease)"
  • Calcium In Coronary Arteries May Be Linked To Increased Risk For Heart Disease In Low-risk Women - Science Daily, 12/12/07
  • Waist, Hips May Predict Heart Disease - WebMD, 12/10/07 - "a big waist with comparably big hips does not appear to be as worrisome as a big waist with small hips"
  • Low Testosterone, Early Death? - WebMD, 11/27/07 - "The lower a man's testosterone level, the higher his risk of death -- especially death from heart disease ... Men in the highest quartile were 41% less likely to die"
  • Chronic Arguing With Your Spouse May Raise Your Heart Disease Risk - Science Daily, 10/8/07
  • Low HDL Cholesterol, Even When LDL Levels Are Low, Is Cardiovascular Dynamite, New TNT Analysis Shows - Medscape, 10/3/07 - "Among patients treated with statins, including those who achieved very low levels of cholesterol with high-dose statin therapy, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels are still predictive of major cardiovascular (CV) events ... In the determination of the five-year risk of major CV events across the different quintiles, univariate analysis showed the event rate to be reduced by 40% in the highest quintile when compared with subjects with the lowest HDL-cholesterol levels" - See niacin at Amazon.com.
  • Anger and Stress Contribute To Coronary Heart Disease - Science Daily, 9/26/07
  • Heart Damage Can Be Reversed with Early Treatment - Science Daily, 8/27/07 - "During the first six months of the study, 38 subjects received a placebo, and the other 38 subjects took 160mg of Valsartan, a drug that blocks a hormone that is detrimental to the blood vessels and the heart. During the next six months, both groups took Valsartan ... Those who took the drug for the first six months significantly reduced their Rasmussen Disease Score compared with those who took the placebo. At the 12-month mark -- after both groups were taking the drug -- every patient showed better Rasmussen Disease Scores, effectively demonstrating that Valsartan can slow progression and even reverse early cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic high-risk patients" - Note:  Diovan® (valsartan) is an ARB.
  • Framingham Study: The apoB/apoA-1 ratio does not provide clinical utility over total/HDL cholesterol - theHeart.org, 8/14/07 - "In men, non-HDL cholesterol, apoB, the total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, the LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio, and the apoB/apoA-1 ratio were all positively associated with CHD risk of approximately the same magnitude and statistical significance. ApoA-1 and HDL cholesterol were associated with reduced CHD risk. Similar results were observed for women, but apoA-1 was not significantly associated with incident CHD. In men and women, LDL and total cholesterol were not significantly associated with CHD risk"
  • 20-year Study Finds No Association Between Low-carb Diets And Risk Of Coronary Heart Disease - Science Daily, 11/9/06 - "In the first study to look at the long-term effects of low-carbohydrate diets, researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) found no evidence of an association between low-carb diets and an increased risk of CHD in women. Their findings did suggest, however, an association between low-carb diets high in vegetable sources of fat and protein and a low risk of CHD"
  • Study Supports Findings That Periodontal Bacteria May Be Linked to Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 7/21/06 - "acute coronary syndrome (ACS) ... Seventy-seven percent of the participants in the ACS group and 42 percent in the control group demonstrated evidence of periodontitis"
  • A New Goal for Aging - WashingtonPost.com, 2/21/06 - "prevention of heart disease needs to begin very early in life because by middle age, most of the risk factors are already established ... We need to focus on young adults, even teens"
  • Erectile Dysfunction Common, Linked with Severity of Heart Disease - Doctor's Guide, 1/24/06 - "Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects approximately one in five American men, appears to be associated with cardiovascular and other chronic diseases and may predict severity and a poor prognosis among those with heart disease"
  • Testosterone May Actually Help Men's Hearts - WebMD, 5/16/05 - "The thickness of the wall of this artery is a predictor of a higher risk of heart disease. The study showed that the wall thickness increased as testosterone levels dropped"
  • Blood Test May Show Heart Attack Risk - WebMD, 5/16/05 - "White blood cells are infection-fighting cells that may increase in response to infection or inflammation. Studies suggest that hardening of the arteries caused by cholesterol plaque -- atherosclerosis -- is linked to inflammation. Therefore, researchers suggest that measuring white blood cells may help reveal heart disease risk"
  • WBC Counts Predict Future CVD Events - Physician's Weekly, 4/25/05 - "Patients with WBC counts greater than 6.7 x 109 cells/L were found to be at high risk, even when clinicians had not identified traditional CVD risk factors"
  • Periodontitis and CVD: What Is the Link? - Medscape, 3/18/05 - "An association between periodontal health and systemic disease is not farfetched in light of research confirming that Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori (among other organisms) have also been linked to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.[5] In perhaps the same manner, periodontitis disturbs systemic homeostasis. It is possible that chronic damage of epithelial tissues due to periodontitis may induce the periodontal pocket to ulcerate, allowing access to the bloodstream.[4] Bacteria and their toxins, localized tissue response to cytokines (proteins that regulate other cells in the blood), and additional mediators of inflammation can all disrupt homeostasis when toxins gain entry to the systemic circulation"
  • Easy Blood Test May Reveal Women's Heart Risk - WebMD, 3/14/05 - "women with the highest white blood cell counts had twice the risk of dying of heart disease than those with the lowest levels ... women in the top fourth also had a 40% higher risk of nonfatal heart attack, 46% higher risk of stroke, and 50% higher risk of death due to any cause"
  • Noise Exposure Linked to Heart Attacks - WebMD, 9/3/04
  • Cause of Most Heart Attacks Found - WebMD, 8/30/04 - "the cause of almost all heart attacks can be pinpointed to one or more of the following: ... Smoking ... Abnormal cholesterol ... Diabetes ... High blood pressure ... Stress ... Abdominal obesity ... Sedentary lifestyle ... Eating too few fruits and vegetables ... Abstaining from alcohol"
  • Signs of Depression Put Heart at Risk - WebMD, 2/9/04

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